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Management Training and Development
by
Kenneth G. Brown

Introduction

Training and development is the study of how structured experiences help employees gain work-related knowledge, skill, and attitudes. It is like many other topics in management in that it is inherently multidisciplinary in nature. At its core is the psychological study of learning and transfer. A variety of disciplines offer insights into this topic, including, but not limited to, industrial and organizational psychology, educational psychology, human resource development, organizational development, industrial and labor relations, strategic management, and labor economics. The focus of this bibliography is primarily psychological with an emphasis on theory and practice that examines training processes and the learning outcomes they seek to influence. Nevertheless, literature from other perspectives will be introduced on a variety of topics within this area of study.

General Overviews

These articles and chapters provide background for the study of training and development, particularly as studied by management scholars with backgrounds in human resource management, organizational behavior, human resource development, and industrial and organizational psychology. Aguinis and Kraiger 2009 provides a narrative review of ten years of research on training and employee development, focusing on the many benefits of providing structured learning experiences to employees. Brown and Sitzmann 2011 also reviews the literature and emphasizes research on the processes that are required to ensure that training benefits emerge. Arthur, et al. 2003 meta-analyzes the literature on training effectiveness. Russ-Eft 2002 proposes a typology of training designs.

  • Aguinis, Herman, and Kurt Kraiger. “Benefits of Training and Development for Individuals and Teams, Organizations, and Society.” Annual Review of Psychology 60.1 (January 2009): 451–474.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163505Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive review of training and development literature from 1999 to 2009 with an emphasis on the benefits that training offers across multiple levels of analysis.

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  • Arthur, Winfred A., Jr., Winston Bennett Jr., Pamela S. Edens, and Suzanne T. Bell. “Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-analysis of Design and Evaluation Features.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88.2 (April 2003): 234–245.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.234Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Offers a comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationships among training design and evaluation features and various training effectiveness outcomes (reaction, learning, behavior, and results).

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  • Brown, Kenneth G., and Traci Sitzmann. “Training and Employee Development for Improved Performance.” In APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 2, Selecting and Developing Members for the Organization. Edited by Sheldon Zedeck, 469–503. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2011.

    DOI: 10.1037/12170-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive review of training and development in work organizations with an emphasis on the processes necessary for training to be effective for improving individual and team performance.

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  • Russ-Eft, Darlene. “A Typology of Training Design and Work Environment Factors Affecting Workplace Learning and Transfer.” Human Resource Development Review 1 (March 2002): 45–65.

    DOI: 10.1177/1534484302011003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents a typology summarizing elements of training and work environments that foster transfer of training.

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Textbooks

Training and development courses are taught at a variety of levels (undergraduate and graduate) and in a variety of programs (psychology, sociology, education, and business). Consequently, numerous textbooks are available that provide an overview of the field. Gagné, et al. 1992 is a classic in instructional design. Schunk 2011 is a broad and rigorous overview of educational psychology. Werner and DeSimone 2009 is written from the perspective of human resource development. Piskurich 2009 also comes from a human resource development perspective but with an emphasis on designing and delivering training quickly. The remaining textbooks cited here (Goldstein and Ford 2001; Latham and Wexley 2001; Noe 2010; Saks, et al. 2006) are written from the perspective of research and practice in industrial and organizational psychology and human resource management.

Reference Works

A number of edited volumes have been published that offer multiple chapters relevant to training and development. In industrial and organizational psychology, Goldstein, et al. 1989; Ford, et al. 1996; and Kozlowski and Salas 2010 capture the major research themes of their respective decades. Bills 2003 provides a sampling of research from the sociology of education literature. Tobias and Fletcher 2000 contains a series of chapters written about training research relevant to large companies as well as the military and government. The next three resources all have a practical orientation. Each chapter in Burke 2001 summarizes research and draws implications for how training should be conducted to maximize its intended effects. Similarly, the authors in Quiñones and Ehrenstein 1997 use research findings as a starting point for prescriptions about how a broad array of training practices should be conducted. Finally, Holton and Baldwin 2003 focuses on processes and practices that underlie the transfer of learning to workplace situations.

Journals

Journals are a commonly used reference source because they provide the most up-to-date knowledge about developments in the field. Almost all of the journals noted here are available in an online format, and many articles can be downloaded by subscribers before they appear in print. The Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology are considered the most rigorous empirical journals that publish training-related research. Performance Improvement Quarterly and Human Resource Development Quarterly also publish empirical research, in addition to conceptual and review papers, but they are published by professional associations more closely connected to the discipline of human resource development. The International Journal of Training and Development publishes a wide range of studies related to training and employee development. It also publishes descriptions of training practices in various countries around the world. Educational Researcher is a well-regarded and widely distributed generalist journal for education researchers. Human Factors and Journal of Vocational Behavior are outlets for scholars in subdisciplines of applied psychology related to ergonomics and careers, respectively. Both publish research on training as a part of their mission and scope.

