African Studies Ijo/Niger Delta
by
Ebiegberi Joe Alagoa, Atei Mark Okorobia
  • LAST REVIEWED: 06 May 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 October 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846733-0157

Introduction

Extending over approximately 70,000 km2, the Niger Delta is reputed to be the world’s largest wetlands with diverse ecology. The area is criss-crossed by innumerable rivers and rivulets cutting through its sandy coastal ridges, brackish/saline mangrove swamps, freshwater swamps, and lowland rainforests. The core delta extends from the Benin River in the west to the Imo River in the east, and from the southernmost tip at Palm Point in Akassa to Onya/Samabri in the north, where the Niger River biforcates into its two main tributaries, Rivers Nun and Forcados. The region is also an area of immense cultural diversity with an estimated population of 31 million people speaking over two hundred languages and dialects and belong to about forty ethnic groups, of which the Ijo are the dominant. Others with lesser visibility include the Itsekiri, Urhobo, Isoko, Ukwani, Ogbia, Epie-Atissa, Engenni, Abua, Odual, Abureni/Mini, Eleme, Ogoni, Ikwerre, Etche, Ekpeye, Ogbah, Egbema, Ndoni, Obolo (Andoni), etc. In contemporary Nigeria, these peoples inhabit the states of Delta, Bayelsa, and Rivers. The key cities of the core Niger Delta include Port Harcourt, Bonny, Warri, Sapele, Ughelli, Yenagoa, and Twon-Brass. Ijoland in particular, and the Niger Delta generally, are among the best documented areas of Nigeria, and perhaps Africa. The primary reason for this is that the area has been in contact with the literate world for about five hundred years, now. This is not to say that every Ijo sub-group or all sections of the Niger Delta are known. Some are better documented than others due to differences in historical and environmental circumstances. Generally, however, the people of Itsekiriland around Warri in the Western Delta, and the Nembe(Brass), Kalabari (New Calabar), Okrika (Wakrike), Obolo(Andoni), and the Ibani city-states of Bonny and Opobo have been better documented than the other ethnic nationalities, such as the Ogoni, Urhobo, Isoko, Eleme, Ikwerre, Etche, Ogbia, Engenni, Epie-Atissa, Abua, Odual, Bukuma, Udekema, etc. Generally, these documentations have focused on explaining three issues about the Ijo and the Niger Delta. First, they have tried to explain the nature of societies established by the Ijo and other groups. Second, they have tried to explain the ways by which these societies came to acquire the peculiar characteristics that distinguish them from their neighbors. In recent times, the writers have also being trying to explain the roots, manifestation, and consequences of the environmental and developmental challenges facing the land and the people.

Bibliographies

A number of bibliographical works exists on different aspects of the Ijo and Niger Delta. Prominent among them are Sanni 1974/1975 (“A Bibliography of the Linguistic Study of Ijo”), a compilation on the Ijo language; Ayalogu 1984, a compilation on the life and works of Professor Williamson; Ayalogu 1985, a compilation on the life and works of Professor Alagoa; Osiobe 1989, and Ombu 1970.

  • Ayalogu, Meg Chio. Linguistics and African Languages: Kay Williamson and Her Works. Unipolib Bibliographic Series No. 2. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: University of Port Harcourt Press Library, 1984.

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    This is an official compilation of Professor Williamson’s confirmed books, practical booklets, articles in books, journal articles, unpublished materials, bibliography, and work in progress as of 1984. Though not yet updated, this useful research resource to scholars serves as an aid to scholarship.

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    • Ayalogu, Ayalogu Chio. Perceptions of the African Past: Ebiegberi Joe Alagoa and His Works. Unipolib Bibliographic Series No. 5. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: University of Port Harcourt Press Library, 1985.

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      An official compilation of the confirmed books, book chapters, journal articles, archival finding aids, book reviews, tapes, forthcoming publications, unpublished materials, and general criticism on Professor Alagoa as of 1985. Though not yet updated, this useful research resource to scholars serves as an aid to scholarship.

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      • Ombu, J. A. Niger Delta Studies 1627–1967: A Bibliography. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press, 1970.

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        Though, not updated, this remains one of the most comprehensive bibliographies covering all aspects of Niger Delta studies.

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        • Osiobe, Stephen Achavwuko, ed. Nigerian University Dissertation Abstracts (NUDA): A Comprehensive Listing of Dissertations and Theses Undertaken at the Universities of Nigeria. Vol. 1, 1960–1975. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: University of Port Harcourt Press, 1989.

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          Helps to bring under one cover all the theses and dissertations undertaken in Nigerian universities, making same easily accessible to researchers. These volumes indicate that Nigerian universities have made immense contributions to knowledge generally, and to national development, in particular.

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          • Sanni, G. A. “A Bibliography of the Linguistic Study of Ijo.” Ibadan, Nigeria: Post-Graduate Diploma in Librarianship, 1974/1975, University of Port Harcourt.

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            This is a pioneering attempt at bringing together the accessible studies bordering on the Ijo language. Though not as comprehensive as later efforts, it remains a useful research tool for scholars in Niger Delta and Ijo studies.

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            Reference Works

            A number of reference works exist on the land and people of Ijo and the Niger Delta. Significant among them are Dapper 2003 a comprehensive compilation of various information on the Kalabari-Ijo; Cross Rivers State (Nigeria) Ministry of Finance, Budget, and Planning 2000, a statistical and information system source; Kaliai 1964, one of the first successful lexicographic works on a Niger Delta language; and Ockiya 1956, the first successful translation of the entire Holy Bible in any major Niger Delta language.

            • Cross Rivers State (Nigeria). Ministry of Finance, Budget, and Planning. Statistical Year Book 2000: Rivers State. Calabar, Nigeria: State Statistical Department, 2000.

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              This is one of the National Statistical and Information System output programs being executed by the State Central Statistical Agency (CSA) in Rivers State.

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              • Dapper, Golden Cyril. Kalibari Companion. Chapel Hill, NC: Professional Press, 2003.

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                A comprehensive compilation of various information, facts and figures on the land and people of Kalabari, providing information on Kalabari translations of the books of the Bible, the national anthem and pledge, the UN Declaration of Human Rights, Kalabari counting system, native signals, idioms, and other topical issues in Kalabari culture history. Great resource material.

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                • Kaliai, M. H. I. Nembe-English Dictionary. 2d ed. Ibadan, Nigeria: University of Ibadan Press, 1964.

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                  This is one of the first successful lexicographic works in any major Niger Delta language. Though not perfect, this work in the Nembe-Ijo dialect provides a model for related efforts in other languages. It remains a useful research tool for scholars in Niger Delta and Ijo studies.

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                  • Ockiya, Daniel O., trans. Tonton Baibul Mi Ne Elemu Ovo Mi Na Ewo Ovo Mi Na Emi Yemi. London: British and Foreign Bible Society, 1956.

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                    This is the first successful translation of the entire Holy Bible in any major Niger Delta language. Though not a perfect attempt, with this translation in Nembe-Ijo, other languages, and indeed, Ijo dialects now have a model for related efforts. It remains a useful research tool for scholars and the clergy in Niger Delta and Ijo studies.

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                    Primary Sources

                    Willink 1958 is one of the most quoted colonial documents by the Ijo and other Niger Deltans because it was the first official documentation of their fears and demands. Thereafter, a number of other primary sources have been generated, including the Report of the Presidential Council on the Social and Economic Development of the Coastal States of the Niger Delta, 2006, focusing on aspects of the Niger Delta problems that were peculiar to them and proposing solutions to those problems; Popoola 1999 focuses on the infrastructural projects undertaken by various governmental and non-governmental agencies in the region, many of which have been abandoned; Ogomudia 2001 examines the prevailing infrastructural deficiency in the oil producing areas and makes far-reaching recommendations that have not been implemented; Niger Delta Regional Development Master Plan (2004) is a plan document plan designed to address the infrastructural deficiency of the region in 2007, with roles and responsibilities for all development stakeholders; the United Nations Development Programme 2006 is a survey of human development conditions in the Niger Delta as part of an integrated development program for the region; United Nations Environment Programme 2011 is a detail report on the implications of the polluted Ogoni environment; and the Report of the Technical Committee on the Niger Delta (2008) details how to bring about peace and reconciliation between the Niger Delta militants and the Federal Government of Nigeria.

                    • Niger Delta Development Commission. Niger Delta Regional Development Master Plan. Abuja: NDDC, 2005–2020. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Niger Delta Development Commission, 2004.

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                      A plan designed to address the infrastructural deficiency of the region in 2007, with roles and responsibilities for all development stakeholders in the region. Its recommendations are slowly being implemented. Useful for development agencies, policy-makers, and scholars.

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                      • Ogomudia, A. O. Presidential Special Security Committee on Oil Producing Areas. Abuja, Nigeria, 2001.

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                        Constituted to address the prevailing infrastructural deficiency in the oil producing areas, makes far-reaching recommendations which were never implemented. Useful for development agencies, policy-makers, and scholars.

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                        • Popoola, Oladayo. The 1999 Popoola Report. Report of the Presidential Committee on the Development Options for the Niger Delta. Abuja, Nigeria, 1999.

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                          This report looks into projects undertaken in the fields of education, electricity, water supply, roads construction, canals, and healthcare services by various governmental and non-governmental agencies and oil companies in the region; makes far-reaching recommendations that are largely unimplemented. Useful for development agencies, policy-makers, and scholars.

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                          • Report of the Presidential Council on the Social and Economic Development of the Coastal States of the Niger Delta, 2006. Abuja, Nigeria. 40–46.

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                            This report covers all coastal Niger Delta States, namely: Bayelsa, Rivers, and Delta, focusing on aspects of the Niger Delta problems that are peculiar to them and proposing solutions to those problems. An important historical record, useful for development agencies, policy-makers, and scholars.

