African Studies Sao Tomé and Príncipe
by
Gerhard Seibert
  • LAST REVIEWED: 06 May 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 26 August 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846733-0151

Introduction

The twin-island republic of São Tomé and Príncipe is Africa’s second smallest country, with a surface area of 1,001 km² and a population of 187,000 (2012). The two volcanic tropical islands are located in the Gulf of Guinea, some 255 km off the coast of Gabon. São Tomé and Príncipe is an Afro-Creole society without ethnic, linguistic, or religious divisions. The archipelago’s effective settlement by European colonists and African slaves began in 1494, some twenty years after the discovery of the hitherto-uninhabited islands by Portuguese navigators. The majority Creoles are known as Forros, the descendants of African slaves and early white settlers in the 15th and 16th centuries. Angolares are descendants of runaway slaves in the 16th century. Former plantation workers from Angola and Cape Verde, who arrived in the archipelago until the 1960s, and their offspring constitute other smaller distinct groups. In the 16th century São Tomé and Príncipe became the first plantation economy in the tropics based on sugar monoculture and slave labor, while the slave trade was equally important for the local economy. In the late 16th century the sugar industry began to deteriorate due to the better quality of Brazilian sugar. Assaults of the plantations by maroons, a slave revolt in 1595, and raids by the Dutch accelerated the collapse of the sugar industry. In the 17th century the plantation economy ceased to exist, while the slave trade continued at a lower scale. The introduction of coffee (1787) and cocoa (c. 1820) from Brazil enabled the re-establishment of the plantation economy and the recolonization by the Portuguese in the second half of the 19th century. After the abolition of slavery in 1875, the labor for the expanding plantations was provided by contract workers from Angola, Cape Verde, and Mozambique. In the late 19th century cocoa became the principal cash crop. Its production peak was reached before World War I and thereafter gradually decreased. Cocoa production further deteriorated after independence from Portugal in 1975 when São Tomé and Príncipe became a socialist one-party state. In 1990 a multiparty democracy and a free-market economy were introduced. In the 1990s the plantations were dismantled and their lands distributed to smallholders. Despite low production, cocoa has remained the principal export product, while tourism has developed only slowly. Since 1997 the impoverished aid-dependent country has hoped to become an oil producer. However, commercially viable oil has not been discovered yet.

General Overviews

English-language publications on São Tomé and Príncipe are still comparatively scarce. The most updated and detailed overview is Seibert 2006. The book covers the archipelago’s history since its discovery and settlement in the late 15th century. The major part deals with the postcolonial period with a focus on the introduction of multiparty democracy in 1990 and the democratic period. Hodges and Newitt 1988 provides a thorough analysis of the country’s colonial history and the early postcolonial period until the late 1980s. Gallet 2001 presents the country’s history until the late 20th century and provides some travel information. Nascimento 2008 gives a concise overview of the country’s history, society, and recent socioeconomic developments. More than fifty years after its publication Tenreiro 1961 is still considered a standard work on São Tomé. The author’s analysis of the island’s history and society is influenced by the Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre’s theory of lusotropicalism, used at the time by the Portuguese Salazar regime to refuse international demands for decolonization. Becker 2008 is a travel guide that also contains useful and updated background information on many other aspects of the islands. The CIA World Factbook is a useful online source for basic information on the country.

  • Becker, Kathleen. São Tomé and Príncipe. Chalfont St. Peter, UK: Bradt Travel Guides, 2008.

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    The first English-language travel guide exclusively for São Tomé and Príncipe. Besides, accurately researched tourist information, includes many useful details on the archipelago’s history, culture, languages, literature, society, politics, economy, fauna, and flora. A second updated edition of this title will be published in August 2014.

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    • CIA World Factbook: São Tomé and Príncipe.

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      Online source providing very basic, largely statistical information on geography, society, government, economy, energy, communications, transport, and military. Many figures are mere estimates from other international sources and not all information is updated and accurate.

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      • Gallet, Dominique. São Tomé et Príncipe: Les îles du milieu du monde. Paris: Editions Karthala, 2001.

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        Largely based on Portuguese and other secondary sources, covers the history of the islands from their colonization in the late 15th century until the end of the 20th century and provides some basic information on local culture, literature, sightseeing, leisure activities, and tourism.

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        • Hodges, Tony, and Malyn Newitt. São Tomé and Príncipe: From Plantation Colony to Microstate. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1988.

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          Drawing from a wide range of secondary sources, the two authors provide a detailed analysis of the archipelago’s early and modern colonial history, society, and post-independence politics until the late 1980s, as well as a discussion on the problems of the plantation economy and cocoa monoculture in the postcolonial period.

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          • Nascimento, Augusto. São Tomé e Príncipe: Atlas da Lusofonia. Lisbon: Prefácio, 2008.

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            Part of a series of illustrated books on the eight Portuguese-speaking countries. Includes useful basic information on São Tomé and Príncipe’s geography, history, demography, socioeconomic indicators, kinship, migration, economy, politics, and culture.

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            • Seibert, Gerhard. Comrades, Clients and Cousins: Colonialism, Socialism and Democratization in São Tomé and Príncipe. 2d ed. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2006.

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              Covers the archipelago’s entire history since its settlement in the late 15th century with a focus on the postcolonial period. Provides a detailed analysis of the democratic transition in 1990 and political and socioeconomic developments until 2005. Revised and updated edition. Portuguese translation of 1st edition 1999, Camaradas, Clientes e Compadres. Colonialismo, Socialismo e Democratização em São Tomé e Príncipe (Lisbon: Vega, 2001).

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              • Tenreiro, Francisco. A Ilha de São Tomé. Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, 1961.

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                Monograph still considered a standard work on São Tomé. Based on earlier sources and the author’s own research in the late 1950s, the book contains detailed information on the island’s geography, natural environment, history, society, economy, and culture. Considerably influenced by the Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre’s controversial theory of lusotropicalism.

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                Bibliographies

                Santos 1973 contains almost 3,100 references on the islands from a wide range of sources from the 15th century onwards. Shaw 1994 is less extensive but includes publications of the early postcolonial period. Ferreira and Moser 1993 includes eleven pages on the sparse literature from São Tomé and Príncipe. Portuguese writers resident in the archipelago during the colonial period are included.

                • Ferreira, Manuel, and Gerald Moser. A New Bibliography of the Lusophone Literatures of Africa/Nova bibliografia das literaturas africanas de expressão portuguesa. 2d ed. London: Hans Zell, 1993.

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                  Bibliography of Portuguese-speaking Africa’s literature published in books and parts of books. Eleven pages are dedicated to São Tomé and Príncipe. Organized in three parts: oral literature, creative writing, and literary history and criticism. Portuguese writers resident in the islands during the colonial period are not excluded. Completely revised and expanded edition.

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                  • Santos, Isaú. Síntese bibliográfica das Ilhas de S. Tomé e Príncipe. São Tomé: Imprensa Nacional, 1973.

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                    Vast bibliography published by the then-head of São Tomé’s historical archives. Includes almost 3,100 references from various sources, which are organized in three different ways, namely, alphabetically by author, alphabetically by title, and chronologically from the 15th to the 18th century.

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                    • Shaw, Caroline S. São Tomé and Príncipe. World Bibliographical Series 172. Santa Barbara, CA: Clio, 1994.

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                      This 183-page bibliography compiled almost thirty years ago by a bibliographer at the British Library in London is also available as e-book.

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                      Reference Books, Atlases, and Encyclopedias

                      Espírito Santo 2001 is a useful reference book since it provides many entries on a wide range of topics on the country’s recent history, culture, and society. Loureiro 1999 is a collection of colonial picture postcards that show well how the islands looked during the first seven decades of the 20th century. Morais and Malheiro 2013 covers the urban and architectural development of São Tomé town and Santo António (Príncipe) during the 500-year colonial period. Pape and Andrade 2013 presents a photo inventory of the existing buildings of 122 former colonial plantations in the two islands. Once the backbone of the archipelago’s economy, after independence the plantations became run down. Consequently, the buildings shown are now dilapidated and doomed to collapse in the near future. The annually published one-volume guide Africa South of the Sahara contains updated chapters on São Tomé and Príncipe’s recent history and economy, as well as a statistical survey. Akyampong and Gates 2011 includes ten biographies of important personalities from the archipelago, of whom half are contemporary politicians, including three heads of state. Forjaz 2011 provides the genealogies of Portuguese personalities who have played an important role in the archipelago’s modern colonial history. The volume contains only a few genealogies of prominent local people. Ramos 2007 is a useful guide to the contemporary local political and business elite. Unfortunately, it is unavailable outside the country. Exell 1944 provides a detailed study of the indigenous and introduced floras of the islands.

                      • Africa South of the Sahara 2014. 43d ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2013.

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                        This annually published volume contains updated chapters on recent history and economy, along with statistical surveys and bibliographies, for all African countries, including São Tomé and Príncipe. It is a reliable source of often-detailed information on the postcolonial period of the small archipelago.

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                        • Akyampong, Emmanuel K., and Henry Louis Gates Jr., eds. Dictionary of African Biography. Washington, DC: Oxford University Press, 2011.

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                          The six volumes include ten concise biographies of ten personalities from the two islands, mostly writers and politicians, including the three presidents since 1975.

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                          • Espírito Santo, Carlos. Enciclopédia fundamental de São Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Cooperação, 2001.

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                            This encyclopedia compiled by a local author is a useful source of information on the archipelago, since in its 600 pages it contains lots of information on history, culture, society, and many local personalities from past and present. However, access to this book might be difficult in most countries.

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                            • Exell, Arthur Wallis. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of S. Tomé (with Príncipe and Annobon). London: British Museum, 1944.

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                              This 428-page catalogue of vascular plants is the result of a scientific mission made to the islands of the Gulf of Guinea in the early 1930s. The introduction includes a history of botanical collections in the islands, which started in 1787.