History

Training research and associate practices in organizations have changed dramatically over the last fifty years. Developments in both research and practice are addressed in these readings. Both Ford 1996 and Kraiger and Ford 2006 review major developments in research on training and development. Baldwin, et al. 1997 discusses how organizational decision makers have come to understand and use learning-related initiatives differently as the competition environment for businesses has changed. Martocchio and Baldwin 1997 discusses research implications for this trend. Brown, et al. 2012 reviews literature on the use of computer and Internet technology for training delivery. Salas, et al. 1999 lists myths that persist in training practice despite research, and, in this way, the authors offer a snapshot of both research and practice at the time of publication. Gainey and Klaas 2003 presents one of the few published studies on a process common in many large organizations, namely, outsourcing the design and development of training programs.

  • Baldwin, Timothy T., Camden Danielson, and William Wiggenhorn. “The Evolution of Learning Strategies in Organizations: From Employee Development to Business Redefinition.” Academy of Management Executive 11 (November 1997): 47–58.

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    Discusses three models of learning strategies that large organizations use; the basic premise is that as environment turbulence increases, the role of learning evolves from a focus on individual proficiency to a focus on business redefinition.

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  • Brown, Kenneth G., Steven D. Charlier, and Abigail A. Pierotti. “E-Learning in Work Organizations.” In International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 27. Edited by Gerard Hodgkinson and J. Kevin Ford, 89–114. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

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    Provides a short history of computer-based training delivery and an examination of research on this topic from 2000 to 2010.

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  • Ford, J. Kevin. “Advances in Training Research and Practice: A Historical Perspective.” In Improving Training Effectiveness in Work Organizations. Edited by J. Kevin Ford, Steve W. S. Kozlowski, Kurt Kraiger, et al., 1–18. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1996.

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    Describes major historical stages of research on workplace training and development.

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  • Gainey, Thomas W., and Brian S. Klaas. “The Outsourcing of Training and Development: Factors Impacting Client Satisfaction.” Journal of Management 29.2 (April 2003): 207–229.

    DOI: 10.1177/014920630302900205Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An empirical study regarding an increasingly common training practice—outsourcing of delivery.

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  • Kraiger, Kurt, and J. Kevin Ford. “The Expanding Role of Workplace Training: Themes and Trends Influencing Training Research and Practice.” In Historical Perspectives in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Edited by Laura L. Koppes, 281–309. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006.

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    A historical review of developments in the study of workplace training and development.

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  • Martocchio, Joseph J., and Timothy T. Baldwin. “The Evolution of Strategic Organizational Training: New Objectives and Research Agenda.” In Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Vol. 15. Edited by Gerald R. Ferris, 1–46. Greenwich, CT: JAI, 1997.

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    Proposes a research agenda to study training practices that have changed substantially as the competitive environment for business has changed.

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  • Salas, Eduardo, Janis A. Cannon-Bowers, Lori Rhodenizer, and Clint A. Bowers. “Training in Organizations: Myths, Misconceptions, and Mistaken Assumptions.” In Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Vol. 17. Edited by Gerald R. Ferris, 123–161. Greenwich, CT: JAI, 1999.

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    The authors list myths that are prevalent in training practices, and dispel the myths using current research findings.

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Learning

These chapters and articles focus on a core issue in training and development research: learning. Papers in this section approach learning primarily from an individual level of analysis, although Argote 1999 contains chapters on the ways in which organizations learn. Schunk 2000 covers three major categories of individual learning theory in this educational psychology textbook. Two of the readings discuss a well-established framework of individual learning outcomes in the education literature, namely, Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson and Sosniak 1994, Krathwohl 2002). Three studies examine different types and facets of learning as dependent variables (Choi and Jacobs 2011; Kozlowski, et al. 2001; Lankau and Scandura 2002). Reeve and Hakel 2000 presents evidence from a large sample study that people learn more in areas of interest to them.

  • Anderson, Lorin, and Lauren Sosniak. Bloom’s Taxonomy: A Forty-Year Retrospective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

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    Bloom’s taxonomy is the most widely accepted taxonomy of learning outcomes in educational literature; chapter 2 reviews research in this area.

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  • Argote, Linda. Organizational Learning: Creating, Retaining, and Transferring Knowledge. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1999.

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    Presents a series of studies on organizational learning, forgetting, and knowledge transfer. Relevant to this topic, the first chapter offers an overview of organizational learning curves.

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  • Choi, Woojae, and Ronald L. Jacobs. “Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Support Learning Environment on Informal Learning.” Human Resource Development Quarterly 22.3 (Fall 2011): 239–257.

    DOI: 10.1002/hrdq.20078Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines learning as a process rather than an outcome, and distinguishes between participation in formal learning experiences and conduct of informal learning, including learning with others, self-experimentation, and external scanning.