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                            • Report of the Technical Committee on the Niger Delta. Abuja, Nigeria, 2008

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                              The report of the Ledum Mite-led Committee on the Niger Delta crisis and how to bring about peace and reconciliation between the militants and the Federal Government of Nigeria, leading to the granting of amnesty to repentant militants. A very informative document useful to researchers, policy makers, and development agencies.

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                              • United Nations Development Programme. Niger Delta Human Development Report. Abuja, Nigeria: UNDP, 2006.

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                                A survey of human development conditions in the Niger Delta as part of an integrated development program for the region, to promote sustainable poverty reduction by strengthening local governance and participatory planning, looking specially at development of women and youth. Useful for development agencies, policy-makers, and scholars.

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                                • United Nations Environment Programme. Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.

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                                  This is a detail report on the contamination of land, water, sediment, vegetation, and air, as well as on the health and socio-economic implications of the polluted environment. The most authoritative report on the Ogoni environment. Useful for policy-makers, scholars, and environmental managers.

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                                  • Willink, Henry Urmston. Report of the Commission Appointed to Enquire into the Fears of Minorities and the Means of Allaying Them. Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, July 1958. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1958.

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                                    The Willink Commission Report is one of the most quoted colonial documents in Ijoland and the Niger Delta and perhaps the oldest official record on unjust relations between them and the larger Nigerian ethnic groups like the Hausa/Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo. Good reference for intergroup relations, development agencies, policy-makers, and scholars.

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                                    Collections

                                    Six major collections (essentially, historical anthologies) on the Niger Delta can be easily accessed. These are Hodgkin 1975, the most valuable single collection of archival materials on the earliest documented history of many Niger Delta states and communities; Isichei 1977, which contains a large number of oral data collected by Isichei and others; Alagoa and Williamson 1981, a collection of oral history and traditions recorded by Alagoa; Dappa-Biriye, 2007, the Chief’s speeches and public lectures; Briggs and Wodi 2006, a compendium of speeches and public lectures on the university system by Professor Briggs; Ifie 2005, a collection highlighting the internal colonial status of the Niger Deltans.

                                    • Alagoa, E. J., and Kay Williamson, eds. Ancestral Voices: Oral Historical Texts from Nembe, Niger Delta. Vol. 4. Jos Oral History and Literature Texts. Jos, Nigeria: University of Jos Press, 1981.

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                                      A collection of oral history and traditions recorded by Alagoa in 1964 during his doctoral research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison with additional data from the Western Delta between 1966 and 1972. A rich source of information on early Nembe-Ijo history and culture for both scholars and the general readership.

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                                      • Briggs, Nimi D., and Wodi, Williams. Thoughts on University Education in Nigeria (2000–2005). Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum, 2006.

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                                        A compilation of speeches and lectures of Professor Briggs as the fifth Vice-Chancellor of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria; ingeniously outlining the scope, theory, principles and techniques of achieving results in a properly managed university setting, and offering an administrative “roadmap” to all stakeholders of the university system.

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                                        • Dappa-Biriye, H. J. R. Essays and Speeches. Vol. 1. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Harold J. R Dappa-Biriye Foundation, 2007.

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                                          This is a compilation of the opinions and positions of Chief Dappa-Biriye, both personal and official, in the course of his many struggles, as captured in his speeches and public lectures. A great treasure for all stakeholders in the Nigerian project and students of Niger Delta studies.

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                                          • Hodgkin, Thomas, ed. Nigeria Perspectives: An Historical Anthology. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1975.

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                                            Originally published in 1960, this work remains the most valuable single collection of archival materials on the earliest documented history of Niger Delta city-states and communities. It contains extracts spanning the centuries, from legendary times to the dawn of British rule. Its excellent introduction and notes make it an invaluable reference for scholars and the general reader.

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                                            • Ifie, Egbe. Friends and Enemies of the Niger Delta: A Compilation of Collected Views of Comrade Joseph Evah on the Niger Delta Problem). Ikeja and Lagos, Nigeria: Azuka, 2005.

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                                              Author argues that colonialism in Nigeria emphasized external master-servants relationships, but independence has introduced internal master-servant relationships, with the Niger Deltans as victims.

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                                              • Isichei, Elizabeth. Igbo Worlds: An Anthology of Oral Histories and Historical Descriptions. London: Macmillan Education, 1977.

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                                                Oral data are core to Niger Delta historiography, and this anthology contains a large number of oral data collected by Professor Isichei and others. Also includes previously inaccessible written materials, some translated from European originals.

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                                                Narrative Accounts

                                                As a consequence of their coastal location, the early European adventurers, supercargoes and missionaries who came by sea, and therefore had to pass through the coastal communities to reach the hinterland met and documented aspects of the history and culture of many Ijo and other Niger Delta communities. Pacheco Pereira 1937 contains detailed observations that are of value to scholars, especially regarding the economic profile, local customs, and traditions of the Eastern Ijo people at the point of contact. Baikie 1966 captures the author’s experiences during his adventures in Ijoland and Niger Delta in the mid-19th century, while Hallett 1965 narrates the experiences of Richard and John Lander during their great travels and explorations in the LowerNiger, while Crowther 1907 is an example of Christian missionary views on the Ijo and other Niger Delta peoples, including their biophysical environment, histories and cultures.

                                                • Baikie, William Balfour. Narrative of an Exploring Voyage Up the Rivers Kwora and Binue, Commonly Known as the Niger and Tsadda, in 1854. London: Frank Cass, 1966.

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                                                  Captures Baikie’s impressions of the peoples around the River Niger (Kwora) and its delta in the 19th century. Very revealing of the peoples’ cultures, either as he saw them or as he was informed of them. A necessary complement to other sources of Niger DeltaStudies. Originally published in 1856 (London: J. Murray).

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                                                  • Crowther, Dandeson Coates. The Establishment of the Niger Delta Pastorate Church. Liverpool, UK: J. A. Thompson, 1907.

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                                                    A narrative on Niger Delta Pastorate Church, now known as the Niger Delta Diocese of the Anglican Communion, which was established during the episcopacy of the Right Reverend Bishop S. A. Crowther, 1864–1892. An invaluable source of original information for researchers in Ijo/Niger Delta church history.

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                                                    • Hallett, Robin, ed. The Niger Journal of Richard and John Lander. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965.

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                                                      The first volume in the Travelers and Explorers series, designed to provide new editions on some of the great travels and exploration, and intended as successor to the Broadway Travelers, which ran to twenty-six volumes under the general editorship of Sir Edward D. Ross and Eileen Power. A reference material that gives a new and deeper significance to the works of early European travelers.

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                                                      • Pacheco Pereira, Duarte. Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis. Translated by G. H. T. Kimble. London: Hakluyt Society, 1937.

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                                                        Records the experiences of Pacheco Pereira, a Portuguese adventurer, in Nigeria and the Niger Delta in the 19th century. His observations are of great value to scholars, especially those interested in Ijo/Niger Delta economic history, ancient customs, and traditions. Originally published in 1508.

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                                                        Journals

                                                        Articles on the land and people of the Niger Delta can be located in several journals, both within and outside of Nigeria. Nevertheless, the following are among the most popular: Kiabara, Journal of the Humanities, University of Port Harcourt; Icheke, Journal of the Faculty of Humanities, Rivers State University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Ogele, Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities, Rivers State, University of Science and Technology; Niger Delta Digest, monograph series by the Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; Africana, a multidisciplinary journal at African Studies Center at Boston University focusing on the Niger Delta studies; The Ethnographer, Journal of Niger Delta Study Association, University of Port Harcourt; and Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt.

                                                        • Africana: A Journal of Ideas on Africa and the African Diaspora.

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                                                          This is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal on all matters related to Africa. Established in 2005, at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, it moved in 2010 to the African Studies Center at Boston University, where it is currently based. It is widely patronized by Nigerian scholars in Niger Delta studies.

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                                                          • The Ethnographer.

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                                                            This is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal of the Niger Delta Study Association, Faculty of Humanities, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt. Most articles published therein focus on Niger Delta studies.

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                                                            • Icheke: Journal of the Faculty of Humanities.

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                                                              Rivers State University of Education, Port Harcourt published bi-annually providing the platform for intellectual discourse and inter-disciplinary interaction amongst scholars in the humanities, social sciences, education and allied disciplines. Most articles published therein focus on the Niger Delta.

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                                                              • Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management.

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                                                                This is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal published by the Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt. Most articles published therein focus on Niger Delta studies.

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                                                                • Journal of Niger Delta Studies. A publication of the Institute of Niger Delta Studies. University of Port Harcourt.

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                                                                  Published once a year and contribution of articles, research notes, book reviews are invited from all over the world. Other features of special interest to this journal include occasional notes and abstracts of unpublished long essays, dissertation and theses.

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                                                                  • Kiabara.

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                                                                    This is a multidisciplinary journal published twice annually by the School of Humanities, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It first appeared in 1978 and focuses on the humanities in the Niger Delta and Nigeria, with special editions on each discipline. Relevant for scholars and a general readership.

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                                                                    • Niger Delta Digest. Monograph series by the Centre for Niger Delta Studies, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State.

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                                                                      This is a monograph series published by the Centre for Niger Delta Studies, focusing on history, culture, environment, and developmental challenges of the Niger Delta. A reliable source of information on the Niger Delta.

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                                                                      • Ogele: Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities.

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                                                                        Published twice a year by the Institute of Foundation Studies, Rivers State, University of Science and Technology. Welcomes unsolicited articles of high standard from all disciplines, though with preference to articles embodying transdisciplinary studies in social sciences and the humanities. Most articles published therein focus on Niger Delta studies.