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                              • Forjaz, Jorge. Genealogias de São Tomé e Príncipe: Subsídios. Lisbon: Dislivro Histórica, 2011.

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                                Most of the genealogies presented in the 675-page volume are those of Portuguese personalities related to the history of the archipelago, particularly with regard to the 19th century when the local plantation economy re-emerged. Only a few genealogies of local islanders are included.

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                                • Loureiro, João. Postais antigos de S. Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: MaisImagem, 1999.

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                                  Collection of 212 colonial picture postcards from the period of 1905–1968. The images show buildings and scenes from the capital city; landscapes; cocoa and coffee plantations in São Tomé, Príncipe Island; and the local people.

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                                  • Morais, João Sousa, and Joana Bastos Malheiro. São Tomé e Príncipe: As cidades; património arquitetónico/The Cities; Architectural Heritage. Casal de Cambra, Portugal: Caleidoscópio, 2013.

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                                    Abundantly illustrated bilingual volume on the urban and architectural development of São Tomé town and Santo António on Príncipe from the first settlement in 1494 to the late colonial period in the 1970s. The text is based on contemporary primary sources and secondary sources, predominantly from the colonial period.

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                                    • Pape, Duarte, and Andrade, Rodrigo Rebelo de. Fotografia de Francisco Nogueira. As roças de São Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Tinta-da-China, 2013.

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                                      Contains recent photos of 122 former plantations, which are classified according to ground plan into three distinct typologies. Most of the colonial buildings on the old estates depicted in the book are dilapidated and probably doomed to collapse. The sparse text part contains a few factual errors.

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                                      • Ramos, João. Quem é quem em São Tomé e Príncipe: Who’s Who. 3d ed. São Tomé: João Ramos, 2007.

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                                        Useful guide compiled by a local journalist that includes the pictures and short professional careers of most members of the small local political and business elite. It is probably unavailable outside the country.

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                                        Journals

                                        Daily newspapers have never existed in São Tomé and Príncipe. A Voz de S. Tomé was a fortnightly government paper published in the late colonial period. Revolução was the title of the only existing newspaper published during the socialist one-party regime. Since the democratic transition in 1990 the country has enjoyed press freedom. However, the number of copies is small and circulation is largely limited to the small capital. Besides, primarily due to economic problems newly established newspapers have frequently disappeared after a short period of publication. The fortnightly Correio de Semana, founded in 2005, was a successful project for several years but recently ceased publication. Kê-kuá, established in 2011, is the country’s first free newspaper. The longest-existing printed paper is O Parvo, which has been published since 1994, with an online edition launched in 2007. Téla Nón, created in 2000 as the country’s first online news service, has been the most regular and reliable provider of Internet news. Other existing online news bulletins are Jornal Tropical, Jornal Transparência, and Vitrina.

                                        Primary Sources

                                        The largest and best-known collection of published primary sources of the Portuguese Age of Discoveries that include early documents on São Tomé and Príncipe is Brásio 1952–2004, in Collections. Also under Collections, the Portuguese National Archives (National Archives Torre de Tombo (ANTT)) in Lisbon has digitized some of the originals and made them available online, and the digital library Memórias de África e do Oriente disposes of an extensive catalogue of publications on the former Portuguese colonies. The second subsection on Letters and Narrative Accounts includes four travel accounts that provide relevant information on distinct historical periods in the islands.

                                        Collections

                                        Brásio 1952–2004 is the largest collection of Portuguese primary sources from the 15th to the 17th century. All volumes include sources related to São Tomé and Príncipe. Albuquerque and Madeira 1993–2002 is a smaller, similar collection of Portuguese primary sources. Albuquerque 1989 provides the earliest known documents on São Tomé. Castelo-Branco 1970 reproduces the minutes of the municipality of Santo António (Príncipe) from 1672 to 1777. Arquivo Histórico: Boletim (1970–1973) comprises six volumes indicating primary sources available in the local historical archive. Códice Valentim Fernandes is a well-known early-16th-century manuscript on the Portuguese discoveries by a Lisbon-based German book printer. The document, which contains maps and descriptions of São Tomé, was only rediscovered in the Royal Library in Munich in the 19th century and first published in Portugal in 1940. The National Archives Torre de Tombo (ANTT) in Lisbon have made available online several early primary sources on São Tomé. Historical Archive of São Tomé and Príncipe (AHSTP) provides online information on the archive’s sources and activities. Memórias de África e do Oriente is a digital library which includes both references of publications and digitized documents on São Tomé.

                                        • Albuquerque, Luís, ed. A Ilha de São Tomé nos séculos XV e XVI: Biblioteca da expansão portuguesa. Lisbon: Publicações Alfa, 1989.

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                                          This small book of early sources includes the text Navigation from Lisbon to the Island of São Tomé by an anonymous Portuguese pilot (1552), the will of the third captain Álvaro de Caminha (1499), and several royal grants and charters for São Tomé from 1485 to 1500.

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                                          • Albuquerque, Luís de, and Maria Emília Madeira Santos, eds. Portugaliae monumenta africana. 4 vols. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda, 1993–2002.

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                                            This is another four-volume collection of early Portuguese primary sources relating to African ventures that include documents related to the early history of São Tomé and Príncipe. There is also a CD-ROM published in 2010, comprising the four volumes.

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                                            • Arquivo Histórico: Boletim (Publicação Quadrimestral). 6 vols. São Tomé: Imprensa Nacional, 1970–1973.

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                                              The six volumes published in the late colonial period list the various primary sources of the 19th and 20th centuries available in São Tomé’s Historical Archive, which was created in 1969.

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                                              • Brásio, António, ed. Monumenta missionária africana: África ocidental. Vols. 1–15 (1471–1665); and vols. 1–7 (1342–1699). Lisbon: Agência Geral do Ultramar, Divisão de Publicac̜ões e Biblioteca, 1952–2004.

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                                                Twenty-two volumes of this vast, well-known collection of Portuguese primary sources on the Age of Discovery, published between 1952 and 2004, contain many contemporary documents related to São Tomé and Príncipe from the late 15th to the end of the 17th century.

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                                                • Castelo-Branco, Fernando, ed. Actas da Câmara de Santo António da Ilha do Príncipe (1672–1777). Lisbon: Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos, 1970.

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                                                  The volume contains the minutes of the sessions of the municipality of Santo António in Príncipe from 1672–1777, with an introduction by the editor. From 1753 to 1852 Santo António was capital of São Tomé and Príncipe.

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                                                  • Códice Valentim Fernandes: Leitura paleográfica, notas e índice pelo académico de número, José Pereira da Costa. Lisbon: Academia Portuguesa de História, 1997.

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                                                    Revised version of the 1940 publication of the “Codex Hispanus no. 27”, from the Staatsbibliothek München, entitled Manuscrito Valentim Fernandes. Original manuscript was compiled by the Lisbon-based German book printer Valentim Fernandes. It contains descriptions of São Tomé compiled between 1506 and 1510. French translation of 1940 edition published in 1951 as Description de la Côte Occidentale d’Afrique (Sénégal au Cape de Monte, Archipels (1506–1510)).

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                                                    • Historical Archive of São Tomé and Príncipe (AHSTP).

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                                                      Created in 1969, the AHSTP launched its website in 2012. The oldest documents kept in the archive stem from the late 18th century, since earlier documentation was transferred to Lisbon in the late 19th century.

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                                                      • Memórias de África e do Oriente.

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                                                        Memórias de África e do Oriente is a digital library hosted by the University of Aveiro in Portugal with a catalogue of publications on Portugal’s former colonies, including São Tomé and Príncipe. The site also includes a few digitized publications, documents, and photographs from São Tomé’s Historical Archive.

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                                                        • The National Archive Torre de Tombo (ANTT) in Lisbon.

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                                                          Several of the early Portuguese primary sources of São Tomé and Príncipe from the Age of Discovery kept in the Portuguese national archives in Lisbon have been digitized and made available online.

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                                                          Letters and Narrative Accounts

                                                          There are only four references available for this section. Caldeira 2000 is a well-commented and contextualized edition of the travelogues of an anonymous Portuguese pilot who visited São Tomé several times in the first half of the 16th century. Valdez 2005 contains one chapter on the author’s personal experiences and observations during his visits to the two islands in the 1850s. Nevinson 1968, a report on the forced recruitment of Angolan workers for São Tomé’s cocoa plantations and their harsh working conditions, prompted Cadbury’s own visit to the two Portuguese colonies (Cadbury 1910).

                                                          • Cadbury, William A. Labour in Portuguese West Africa. London: George Routledge, 1910.

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                                                            The British chocolate manufacturer’s account of his visit to Angola and São Tomé in 1908. Cadbury’s objective was to get to know the controversial conditions of recruitment and labor of the predominantly Angolan contract workers on the plantations in São Tomé, his company’s principal supplier of cocoa. Portuguese translation: Os serviçaes de S. Thomé (Lisbon: Bertrand, 1910).

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                                                            • Caldeira, Arlindo Manuel. Viagens de um piloto português do século XVI à costa de África e á São Tomé. Lisbon: Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, 2000.

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                                                              This travel account by an anonymous Portuguese pilot in the mid-16th century is one of the three earliest descriptions of São Tomé in the beginning of its settlement and colonization. This edition is well commented and contextualized by a Portuguese historian.

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                                                              • Nevinson, Henry W. A Modern Slavery. New York: Schocken, 1968.

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                                                                Nevinson was a British journalist who in 1905 investigated the scandal of the forced recruitment of Angolan contract workers for São Tomé’s cocoa estates for Harper’s Magazine, where his findings were serialized from August 1905. The volume is the publication of his articles in book form. Originally published in New York (Harper Bros, 1906).

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                                                                • Valdez, Francisco Travassos. Six Years of a Traveller’s Life in Western Africa. Vol. 2. New York: Adamant, 2005.