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  • Kozlowski, Steve W. J., Stanley M. Gully, Kenneth G. Brown, Eduardo Salas, Eleanor M. Smith, and Earl R. Nason. “Effects of Training Goals and Goal Orientation Traits on Multidimensional Training Outcomes and Performance Adaptability.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 85 (May 2001): 1–31.

    DOI: 10.1006/obhd.2000.2930Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A lab study examining traits, states, and an instructional intervention that influence learning processes and, ultimately, a variety of distinct learning outcomes, including immediate learning and performance in training and performance adaptability.

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  • Krathwohl, David R. “A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview.” Theory into Practice 41.4 (Autumn 2002): 212–218.

    DOI: 10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Proposes a revision to Bloom’s taxonomy that creates a two-dimensional framework of knowledge dimension (factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive) and cognitive process (remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create).

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  • Lankau, Melenie J., and Terri A. Scandura. “An Investigation of Personal Learning in Mentoring Relationships: Content, Antecedents, and Consequences.” Academy of Management Journal 45 (August 2002): 779–790.

    DOI: 10.2307/3069311Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A field study examining how mentoring influences learning as measured with a self-report measure of learning.

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  • Reeve, Charlie, and Milton D. Hakel. “Toward an Understanding of Adult Intellectual Development: Investigating within Individual Convergence of Interest and Knowledge Profiles.” Journal of Applied Psychology 85.6 (December 2000): 897–908.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.897Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using a large, longitudinal sample, the authors found that the correlation between interests and knowledge increases as individuals age.

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  • Schunk, Dale. “Learning: Introduction, Issues, and Historical Perspectives.” In Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective. 3d ed. By Dale Schunk, 1–29. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, 2000.

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    An introductory view of three major theories of learning from an educational textbook.

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Transfer

One of the most pressing issues for organizations that sponsor training is for learning from the training environment to produce the desired change in behavior back on the job. Many researchers and practitioners have lamented that most of learning in training does not produce a change in on-the-job behavior, resulting in the classic “transfer of training” problem. In this list of readings, problems with transfer are described at the individual (Baldwin and Ford 1988, Holton and Baldwin 2003) and organizational (Argote 1999) levels. Also listed below are empirical examinations of what predicts and what can improve transfer (Barling, et al. 1996; Holton, et al. 2000; Tesluk, et al. 1995). Blume, et al. 2010 is a meta-analysis of research studies to date.

Instructional Systems Design

The Instructional Systems Design model is a set of procedures that can be used to design and develop training programs. It is a systematic process that has been outlined by many authors in many disciplines. Arguably the first and broadest known model is ADDIE (Branson, et al. 1977). Other models are presented as part of textbooks (Goldstein and Ford 2001) or as part of a theory of instruction (Merrill 2002). The author summarizes his theory, which is central to his own textbooks, in Gagné 1996. Tripp and Bichelmeyer 1990 offers an alternative design process that is drawn from software development. Finally, Reigeluth 1983 reviews the logic behind instructional design models as an area of scholarship.

Needs Assessment

Determining the appropriate objectives, content, methods, and sample of trainees for a training program requires research that has been given a variety of labels, including needs assessment, needs analysis, front-end analysis, and user analysis. These articles review different ways of determining the who, what, when, where, and how of training. Campion, et al. 2011 discusses competency modeling as one approach to determining training needs. Schaafstal, et al. 2000 examines cognitive task analysis. Leigh, et al. 2000 reviews a variety of needs assessment models. Lievens and Sanchez 2007 examines whether training can be used to improve the accuracy of ratings that employees provide. The remaining articles empirically examine factors that influence the accuracy of needs assessment methods (Dierdorff and Morgeson 2009; Ford, et al. 1993; Morgeson, et al. 2004; Richman and Quiñones 1996).

  • Campion, Michael, Alexis Fink, Brian Ruggeberg, Linda Carr, Geneva Phillips, and Ronald Odman. “Doing Competencies Well: Best Practices in Competency Modeling.” Personnel Psychology 64.1 (February 2011): 225–262.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01207.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Article defines and explains competency modeling, and offers twenty best practices.

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  • Dierdorff, Erich, and Fredrick Morgeson. “Effects of Descriptor Specificity and Observability on Incumbent Work Analysis Ratings.” Personnel Psychology 62.3 (Autumn 2009): 601–628.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2009.01151.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using a large field sample, the authors demonstrate that rater idiosyncrasies go up as specificity and observability of job ratings go down.

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  • Ford, J. Kevin, Eleanor Smith, Douglas Sego, and Miguel Quiñones. “Impact of Task Experience and Individual Factors on Training Emphasis Ratings.” Journal of Applied Psychology 78 (August 1993): 583–590.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.583Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    US Air Force mechanics were asked to rate training needs; ratings of need increased over time for certain individuals more than for others.

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  • Leigh, Doug, Ryan Watkins, William A. Platt, and Roger Kaufman. “Alternate Models of Needs Assessment: Selecting the Right One for Your Organization.” Human Resource Development Quarterly 11.1 (Spring 2000): 87–93.