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                                                                        Major Theoretical Works

                                                                        Ijo/Niger Delta studies have attracted various scholars cutting across virtually all disciplines, making it fertile ground for the application of multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary methodology. In the course of experimentation, especially in the area of history and culture, a number of theoretical positions or schools of thought have emerged. Prominent among the proponents of these positions are Dike 1956, Jones 1963, Horton 1969, Alagoa 1997, Alagoa 1970, Alagoa 1971, Wariboko 1997, and Ejituwu, 1997. Uya and Alagoa, 2011 is a collection of lectures relevant to developmental needs of the Niger Delta; Dike 1956 is the first academic history on the Niger Delta; Jones 1963 improves on weaknesses in Dike’s description of internal sociopolitical developments in the Niger Delta city-states; Horton 1969 discusses the evolution of the New Calabar city-state from a fishing village; Alagoa 1997 is a pioneering effort at discussing an African philosophy of time in the context of the oral traditions of the Nembe (Ijoid) and lkwerre (Igboid); Alagoa 1970 attempts to correct some apparent inaccuracies in earlier efforts at assessing the effects of the trans-Atlantic slave-trade on the Niger Delta/Ijo states; Alagoa 1971 follows up the hypothesis/debate in Alagoa 1970; Wariboko 1997 deals with management and business strategies of the Kalabari-Ijo, using their history to both analyze and illuminate their business and management thinking; while Ejituwu, 1997 is a festschrift in honor of Professor E. J. Alagoa and his work. While the first three are works of experts from without, the remaining five are authored by Ijo/Niger Deltans.

                                                                        • Alagoa, E. J. “Long-Distance Trade and States in the Niger Delta.” Journal of African History XI.3 (1970): 319–329.

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                                                                          Attempts to correct some apparent inaccuracies in ealier efforts at assessing the effects of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on the Niger Delta/Ijo states, positing that the trade merely altered the nature and dimensions of changes begun by an internal long-distance trade. It is a ground-breaking work.

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                                                                          • Alagoa, E. J. “The Development of Institutions in the States of the Eastern Niger Delta.” Journal of African History XII.Z (1971): 269–278.

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                                                                            This is a follow-up to the hypothesis/debate in Alagoa 1970 and argues that the Eastern Delta city-states of the period of European contact were a stage in the development of a dynamic political system responding through time to a variety of internal and external stimuli.

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                                                                            • Alagoa, E. J. “An African Philosophy of Time.” Studies in Intercultural Philosophy 8 (1997): 217–224.

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                                                                              A pioneering effort at discussing an African philosophy of time in the context of the oral traditions of the Nembe (Ijoid) and lkwerre (Igboid). A creative experiment that can serve as a model for developing an African philosophy of history.

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                                                                              • Dike, K. O. Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta 1830–1885: An Introduction to the Economic and Political History of Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon, 1956.

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                                                                                First academic history of the Niger Delta. Inspired the “Ibadan school” of historiography and described the British-Niger Delta trade in the 19th century from an Afrocentric perspective. Invaluable book for historians and the general reader. Reprinted in 1982 by Greenwood Press.

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                                                                                • Ejituwu, C. Nkparom.The Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Africa History: Essays in Honour of Ebiegberi Joe Alagoa. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: University of Port Harcourt Press, 1997.

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                                                                                  As a festschrift in honor of Professor Ebiegberi Joe Alagoa, it expounds mainly on the twin axis of Alagoa’s contributions to the discipline of history, namely the use of oral tradition and the history of the Niger Delta, particularly the Ijo. An important work for advanced scholars in history.

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                                                                                  • Horton, Robin. “From Fishing Village to City-State: A Social History of New Calabar.” In Man in Africa. Edited by Mary Douglas and P. M. Kaberry. London: Tavistock, 1969.

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                                                                                    Discusses the evolution of the New Calabar (Kalabari) city-state from a fishing village. It is a major contribution to Ijo/Niger Delta culture history. Relevant to scholars and the general public.

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                                                                                    • Jones, Gwilym Iwan. The Trading States of the Oil Rivers: A Study of Political Development in Eastern Nigeria. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.

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                                                                                      Improves on weaknesses in Dike’s description of internal sociopolitical developments in the Niger Delta city-states of Bonny, New Calabar, and Okrika; extends the time frame beyond the 19th, back to the 16th century, using early European sources in addition to local oral data. Invaluable for historians, anthropologists, and the public.

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                                                                                      • Uya, E. Okon, and Ebiegberi Joe Alagoa. African Studies: New Methods and Perspectives. The Bassey Andah Memorial Lecture Series No. 1. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2011.

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                                                                                        A collection of lectures relevant to developmental needs and aspirations of the Niger Delta and Nigeria.

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                                                                                        • Wariboko, Nimi. The Mind of African Strategists: A Study of Kalabari Management Practice. London: Fairleigh Dickson University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                          A work on the management and business strategies of the Kalabari-Ijo, using their history to both analyze and illuminate their business and management thinking before the 20th century, with a view to explaining the decline of their trading empire as a failure of strategic thinking. Excellent interdisciplinary work for advanced scholars.

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                                                                                          Ijo/Niger Delta Historiography

                                                                                          Niger Delta historiography has been very responsive to the aspirations of the people, who themselves have demonstrated an enormous level of historical consciousness since precolonial times. First, they preserved and transmitted their heritage orally, from generation to generation. Then came the days of the trans-Atlantic trade, when the European adventurers arrived on the coast and began the process of introducing European traditions, as described in Baikie 1966. During the colonial era, according to Dickinson 1932, the British political agents compiled various intelligence, annual, and assessment reports and wrote books on the ethnic groups they administered, such as Talbot 1969. Moore 1970, and Owonaro 1949 relate how some Ijo/Niger Deltans also began to document aspects of their community’s history. This led to the creation of a “historiography of self-assertion,” and the “drum and trumpet” histories. Pioneer academic histories like Dike 1956 followed. Thus, while a lot still remains to be done, Ijo/Niger Delta historiography is fast attaining maturity and versatility. At independence in 1960, national history became a compulsory subject; Ikime 2006, an authoritative work, was published to meet the new developmental challenges. Not less than two chapters of this work cover aspects of the Ijo/Niger Delta history and culture. Other works have since been building on this foundation at the regional and local levels, including Ejituwu and Gabriel 2003.

                                                                                          • Baikie, William Balfour. Narrative of an Exploring Voyage Up the Rivers Kwora and Binue, Commonly Known as the Niger and Tsadda, in 1854. London: Frank Cass, 1966.

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                                                                                            Captures Baikie’s impressions of the peoples around the River Niger (Kwora) and its delta in the 19th century. Very revealing of the peoples’ cultures, either as he saw them or as he was informed of them. A necessary complement to other sources of Niger Delta studies. Originally published in 1856 (London: J. Murray).

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                                                                                            • Dickinson, E. N. C. Intelligence Report on the Nembe Clan. 1932.

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                                                                                              This is basically an attempt to outline the oral traditions of the people along with personal observations and impressions by the writer, with a view to devising suitable local government machineries for the natives. Used as a source of information for historians and social scientists. This is an unpublished report by the British colonial administration.

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                                                                                              • Dike, K. O. Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta 1830–1885: An Introduction to the Economic and Political History of Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon, 1956.

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                                                                                                First academic history of the Niger Delta and Nigeria. Inspired the “Ibadan school” of historiography and described the British-Niger Delta trade in the 19th century from an Afrocentric perspective. Invaluable book for historians and the general reader. Reprinted in 1982 by Greenwood Press.

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                                                                                                • Ejituwu, C. Nkparom, and O. A. I. Gabriel. Women in Nigerian History: The Rivers and Bayelsa State Experience. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2003.

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                                                                                                  A contribution of the Historical Society of Nigeria, Port Harcourt Branch, to the literature of women in development. This work highlights the various roles of women in Rivers and Bayelsa States. The most authoritative work on Ijo/ Niger Delta women. Good for scholars in higher institutions and the general public.

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                                                                                                  • Ikime, Obaro. History, The Historian, and the Nation: The Voice of a Nigerian Historian. Ibadan, Nigeria: Heinemann Educational Books, 2006.

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                                                                                                    Discusses the roles of history and environment in intergroup relations using case studies from the well-known frictions between the Ijo, Itsekiri, Urhobo, and Isoko in the western Delta. Vital for scholars in history and the social sciences, as well as policy makers.

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                                                                                                    • Moore, William A. History of Itsekiri. London: Frank Cass, 1970.

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                                                                                                      This is the earliest recording of oral traditions in the Niger Delta. Originally published in 1936.

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                                                                                                      • Owonaro, S. K. The History of the Ijaw and Her Neighbouring Tribes in Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria: Niger Print Works, 1949.

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                                                                                                        A good attempt at establishing the roots and antiquity of the Ijo and their constituent communities. Also highlights Ijo relations with their neighbours. An important addition to Ijo/Niger Delta history.

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                                                                                                        • Talbot, Percy Amaury. Peoples of Southern Nigeria. 4 vols. London: Frank Cass, 1969.

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                                                                                                          This covers aspects of Ijo/Niger Delta ethnology, history, and environment as part of southern Nigeria under early British rule. The first volume describes the natural features, geology, climate, meteorology, flora, and fauna; the second gives some notes on the history; the third and fourth deal with the languages and statistics. First published in 1926.

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                                                                                                          Oral Traditions and Early History

                                                                                                          The publications listed here attempt to capture Ijo/Niger Delta’s early history from oral traditions, oral histories, ethnography, and historical linguistics, among other sources. Williamson 1987 sums up the author’s enormous contributions, through historical linguistics, to our comprehension of Ijo/Niger’s early history; Isichei 1977 is an anthology of some Niger oral data collected by Isichei and others, including materials translated from French and German originals, while Alagoa and Williamson 1981 is the first systematic and comprehensive study of the Ijo oral tradition independent of foreign influences. Moore 1970 (cited under Ijo/Niger Delta Historiography) is a pioneering effort at documenting Itsekiri oral traditions, while Derefaka 2003 focuses on the early history of the Central Niger Delta Ijo communities.