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                                                                  One chapter contains Valdez’s account of his visits to archipelago in the 1850s. The author traveled widely in the region while he was Portuguese arbitrator at the mixed Anglo-Portuguese antislavery commission courts in Luanda and Cape Town. The chapter is partly based on earlier Portuguese publications on the archipelago. Unabridged facsimile of the edition published in 1861 by Hurst and Blackett (London).

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                                                                  Historical Background

                                                                  São Tomé and Príncipe were uninhabited when discovered by Portuguese navigators around 1471. As the islands have no precolonial history, since their colonization by European settlers and African slaves began as early as the late 15th century, publications on the early colonial period until the 18th century have been classified as early colonial period. The modern colonial period began in the mid-19th century, when the archipelago was recolonized by the Portuguese, who introduced new cash crops from Brazil and re-established the plantation economy with contract labor from their other African colonies. The postcolonial period began only in 1975 when São Tomé and Príncipe became independent as a consequence of Portugal’s Coronation Revolution of 25 April 1974.

                                                                  Early Colonial Period

                                                                  Garfield 1992 provides the only detailed English-language account of São Tomé’s early history from the island’s discovery in the late 15th century to the mid-17th century when the sugar industry had collapsed and white settlers had largely abandoned the island. Seibert 2013 contains a concise analysis of the same period, which focuses on the sugar industry, slavery, and the slave trade. Caldeira 2006 is a thoroughly commented and contextualized edition of the famous 18th-century manuscript on São Tomé’s early history by a local Creole Catholic priest. Henriques 2000 gives a comparatively short overview of the archipelago’s development in the 16th century that includes many illustrations. Sousa 2008 provides the only French-language description of the islands’ early history, which is divided into two periods, namely, one of grandeur from 1485 to 1599 and another one of decay from 1599 to 1755. Serafim 2000 presents a well-documented analysis of the islands’ history in the 17th century, while Neves 1989 focuses on the archipelago’s history in the second half of the 18th century. Ratelband 2000 contains a detailed account of São Tomé during the Dutch occupation (1641–1649).

                                                                  • Caldeira, Arlindo Manuel. Relação do descobrimento da Ilha de São Tomé: Manuel do Rosário Pinto. Lisbon: Centro de História de Além-Mar (CHAM), 2006.

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                                                                    Commented edition of the 18th-century manuscript of the black Creole priest Manuel do Rosário Pinto (b. 1669–d. 1738?). Concluded in 1734, it is partly based on earlier sources and covers the island’s history since 1471. The only existing original copy first published in 1970 is kept in the Ajuda Library in Lisbon.

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                                                                    • Garfield, Robert. A History of São Tomé Island 1470–1655: The Key to Guinea. New York: Edwin Mellen, 1992.

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                                                                      Covers São Tomé’s early conflict-ridden history from discovery until the mid-17th century. Detailed analysis of the recurrent power struggles between the Portuguese governor, the Catholic bishop, and the local town council dominated by the wealthy sugar planters, as well as of the rise and decay of the island’s sugar industry.

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                                                                      • Henriques, Isabel Castro. São Tomé e Príncipe: A invenção de uma sociedade. Lisbon: Vega Editora, 2000.

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                                                                        A short illustrated history of 16th-century São Tomé stressing the active role of Africans in the emergence of Creole society and the flourishing sugar economy. The book’s cover photo showing a Tchiloli group is misleading, since this theater was introduced to the island only in the late 19th century.

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                                                                        • Neves, Carlos Agostinho das. S. Tomé e Príncipe na segunda metade do séc. XVIII. Funchal, Portugal: Centro de Estudos de História do Atlântico, 1989.

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                                                                          Published master’s thesis by a Sãotomean historian describes the archipelago’s society and economy in the second half of the 18th century. The book includes many economic and demographic data, and reproduced original documents occupy about half of the total pages.

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                                                                          • Ratelband, Klaas. Nederlanders in West-Afrika 1600–1650: Angola, Kongo en São Tomé. Zutphen, The Netherlands: Walburg Pers, 2000.

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                                                                            Based on Portuguese and Dutch sources, provides the history of the Dutch conquests in the African Atlantic in the first half of the 17th century, including a detailed account of the occupation of São Tomé by the Dutch West-Indian Company (WIC) from October 1641 to January 1649. Portuguese translation: Os holandeses no Brasil e na costa africana: Angola, Kongo e S. Tomé (1600–1650) (Lisbon: Editora Vega, 2003).

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                                                                            • Seibert, Gerhard. “São Tomé and Príncipe: The First Plantation Economy in the Tropics.” In Commercial Agriculture, the Slave Trade and Slavery in Atlantic Africa. Edited by Robin Law, Suzanne Schwarz, and Silke Strickrodt, 54–78. Oxford: James Currey, 2013.

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                                                                              Analyzes the archipelago’s development in the 16th and 17th centuries. It deals with the first settlement and colonization of the islands by the Portuguese, the emergence of Creole society, local power structures and political conflicts, slavery and the slave trade, and the rise and decay of the sugar industry.

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                                                                              • Serafim, Cristina Maria Seuanes. As Ilhas de São Tomé no século XVII. Lisbon: Centro de História de Além-Mar (CHAM), 2000.

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                                                                                Examines the archipelago’s developments during the 17th century, when the local sugar industry gradually disappeared predominantly due to the increasing competition by Brazil. Contains much hitherto-unpublished information and data on the archipelago’s political-administrative structure, the Catholic authorities, economy and finance, external trade, and society.

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                                                                                • Sousa, Izequiel Batista de. São Tomé et Príncipe de 1485 à 1755: Une societé coloniale du blanc au noir. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2008.

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                                                                                  Distinguishes between the archipelago’s history of grandeur from 1485 to 1599 and decay from 1599 to 1755. Examines slavery, the slave trade and the plantation economy, local politics, internal threats by escaped slaves, external assaults by the Dutch and the French, and the archipelago’s economic and demographic decline.

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                                                                                  Colonial

                                                                                  The archipelago’s modern colonial history began some three decades before the Berlin Conference, in the mid-19th century when the Portuguese commenced the re-establishment of the plantation economy based in the introduction of new cash crops from Brazil (coffee and cocoa). Nascimento 2002 thoroughly examines the plantation economy and the living and working conditions on the plantations locally called roças from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century. Nascimento 2010 deals exclusively with the history of the 142-km² island of Príncipe, with a focus on the modern colonial history. In the first half of the 20th century, São Tomé’s history was marked by two events that are well covered in the literature, namely, the boycott of São Tomé’s cocoa in protest against slavery-like labor conditions on the estates, and the February 1953 Massacre, when hundreds of innocent and defenseless islanders were killed in a wave of excessive violence at the order of Governor Carlos Gorgulho (1945–1953). Higgs 2012 provides an accurate account of accusations of slave labor in the islands, which resulted in a boycott of São Tomé cocoa by British and German chocolate companies. Satre 2005 describes the slave labor scandal from a perspective largely dominated by the British experience, since the author draws almost exclusively on the English-language sources of the events. Mantero 1910 reflects the position of the Portuguese planters, who rejected the British accusations as unfounded. Seibert 2002 provides the only English-language analysis on the background and the course of the bloody tragedy of 1953, which is also known as the Batepá War. Lima 2002 is an account of the massacre by a local history teacher, who partly draws on interviews with eyewitnesses to the atrocities. Espírito Santo 2003 claims that the colonial violence in February 1953 was in fact a war. However, this affirmation is not convincing, since there were no fights between armed combatants and the local people killed were defenseless and unarmed.

                                                                                  • Espírito Santo, Carlos. A guerra da Trindade. Lisbon: Cooperação, 2003.

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                                                                                    Account of the massacre predominantly based on the private archive of the Portuguese lawyer Palma Carlos, who defended the islanders detained by the colonial authorities. Argues that at the time there was a war going on in São Tomé, which is not convincing, since there were no combats between armed fighters at all.

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                                                                                    • Higgs, Catherine. Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery and Colonial Africa. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2012.

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                                                                                      Analyzes the slave labor scandal on the cocoa plantations, denounced by British philantropists in the early 20th century. The British accusations, which were fiercely rejected by the local Portuguese planters and the colonial authorities in Lisbon, resulted in a boycott of São Tomé cocoa by the chocolate firm Cadbury Brothers and other chocolate companies.

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                                                                                      • Lima, José Deus. História do massacre de 1953 em São Tomé e Príncipe: Em busca de nossa verdadeira história. São Tomé: Lima, José Deus, 2002.

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                                                                                        Describes the controversial modernization policies of Governor Carlos Gorgulho (1945–1953) that culminated in the February 1953 Massacre or the Batepá War, when hundreds of innocent islanders were killed by white militias. Account based on historic documents and reports, as well as on the author’s interviews with eyewitnesses.

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                                                                                        • Mantero, Francisco. Manual Labour in S. Thomé and Príncipe. Lisbon: Mantero, Francisco, 1910.

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                                                                                          English translation of Mão d’obra em S. Thomé e Príncipe, published in 1910 in response to British accusations of slave labor in the islands. Reflects the official position of the Portuguese planters and contains information on the re-establishment of the archipelago’s plantation economy from the second half of the 19th century. Translated from the Portuguese.

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                                                                                          • Nascimento, Augusto. Poderes e quotidiano nas roças de São Tomé e Príncipe de finais de oitocentos a meados do novecentos. Lisbon: Augusto Nascimento, 2002.

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                                                                                            Examines the archipelago’s recolonization and re-establishment of the archipelago’s plantation economy by the Portuguese in the second half of 19th century and the living and working conditions of the plantation workers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde, who surpassed the native islanders in numbers until the 1940s.

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                                                                                            • Nascimento, Augusto. Histórias da Ilha do Príncipe. Oeiras, Portugal: Município de Oeiras, 2010.