    DOI: 10.1002/1532-1096(200021)11:1%3C87::AID-HRDQ7%3E3.0.CO;2-ASave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Summarizes key features of fourteen needs assessment models.

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  • Lievens, Filip, and Juan Sanchez. “Can Training Improve the Quality of Inferences Made by Raters in Competency Modeling: A Quasi-experiment.” Journal of Applied Psychology 92.3 (May 2007): 812–819.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.812Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Quasi-experimental frame of reference training demonstrates that training improves discriminant validity, interrater reliability, and accuracy of competency ratings.

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  • Morgeson, Frederick P., Kelly A. Delaney-Klinger, Melinda S. Mayfield, Philip Ferrara, and Michael A. Campion. “Self-Presentation Processes in Job Analysis: A Field Experiment Investigating Inflation in Abilities, Tasks, and Competencies.” Journal of Applied Psychology 89.4 (August 2004): 674–686.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.4.674Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors conducted a field experiment in demonstrating that ratings of ability statements (as compared to task statements) were more subject to inflation by incumbents.

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  • Richman, Wendy L., and Miguel A. Quiñones. “Task Frequency Rating Accuracy: The Effects of Task Engagement and Experience.” Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (October 1996): 512–524.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.5.512Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Lab experiment demonstrating that performers with low experience provided more accurate frequency ratings than observers and performers with high experience.

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  • Schaafstal, Alma, Jan Schraagen, and Marcel Berlo. “Cognitive Task Analysis and Innovation of Training: The Case of Structured Troubleshooting.” Human Factors 42 (Spring 2000): 75–86.

    DOI: 10.1518/001872000779656570Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides an example of cognitive task analysis for developing structured troubleshooting training for novice technicians. Technicians trained on structured troubleshooting solved twice as many malfunctions in less time than those trained traditionally.

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Training Methods

There is no current “grand” theory of instructional method; instead, there are many different theories of learning and approaches to training. The readings presented here are intended to offer specific examples of empirical research on different training interventions, including training in pairs (Arthur, et al. 1997), encouraging active practice and emotion control (Bell and Kozlowski 2008), adding games and fun (Bretz and Thompsett 1992), encouraging errors (Keith and Frese 2008), role modeling of desired behavior (Simon and Werner 1996; Taylor, et al. 2005), and teaching self-management (Frayne and Geringer 2000). Donovan and Radosevich 1999 combines results across studies to determine if practice sessions are more effective spaced across time or massed together.

  • Arthur, Winfred, Jr., Eric A. Day, Winston Bennett Jr., Theresa L. McNelly, and Jeffrey A. Jordan. “Dyadic versus Individual Training Protocols: Loss and Reacquisition of a Complex Skill.” Journal of Applied Psychology 82.5 (October 1997): 783–791.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.783Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Shows that dyadic training protocol, where trainees received half as much hands-on practice, is equivalent to individual protocol for end of training performance, performance loss after nonpractice, and reacquisition.

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  • Bell, Bradford S., and Steve W. J. Kozlowski. “Active Learning: Effects of Core Training Design Elements on Self-Regulatory Processes, Learning, and Adaptability.” Journal of Applied Psychology 93.2 (March 2008): 296–316.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.2.296Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Large-sample lab study testing the processes by which three interventions influence learning and transfer—exploratory learning, error-encouragement framing, and emotion—control training.

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  • Bretz, Robert D., and Robert E. Thompsett. “Comparing Traditional and Integrative Learning Methods in Organizational Training Programs.” Journal of Applied Psychology 77.6 (December 1992): 941–951.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.77.6.941Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A field study using a Solomon four group-design research design, this study shows little learning benefit for integrative as opposed to traditional learning.

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  • Donovan, John, and David Radosevich. “A Meta-analytic Review of the Distribution of Practice Effect: Now You See It, Now You Don’t.” Journal of Applied Psychology 84.5 (October 1999): 795–805.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.84.5.795Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meta-analysis demonstrates general benefit of spaced (versus massed) practice with caveats from moderator results.

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  • Frayne, Collette A., and Michael J. Geringer. “Self-Management Training for Improving Job Performance: A Field Experiment Involving Salespeople.” Journal of Applied Psychology 85.3 (June 2000): 361–372.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.361Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Field experiment showing performance improvement of salespeople receiving self-management training.

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  • Keith, Nina, and Michael Frese. “Effectiveness of Error Management Training: A Meta-analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 93.1 (January 2008): 59–69.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.59Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meta-analysis showing a positive and substantial mean effect for error management training on transfer performance.

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  • Simon, Steven J., and Jon M. Werner. “Computer Training through Behavior Modeling, Self-Paced, and Instructional Approaches: A Field Experiment.” Journal of Applied Psychology 81.6 (December 1996): 648–659.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.6.648Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Field experiment comparing three approaches (behavioral modeling, self-paced, and lecture) and a control condition; behavioral modeling training was most effective across a variety of measures.

