In This Article Training and Development

  • Introduction
  • General Overviews
  • Textbooks
  • Reference Works
  • Journals
  • History
  • Learning
  • Transfer
  • Instructional Systems Design
  • Needs Assessment
  • Training Methods
  • Pre-training Interventions
  • Training Media
  • Training Teams
  • Training Evaluation
  • Learner Characteristics
  • Learning Context
  • Employee Development
  • Macroperspectives

Management Training and Development
Kenneth G. Brown
  • LAST REVIEWED: 18 June 2015
  • LAST MODIFIED: 26 October 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846740-0013


Training and development is the study of how structured experiences help employees gain work-related knowledge, skill, and attitudes. It is like many other topics in management in that it is inherently multidisciplinary in nature. At its core is the psychological study of learning and transfer. A variety of disciplines offer insights into this topic, including, but not limited to, industrial and organizational psychology, educational psychology, human resource development, organizational development, industrial and labor relations, strategic management, and labor economics. The focus of this bibliography is primarily psychological with an emphasis on theory and practice that examines training processes and the learning outcomes they seek to influence. Nevertheless, literature from other perspectives will be introduced on a variety of topics within this area of study.

General Overviews

These articles and chapters provide background for the study of training and development, particularly as studied by management scholars with backgrounds in human resource management, organizational behavior, human resource development, and industrial and organizational psychology. Kraiger 2003 examines training from three different perspectives. Aguinis and Kraiger 2009 provides a narrative review of ten years of research on training and employee development, focusing on the many benefits of providing structured learning experiences to employees. Brown and Sitzmann 2011 also reviews the literature and emphasizes research on the processes that are required to ensure that training benefits emerge. Arthur, et al. 2003 meta-analyzes the literature on training effectiveness. Russ-Eft 2002 proposes a typology of training designs. Salas, et al. 2012 offers recommendations for evidence-based training practice. Noe, et al 2014 examines training in a broader context, relative to the roles of informal learning and knowledge transfer.

  • Aguinis, Herman, and Kurt Kraiger. “Benefits of Training and Development for Individuals and Teams, Organizations, and Society.” Annual Review of Psychology 60.1 (January 2009): 451–474.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163505E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive review of training and development literature from 1999 to 2009 with an emphasis on the benefits that training offers across multiple levels of analysis.

  • Arthur, Winfred A., Jr., Winston Bennett Jr., Pamela S. Edens, and Suzanne T. Bell. “Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-analysis of Design and Evaluation Features.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88.2 (April 2003): 234–245.

    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.234E-mail Citation »

    Offers a comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationships among training design and evaluation features and various training effectiveness outcomes (reaction, learning, behavior, and results).

  • Brown, Kenneth G., and Traci Sitzmann. “Training and Employee Development for Improved Performance.” In APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 2, Selecting and Developing Members for the Organization. Edited by Sheldon Zedeck, 469–503. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2011.

    DOI: 10.1037/12170-000E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive review of training and development in work organizations with an emphasis on the processes necessary for training to be effective for improving individual and team performance.

  • Kraiger, Kurt. “Perspectives on Training and Development.” In Handbook of Psychology. Vol. 12. Edited by Irving B. Weiner and Walter C. Borman, Daniel R. Ilgen, and Richard J. KIlimoski, 171–192. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003.

    DOI: 10.1002/0471264385E-mail Citation »

    Reviews training literature from three perspectives: instruction, learning, and organizational change.

  • Noe, Raymond A., Alena D. M. Clarke, and Howard J. Klein. “Learning in the Twenty-first-century Workplace.” Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 1 (2014): 245–275.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091321E-mail Citation »

    A review that places training and development in a broader context with other learning-related interventions and practices such as informal learning and knowledge sharing. The chapter explains factors that facilitate learning in organizations.

  • Russ-Eft, Darlene. “A Typology of Training Design and Work Environment Factors Affecting Workplace Learning and Transfer.” Human Resource Development Review 1 (March 2002): 45–65.

    DOI: 10.1177/1534484302011003E-mail Citation »

    Presents a typology summarizing elements of training and work environments that foster transfer of training.

  • Salas, Eduardo, Scott I. Tannenbaum, Kurt Kraiger, and Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch. “The Science of Training and Development in Organizations: What Matters in Practice.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 13.2 (2012): 74–101.

    DOI: 10.1177/1529100612436661E-mail Citation »

    Reviews meta-analytic evidence and offers evidence-based recommendations for maximizing training effectiveness.

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