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                                                                                              Covers Príncipe’s history from its discovery around 1471 until 2006. Abundantly illustrated with old maps and images. Focuses on the period from 1795 until the country’s independence in 1975, which occupies twenty-two of the twenty-five chapters. Includes many demographic data which illustrate the small island’s socioeconomic development over time.

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                                                                                              • Satre, Lowell J. Chocolate on Trial: Slavery, Politics & the Ethics of Business. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                Account of São Tomé’s slave labor scandal dominated by the British experience focusing on the libel case brought in 1908 by the British chocolate firm Cadbury Brothers against the Standard News in response to accusations that the company was knowingly producing chocolate with “slave cocoa” from the islands.

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                                                                                                • Seibert, Gerhard. “The February 1953 Massacre in São Tomé: Crack in the Salazarist Image of Multiracial Harmony and Impetus for Nationalist Demands for Independence.” Portuguese Studies Review 10.2 (2002): 52–77.

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                                                                                                  Examines the bloody events known as the February 1953 Massacre in São Tomé, when rumors about the governor’s plan to oblige the local Creoles to work on the plantations triggered a spontaneous protest that culminated in a wave of excessive violence which killed hundreds of innocent and defenseless islanders.

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                                                                                                  Postcolonial

                                                                                                  Seibert 2006 provides the most detailed analysis of the country’s socialist one-party state, the democratization process, and the first fifteen years of democratic rule. Chabal, et al. 2002 puts São Tomé’s postcolonial experience in the wider context of Portuguese-speaking Africa and Africa south of the Sahara as a whole. The volume includes a single-country chapter on São Tomé and Príncipe. The author of Couto 2008 examines his country’s constitutional and political life in the postcolonial period from a local perspective. From the same perspective, Francisco and Agostinho 2011 provides a harsh criticism of governance and political leadership in the archipelago since independence in 1975. Schümer 1987 describes how economic failure forced the socialist one-party regime to initiate economic and political liberalization in the mid-1980s, while Schümer 1992 analyzes the course of the subsequent democratization process until the first multiparty elections in 1991. The annuals Legum 1969–2002 and Mehler, et al. 2005– provide information on relevant political and economic events in São Tomé and Príncipe.

                                                                                                  • Chabal, Patrick, David Birmingham, Joshua Forrest, Malyn Newitt, Gerhard Seibert, and Elisa S. Andrade. History of Postcolonial Lusophone Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                    The first part of the book puts the postcolonial experience of the five Portuguese-speaking African countries in a broader historical and comparative perspective. The second part includes a chapter on São Tomé and Príncipe that examines the country’s political and socioeconomic developments during the socialist one-party state (1975–1990), the democratic transition, and the first years after the first multiparty elections in 1991.

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                                                                                                    • Couto, Amaro Pereira do. A vida constitucional e política em S. Tomé e Príncipe. São Tomé: Amaro Pereira do Couto, 2008.

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                                                                                                      Describes and analyzes the constitutional and political life in the small country since independence in 1975. The author argues that the maladjustment between the national realities and the political institutions have resulted in the country’s persistent underdevelopment.

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                                                                                                      • Francisco, Albertino, and Nujoma Agostinho. Exorcising Devils from the Throne: São Tomé and Príncipe in the Chaos of Democratization. New York: Algora, 2011.

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                                                                                                        Discussion of what the two local authors consider as their country’s very real practical problems. They accuse the local political rulers since independence of corruption, despotism, illegal activities, and maladministration that have contributed to the country’s economic problems and persistent mass poverty.

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                                                                                                        • Legum, Colin, ed. Africa Contemporary Record. Teaneck, NJ: Holmes and Meier, 1969–2002.

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                                                                                                          An annual publication on contemporary Africa with feature essays and country-by-country review and documentation, which includes information on political and economic developments in postcolonial São Tomé and Príncipe.

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                                                                                                          • Mehler, Andreas, Henning Melber, and Klaas van Walraven, eds. Africa Yearbook: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2005–.

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                                                                                                            Published annually since 2005, Africa Yearbook provides the most relevant country-by-country information on domestic politics, foreign affairs, and socioeconomic developments in the previous year.

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                                                                                                            • Schümer, Martin. São Tomé und Príncipe: Ausbruch aus der Isolation. Bonn, Germany: Forschungsinstitut der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik e.V., 1987.

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                                                                                                              Describes attempt to establish a Soviet-style economy and society in the former Portuguese colony. Due to the project’s failure, in 1985 the regime initiated a rapprochement with the West and initiated economic and political liberalization.

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                                                                                                              • Schümer, Martin. “Demokratisierung in São Tomé und Príncipe.” In Demokratie und Strukturreformen im portugiesischsprachigen Afrika. Edited by Peter Meyns, 208–234. Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany: Arnold Bergsträsser Institut, 1992.

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                                                                                                                Reviews the economic and political postcolonial developments which forced São Tomé’s socialist one-party regime in the mid-1980s to initiate a process of economic and political liberation, which in turn culminated in the introduction of multiparty democracy in 1990.

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                                                                                                                • Seibert, Gerhard. Comrades, Clients and Cousins: Colonialism, Socialism and Democratization in São Tomé and Príncipe. 2d ed. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2006.

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                                                                                                                  Covers the archipelago’s entire history from the late 15th century with a focus on the postcolonial period, providing a detailed analysis of the socialist one-party regime, the democratic transition, and the first fifteen years of democratic rule. Updated edition. Portuguese translation of 1st edition 1999: Camaradas, Clientes e Compadres. Colonialismo, Socialismo e Democratização em São Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Vega, 2001

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                                                                                                                  Geography, Environment, and Ecology

                                                                                                                  Thomas, et al. 2002 presents recent genetic research which reveals that, due to São Tomé’s hostile tropical disease environment, the share of European ancestry among the local population is considerably smaller than among the African American population and in Cape Verde. From a late colonial perspective, Brito 1971 gives an overview of the archipelago’s geology, geography, climate, demographic development, and economic history, while Brito 1967 is a description of Príncipe’s geology and physical and social geography. Rodrigues 1974 provides an extensive agricultural survey of all types of landed properties that existed at the end of the colonial period. Jones, et al. 1991 assesses the country’s more recent forest resources and forest ecosystems, which accommodate many endemic species. Christy and Clarke 1998 is a guide to the country’s 143 bird species, with illustrations. Leventis and Olmos 2009 is a colorful photo guide to 95 species and subspecies of birds in the archipelago. Madureira 2007 presents a detailed ethno-pharmacological study of fifty medical plants existing in the two islands. Stévart and Oliveira 2000 is the first guide to the archipelago’s orchids, comprising 129 different taxa.

                                                                                                                  • Brito, Raquel Soeiro de. “A Ilha do Príncipe.” Geographica: Revista da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa 3.10 (1967): 3–17.

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                                                                                                                    Description of the 142-km² island’s geology and physical and social geography written at a time when, due to the decline of cocoa production, only five large plantations had survived in Príncipe.

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                                                                                                                    • Brito, Raquel Soeiro de. “S. Tomé e Príncipe: Esboço de um estudo regional.” Geographica: Revista da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa 7.25 (1971): 4–26.

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                                                                                                                      Deals with the archipelago’s geology, geography, climate, natural environment, demography, and economic history. Describes the dwellings of the local Creoles, as well as the socioeconomic and spatial organization of the plantations locally known as roças, where the African plantation workers are accommodated in quarters.

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                                                                                                                      • Christy, Patrice, and William V. Clarke. Guide des oiseaux de São Tomé et Príncipe: Guia dos pássaros de São Tomé e Príncipe. São Tomé: ECOFAC, 1998.

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                                                                                                                        This avifauna field guide includes detailed French descriptions of 143 different bird species existing in the two islands, of which 106 are illustrated in color drawings on thirty-two plates. All the local endemic species and subspecies are illustrated to help users of the guide to identify the birds sighted.

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                                                                                                                        • Jones, P. J., J. P. Burlison, and A. Tye. Conservação dos ecossistemas florestais da República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe. Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK: UICN, 1991.

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                                                                                                                          Provides an assessment of the archipelago’s potential forest resources in the economy and of the forest ecosystems, which include several endemic species of amphibians, reptiles, and birds, of which several are threatened with extinction.

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                                                                                                                          • Leventis, Anastasios Paul, and Fábio Olmos. As aves de São Tomé e Príncipe: Um guia fotográfico/The Birds of São Tomé e Príncipe: A Photoguide. São Paulo: Algol Editora, 2009.

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                                                                                                                            Presents ninety-five species and subspecies of birds in the two islands, of which some seventeen are known only from São Tomé and eight known only from Príncipe. For each bird, the guide provides a color photo and lists its specific name, including subspecies.

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                                                                                                                            • Madureira, Maria do Céu, ed. Estudo etnofarmacológico de plantas medicinais de S. Tomé e Príncipe. São Tomé: Ministério da Saúde de S. Tomé e Príncipe, 2007.

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                                                                                                                              Ethnopharmacological study of fifty medical plants existing in São Tomé and Príncipe. Each of the individual plant descriptions includes a photo, botanical information, the use by local traditional medicine, and recognized pharmacological effects, as well as a bibliography.

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                                                                                                                              • Rodrigues, F. M. de Carvalho. S. Tomé e Príncipe sob o ponto de vista agrícola. Lisbon: Junta de Investigações Científicas do Ultramar, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                Contains a late colonial cadastre of the archipelago’s rustic properties ranging from large Portuguese-owned estates to smallholder plots owned by local Creoles. Includes information on climate, soils and the various food and cash crops cultivated on the agricultural lands. Agricultural maps of the two islands are included in this useful edition.