                                                                                                          • Alagoa, E. J., and Kay Williamson. Jos Oral History and Literature Texts, Harmattan 1983, Vol. 4. Ancestral Voices: Oral Historical Texts from Nembe, Niger Delta. Jos, Nigeria: University of Jos Press, 1981.

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                                                                                                            A collection of oral history and traditions recorded by Alagoa in 1964, during his doctoral research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, with additional data from the Western Delta between 1966 and 1972. A rich source of information on early Nembe-Ijo history and culture for both scholars and the general readership.

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                                                                                                            • Derefaka, Abi Alabo. Archaeology and Culture History in the Central Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2003.

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                                                                                                              Reports the archaeological and anthropological work done in the central Delta and serves as an extension to the earlier work done in the eastern Delta. It also presents archaeological methodology in practice, and is, therefore, useful to archaeology students and researchers focusing on the Niger Delta and the general readership.

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                                                                                                              • Isichei, Elizabeth. Igbo Worlds: An Anthology of Oral Histories and Historical Descriptions. London: Macmillan Education, 1977.

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                                                                                                                Oral data are core to Niger Delta historiography, and this anthology contains a large number of oral data collected by Professor Isichei and others. Also includes written materials, some translated from European originals, previously inaccessible.

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                                                                                                                • Williamson, Kay. The Pedigree of Nations: Historical Linguistics in Nigeria. Inaugural Lecture Series 5. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: University of Port Harcourt Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                                  Highlights the uses of historical linguistics in Ijoland/Niger Delta, particularly, and Nigeria generally, especially as it relates to the people’s origins and intergroup relations. Very important material for scholars in Ijo and Niger Delta history and languages.

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                                                                                                                  Ijo/Niger Delta in the 19th Century

                                                                                                                  The 19th century was a period of radical change in the life of the Ijo/Niger Deltans, and some publications have captured this experience. Glyn Leonard 1906 describes the religion and philosophy of the tribes of the Lower Niger. Flint 1960 documents the life and times of Sir George Goldie, but devotes substantial attention to the role of the Ijo and Niger Deltans in the making of Nigeria. Dike 1956 describes the British-Niger Delta trade relations in the 19th century from an African perspective. Jones 1963 provides us detailed description of internal sociopolitical developments in the 19th Niger Delta city-states of Bonny, New Calabar, and Okrika. Ofonagoro 1979 examines the economic involvement of Europeans in Niger Delta and the consequences of that involvement for the people, Ifemesia, 1978 provides an incisive analysis of the roles of the Ijo/Niger Delta in the 19th century political economy of southeastern Nigeria. Anene 1966 describes the process by which the Ijo/ Niger Deltans transited from being free to becoming British subjects. Similarly, Tamuno 1978 tells us how Nigeria evolved into a nation.

                                                                                                                  • Anene, J. C. Southern Nigeria In Transition 1885–1906: Theory and Practice in a Colonial Protectorate. Cambridge University Press, 1966.

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                                                                                                                    This describes the process by which the Ijo/ Niger Deltans were incorporated into Nigeria by the British. Valuable for historians and social scientists.

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                                                                                                                    • Dike, K. O. Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta 1830–1885: An Introduction to the Economic and Political History of Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon, 1956.

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                                                                                                                      First academic history of the Niger Delta and Nigeria. Inspired the “Ibadan school” of historiography, it describes the British-Niger Delta trade in the 19th century from an Afrocentric perspective. Invaluable book for historians and the general reader. Reprinted in 1982 by Greenwood Press.

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                                                                                                                      • Flint, John E. Sir George Goldie and the Making of Nigeria. London: Oxford University Press, 1960.

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                                                                                                                        A comprehensive documentation of the life and times of Sir George Goldie, particularly the outstanding role he played in the making of the Nigerian nation. A reference for historians and political scientists at the university level.

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                                                                                                                        • Glyn Leonard, Arthur, Major. The Lower Niger and Its Tribes. London: Frank Cass, 1906.

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                                                                                                                          This is a description of the religion and philosophy of the various tribes of the lower Niger. It will be relevant for students of religion, culture, historians, and the general readership.

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                                                                                                                          • Ifemesia, C. C. Southeastern Nigeria in the Nineteenth Century: An Introductory Analysis. New York: NOK, 1978.

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                                                                                                                            A brief survey of southeastern Nigeria in the 19th century, bringing together the salient features of the history of the region and its peoples. An incisive analysis of the roles of the Ijo/Niger Delta. A necessity for historians and political scientists.

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                                                                                                                            • Jones, Gwilym Iwan. The Trading States of the Oil Rivers: A Study of Political Development in Eastern Nigeria. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.

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                                                                                                                              Improves on weaknesses in Dike’s description of internal sociopolitical developments in the Niger Delta city-states of Bonny, New Calabar, and Okrika; extends the time frame beyond the 19th to the 16th century by using early European sources in addition to the local oral data. Invaluable for historians, anthropologists, and the public.

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                                                                                                                              • Ofonagoro, W. Ibekwe. Trade and Imperialism in Southern Nigeria: 1881–1929. New York: NOK, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                Examines the economic involvement of Europeans in Niger Delta and the consequences of that involvement for the people.

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                                                                                                                                • Tamuno, T. N. The Evolution of the Nigerian State: The Southern Phase, 1898–1914. London: Longman Essex, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                  This tells us how Nigeria evolved into a nation, with a good coverage of the role played by the Ijo/Niger Deltans to resist the takeover of their land and resources by various imperialist forces. An incisive analysis of the roles of the Ijo/Niger Delta. A necessity for historians and political scientists.

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                                                                                                                                  History

                                                                                                                                  Historically, the Niger Delta peoples predate contact with the Europeans, which occurred in the 15th century. The Ijo are celebrated as the earliest occupants of the region, and their ancestors appeared to have moved into the delta at least 7,000 years ago. Some of the later entrants, the Itsekiri, Urhobo, Isoko, Ukwani, Ogbia, Epie-Atissa, Engenni, Abua, Odual, Abureni/Mini, Eleme, Ogoni, Ikwerre, Etche, Ekpeye, Ogbah, Egbema, Ndoni, Obolo (Andoni), etc., have also been active in the Niger Delta for various lengths of time, some for centuries. Through politics, culture, trade, commerce, and industry, they have interacted and exchanged ideas, goods and services among themselves, and with peoples from distant lands. Together, they also shared the colonial experience at the dawn of the 20th century, and together, they have been contending with the challenges of development since 1960, when the Niger Delta, as part of Nigeria, gained political independence. A number of general works exist on the Ijo/Izon/Ijaw history and culture. Alagoa, et al. 2009 is a global history of the Izon (Ijo) from the earliest to contemporary times. Afigbo 1972 is a political history of the Igbo, Ibibio, Ijo, and other groups under colonial rule in the Niger Delta. Alagoa 1999 documents the experiences of the land and people of Bayelsa State; while Alagoa and Derefaka 2002 relates the experiences of the land and people of Rivers State. Sorgwe 1997 is a general overview on Niger Delta history from earliest times to the present.

                                                                                                                                  • Afigbo, A. E. The Warrant Chief: Indirect Rule in Southeastern Nigeria 1891–1929. London: Longman, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                    A political history of the Igbo, Ijo, and other groups in the Niger Delta and Cross River Valley under colonial rule, highlighting the attempt by the British to rule them through what was thought to be their indigenous political organization. An authoritative source of information for scholars and students.

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                                                                                                                                    • Alagoa, Ebiegberi Joe. The Land and People of Bayelsa State: Central Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                      This is a scholarly documentation of the environmental characteristics and the contributions of the people of the Central Niger Delta now known as Bayelsa State to the development of Nigeria and the world. The most authoritative source of the people’s history relevant for scholars and the general readership.

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                                                                                                                                      • Alagoa, Ebiegberi Joe, and Abi A. Derefaka. The Land and People of Rivers State: Eastern Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                        This is a scholarly documentation of the environmental characteristics and the contributions of the people of the eastern Niger Delta, now known as Rivers State, to the development of Nigeria and the world. The most authoritative source of the people’s history; relevant for scholars and the general readership.

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                                                                                                                                        • Alagoa, E. J., T. N. Tamuno, and J. P. Clark, eds. The Izon of the Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                          This is a global history of the Izon (Ijo) from the Niger Delta, through Nigeria, Africa, and in the world, especially in Europe, the Americas, and the Caribbean. The most authoritative and up-to-date work on the Izon and Niger Delta environmental and developmental challenges, history, and culture.

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                                                                                                                                          • Sorgwe, C. M. A Textbook of Niger Delta History, From the Earliest Times to the Present. Ibadan, Nigeria: Rescue, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                            Attempts to provide an account of the origin and evolution of the different groups in the Niger Delta from earliest times to 1997. A necessary text for university undergraduates and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                            Colonial History

                                                                                                                                            Though many Niger Deltans see the British administrators as oppressive and exploitative, they have not failed to appreciate their role in the initial documentation of their only written “history,” in the form of “intelligence,” “progress,” and “administrative” reports, such as Beaumonu 1939 and Hodgson 1930. Over time, some of these anthropological, administrative, and political reports on the ethnic or sub-ethnic groups were developed into more intellectually minded books such Talbot 1969, as well as Jones 1963 (cited under Major Theoretical Works). Afigbo 1972 examines the British-inspired sociopolitical changes in southeastern Nigeria and the consequences.