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  • Taylor, Paul J., Darlene F. Russ-Eft, and Daniel W. L. Chan. “A Meta-analytic Review of Behavior Modeling Training.” Journal of Applied Psychology 90.4 (June 2005): 692–709.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.692Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meta-analysis reporting the positive benefits of behavioral modeling training, along with some moderators.

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Pre-training Interventions

One of the most practical areas of training research is the study of interventions that can be added to an existing training program to improve learning or transfer. Cannon-Bowers, et al. 1998 offers a framework summarizing research in this area. Mesmer-Magnus and Viswesvaran 2010 uses the framework to organize results of a meta-analysis on the effects of various interventions. Burke and Baldwin 1999 tests the effects of one particular type of intervention—relapse prevention as originally discussed in Marx 1982. Stevens and Gist 1997 tests effects of a mastery versus a performance-oriented posttraining session. Quiñones 1995 examines the effects of labeling training as remedial or advanced.

Training Media

Another decision to be made about training is how the intervention will be delivered to learners. Although the distinction between design of method and media is not always discussed in research studies, it is an important conceptual distinction as argued in Clark 1994 and Kozma 1994. Although these authors disagree about how training media matter (in a disagreement that has been labeled the “great media debate”), both agree that research and practice should better understand the concept of delivery media. To this end, Brown 2005 examines employees’ use of an online computer curriculum, and Wesson and Gogus 2005 studies the effects of providing employee orientation programs online rather than face to face. Sitzmann, et al. 2006 provides a meta-analytic summary of the literature comparing web-based and classroom instruction. Sitzmann 2011 summarizes research on training simulations, also through meta-analysis.

  • Brown, Kenneth G. “A Field Study of Employee e-Learning Activity and Outcomes.” Human Resource Development Quarterly 16.4 (November 2005): 465–480.

    DOI: 10.1002/hrdq.1151Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A field study examining the degree to which individual and situational characteristics determine the use of online computer training; motivation and workload influence time spent training, which in turn influences computer-related job performance.

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  • Clark, Richard E. “Media Will Never Influence Learning.” Educational Technology Research and Development 42.2 (1994): 21–29.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF02299088Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A strong conceptual argument that media is not a causal determinant of learning.

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  • Kozma, Robert B. “Will Media Influence Learning? Reframing the Debate.” Educational Technology Research and Development 42.2 (1994): 7–19.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF02299087Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The counterargument to Clark and the opposing argument in what scholars in the educational technology community have called the great media debate.

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  • Sitzmann, Traci. “A Meta-analytic Examination of the Instructional Effectiveness of Computer-Based Simulation Games.” Personnel Psychology 64.2 (Summer 2011): 489–528.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01190.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meta-analytic summary of comparison between simulation games and control showing positive effects on posttraining self-efficacy, declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, and retention, along with moderators of these effects.

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  • Sitzmann, Traci, Kurt Kraiger, David Stewart, and Robert Wisher. “The Comparative Effectiveness of Web-Based and Classroom Instruction: A Meta-analysis.” Personnel Psychology 59.3 (August 2006): 623–664.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00049.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meta-analysis that shows a slight advantage of web-based to classroom instruction; consistent with Clark 1994, the advantage disappears when training methods are controlled.

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  • Wesson, Michael J., and Celile I. Gogus. “Shaking Hands with a Computer: An Examination of Two Methods of Organizational Newcomer Orientation.” Journal of Applied Psychology 90.5 (September 2005): 1018–1026.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.1018Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Field study demonstrated that new employees oriented by computer do not gain as much knowledge as those oriented face to face.

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Training Teams

Teams are a common way to organize work. Consequently, research has examined how teams learn (Bell, et al. 2012) as well as how they should be oriented (Mathieu and Rapp 2009) and trained (Ellis, et al. 2005; Marks, et al. 2002) for effective performance. Salas, et al. 2007 meta-analyzes the results of three specific team training programs, and Salas, et al. 2008 meta-analyzes the results of team training programs in general. Arthur, et al. 2005 tests techniques for identifying the teamwork skills that are needed in different team environments. Chen, et al. 2005 shows that learning occurs in similar ways for individuals and for teams.

  • Arthur, Winfred W., Jr., Bryan D. Edwards, Suzanne T. Bell, Anton J. Villado, and Winston Bennett Jr. “Team Task Analysis: Identifying Tasks and Jobs That Are Team-Based.” Human Factors 47.3 (2005): 654–669.

    DOI: 10.1518/001872005774860087Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents three team task analysis scales for use in needs assessments involving team-based work.

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  • Bell, Bradford S., Steve W. J. Kozlowski, and Sabrina Blawath. “Team Learning: A Theoretical Review and Integration.” In Oxford Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 2. Edited by Steve W. J. Kozlowski, 859–909. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

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    A literature review and theoretical model of team learning.