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                                                                                                                                • Stévart, Tariq, and Faustino de Oliveira. Guide dês orchidées de São Tomé et Príncipe/Guia dos orchídeas de São Tomé e Príncipe. São Tomé: ECOFAC, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                  The first complete guide to the orchids existing in São Tomé and Príncipe distinguishes between 129 taxa, of which 101 are present in São Tomé and 64 in Príncipe. Contains 192 color illustrations and detailed descriptions of the various species and subspecies. The descriptions of the orchids are exclusively in French.

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                                                                                                                                  • Thomas, Gil, Luísa Seco, Susana Seixas, Paula Faustino, João Lavinha, and Jorge Rocha. “The Peopling of São Tomé (Gulf of Guinea): Origins of Slave Settlers and Admixture with the Portuguese.” Human Biology 74.3 (2002): 397–411.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1353/hub.2002.0036Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Deals with genetic research among the local population revealing that the global estimated European admixture levels for São Tomé are in the lower range of admixture levels observed in African American populations and are remarkably lower then estimates for Cape Verde. The principal reason was that the tropical disease environment of the island, predominantly malaria, constituted a serious barrier to European settlers.

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                                                                                                                                    Society and Cultures

                                                                                                                                    Negreiros 1895 contains the first ethnographic study of São Tomé Island. Gonçalves 1973a presents a late colonial description of São Tomé’s majority Creoles, known as Forros. Espírito Santo 1998 provides useful information on São Tomé’s traditional society and culture. Valverde 2000 is an anthropological study of São Tomé’s popular theater Tchiloli, traditional healing, and witchcraft beliefs. Strictly speaking, different ethnic groups are unknown in São Tomé and Príncipe, since it is a Creole society. However, the Angolares, the descendents of a maroon community in São Tomé, have been considered a distinct sociocultural community, since they have preserved their own language and culture. The question of their origin has attracted particular attention in the literature. Reviewing the then-existing literature on the Angolares, Castelo-Branco 1971 confirms that they are most likely descendents of slaves who shipwrecked off the coast off São Tomé in the mid-16th century. Gonçalves 1973b offers a small anthropological study of the Angolares that repeats the colonial myth of their shipwreck origin. Vansina 1996 identifies the history of the shipwreck as an oral tradition of the origin of the Angolares, arguing that, in fact, they are descendents of a maroon community. Seibert 2007 discusses the three principal theories of the origin of the Angolares and comes equally to the conclusion that they are descendents of runaway slaves of the 16th century. Dias and Diniz 1988 provides an account of the occupation of the territory of the Angolares by colonial troops in the last quarter of the 19th century and their consequent loss of autonomy that they had enjoyed since the end of the 17th century.

                                                                                                                                    • Castelo-Branco, Fernando. “Subsídios para o estudo dos ‘angolares’ de S. Tomé.” Studia 33 (1971): 149–159.

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                                                                                                                                      Draws largely on earlier publications on São Tomé’s maroons known as Angolares. Consequently confirms a widespread oral tradition according to which the Angolares are descendants of survivors of a slave ship shipwrecked off the east coast of São Tomé in the mid-16th century.

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                                                                                                                                      • Dias, Gomes Alfredo, and Augusto do Nascimento Diniz. “Os angolares: Da autonomia à inserção na sociedade colonial (segunda metade do século XIX).” Ler História 13 (1988): 53–75.

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                                                                                                                                        Describes how the territory of the former maroons known as Angolares, whose community located in the south of São Tomé had gained some autonomy after a final defeat by colonial troops in 1693, was occupied by the modern colonial administration in 1878 as a result of the expanding plantation economy.

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                                                                                                                                        • Espírito Santo, Carlos. A coroa do mar. Lisbon: Editorial Caminho, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                          Comprises useful information on São Tomé’s Creole society and culture. The various chapters deal with gender and generational relations, family production and consumption, traditional medicine, religious beliefs, traditional feasts and rituals, local housing, oral literature, music, dance, theater and artistic production, and typical handicrafts.

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                                                                                                                                          • Gonçalves, Manuel Joaquim Sobral. “Forros de S. Tomé: Uma aproximação antropológica.” Geographica: Revista da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa 9.35 (1973a): 51–76.

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                                                                                                                                            Presents anthropological information on São Tomé’s majority Creoles, locally known as Forros, a designation derived from the Portuguese carta de alforria, meaning letter of manumission. Provides some details on the kinship system and social life of the Forros, their economy, housing patterns, religious beliefs, and cultural manifestations.

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                                                                                                                                            • Gonçalves, Manuel Joaquim Sobral. “Angolares: Uma aproximação antropológica.” Geographica: Revista da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa 9.34 (1973b): 77–90.

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                                                                                                                                              Repeats the colonial myth of the 16th-century shipwreck of a slave ship to explain the origin of the Angolares. Study includes some ethnographic data on the social organization, kinship, housing, traditional beliefs, and economy of the Angolares, which is dominated by artisanal fishing.

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                                                                                                                                              • Negreiros, António Almada. História ethnographica da Ilha de S. Thomé. Lisbon: Antiga Casa Bertrand, 1895.

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                                                                                                                                                The first part provides an introduction on the island’s history, largely based on the earlier books by Cunha Matos (1842) and Lopes de Lima (1844). The second part is an ethnography of São Tomé that also includes a small list of words in the local Creole language known as Santome or Forro.

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                                                                                                                                                • Seibert, Gerhard. “Castaways, Authoctons or Maroons? The Debate on the Angolares of São Tomé Island.” In Creole Societies in the Portuguese Colonial Empire. Edited by Philip J. Havik and Malyn Newitt, 105–126. Bristol, UK: University of Bristol, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                  Discusses the three principal competing theories about the origin of the Angolares: the shipwreck in the mid-16th century; an early autochthonous population in the island;or descendents of runaway slaves from sugar plantations in the 16th century. Comes to the conclusion that they are descendents of a maroon community.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Valverde, Paulo. Máscara, mato e morte em São Tomé. Oeiras, Portugal: Celta Editora, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                    Describes and analyzes São Tomé’s well-known popular local theater Tchiloli, which is based on the 16th-century play The Tragedy of the Marquis of Mântua and Emperor Charlemagne. The second part deals with local concepts of disease, traditional healers, witchcraft beliefs and practice, and the local spirit possession cult djambí.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Vansina, Jan. “Quilombos on São Tomé, or in Search of Original Sources.” History in Africa 23.4 (1996): 453–459.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/3171955Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Argues that the story of the shipwreck occurring in the mid-16th century is an oral tradition on the origin of the Angolares that appeared after 1700. Demonstrates that, in fact, the Angolares are the descendants of a maroon community, a community that grew as more runaway slaves joined it.

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                                                                                                                                                      Women and Gender

                                                                                                                                                      Very little has been published on women and gender in São Tomé and Príncipe. Caldeira 1999 contains information on gender and race relations during São Tomé’s early colonial period. Henriques 1995 emphasizes the importance of the contribution of African women in the emergence of São Tomé’s Creole society and culture in the 16th century, while Santos 2003 deals with gender relations in the context of current development projects in the country.

                                                                                                                                                      • Caldeira, Arlindo Manuel. Mulheres, sexualidade e casamento em São Tomé e Príncipe (séculos XV a XVIII). Lisbon: Edições Cosmos, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                        A history of the emergence and development of São Tomé’s Creole society and plantation economy from the 15th to the 18th century that includes an analysis of gender and race relations during this early period.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Henriques, Isabel Castro de. “As outras africanas: As reais e as inventadas.” Oceanos 21 (1995): 53–63.

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                                                                                                                                                          Discusses the role and influence of African slave women in the emergence of São Tomé’s Creole society in the 16th century. These women married to white Portuguese settlers and their mulatto children were granted freedom by a royal decree as early as 1515.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Santos, J. Hipólito dos. O desenvolvimento e a mulher: Um outro mundo é possível. Lisbon: SEIES, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                            Describes the position of women in development projects in São Tomé and analyzes gender conflicts and opportunities for the emancipation of women in a traditionally patriarchic society in the context of socioeconomic development.

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                                                                                                                                                            Economy

                                                                                                                                                            In the 1990s the local plantation economy ceased to exist when almost all major plantations were dismantled and the lands were divided into small plots and distributed to former plantation workers. Notwithstanding, despite stagnating output, cocoa has remained the principal agricultural export, since several attempts to diversify cash crop production have failed. Clarence-Smith 1990 provides an analysis of the labor costs of the local plantation economy after the abolition of slavery in 1875 that reveals that, in fact, they were comparatively expensive. Santos 2002 looks into the costs of cocoa production in the islands during the same period. Oliveira 1993 comprises a detailed description of the archipelago’s plantation economy in the 1960s. Eyzaguirre 1989 presents a study on the interaction of three competing systems of land tenure and land use in São Tomé in the 1980s. Ceita 2008 examines the political and economic changes during the postcolonial period. His conclusion is that the economic reforms introduced by both the socialist one-party regime and the democratic regime failed to produce the expected results. Ceita 2009 provides an analysis of the economic, institutional, and cultural factors that hindered the country’s socioeconomic development after independence. Mata 2013 contains seven essays by local authors on the country’s economic problems and possible comparative advantages. Seibert 2008 provides a detailed overview of the developments of the country’s emerging oil sector in the period from 1997 to 2007. The 2012 African Economic Outlook contains recent macro-economic data and other information on Africa’s smallest economy.