                                                                                                                                            • Afigbo, A. E. The Warrant Chiefs: Indirect Rule in Southeastern Nigeria, 1891–1929. London: Longman, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                              Imposed by the British on the people of southeastern Nigeria regardless of their indigenous political institutions, indirect rule, and the warrant chief system were doomed to failure, according to Afigbo. He also analyzes the course of the natives resistance, culminating in the Women’s Riots of 1929. A good analysis of the colonial experiences of the Ijo/Niger Deltans.

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                                                                                                                                              • Beaumonu, S. P. L. An Intelligence Report on the Odual (Saka) Clan in the Degema Division, Owerri Province, 1939.

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                                                                                                                                                Attempts to outline the oral traditions of the people along with the personal observations and impressions of the writer, with a view to devising suitable local government machineries for the natives. Useful source of information for historians and social scientists. Note that this is an unpublished report by the British colonial administration.

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                                                                                                                                                • Hodgson, P. C. Intelligence Report on the Operemor Clan of the Western Ijaw Sub-Tribe, Forcados District, Warri Province, 1930.

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                                                                                                                                                  A summary of what the British administrators knew about the “natives” at that point in time. Report was compiled to guide them in administering the area. Useful source of information for historians and social scientists. Note that this is an unpublished report by the British colonial administration.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Talbot, Percy Amaury. Peoples of Southern Nigeria. 4 vols. London: Frank Cass, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                    A panoramic view of the land and people of Ijoland and Niger Delta as part of southern Nigeria. The first volume focuses on natural features; the second addresses the history, while the third and fourth addresses linguistic and statistical issues. Useful source of information for historians and social scientists. First published in 1926.

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                                                                                                                                                    Indigenous and Community-Based Historiography

                                                                                                                                                    Since pre-colonial times, some indigenous Ijo and Niger Delta historians have, on patriotic grounds, been committed to documenting, preserving, and propagating the historical and cultural heritage of their various nationalities and communities. Initially, they relied on the oral traditional approach, and later they began to write based on information and data from various other sources. A number of works are available to attest to productivity of these efforts. Prominent among these are the following: Tasie 2011, an attempt at documenting the history of Ikwerre ethnic nationality; Ellah 1995 traces the history and culture of the Ogba people; Owonaro 1949 attempts to establish the antiquity of the Ijo; Ikime 1972 is a general survey of the history and culture of the Isoko people of Delta and Bayelsa States; Yakie 2011 is a general survey of the history and culture of the Epie-Atissa people; Igbara and Keenam 2013 is an examination of Ogoni history; Okumagba (n.d.) dwells on the land and people of Urhobo as a people; and Ockiya 2008 gives an insight into the origins and foundation of the various towns and villages within the Nembe Kingdom.

                                                                                                                                                    • Ellah, J. Francis. Ali-Ogba: A History of Ogba People. Enugu, Nigeria: Fourth Dimension, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                      An interesting picture of the origins of the Ogba people, their environment, their political, economic and social institutions, and the impact of colonialism on them, among other items of value. A good account of the history of one of the earliest settlers in the Northern Delta periphery.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Igbara, Paul Igwe, and Barinuah Chris Keenam. Ogoni in Perspective: An Aspect of Niger Delta History. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                        This is a lucid examination of Ogoni history linking their origin to the Bantu instead of to Ghana as proposed by earlier studies. A good attempt at balancing the early history of the Ogoni of the Eastern Niger Delta periphery.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Ikime, Obaro. The Isoko People. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                          This is a general survey of the history and culture of the Isoko people of Delta and Bayelsa States, written primarily for Isoko People themselves, but may have some appeal for a wider audience, especially historians.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Ockiya, D. O. History of Nembe. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Micro Win PCBS Resources, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                            This gives an insight into the origins and foundation of the various towns and villages within the Nembe Kingdom and the lives and times of their rulers. The book is a treasure to history students, researchers, and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Okumagba, M. P. A Short History of Urhobo. Warri, Nigeria: Kris and Pat Nigeria, (n.d.).

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                                                                                                                                                              This book dwells on the land and the people of Urhobo, their origins, socio-political administration, general culture, and developmental challenges. It is an ambitious work aimed at preserving Urhobo heritage. It is a significant contribution to Niger Delta Studies.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Owonaro, S. K. The History of the Ijo (Ijaw) and Her Neighbouring Tribes in Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria, 1949.

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                                                                                                                                                                A good attempt at establishing the roots and antiquity of the Ijo and their constituent communities. Also highlights Ijo relations with their neighbors. An important addition to Ijo/Niger Delta history.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Tasie, Alex Chindu Michael. Ikwerreland: Milestones in Civilization and Development. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Iwuoette Enterprises Nig., 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                  This is an amateurish attempt at documenting the general history of Ikwerre ethnic nationality and the Northern Delta Periphery. A commendable effort. Useful as a source of information for scholars and general readers.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Yakie, Nelson K. The Epie-Atissa People: A Historical Survey. Yenagoa City: Nay Nig., 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This is a general survey of the history and culture of the Epie-Atissa people of Bayelsa State. It deliberately attempts to cover all aspects of the people’s history with a view to filling gaps in earlier works. A commendable effort that is valuable to both scholars and the general readership.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Traditional Religion, Christianity and Islam

                                                                                                                                                                    While few studies exists on traditional religion and Islam in Ijoland and the Niger Delta, there are many more studies focusing on Christianity. Glynleonard 1906 describes the traditional religions of the various tribes of the lower Niger; Tasie 1978 is a pioneering study of Niger Delta Christian History from 1864 to 1918; Epelle 1955 is a Christian missionary’s attempt at telling the story of the church in the Niger Delta, from a participant perspective; Nyananyo 2010 is a brief record of the life of the Niger Delta West Diocese; Uchendu 2012 describes the emergence of Islam in Eastern Nigeria; Ilega 2003 documents the biography of G.M Urhobo and his central role in the history of the God’s Kingdom Society, an independent African church; Obuoforibo 1998 is a pioneering record of the history of the Anglican Church in central Delta; Kilani 2008 records the history of Islam in the Niger Delta, particularly Port Harcourt and its environs.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Epelle, E. M. T. The Church in the Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: CMS Nig. Press, 1955.

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                                                                                                                                                                      This is a Christian missionary’s attempt at telling the story of the church in the Niger Delta, from a participant perspective. It is a very revealing account of major developments in the early church in the area. Good for researchers in church history and practical evangelism.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Glynleonard, Arthur. The Lower Niger and Its Tribes. London: Frank Cass, 1906.

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                                                                                                                                                                        This is a description of the traditional religions and philosophy of the various tribes of the lower Niger in precolonial times. It will be relevant for students of religion, culture, historians, and the general readership.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Ilega, Daniel. Gideon M. Urhobo and the God’s Kingdom Society in Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria: Meshico Enterprises, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                          This documents the biography of G. M Urhobo and his central role in the history of the God’s Kingdom Society, a radical Christian movement that was active in Nigeria’s anti-colonial struggle. Useful for students of religion and social change, particularly those interested in the independent African churches.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Kilani, Abdulrazaq O. Minaret in the Delta (Islam in Port Harcourt and its Environs 1896–2007). Lagos, Nigeria: J. J. I., 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                            An account of the history of Islam in the Niger Delta, with particular reference to the city of Port Harcourt and its environs. A pioneering work on the subject written by an Islamic intellectual. Good for students and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Nyananyo, B. L. Diocese of Niger Delta West: The Journey So Far (Ten Years After Creation). Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                              This is a means of keeping record of the life of the Diocese and keeping public account of its progress or lack of it.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Obuoforibo, B. A. History of Christianity in Bayelsa State. Yenagoa, Nigeria: Archdeaconry House, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                This is a pioneer record of the history of the Anglican Church in this central part of the Niger Delta, derived directly from grassroots sources. It is essential reading for the Christian community of Bayelsa State and for scholars in ecclesiastical history of the Niger Delta.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Tasie, G. O. M. Christian Missionary Enterprise in the Niger Delta, 1864–1918. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  This is a pioneering study, by a professional, of Niger Delta Christian history from 1864 to 1918. It is an authoritative work necessary for church historians, religionists, and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Uchendu, Egodi. Dawn for Islam in Eastern Nigeria: A History of the Arrival of Islam in Igboland. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Describes the emergence of Islam in Eastern Nigeria. It is a unique contribution on the subject.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Archaeology and Prehistory

                                                                                                                                                                                    Whereas the genesis of archaeological and prehistoric research in Nigeria can be dated to 1953, when the Antiquities ordinance was passed, serious work in Ijoland began only in the early 1970s, when Ijo and Niger Delta scholars and their associates at the University of Ibadan, Lagos, and later, Port Harcourt, rose to positions where they could attract such attention to the area. From their efforts, a number of publications have emerged, including Nzewunwa 1983 and Derefaka 2003. The latter describes the specific situation in Ijoland and the Niger Delta. A more recent work, Alagoa 2001 is a systematic documentation of the material relics associated with ancestral houses in Nembe and European antiquities on the Brass and Nun Rivers of the Niger Delta.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Alagoa, E. J. Okpu: Ancestral Houses in Nembe and European Antiquities on the Brass and Nun Rivers of The Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Ancestor worship constitutes an important part of Nembe-Ijo/Niger Delta traditional religion. This work is a systematic documentation of the material relics associated with this aspect of the Nembe people’s culture. Relics of European antiquities are also documented. An outstanding source of information for those in archaeology, religious, and cultural studies