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  • Chen, Gilad, Brian A. Thomas, and J. Craig Wallace. “A Multilevel Examination of the Relationships among Training Outcomes, Mediating Regulatory Processes, and Adaptive Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 90.5 (September 2005): 827–841.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.827Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A study to determine whether the same relationships between self-regulation and outcomes occur at the individual level and the team level.

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  • Ellis, Aleksander P. J., Bradford S. Bell, Robert E. Ployhart, John R. Hollenbeck, and Daniel R. Ilgen. “An Evaluation of Generic Teamwork Skills Training with Action Teams: Effects of Cognitive and Skill-Based Outcomes.” Personnel Psychology 58.3 (August 2005): 641–672.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00617.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Experiment demonstrated that generic teamwork skills training had a positive effect on cognitive learning outcomes of team members, and a positive effect on skills exhibited by teams.

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  • Marks, Michelle, Mark Sabella, Shawn C. Burke, and Stephen Zaccaro. “The Impact of Cross Training on Team Effectiveness.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87.1 (February 2002): 3–13.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Two experiments demonstrate that cross-training helps team members develop shared team-interaction mental models, which, in turn, foster coordination and team performance.

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  • Mathieu, John E., and Tammy L. Rapp. “Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Role of Team Charters and Performance Strategies.” Journal of Applied Psychology 94.1 (January 2009): 90–103.

    DOI: 10.1037/a0013257Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Demonstrates using empirical study of student teams that there is value in encouraging teams to plan teamwork and task work before beginning their work.

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  • Salas, Eduardo, Deborah DiazGranados, Cameron Klein, et al. “Does Team Training Improve Team Performance? A Meta-analysis.” Human Factors 50.6 (December 2008): 903–933.

    DOI: 10.1518/001872008X375009Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meta-analysis that finds overall beneficial effects for team training and moderation of effects by training content, team membership stability, and team size.

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  • Salas, Eduardo, Diana R. Nichols, and James E. Driskell. “Testing Three Team Training Strategies in Intact Teams: A Meta-analysis.” Small Group Research 38.4 (August 2007): 471–488.

    DOI: 10.1177/1046496407304332Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meta-analysis that examines the effects of cross-training, team coordination and adaption training, and guided team self-correction training; results suggest that team coordination and adaption are most beneficial.

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Training Evaluation

Evaluation is effectively research; thus there are many different potential approaches. One category of evaluation approach emphasizes the effects of training on learners and organizations (summative evaluation). The Kirkpatrick model, described and evaluated in Alliger, et al. 1997, has been the most popular summative evaluation framework in training practice for quite some time. More recent models—Kraiger, et al. 1993 and Kraiger 2002—are gaining attention. A core component of many evaluations guided by the Kirkpatrick model is a course satisfaction survey; the constructs assessed in such surveys are meta-analyzed in Sitzmann, et al. 2008. Other evaluation models emphasize evaluation as a means to improve future training (formative evaluation, discussed in Brown and Gerhardt 2002). Bober and Bartlett 2004 discusses how companies are collecting and using evaluation data. Morrow, et al. 1997 describes a model for examining the economic impact of training and presents results for a number of different courses. Sitzmann, et al. 2010 examines another common evaluation tactic—self-assessment—and demonstrates that it is often, although not always, flawed.

Learner Characteristics

Although many educational and instructional psychologists focus on the effectiveness of training interventions, a traditional focus of industrial and organizational psychologists is on individual differences. In this regard, considerable research is available on how different individuals respond to, and learn from, training experiences. Part of this effort has involved a search for interactions between individual differences and training strategies, an effect that has been traditionally labeled as an “aptitude-by-treatment” interaction (Gully and Chen 2009). Other research has focused on individual differences in intelligence (Brown, et al. 2006), personality (Ford and Oswald 2003), prior experience (Smith-Jentsch, et al. 1996), and motivation (Colquitt, et al. 2000; Kanfer and Ackerman 1989; Noe, et al. 2010). Pintrich 2003 provides an integrated perspective on learner motivation drawn from the education research.

  • Brown, Kenneth G., Huy Le, and Frank Schmidt. “General versus Specific Abilities in the Prediction of Training Performance.” International Journal of Selection and Assessment 14 (June 2006): 87–100.

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    Using a large sample of US Navy trainees’ final technical school training grades, the authors demonstrate that there is no incremental predictive validity for specific mental ability tests over a general mental ability composite.

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  • Colquitt, Jason A., Jeffrey A. LePine, and Raymond A. Noe. “Toward an Integrative Theory of Training Motivation: A Meta-analytic Path Analysis of 20 Years of Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 85.5 (October 2000): 678–707.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.678Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a meta-analysis, including a meta-analytic path model, of the Noe framework linking individual differences to training outcomes through motivation to learn (Noe, R. A., “Trainee Attributes and Attitudes: Neglected Influences on Training Effectiveness,” Academy of Management Review [1986]: 11, 736–749).