                                                                                                                                                            • African Economic Outlook: São Tomé and Príncipe. 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                              Provides some useful and relatively reliable recent information and statistical data on Africa’s weakest economy. The report overestimates the prospects of the country’s oil sector, which despite high expectations, has not produced a single barrel of crude yet. The report is a joint project of the African Development Bank, the OECD, the UN Development Programme, and the UN Economic Commission on Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Ceita, Armindo, Economia de S. Tomé e Príncipe: Entre o regime do partido único e o multipartidarismo. Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                Analyzes the structural changes of the political and economic systems that occurred in São Tomé and Príncipe during the postcolonial period. Argues that the economic reforms introduced by the socialist one-party regime (1975–1990) and the democratic regime (since 1991) alike have not resulted in improvements of the country’s economic situation.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Ceita, Armindo. S. Tomé e Príncipe: Problemas e perspectivas para o seu desenvolvimento. Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Outlines the origins of São Tomé’s Creole society and discusses the reasons why the country’s postcolonial development largely failed. Analyzes the various impediments for development, including economic, institutional, and cultural factors, and represents recommendations and alternatives to improve the country’s difficult socioeconomic situation.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Clarence-Smith, William Gervase. “The Hidden Costs of Labour on the Cocoa Plantations of São Tomé and Príncipe, 1875–1914.” Portuguese Studies 6 (1990): 152–172.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Analyzes the labor costs in the cocoa plantations after the abolition of slavery in 1875. While African contract workers were cheap labor, real labor costs on the Portuguese-owned estates were expensive due to high recruitment costs, an expensive European supervisory labor force, and low productivity of poorly motivated plantation workers.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Eyzaguirre, Pablo B. “Competing Systems of Land Tenure in an African Plantation Society.” In Land and Society in Contemporary Africa. Edited by R. E. Downs and S. P. Reyna, 340–361. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the interaction of three competing systems of land tenure and land use in the 1980s, namely, the nationalized cocoa and coffee estates (92 percent of the land), about 11,000 smallholdings known as glebas (about 7 percent), and agricultural squatters on state lands who produce food crops.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Mata, Inocência, ed. Olhares cruzadas sobre a economia de São Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Comprises seven essays by local experts on problems and opportunities of the archipelago’s economy. The various authors analyze the impediments to the country’s economic development and present alternative opportunities to improve the country’s poor economic performance.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Oliveira, Jorge Eduardo da Costa. A economia de São Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (IICT), 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Study of the archipelago’s plantation economy elaborated in 1960, but only published more than thirty years later. From a colonial perspective, presents detailed information and useful data on local society, the local plantation economy, labor problems, and the recruitment of contract workers from Angola, Cape Verde, and Mozambique.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Santos, Maciel Morais. “A rentabilidade do cacau de S. Tomé e Príncipe: Hipóteses de explicação.” África Studia: Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos 5 (2002): 181–212.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Analyzes the various cost factors of local cocoa production. Concludes that cocoa production constituted an efficient combination between two historically distant modes: a modern one, the share capital of Portuguese plantation companies, and a primitive one, the contract regime of African plantation workers, labor with recruitment costs.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Seibert, Gerhard. “São Tomé and Príncipe: The Troubles of Oil in an Aid-Dependent Micro-State.” In Extractive Economies and Conflicts in the Global South: Multi-regional Perspectives on Rentier Politics. Edited by Kenneth Omeje, 119–134. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Examines the developments of the emergent oil sector during the period 1997–2007. By 2006, the initial enthusiasm about the country’s supposed future oil wealth had already been replaced by doubts about the existence of commercially viable oil due to negative results of the first exploration wells drilled in that year.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Politics and Government

                                                                                                                                                                              Modern colonial politics in São Tomé and Príncipe predominantly focused on issues related to the local plantation economy such as recurrent problems of labor and troubles with cocoa cultivation. The four publications included in the subsection deal with these issues in the context of colonial Portuguese Africa as a whole. The three publications of the second subsection deal with the emergence of local nationalism and the decolonization process in 1974–1975. The third subsection provides four references, which deal with the socialist one-party regime (1975–1991) und the country’s democratic transition.

                                                                                                                                                                              Colonial

                                                                                                                                                                              Generally, due to its comparatively minor role, in the English-language works on Portuguese colonialism in Africa, the small archipelago of São Tomé and Príncipe is not given much attention. However, all works consider the developments in the archipelago to some extent. Duffy 1959 denounces the Portuguese colonial repression in Africa, while Abshire and Samuels 1969 tends to show more comprehension for Portugal’s colonial policies in the 1960s. Newitt 1981 presents a concise history of the last hundred years of Portuguese colonial rule in Africa. Clarence-Smith 1985 focuses on the economic aspects of Portuguese colonialism in Africa after Brazil’s independence in 1822.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Abshire, David M., and Michael A. Samuels, eds. Portuguese Africa: A Handbook. London: Pall Mall, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Contains a wide range of essays on Portugal’s five African colonies, including physical environment, colonization, government and society, economy, and political and international issues. The study spends considerable space on Portugal’s policies in the 1960s and their background. According to its minor role, São Tomé and Príncipe is not extensively mentioned.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Clarence-Smith, Gervase. The Third Portuguese Empire 1825–1975: A Study in Economic Imperialism. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Provides a global historical vision of Portugal’s African empire in the period from 1825 to 1975. The archipelago’s colonial economy appears in the context of Portuguese Africa as a whole. Portuguese translation: O Terceiro Império Português (1825–1975). Lisbon, Teorema, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Duffy, James. Portuguese Africa. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A study of Portuguese colonialism in Africa where São Tomé and Príncipe appears occasionally throughout the chapters. Considers Portuguese presence in Africa in the late colonial period as still characterized by ignorance, repression, and a careless exploitation of African people.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Newitt, Malyn. Portugal in Africa: The Last Hundred Years. London: C. Hurst, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      A concise account of Portuguese colonialism in the period from 1875 to 1975, in which São Tomé and Príncipe appears only marginally.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Nationalism and Independence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Presently, there is only one book that deals exclusively with nationalism and decolonization in the small former Portuguese colony. Espírito Santo 2012 presents a history of local political nationalism from its antecedents during the liberal Portuguese First Republic (1910–1975). Seibert 2006 includes a comprehensive account of the emergence of the first nationalist political organizations and the course of the decolonization process in the archipelago. MacQueen 1997 mentions São Tomé’s decolonization only briefly as part of the end of Portuguese colonialism in Africa as a whole.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Espírito Santo, Carlos. O Nacionalismo Político São-tomense. 2 vols. Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Presents the history of political nationalism in the archipelago from the beginning of emancipatory organizations and community associations by local Creoles during the First Portuguese Republic (1910–1926) until the country’s independence in 1975. Second volume comprises the biographies of local nationalists and politicians and the reproduction of many historic documents, mostly from private archives.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • MacQueen, Norrie. The Decolonization of Portuguese Africa: Metropolitan Revolution and the Dissolution of the Empire. London: Longman, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Presents an account of the liberation struggles and the decolonization process in Portugal’s five African colonies after the Coronation Revolution of 25 April 1974 in Lisbon. The focus is on Angola and Mozambique, while São Tomé’s decolonization is only superficially mentioned. Portuguese translation: A Descolonização da África Portuguesa: a revolução metropolitana e a dissolução do império. Lisbon: Inquérito, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Seibert, Gerhard. Comrades, Clients and Cousins: Colonialism, Socialism and Democratization in São Tomé and Príncipe. 2d ed. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Contains a detailed account of the emergence of local nationalism, the political struggle for independence, and the decolonization process in the period from 1974 to 1975. Portuguese translation of 1st edition 1999, Camaradas, Clientes e Compadres. Colonialismo, Socialismo e Democratização em São Tomé e Príncipe (Lisbon: Vega, 2001).

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Postcolonial

                                                                                                                                                                                            Specific works on the country’s postcolonial period are comparatively sparse. Campos 2011 presents an account of the country’s postcolonial developments with a focus on the transition from socialist one-party rule to democratic multiparty rule. Guedes 2002 analyzes conflict resolution in São Tomé under the current legal and constitutional framework, as well as alternative local forms of conflict resolution. Graça 2011 is the autobiography of one of the country’s nationalists, who also held different ministerial offices in the government after independence. Pinto da Costa 2011 contains personal memories and political ideas of the country’s first post-independence (1975–1991) as well as current (since 2011) head of state.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Campos, Fernando R. de Sousa. As relações entre Portugal e São Tomé e Príncipe: Do passado colonial á Lusofonia. Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Deals with archipelago’s history from the first colonization by the Portuguese in the late 15th century to the introduction of multiparty democracy in 1990. The author focuses on the decolonization process in 1974–1975, the postcolonial socialist one-party regime (1975–1990), and the subsequent democratic transition and economic reform.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Graça, Carlos. Memórias políticas de um nacionalista santomense sui generis. Lisbon: União Nacional dos Escritores e Artistas Santomenses, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Contains the political autobiography of a founder member of the country’s first nationalist groups. In the postcolonial period he was consecutively health minister (1975–1977), foreign minister (1988–1990), and, after the democratic transition, prime minister (1994–1995).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Guedes, Armando Marques. Litígios e legitimação: Estado, sociedade civil e direito em São Tomé e Príncipe. Coimbra, Portugal: Almedina, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Examines the country’s current legal system and existing informal alternatives for conflict resolution. Deals with the postcolonial political developments and the resolution of political-constitutional conflicts in the framework of the 1990 democratic constitution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pinto da Costa, Manuel. Terra firme. Porto, Portugal: Edições Afrontamento, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Presents memories and thoughts of the author, the country’s first president (1975–1991) and third democratically elected president (since 2011). Describes the author’s participation in the political struggle for independence and his later commitment for democracy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Christianity