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Derefaka, Abi Alabo. Archaeology and Culture History in the Central Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        It reports the archaeological and anthropological work done in the Central Delta and serves as an extension to the earlier work done in the Eastern Delta. It also presents archaeological methodology in practice, and therefore, is useful to archaeology students and researchers focusing on the Niger Delta and to general readership.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nzewunwa, Nwanna. A Sourcebook for Nigerian Archaeology. Lagos, Nigeria: The National Commission for Museums and Monuments with the Archaeological Association of Nigeria, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Aggregates information on different excavated sites in Nigeria and devotes a chapter to Ijoland/Niger Delta. Suitable for students, teachers, and the general reader of Nigerian archaeology and prehistory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Intergroup Relations

                                                                                                                                                                                          Many forces influence intergroup relations in the Niger Delta, including geographical, economic, political, social, religious, and cultural. Scholars have documented the nature, pattern, history, and consequences of these relations since pre-colonial times. Otite 2011 discusses the role of the Ijo groups in early Urhobo history; Williamson 1987 highlights the uses of historical linguistics in Nigeria intergroup relations; Ikime 2006 discusses the roles of history and the environment in intergroup relations in between the Ijo, Itsekiri, Urhobo, and Isoko in the Western Delta; Alabi-Isama 2013 is a chronological narrative of the Nigerian Civil War; while Ayomike 1993 explores the cultural links between the Edo and Itsekiri of Warri.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Alabi-Isama, Godwin. The Tragedy of Victory: On-the-Spot Account of the Nigeria-Biafra War in the Atlantic Theatre. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            A detailed chronological narrative of the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970). With about 500 photographs and maps, the book dwarfs all other previous publications on this subject matter in depth of facts and coverage of the role of the Ijo/Niger Delta. Strongly recommended for Ijo/Niger Delta historians and social scientists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ayomike, J. O. S. Benin and Warri: Meeting Point in History (The Itsekiri Perspective). Warri, Nigeria: Mayomi, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines the origin of the Itsekiri kingdom, common external experiences, and cultural links between the Edo and Itsekiri of Warri. An outstanding work on intergroup relations in the western Delta.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ikime, Obaro. History, The Historian and the Nation: The Voice of a Nigerian Historian. Ibadan, Nigeria: Heinemann Educational, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Discusses the roles of history and environment in intergroup relations using case studies from the well known frictions between the Ijo, Itsekiri, Urhobo, and Isoko in the western Delta. Vital for scholars in history and the social sciences, as well as policy makers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Otite, Onigu. The Ijaw Factor in Urhobo Migratory History. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Discusses the early history of the Urhobo ethnic group in Delta State, Nigeria, with emphasis on the role of the neighboring Ijo groups in early Urhobo history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Williamson, Kay. The Pedigree of Nations: Historical Linguistics in Nigeria. Inaugural Lecture Series 5. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: University of Port Harcourt Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Highlights the uses of historical linguistics in Nigeria, especially as it relates to the peoples’ origins, intergroup relations, and the complex mosaic of languages and cultures within the country.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ijo/Niger Delta and the National Question

                                                                                                                                                                                                    As a result of the unwholesome and involuntary manner in which the Ijo in particular, and the Niger Delta generally, were incorporated into the Nigerian federation by the British colonial government, serious questions have been generated by the foundation of the Nigerian federation itself, and the nature of relationship the component units would have wished to maintain, as opposed to the status quo. A number of scholarly works address this subject. Alabi-Isama 2013 provides a faithfully illustrated narrative of the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970), covering the role of the Ijo/Niger Delta. Azaiki 2007 looks at the place of Ijo/Niger Delta oil and gas resources in the national question. The Programme on Ethnic and Federal Studies (PEFS) (2004) is an incisive discussion on the challenges of true federalism in Nigeria. Ifie 2005 argues against the master-servants relationship between the Nigerian Federal Government and the Ijo/Niger Deltans, who have remained as victims. Amini-Philips 2005 highlights the thoughts, visions, and activities of the men behind the creation of the Old Rivers State, while Tsaro-Wiwa 1968 attempts to bring, to Nigerians and the world, the frustrations of the Ogoni, a Niger Delta minority.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Alabi-Isama, Godwin. The Tragedy of Victory: On-the-Spot Account of the Nigeria-Biafra War in the Atlantic Theatre. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      A detailed chronological narrative of the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970). With about 500 photographs and maps, the book dwarfs all other previous publications on this subject matter in depth of facts and coverage of the role of the Ijo/Niger Delta. Strongly recommended for Ijo/Niger Delta historians and social scientists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Alamieyeseigha, D. S. P. Thoughts on Federalism: South-South & Resource Control. Yenagoa, Nigeria: Treasure Communications Resource Limited, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        These are speeches and public lectures on the problems of the Ijo/Niger Delta by D. S. P. Alamieyeseigha as Governor of Bayelsa State, 1999–2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Amini-Philips, Isaac. A Synopsis of the Founding Fathers of Old Rivers State. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: The Blueprint, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          This book highlights the thoughts, visions, and activities of the men behind the creation of the Old Rivers State. Good reference material for all levels of researchers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Azaiki, Steve. Oil, Gas, and Life in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Y-Books, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            This traces the evolution of the Nigerian state, highlighting the current state of the oil and gas industry along with the disturbing question of what happens after the oil wells run dry. It is a resource book for scholars, industry experts, policy, and law-makers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ifie, Egbe. Friends and Enemies of the Niger Delta: A Compilation of Collected Views of COMRADE Joseph Evah on the Niger Delta Problem). Ikeja, Nigeria: Azuka, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              He argues that colonialism in Nigeria emphasized external master-servants relationships, but independence has introduced internal master-servants relationships, with the Niger Deltans as victims.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Programme on Ethnic and Federal Studies (PEFS). The Niger Delta Question: Background to Constitutional Reform. Ibadan, Nigeria: PEFS, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is an incisive discussion on the challenges of true federalism in Nigeria, with emphasis on the Niger Delta position. An invaluable guide to students of intergroup relations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Tsaro-Wiwa, K. B. The Ogoni Nationality: Today and Tomorrow. Yaba-Lagos, Nigeria: The Ogoni Divisional Union, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This booklet is inspired by the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970). It is an attempt at bringing to the Nigerians and the world the feelings and reactions of the Ogoni, a Niger Delta minority. Good source material for scholars and students of Ogoni and Nigerian history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Governance and Public Administration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Okilo 1992 is an analysis of a grass-roots, people-oriented system of administration initiated by Governor Okilo of Rivers State to push the dividend of his administration to the people in the rural area. Briggs 2006 chronicles the foundation and the early development of the University of Port Harcourt and the intertwined narrative of Professor Briggs’ service to the university. Buseri 2010 is a documentary history of the pioneer university in the Central Niger Delta, the Niger Delta University. Wodi 2006 is a compilation of speeches and lectures by Professor Briggs as Vice Chancellor, outlining the scope, theory, principles, and techniques for achieving results in a properly managed university setting. Olali 2013 reports on the first year of the Henry Seriake Dickson administration in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Briggs, D. Nimi. Turning the Tide. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This chronicles the foundation and the early development of the University of Port Harcourt and the intertwined narrative of Professor Briggs’ service to the university. A cleverly conceived source book for the history of higher education in a developing country. Relevant to all stakeholders of tertiary education.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Buseri, John Cecil. Niger Delta University: A People’s Dream Realised. Port Harcourt: Panam Nigeria Publishers, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A documentary history of the pioneer university in the Central Niger Delta, Bayelsa State, capturing, with facts and figures, the herculean administrative challenges faced in actualizing the dream of providing accessible tertiary education in the heart of Ijoland. An important reference material for educational planners and administrators.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Okilo, Melford. Art of Government, and the Okilo Administration. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Riverside Communications, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This is an analysis of a grass-roots, people-oriented system of administration initiated by Governor Okilo of Rivers State to push the dividend of his administration to the people in the rural area. A great work on public administration and people-oriented governance. Relevant for political historians and social scientists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Olali, Stephen Temegha. Daring to Make a Difference: The First year of the Henry Seriake Dickson Administration. Bayelsa State, Nigeria: The Centre for Niger Delta Studies, Niger Delta University, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This book records the biography of Governor Dickson before and his first year as Governor, emphasizing his achievements and the challenges he had to contend with, as well as the plans to redeem his manifesto for Bayelsans and the Ijo nation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wodi, Williams. Thoughts on University Education in Nigeria (2000–2005). Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A compilation of speeches and lectures of Professor Briggs as the fifth Vice Chancellor of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria; ingeniously outlining the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of achieving results in a properly managed university setting, and offering an administrative “roadmap” to all stakeholders of the university system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ijo/Niger Delta and the World