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  • Ford, J. Kevin, and Frederick Oswald. “Understanding the Dynamic Learner: Linking Personality Traits, Learning Situations, and Individual Behavior.” In Personality and Work. Edited by Murray Barrick and Ann M. Ryan, 229–261. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

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    Literature review and model summarizing research on the relationships between traits and situations relevant to training outcomes.

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  • Gully, Stanley M., and Gilad Chen. “Individual Differences, Aptitude-Treatment Interactions, and Learning.” In Learning, Training, and Development in Organizations. Edited by Steve W. J. Kozlowski and Eduardo Salas, 3–64. New York: Routledge, 2009.

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    A review of literature on individual differences and individual difference by training characteristic (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction) effects on training outcomes.

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  • Kanfer, Ruth, and Phillip L. Ackerman. “Motivational and Cognitive Abilities: An Integrative/Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Approach to Skill Acquisition.” Journal of Applied Psychology 74.4 (1989): 657–690.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.74.4.657Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reports three lab studies suggesting that learners’ self-regulation efforts draw on a limited pool of attentional resources determined by general mental ability.

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  • Noe, Raymond A., Michael J. Tews, and Allison M. Dachner. “Learner Engagement: A New Perspective for Enhancing Our Understanding of Learner Motivation and Workplace Learning.” Academy of Management Annals 4.1 (June 2010): 279–315.

    DOI: 10.1080/19416520.2010.493286Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Suggests an alternative conceptualization of trainee motivation based on theories of employee engagement.

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  • Pintrich, Paul. “A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts.” Journal of Educational Psychology 95.4 (December 2003): 667–686.

    DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.4.667Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A summary of prior research on learner motivation is presented and used to guide future research efforts on learner motivation.

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  • Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A., Florian G. Jentsch, Stephanie C. Payne, and Eduardo Salas. “Can Pre-training Experiences Explain Individual Differences in Learning?” Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (February 1996): 110–116.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.1.110Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Field study indicating that experience of negative events prior to training predicts transfer of training.

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Learning Context

An area of research that is often neglected in traditional instructional and educational research is the role of the context in which training takes place. Management researchers and industrial and organizational psychologists are interested in characteristics of the organizations and jobs that influence learning and transfer of training. Baldwin and Magjuka 1997 offers a theory about the various aspects of the work environment that influence trainee motivation and learning. Colarelli and Montei 1996 examines whether systematic differences in organizations determine the use of training programs. Eden and Shani 1982 shows that a supervisor’s expectations about employees influence their subsequent performance. Ford, et al. 1992 shows that not all employees get the same opportunity to practice skills after training is complete. Katz-Navon, et al. 2009 examines effects of a particular type of training program on medical errors, and argues that this type of program should be used more often in some environments than others. Rynes and Rosen 1995 examines which companies use diversity training, and whether that training is perceived as effective. Tracey, et al. 1995 finds that work group culture and climate have a powerful influence on posttraining behavior.

  • Baldwin, Timothy T., and Richard J. Magjuka. “Training as an Organizational Episode: Pretraining Influences on Trainee Motivation.” In Improving Training Effectiveness in Work Organizations. Edited by Kevin Ford, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Kurt Kraiger, et al., 99–127. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1997.

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    Presents a model summarizing the effects of important dimensions of the pretraining context on trainee motivation and learning outcomes.

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  • Colarelli, Stephen M., and Matthew S. Montei. “Some Contextual Influences on Training Utilization.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 32.3 (September 1996): 306–322.

    DOI: 10.1177/0021886396323005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines fifty-three organizations to indicate systematic differences in the use of formal training programs.

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  • Eden, Dov, and A. B. Shani. “Pygmalion Goes to Boot Camp: Expectancy, Leadership, and Trainee Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 67.2 (1982): 194–199.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.67.2.194Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Field experiment in which instructors were induced to have high or low expectations of trainees; instructors who had been induced to expect higher performance had learners who performed better in training.

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  • Ford, J. Kevin, Miguel A. Quiñones, Douglas J. Sego, and Joann S. Sorra. “Factors Affecting the Opportunity to Perform Trained Tasks on the Job.” Personnel Psychology 45.3 (September 1992): 511–527.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1992.tb00858.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Field study showing that supervisor attitudes and work group support determined opportunities for trainees to practice skills after training.

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  • Katz-Navon, Tal, Eitan Naveh, and Zvi Stern. “Active Learning: When Is More Better? The Case of Resident Physicians’ Medical Errors.” Journal of Applied Psychology 94.5 (September 2009): 1200–1209.

    DOI: 10.1037/a0015979Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Finds a curvilinear effect of active learning climate on medical errors, and suggests that active learning should be encouraged moderately (along with an emphasis on safety practices) in environments where errors are costly.

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  • Rynes, Sara, and Benson Rosen. “A Field Survey of Factors Affecting the Adoption and Perceived Success of Diversity Training.” Personnel Psychology 48 (June 1995): 247–270.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01756.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reports a large sample survey of diversity training programs.