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Roman Catholicism has always been the most important religion in the islands. Only in the last two decades has Catholicism lost ground due to the arrival of several foreign Pentecostal and other Protestant churches. Ambrósio 1984 provides insights into the sometimes precarious situation of the Catholic Church in the modern colonial period, particularly in the 19th century. Nascimento 1993 studies the situation of the local Catholic Church and the clergy during the same century when the Portuguese re-established the plantation economy. Nascimento 2003 contains details of the 500-year presence of the Catholic charity Santa Casa de Misericórdia in São Tomé. The Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices includes a chapter on Christianity in São Tomé from the 15th to the 21st century.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ambrósio, António. Subsídios para a história de S. Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Livros Horizonte, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Describes the development of the local Catholic Church and Catholic orders in the period from 1800 to 1975. Includes various documents on the difficult situation of the Catholic Church in the 19th century and the early 20th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nascimento, Augusto. “A vivência religiosa em S. Tomé no século XIX.” In Missionação: Problemática geral e sociedade contemporânea. Vol. 4 of Congresso Internacional de História Missionação Portuguesa e Encontro de Culturas: Actas. By Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, and Fundação Evangelização e Culturas, 37–53. Braga, Portugal: Universidade Católica Portuguesa, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Examines the situation of the local Catholic Church in the 19th century when the Portuguese recolonized the archipelago and re-established the plantation economy. As part of the recolonization process many local forms of religious practices were contested by the authorities in favor of European forms of Catholicism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nascimento, Augusto. A misericórdia na voragem das ilhas: Fragmentos da trajectória das Misericórdias de São Tomé e do Príncipe. Lisbon: Augusto Nascimento., 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Published to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the Portuguese Catholic charity Santa Casa de Misericórdia, introduced in São Tomé in 1504. Major part covers the eventful history of the institution during the long colonial period, while only the last chapter deals with its ongoing charitable engagement since independence in 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices. 3 vols. 2d ed. Missoula, MT: Thomas Riggs, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Includes a chapter on São Tomé and Príncipe with the history of the local Catholic Church since the late 15th century and information on the recent expansion of Pentecostal and other Protestant churches in the country.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Language

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In recent years, linguists have published several studies on the archipelago’s different local Creole languages. Hagemeijer 2009 provides an overview of all languages that are currently spoken in the archipelago. Michaelis, et al. 2013 contains one chapter each with descriptions of the three distinct Portuguese-based Creole languages spoken in the archipelago, namely, Santome, Angolar (both in São Tomé), and Lung’iye (Príncipe). Ferraz 1979 analyzes the salient features of Santome, the island’s majority Creole. Araújo and Hagemeijer 2013 is the first dictionary of Santome–Portuguese, containing 8,500 entries. Maurer 1995 provides a detailed linguistic study of Angolar, the creole spoken by the Angolares, the descendents of a maroon community in São Tomé, while Lorenzino 2007 presents a sociolinguistic study on the emergence of the Angolares community and the genesis of Angolar. Maurer 2009 contains a thorough linguistic study of the Creole language of Príncipe Island. Hagemeijer 2011 proves that the four distinct Portuguese-based Creole languages spoken in the Gulf of Guinea, namely, the three existing in São Tomé and Príncipe together with Fa d’Ambo (Annobón, Equatorial Guinea), are genetically closely related languages, since historically they share a common origin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Araújo, Gabriel Antunes de, and Tjerk Hagemeijer. Dicionário livre santome/português: Livlu-nglandji santome/putugêji. São Paulo: Editora Hedra, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              With more than 8,500 entries, this small Santome-Portuguese dictionary is the most complete reference work of the principal Portuguese-based Creole spoken in São Tomé. Produced from oral and written sources, each entry in Santome is provided with the phonetic transcription and the equivalent in Portuguese.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ferraz, Luiz Ivens. The Creole of São Tomé. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                First thorough linguistic analysis of salient features of the island’s majority Creole. While Portuguese-based in terms of its lexicon, it has a clear African substratum, since many areas, particularly phonology and syntax, can be traced to Bantu and Kwa languages on the West African coast.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hagemeijer, Tjerk. “As línguas de S. Tomé e Príncipe.” Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola 1.1 (2009): 1–27.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Describes the languages that, besides the official language Portuguese, are currently spoken in the archipelago, namely, the three local Creole languages Lungwa Santome, Lunga Ngola, Lung’iye, as well as Crioulo of Cape Verde, Portuguese Tonga, and remnants of Bantu languages, spoken on a few former plantations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hagemeijer, Tjerk. “The Gulf of Guinea Creoles: Genetic and Typological Relations.” Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 26.1 (2011): 111–154.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Demonstrates, based on historical and linguistic data, that the four distinct Portuguese-based Creole languages spoken in the Gulf of Guinea, namely, Santome, Angolar (both in São Tomé), Principense or Lung’yie (Príncipe), and Fa d’Ambo (Annobón, Equatorial Guinea) are genetically closely related languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lorenzino, Gerardo A. “Linguistic, Historical and Ethnographic Evidence on the Formation of the Angolares, a Maroon-Descendant Community in São Tomé (West Africa).” Portuguese Studies Review 15.1–2 (2007): 193–226.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explores the genesis and development of Angolar, an Afro-Portuguese Creole spoken by descendants of maroon slaves, who escaped from sugar plantations in the 16th century. The historical basis for the formation of a distinct Angolar community is connected to what went on outside, namely, in the plantations and the town.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Maurer, Philippe. L’angolar: Un créole afro-portugais parlé à São Tomé. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Contains the only available detailed study of Angolar, a distinct Portuguese-based Creole spoken by the Angolares. In comparison with the two other Creoles spoken in the islands, Angolar is characterized by a relatively high percentage of Bantu origin (some 10–15 percent, particularly from Kimbundu and Kikongo).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Maurer, Philippe. Principense: The Afro-Portuguese Creole of Príncipe Island (Gulf of Guinea); Grammar—Texts—Vocabulary. London: Battlebridge, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Provides new and extensive documentation of Principense or Lung’yie, the native Creole spoken on Príncipe (7,500 inhabitants in 2012) and one of the three Portuguese-based Creole languages spoken in the two islands. Includes a Principense-English word list with 1,650 entries and an English-Principense word list.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Michaelis, Susane, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath, and Magnus Huber, eds. Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Includes a chapter on Santome by Tjerk Hagemeijer (pp. 50–58) and two chapters by Philippe Maurer on Angolar (pp. 59–71) and on Principense (pp. 72–80).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Literature

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Poetry has always been the dominant genre of the comparatively sparse literary production in São Tomé and Príncipe. The works on the country’s literature mostly include Portuguese authors, whose literature is thematically related to the islands. Reis 1965 contains examples of local oral literature, including fables and proverbs. Shaw 1996 presents a short overview of the country’s written literature since 1885 when local poetry was published for the first time. Rosa 1994 is an extensive literature history study of the archipelago’s colonial and postcolonial oral and written literature, including popular dramas. Mata 1998 and Mata 2010 comprise essays on the country’s culture and literature from the late 19 century to the early 21st. Burness 2005 identifies three themes considered representative for São Tomé’s literature. Ribeiro and Jorge 2011 includes essays on the literature of São Tomé and Príncipe and texts by local writers. Laban 2002 contains interviews with seventeen authors on their personal careers and literary works.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Burness, Donald. Ossobó: Essays on the Literature of São Tomé and Príncipe. Trenton, NJ, and Asmara, Eritrea: Africa World, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Claims to be the first book in English devoted solely to the literature of São Tomé and Príncipe. The title, however, is rather misleading, since the work of two Portuguese authors on Sãotomean themes is included. Identifies three themes considered representative of the archipelago’s literature. Portuguese translation: Ossobó: Ensaios sobre a literatura de São Tomé e Príncipe (Lagos, Portugal: Câmara Municipal de Lagos, 2007).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Laban, Michel S. Tomé e Príncipe: Encontro com escritores. Porto, Portugal: Fundação Eng. António de Almeida, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Contains interviews with seventeen writers, of whom fourteen are from the archipelago, while four are Portuguese authors who have dedicated part of their literary production thematically to São Tomé. The interviews focus on literature, but also include the writers’ biographies and the archipelago’s contemporaneous history, culture, and society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mata, Inocência. Diálogo com as Ilhas: Sobre cultura e literatura de São Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A collection of essays on the archipelago’s culture and literature published by a Sãotomean professor of African literature based at Lisbon University. Explores the poetry and fiction published by various local writers from 1885 to the mid-1990s. Includes three Portuguese authors whose writings are thematically associated with São Tomé.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mata, Inocência. Polifonias insulares: Cultura e literaturas de São Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Might be considered the second volume of Diálogo com as Ilhas (1998). Comprises some fifteen essays on the country’s languages and national cultural identity and the work of contemporary local writers, including Conceição Lima, currently São Tomé’s internationally best-known poet.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Reis, Fernando. Soiá: Literatura oral de São Tomé. Braga, Portugal: Editora Pax, 1965.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Provides overview of the archipelago’s oral literature published by a Portuguese colonial civil servant who spent many years in São Tomé. Includes traditional songs in Santome with Portuguese translation, five fairy tales, local proverbs, and a small word list of Portuguese–Santome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ribeiro, Margarida Calafate, and Sílvio Renato Jorge. Literaturas insulares: Leituras e escritas; Cabo Verde e S. Tomé e Príncipe. Porto, Portugal: Edições Afrontamento, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        About half of this 313-page book deals with the literature of São Tomé and Príncipe. The various essays are written by both scholars of African literature and contemporary Sãotomean writers. The book aims at widening the discussion about the relations between literature, society, culture, and politics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rosa, Luciano Caetano da. Die lusographe Literatur der Inseln São Tomé und Príncipe: Versuch einer literaturgeschichtlichen Darstellung. Frankfurt: TFM/Domus Editoria Euroaea, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Provides an extensive literature history study of the colonial and postcolonial written literature produced in São Tomé and Príncipe. Also explores the archipelago’s folklore, oral literature, and the popular plays Tchiloli in São Tome and Auto de Floripes in Príncipe. Important authors and works are discussed in detail.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Shaw, Caroline. “São Tomé and Príncipe.” In The Postcolonial Literature of Lusophone Africa. Edited by Patrick Chabal with Moema Parente Augel, David Brookshaw, Ana Mafalda Leite, and Caroline Shaw, 234–247. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Brief overview of the archipelago’s sparse written literature published from 1885 until the early 1990s, which is largely dominated by poetry and short stories. Concludes that stories of plantation life, the influence of traditional culture, and the importance of race can be found in literature produced before and after independence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Anthologies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The few existing anthologies reflect the comparatively sparse literary production in the two islands. Tenreiro 1967 and Tenreiro 1982 include the entire poetic works of São Tomé’s most important poet. The early poems of Tenreiro (b. 1921–d. 1963) have been considered the first Negritude poetry in Portuguese. Born in São Tomé of a Portuguese father and an Angolan mother, at the age of two he was taken to Lisbon where he passed his entire life. Although he never lived in São Tomé, he is considered the country’s greatest poet, since the major part of his poetry is dedicated to his island of birth. Espírito Santo 1978 contains the anticolonial and protest poetry of one of the archipelago’s most prominent nationalists and writers. Ferreira 1976 provides poems and short biographies of seven poets from the modern colonial period. Rodrigues 1977 presents poems by grammar school students that reflect the dominant revolutionary ideas of the early postcolonial period. Fablier de São Tomé (from 1984) is a bilingual collection of local fables and legends, while Cadernos do Povo contains poems and short stories by various local writers from the colonial and the postcolonial period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • “O coro dos poetas e prosadores de São Tomé e Príncipe (antologia).” Cadernos do Povo: Revista Internacional da Lusofonia nos. 23–26 (1992).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Compilation of poems and short stories by various writers from both the colonial and postcolonial periods.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Espírito Santo, Alda. É nosso o solo sagrado da terra: Poesia de protesto e luta. Lisbon: Ulmeiro, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The anticolonial poetry of Alda Espírito Santo (b. 1926–d. 2010), a prominent local nationalist, politician, and poet. From its foundation in 1987 until her death, she was president of the country’s writers’ and artists’ union, União Nacional de Escritores e Artistas de São Tomé e Príncipe (UNEAS).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fablier de São Tomé/Fabulário de São-Tomense: Textes bilingues. Paris: Edicef, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A bilingual edition of a collection of thirteen traditional fables and legends from São Tomé.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ferreira, Manuel. No reino de Caliban: Antologia panorâmica da poesia africana de expressão portuguesa. Vol. 2, Angola; São Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Seara Nova, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Includes the poems and short biographies of the archipelago’s poets of the modern colonial period, namely, Caetano Costa Alegre, Francisco José Tenreiro, Maria Manuela Margarido, Aldo do Espírito Santo, Thomaz Medeiros, Marcelo Veiga, and Francisco Stockler.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rodrigues, António Pinto, ed. Antologia poética juvenil de S. Tomé e Príncipe. Lisbon: Tipografia Macarlo, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Collection of poems by anonymous young students from São Tomé’s only grammar school. Most poems are inspired by the revolutionary Zeitgeist of the early postcolonial period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tenreiro, Francisco José. Obra poética. Lisbon: Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Política Ultramarina, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The poetry of São Tomé’s best-known poet, published posthumously. The early poetry of Tenreiro (b. 1921–d. 1963) has been considered the first Negritude poetry in Portuguese. He is also author of the monograph A Ilha de São Tomé (1961), his PhD thesis in geography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Tenreiro, Francisco José. Coração em África. Linda-a-Velha, Portugal: África—literatura, arte e cultura, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A re-edition of Obra poética with exactly the same poems, but foreword and Tenreiro’s biography are by another author.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Arts