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Alagoa 1999 is an overview of the state of the Ijo ethnic nationality at home and in the diaspora at the end of the last millennium, with a preview of their expectations in the new millennium. Alagoa, et al. 2009 is a global history of the Ijo. Derefaka and Okorobia 2008 addresses the contemporary problems of the Ijo/Niger Delta from a multi-disciplinary perspective.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Alagoa, E. J. The Ijaw Nation in the New Millenium. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is a broad overview of the state of the Ijo ethnic nationality at home and in the Diaspora at the end of the last millennium, with a preview of their expectations in the new millennium. A useful overview of the Ijo for historians and the general reader.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Alagoa, E. J., T. N. Tamuno, and J. P. Clark, eds. The Izon of the Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is a global history of the Izon (Ijo) from the Niger Delta, through Nigeria, Africa, and in the world, especially in Europe, the Americas, and the Caribbean. The most authoritative and up-to-date work on the Izon and Niger Delta environmental and developmental challenges, history, and culture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Derefaka, Abi Alabo, and Atei Mark Okorobia. History Concourse 2007: The Future of the Niger Delta: The Search for a Relevant Narrative. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Addresses the contemporary problems of the Ijo/Niger Delta from a multi-disciplinary perspective, concluding that the area has always been an active one, and that its future will be determined by its past and present. Relevant to the continuing search for solutions to the Niger Delta question.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Social and Cultural Heritage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than anything else, a people are defined by their social and cultural heritage. There are several works on Niger Delta social and cultural heritage. Alagoa 2001 focuses on ancestral houses in Nembe and European antiquities on the Brass and Nun Rivers of the Niger Delta. Okaba 1997 discusses the challenges of contemporary burial practices amongst the Ijo. Darah, et al. 2001 highlights the significance of art, religion and culture among the Urhobo and Isoko people. Horton 1969 (cited under Major Theoretical Works) is classic on the Kalabari-Ijo. Horton 1983 discusses the place of the individual in a typical Kalabari-Ijo society in pre-colonial times. Dapper 2003 is a comprehensive compilation of various information, facts and figures on the land and people of Kalabari. Kpone-Tonwe 2003 is an in-depth research into role of youths in the history, culture and politics of the Ogoni. Daminabo 1989 proves with facts and figure that contrary to popular opinion, the Ijo are indeed, among “Nigeria’s Four Wisest Tribes.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Alagoa, E. J. Okpu: Ancestral Houses in Nembe and European Antiquities on the Brass and Nun Rivers of The Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ancestor worship constitutes an important part of Nembe-Ijo/Niger Delta traditional religion. This is a systematic documentation of the relics associated with this aspect of the people’s culture. It also documents the relics of European antiquities in the area. An outstanding source of information for those in archaeology, religious and cultural studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Alazigha, Welson. Izon Traditions and Culture (Part 1).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A rich documentation of the customs, traditions and cultural heritage of the Izon. Relevant to historians, social anthropologists and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Daminabo, Opubo. Nigeria’s 4 Wisest Tribes. Buguman, Nigeria: Hanging Gardens, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An empirical study on group intelligence quotients in Nigeria on the basis of the acquisition of paper qualifications, the Efiks, the Itsekiris, the Ijaws and the Yorubas are Nigeria’s Four Wisest Tribes; with the Efiks being the first, the Itsekiri Second, and the third position is shared by the Ijaws and the Yorubas. A unique work on intergroup relations, good for historians, social scientists and general reader.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dapper, Golden Cyril. Kalabari Companion. Chapel Hill, NC: Professional Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A comprehensive compilation of various information, facts, and figures on the land and people of Kalabari, providing information on Kalabari translations of the books of the Bible, the national anthem and pledge, the UN Declaration of Human Rights, Kalabari counting system, native signals, idioms, and other topical issues in Kalabari culture history. Great reference resource.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Darah, G. G., E. S. Akama, and J. T. Agberia, eds. Studies in Art, Religion & Culture Among the Urhobo & Isoko People. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Pam Unique, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is a collection of articles on the land and people of Urhobo and Isoko with emphasis on their art, religion, and culture. This will be useful for culture historians, visual artists, and traditional religionists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Horton, Robin. “Social Psychologies: African and Western.” In Oedipus and Job in West African Religion. Edited by M. Fortes and R. Horton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This discusses the place of the individual in a typical Kalabari-Ijo society in precolonial times. One of the best works on the social anthropology of the Kalabari-Ijo recommended for university scholars and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kpone-Tonwe, Sonpie. Youth and Leadership Training in the Niger: The Ogoni Example. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is an in-depth research into the role of youths in the history, culture, and politics of Ogoni, with emphasis on how the people prepare their youth for leadership. A necessary text for teachers and students of social sciences, culture, creative arts, indigenous African religion, philosophy, and for the general reader.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Okaba, Benjamin. Why Nigerians Bury Their Money. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Emhai, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Discusses the challenges of contemporary burial practices among the Ijo from a dialectical materialist perspective. An informative book recommended for scholars in social sciences, history and culture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Languages and Literature

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Minima 1997 is the dramatization of the King Jaja of Opobo and Odum Egege legend; Osuku 1971 is a primary school reader in the local Nembe-Ijo dialect; Green 2007 is perceptive survey of the life and creative writing of the poet, novelist, and essayist, Gabriel Okara. Efebo 1967 is designed for learners of the Nembe dialect of Ijo using the new orthography; Comparative Edoid: Phonology and Lexicon (Delta Series No. 6) 1986 is a triparted study in Edoid; Ikoko-Okparan, et al. 2007 is creative attempt at developing indigenous scientific and technological culture; Ockiya 1956 is the Holy Bible in Nembe- Ijo, the first successful translation of the entire Holy Bible in any major Niger Delta language.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Comparative Edoid: Phonology and Lexicon (Delta Series No. 6). Port Harcourt, Nigeria: University of Port Harcourt Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This work is in three parts. Part one contains a limitation of the Edoid area, as opposed to Edo. Part two presents general phonological characteristics of the Edoid languages. Part three presents the phonology of Proto-Edo. Excellent material for linguists and language developers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Efebo, L. Awotua. Nembe Language Made Easy: Mie Lokomote Nembebibi. Ibadan, Nigeria: University of Ibadan, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This book is designed for learners of the Nembe dialect of Ijo using the new orthography. A useful tool for the development of the Nembe-Ijo dialect and literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Green, Eldred Ibibiem. Gabriel Ukara: The Man and His Art. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A perceptive survey of the life and creative writing of the poet, novelist, and essayist, Gabriel Okara from four perspectives: The Man, His Work, The Reception of His Work, and His Legacy. A unique work, a must-read for scholars, critics, students, and others interested in Okara’s scholarship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ikoko-Okparan, D. D. Timotheus, S.C. Awaki-Gam Dede, and S. Mangi-Pegi. Nembe Numerals: Nembe Bibi Kien Yai Ma. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A creative attempt at developing indigenous scientific and technological culture. Useful for scholars in the quantitative sciences and linguistics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Minima, Miesoinuma. Odum Egege: A Play. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Golden Production, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Odum Egege is the dramatization of the King Jaja of Opobo and Odum Egege legend. Although much has been written about Jaja, very little is known about Odum Egege and his conflict with the King.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ockiya, Daniel O., trans. Tonton Baibul Mi Ne Elemu Ovo Mi Na Ewo Ovo Mi Na Emi Yemi. London: British and Foreign Bible Society, 1956.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is first successful translation of the entire Holy Bible in Ijo, and indeed, in any major Niger Delta language. A useful tool for Christian evangelism and scholarship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Osuku, E. D. Nembe Bibi Titari Go Diri (Nembe-Ijo Primer). Ibadan, Nigeria: Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan and Ministry of Education, Rivers State Government, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is a primary school reader in the local Nembe-Ijo dialect.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Women’s History and Gender Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fiofori 2007 is a record of the photography exhibition by Tam Fiofori, focusing on the role of Niger Delta women in living color. Akpan 2006 sets out patterns of change within women’s dress code and fashion in Bonny from earliest times. Ejituwu and Gabriel 2003 highlights the various roles of women in Rivers and Bayelsa States. The Journal of International Gender Studies is an interdisciplinary publication founded on the philosophy of gender equity. Nwanze 2011 is a collection of the works and profiles of fifty talented practicing Nigerian female graduate artists in their various areas of specialization.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Akpan, Ibimina Victor. The Bonny Woman Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: A Historical Perspective. Bonny, Nigeria: Bonny Historical Society, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sets out patterns of change in women’s dress code and fashion in Bonny from earliest times, indicating that Bonny women have always set high standards for themselves, selected from outside only those things that blended with what they already had, and enhanced what was special in Bonny culture and tradition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ejituwu, C. Nkparom, and A. O. I. Gabriel. Women in Nigerian History: The Rivers and Bayelsa State Experience. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A contribution of the Historical Society of Nigeria, Port Harcourt Branch, to the literature of women in development. This work highlights the various roles of women in Rivers and Bayelsa States. The most authoritative work on Ijo/ Niger Delta women. Good for scholars in higher institutions and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fiofori, Tam. Plantain Peel: Niger Delta Women Entrepreneurs. Lagos, Nigeria: Quintessence Gallery, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A solo photography exhibition by Tam Fiofori. Photographs taken in 2004 represent author’s new incursions into color photography, color negative print as against color-positive transparency. These mini-documentaries are part of a series of still-photography mini-documentaries on the people, environment, activities, and creative culture of the Niger Delta in living color.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Journal of International Gender Studies (JIGS).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An interdisciplinary publication founded on the philosophy of gender equity and the belief that knowledge acquired through research, critical thinking, and reasoned discourse must be collated, organized, and disseminated for development. Most articles published therein draw their case studies from the Niger Delta.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nwanze, Bridget. Nigerian Female Artists: A Decade of Realistic Textures. Nigeria: Female Artist Association of Nigeria, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A collection of illuminating and intriguing works and profiles of fifty talented practicing Nigerian female graduate artists who are versatile, dedicated, and knowledgeable in their various areas of specialization. A beautiful work for scholars and general readers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Tourism, Economic and Social Development

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Otite, 2011 is a general description of the land and people of Urhobo from the inside. Ejituwu 2010 is a continuation of the History of Obolo (Andoni) (1991). It takes Obolo (Andoni) history from 1960 to the present. Dickson 2007 documents the challenges of tourism in Nigeria with emphasis on the Niger Delta. Alagoa and Okorobia 2012 is a scholarly documentation of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the African Diaspora in the context of Ijo/Niger Delta history and cultural tourism. Azaiki and Oguzor 2002 examines the developmental challenges of the Niger Delta and propose the role agriculture can play in addressing them. Centre for the Promotion of Tourism, Arts, and Culture in Nigeria (CEPTAC) 2002 examines the history of the Niger Delta struggle and how culture can be a tool for eliminating the conflicts. Alagoa and Nwanodi 2013 is a collection of essays marking the centenary celebrations of Port Harcourt City.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Alagoa, E. J., and Judy Nwanodi. Port Harcourt at 100: Past, Present, and Future. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is a collection of essays written to mark the centenary celebrations of Port Harcourt City. It is intended to introduce the city to visitors as well as all participants of the celebrations, chronicling its growth and development over the past one hundred years. Useful for the public and for academics