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  • Tracey, J. Bruce, Scott I. Tannenbaum, and Michael J. Kavanagh. “Applying Trained Skills on the Job: The Importance of the Work Environment.” Journal of Applied Psychology 80.2 (April 1995): 239–252.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.80.2.239Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the influence of climate and culture on transfer of knowledge and skill from a training program. Demonstrates that the posttraining environment has a powerful effect on employee behavior.

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Employee Development

Development is considered a relatively distinct area of research from training. Development is conceptualized as voluntary and less immediately relevant to job context as compared to training. Noe, et al. 1997 proposes that there are four types of development activities, and each is covered here with at least one article: formal education (Major, et al. 2006), on-the-job experience (Lysø, et al. 2011; McCauley, et al. 1994), assessment and feedback (Smither, et al. 2005), and relationships (Ragins, et al. 2000). Kuvaas and Dysvik 2010 tests whether perceptions about employees’ investments in development influence their attitudes and performance. Maurer, et al. 2003 examines whether certain types of people are more likely to participate in development opportunities.

  • Kuvaas, Bård, and Anders Dysvik. “Exploring Alternative Relationships between Perceived Investment in Employee Development, Perceived Supervisor Support and Employee Outcomes.” Human Resource Management Journal 20.2 (April 2010): 138–156.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-8583.2009.00120.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the relationship between perceived investment in employee development and the attitudes and performance of employees.

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  • Lysø, Ingunn Hybertsen, Kristian Mjøen, and Morten Levin. “Using Collaborative Action Learning Projects to Increase the Impact of Management Development.”International Journal of Training and Development 15.3 (September 2011): 210–224.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2419.2011.00380.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines a case study of an action learning program for managers and discovers three conditions that increase the chances these programs will have beneficial effects: clear reasons for enrolling managers, support from managers’ immediate superiors, and local participation on project teams.

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  • Major, Debra A., Jonathan E. Turner, and Thomas D. Fletcher. “Linking Proactive Personality and the Big Five to Motivation to Learn and Development Activity.” Journal of Applied Psychology 91.4 (July 2006): 927–935.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.927Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Field study demonstrating that personality predicts motivation to learn, and motivation to learn predicts objective measures of employee development activity.

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  • Maurer, Todd, Elizabeth Weiss, and Francisco Barbeite. “A Model of Involvement in Work-Related Learning and Development Activity: The Effects of Individual, Situational, Motivational, and Age Variables.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (August 2003): 707–724.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.707Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Large sample longitudinal study of involvement in learning and development; identifies characteristics of those employees and their contexts who are more likely to participate in learning opportunities.

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  • McCauley, Cynthia, Marian Ruderman, Patricia Ohlott, and Jane Morrow. “Assessing the Developmental Components of Managerial Jobs.” Journal of Applied Psychology 79.4 (August 1994): 544–560.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.79.4.544Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reports on a scale validation effort for the Developmental Challenge Profile, an instrument that captures the extent to which a particular job assignment will challenge an individual to learn new knowledge and skills.

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  • Noe, Raymond A., Steffanie Wilk, Ellen Mullen, and James Wanek. “Employee Development: Construct Validation Issues.” In Improving Training Effectiveness in Work Organizations. Edited by Kevin Ford, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Kurt Kraiger, et al., 153–189. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1997.

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    Literature review and conceptual model for the four major types of development activities that employees can use: formal education, assessment and feedback, work experience, and developmental relationships.

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  • Ragins, Belle Rose, John L. Cotton, and Janice S. Miller. “Marginal Mentoring: The Effects of Type of Mentor, Quality of Relationship, and Program Design on Work and Career Attitudes.” Academy of Management Journal 43.6 (December 2000): 1177–1195.

    DOI: 10.2307/1556344Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Field study on the effects of mentoring on a variety of outcomes; demonstrates that high-quality mentoring relationships can be beneficial and low-quality relationships can be harmful.

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  • Smither, James, Manuel London, and Richard R. Reilly. “Does Performance Improve Following Multisource Feedback? A Theoretical Model, Meta-analysis, and Review of Empirical Findings.” Personnel Psychology 58.1 (Spring 2005): 33–66.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.514_1.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Meta-analysis and theory presented describing necessary conditions for multisource feedback to be effective as a method for improving employee knowledge, skills, and performance.

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Macroperspectives

These readings offer a sampling of studies that focus on the organizational level of analysis. Scholars in this area include management researchers interested in social processes involved in learning and competitive advantage (Brown and Duguid 1991; Bunderson and Sutcliffe 2003; Collins and Smith 2006; Kang, et al. 2007) and labor economists examining which companies train (Acemoğlu and Pischke 1999, Lynch and Black 1998) and how much companies benefit from training (Bartel 2000, Zwick 2006).

LAST MODIFIED: 01/28/2013

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199846740-0013

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