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ambrósio 1985 provides a description of the archipelago’s traditional scenic arts, namely, the dramas Tchiloli and Auto de Floripes, both based on medieval European plays, and Danço Congo, an African pantomime similar to the congadas represented in Brazil. The article is relevant, since it rejects earlier theories by colonial authors of the 1960s, who argued that the Tchiloli was introduced to São Tomé as early as the 16th century. Instead it demonstrates convincingly that this medieval play did not appear in the island before 1880. Silva 2005 and Silva 2006 contain abundantly illustrated tropical receipts invented on the basis of foodstuffs available in the islands and partly inspired by traditional dishes of the local Creole cuisine. Artafrica provides a comprehensive online database on the country’s contemporary visual artists, including the individual artist’s biography, instruction, expositions, and images of paintings and sculptures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ambrósio, António. “Para a história do folclore São-tomense.” História 81 (1985): 61–89.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Deals with the popular dramas Tchiloli and Auto de Floripes, as well as the pantomime Danço Congo. Argues that the Tchiloli was introduced to São Tomé around 1880. Includes a portrait of the naive artist Pascoal Vegas Vilhete (b. 1894–d. 195?) and a review of earlier colonial publications on local culture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Artafrica, Centro de Estudos Comparatistas, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Internet database on contemporary artists from the five Portuguese-speaking African countries and hosted by the Centre for Comparative Studies at the Arts Faculty of the University of Lisbon includes painters and sculptors from São Tomé and Príncipe, both those resident in the country and those living abroad.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Silva, João Carlos. Na roça com os tachos. Lisbon: Oficina do Livro, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Based on the author’s Portuguese TV cookery show with the same title. The author is a well-known artist and promoter of local culture in São Tomé. Contains profusely illustrated recipes created on the basis of locally available foodstuffs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Silva, João Carlos. Façam o favor de ser felizes! Uma viagem deslumbrante às cores e sabores de África. Lisbon: Oficina do Livro, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The author’s second cookbook, with recipes based on locally available foodstuffs and partly inspired by traditional dishes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Music and Performance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The archipelago’s best-known performances are the popular plays Tchiloli in São Tomé and Auto de Floripes in Príncipe, which are both based on medieval European dramas. Portuguese authors of the late colonial period in the 1960s contended that the two plays had been introduced to the islands as early as the 16th century. However, most contemporary authors believe that the dramas were not performed in the islands before the late 19th century, since there does not exist any documentary evidence to the contrary. Reis 1969 still provides the most comprehensive study on the country’s folklore, including the performances Tchiloli, Auto de Floripes, and Danço Congo. Peek and Yankah 2004 is a comprehensive encyclopedia of African folklore that comprises detailed entries on the performing arts in São Tomé and Príncipe. The major part of the available literature on the country’s performances deals with the Tchiloli. Internationale de l’Imaginaire 1990 contains seven essays on this popular drama and its performance in São Tomé. Pereira 2002 describes the Tchiloli in the context of the appropriation of the Carolingian universe by Portugal’s popular literature and by São Tomé’s Creole culture. Kalewska 2005 examines the Tchiloli as an example of the African enculturation of European dramaturgic discourse. Gründ 2006 bases its analysis of the Tchiloli on the unproved affirmation that the play was already introduced to São Tomé as early as the 16th century, during the island’s sugar boom. Loude 2007 explores the performance of São Tomé’s unique popular drama on the background of São Tomé’s history of plantation colony, while Baptista 2001 provides the only existing thorough study of Auto de Floripes, which is annually performed in Príncipe around St. Lawrence Day in mid-August.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Baptista, Augusto. Floripes Negra. Coimbra, Portugal: Cena Lusófona, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Provides a detailed study of Príncipe’s popular theater Auto de Floripes, which is based on the medieval drama The History of Charlemagne and the Twelve Peers of France. The play deals with the fight between Moors and Christians and the love between a Moorish princess and a Christian knight.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gründ, Françoise. Tchiloli: Charlemagne à São Tomé sur l’île du milieu du monde. Paris: Editions Magellan & Cie, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explores São Tomé’s popular play Tchiloli, which is based on a 16th-century medieval drama. Claims that this theater had been introduced to the island in the 16th century. However, there does not exist any evidence that the play was known in São Tomé before the late 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Internationale de l’Imaginaire. 14 ‘Tchiloli de São-Tomé et Príncipe.’ Paris: Maison Des Cultures du Monde, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Special edition on the occasion of a guest performance of a Tchiloli group in Paris. Includes seven articles dealing with the Tchiloli, which narrates the story of Dom Carloto, the son of Emperor Charlemagne, who kills his friend Valdevinos because he has fallen in love with the latter’s wife, Sibila.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kalewska, Anna. “O Tchiloli de Sâo Tomé e Príncipe a Inculturação Africana do Discurso Dramatúrgico Europeu,” 8º Congresso da Associação Internacional de Lusitanistas, Santiago de Compostela, 18–23 July 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Analyzes the Tchiloli as an example of the African enculturation of European dramaturgic discourse. All earlier publications on São Tomé’s popular play are considered in this discussion. The text is available on the internet site of the Angolan Writers’ Union (UEA).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Loude, Jean-Yves. Coup de thèâtre à São Tomé: Carnet d’énquête aux îles du milieu du monde. Arles: Actes Sud, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Travelogue written in a literary style exploring São Tomé’s popular play Tchiloli, which is based on the medieval drama The Tragedy of the Marquis of Mântua and Emperor Charlesmagne by a 16th-century Portuguese playwright from Madeira, on the background of São Tomé’s history as a plantation colony.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Peek, Philip M., and Kwesi Yankah, eds. African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Encyclopedia includes detailed entries on performing arts in São Tomé and Príncipe, namely, Tchiloli, Auto de Floripes, Danço Congo and traditional dances, as well as on healing and spirit possession, religious ceremonies, and festivals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pereira, Paulo Alves. Das Tchiloli von São Tomé: Die Wege des karolinischen Universums. Frankfurt: Iko Verlag, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                First part deals with São Tomé’s history and Creole culture, while the second part explores the appropriation of the Carolingian universe by Portugal’s popular literature and the performance of the Tchiloli in São Tomé. The last part describes other cultural manifestations, traditional medicine, and religious beliefs in São Tomé.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Reis, Fernando. Povô flogá: O povo brinca; Folclore de São Tomé e Príncipe. São Tomé: Câmara Municipal de São Tomé, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Still provides the most complete study of folklore in this African Creole society. Describes traditional local music and dance performances like the puíta, ússua, and socopé, as well as the Danço Congo, a colorful masquerade. Contains detailed descriptions of the medieval plays Tchiloli and Auto de Floripes.

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