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Alagoa, E. J., and A. M. Okorobia. Memories of the Niger Delta Slave Routes. Port Harcourt: Centre for the Promotion of Tourism, Arts, and Culture in Nigeria (CEPTAC), 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A scholarly documentation of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the African Diaspora in the context of Ijo/Niger Delta history and culture. A unique publication designed to meet the needs of international tourists, particularly those from the New World. Highly recommended for scholars in African American studies and for tourists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Azaiki, Steve, and Nkasiobi Oguzor. Agriculture: Agenda for Change in the Niger Delta. Yenagoa, Nigeria: Treasure Books, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This examines the developmental challenges of the Niger Delta and proposes the role agriculture can play in addressing them. A useful tool for development planners, scholars, and the general reader.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Centre for the Promotion of Tourism, Arts, and Culture in Nigeria (CEPTAC). Towards a Culture of Peace in the Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: AGV. Multi-Projects Coy, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Published seminar papers covering issues ranging from the history of the Niger Delta struggle; causes and effects of conflicts in the Niger Delta; how to eliminate the conflicts; and how to solve the question of youths’ restiveness. A relevant contribution to the development of tourism, economy, and society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dickson, Zuowei Chris. Tourism Development in Nigeria: Emphasis on the Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Pearl, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Documents the challenges of tourism in Nigeria with emphasis on the Niger Delta. Covers the role of transport, protected areas, culture, and hospitality in the promotion of tourism. It will be of great value to Nigerian students and lecturers in tourism and to government and private tourism practitioners.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ejituwu, C. Nkparom. An Outline of Obolo (Andoni) History in Modern Times. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: The Blueprint, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A continuation of the History of Obolo (Andoni) published by Manson Publishers/University of Port Harcourt Press, 1991. The earlier volume took Obolo (Andoni) history up to 1960, this volume takes the history from 1960 to the present in order to document Obolo (Andoni) contributions in modern times.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Otite, Onigu. The Urhobo People. 3d ed. Ibadan, Nigeria: Gold Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This is a general description of the land and people of Urhobo, from the inside, designed to meet the needs of students and laymen interested in Urhobo history, government, and culture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Environmental and Human Rights Issues

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Human Rights Watch 1999 is a documentation of the human right abuses meted out on the Niger oil bearing communities by the multinational oil giants. Mmom 2003 is a spatial study of the Niger Delta with focus on the local or immediate environment; the development process constraints and prospects their development. Ekpo 2004 is a discussion of the geography and political economy of oil production in the Niger Delta. Azaiki 2009 is a comprehensive study of the negative consequences of the petroleum industry on the Niger Deltans. Okene 2009 addresses the critical issues of Nigeria’s oil politics, the consequences, and previous responses by stakeholders. Ebeku 2006 is an original work based on socio-legal and international legal analyses on the rights of Niger Deltans faced with the effects of international investment in oil projects. Bristol-Alagbariya 2010 discusses how environmental democracy in Nigeria, especially in the petroleum development in the Niger Delta, falls short of the globally agreed-upon degree of environmental democracy, and how this undermines the interests of the region. Ibaba 2008 presents the Proceedings from International Conference on the Nigerian State, Oil Industry, and the Niger Delta.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Azaiki, Steve. The Evil of Oil. Ibadan, Nigeria: Y-Books, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A comprehensive study of the negative consequences of the petroleum industry on the Niger Deltans. However, it does see hope and positive strengths for Niger Deltans and for Nigeria in spite of the challenges of oil. An informative work for scholars and general readers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bristol-Alagbariya, T. Edward. Participation in Petroleum Development: Towards Sustainable Community Development in the Niger Delta. University of Dundee, UK: Centre for Energy, Petroleum, and Mineral Law Policy, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Discusses how environmental democracy (public participation in environmental decision-making) in Nigeria, especially in petroleum development in the Niger Delta, falls short of the globally agreed degree of environmental democracy, and how this undermines the interests of the region. A scholarly and practical masterpiece relevant for scholars and policy makers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ebeku, S. A. Kaniye. Oil and the Niger Delta People in International Law: Resource Rights, Environmental and Equity Issues. Cologne: Rudiger Koppe Verlag, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Original work based on socio-legal and international legal analyses on the rights of Niger Deltans faced with the effects of international investment in oil projects, and describing their socio-economic deprivation. A must-read for all students of Niger Delta studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ekpo, Udeme. The Niger Delta and Oil Politics. Lagos, Nigeria: International Energy Communications, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is a discussion of the geography and political economy of oil production, distribution, and exchange in the Niger Delta. A well-written work that may meet the needs of university lecturers, students, and the enlightened general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Human Rights Watch. The Price of Oil: Corporate Responsibility and Human Rights Violations in Nigeria’s Oil Producing Communities. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This is a documentation of the human right abuses meted out on the Niger oil-bearing communities by the multinational oil giants. A must-read for all.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ibaba, S. Ibaba. The Nigerian State, Oil Industry and the Niger Delta presented at the International Conference held at Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, 11–13 March 2008. The Department of Political Science, Niger Delta University, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    These are proceedings from International Conference on the Nigerian State, the Oil Industry, and the Niger Delta. A very rich source of information for lecturers, students, and policy makers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mmom, P. C. The Niger Delta: A Spatial Perspective to its Development. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Zelon Enterprises, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This is a spatial study of the Niger Delta with focus on the local or immediate environment; the development process, constraints and prospects to their development. It is therefore a useful reading material to social and environmental scientists and students as well as the reading public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Okene, King N. K. The Politics of Petroleum Economy in Nigeria: Federalism and Niger Delta Perspectives. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Dotsolutonx, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This addresses the critical issues of Nigeria’s oil politics, the consequences, and previous responses by stakeholders, emphasizing that Nigeria’s economic development is only possible through the application of ideal federalism, which will guarantee resource control to the oil-rich Niger Delta. Useful information source for undergraduates in history and the social sciences.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Autobiographies, Biographies, and Memoirs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ikime 1972 is the exciting story of how Nana Olumu tried to resist the British gunboats, which were used to dethrone him from his position as middleman in the palm oil trade on the Benin River. Cookey 1974 documents the adventures of King Jaja as a remarkable leader rising from domestic slavery to becoming a chief and founder of the Opobo Kingdom. Fiofori, et al. 2009 documents the biographies of Ijo men and women who have made commendable contributions to Nigeria and the world. Tamuno and Alagoa 1980 provides stimulating biographical studies of some great heroines and heroes of the old Rivers State. Ogan 2012 uses the biographical methodology to provide, chronologically, valuable information about infrastructural development in present Rivers and Bayelsa States during the tenure of Governor Diete-Spiff. Barrett and Faniyan 2011 examines the life and times of Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, the son of a canoe carver, who became the first southern minority president of Nigeria. Olali 2013 is the first independent book of essays on Major Isaac Boro written by scholars. Etekpe, et al. 2004 is a biographical account of Chief Harold Dappa Biriye, highlighting his contributions to Nigeria’s political development, and his overwhelming influence in the Niger Delta.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Barrett, Lyndsay, and Babatunde Faniyan. Wind of Hope. Nigeria: AfricAgenda and Onyoma Research, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This examines the life and times of Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, the son of a canoe carver, who as a boy trekked to school without shoes, but through hard work and divine providence, became the first southern minority president of Nigeria. A revealing narrative, good for scholars and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Cookey, S. J. S. King Jaja of the Niger Delta: His Life and Times 1821–1891. New York: NOK, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Jaja was a remarkable leader rising from domestic slavery to becoming a chief and founder of Opobo. As a statesman, his determination to preserve Opobo’s independence from the British, led to his deportation. A major contribution to African historiography and social science.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Etekpe, Ambily, et al. Harold Dappa-Biriye: His Contribution to Politics in Nigeria. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A biographical account of Chief Harold Dappa Biriye’s life, highlighting his contributions to Nigeria’s political development, and emphasizing the overwhelming influence of the Niger Delta history and environment on his thoughts, vision, and mission. An invaluable book for scholars, political strategists, environmentalists, and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Fiofori, Tam, et al. Ijo Footprints: Ijo Contributions to Nigeria and the World. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This work documents the biographies of Ijo men and women who have made commendable contributions to Nigeria and the world in the sphere of political development, knowledge and intellectual innovation, education, religion, sports, culture, and technology. Good material for historian and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ikime, Obaro. Nana of the Niger Delta. London: Heinemann, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The exciting story of how Nana Olumu tried to resist the British gunboats, which were used to push this great merchant prince from his position as middleman in the palm oil trade on the Benin River. Good material for historian and general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ogan, Charles. Alfred Diete-Spiff: A Legacy of Development in the Niger Delta. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This book uses biographical methodology to provide, chronologically, valuable information about infrastructural development in present-day Rivers and Bayelsa States during the tenure of Governor Diete-Spiff. Good material for historian and general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Olali, Stephen Temegha. Before and Beyond the Revolution: Essays in Memory of Major Isaac Jasper Adaka Boro, 10th September, 1938–16th May, 1968. Bayelsa State, Nigeria: The History Society of Nigeria, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This is the first independent book of essays on Major Isaac Boro written by scholars. It is predicated on the need to present the pedigree, personality, and legacy of Boro through an incisive and comprehensive rendition of his biography. A relevant handbook for scholars, activists, and the general public.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tamuno, T. N., and Alagoa, eds. Eminent Nigerians of the Rivers State. Ibadan, Nigeria: Heinemann, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This provides stimulating biographical studies some great heroines and heroes of the old Rivers State. Good material for historian and general public.

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