Adverse Impact and Equal Employment Opportunity Analytics
- LAST MODIFIED: 25 October 2018
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846740-0153
- LAST MODIFIED: 25 October 2018
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846740-0153
Differential employment outcomes based on ethnicity, gender, nationality, religion, disability, and many other social groupings have long been a concern in the US workplace. In some situations, these disparities may signal illegal employment discrimination, but at other times they can reflect inadvertent consequences of job qualifications not being evenly distributed across groups. Understanding these disparities is central to employment discrimination litigation, compliance with federal equal employment opportunity regulations, and voluntary affirmative action efforts. In this article, we review how such disparities are evaluated in the US legal system, describe methods for analyzing workforce data to identify disparities, and discuss strategies for reducing differential outcomes in employee selection and other employment decisions.
A number of general texts cover the relevant background and its application to understanding workplace disparities. This includes general texts on industrial/organizational psychology and human resource management (Cascio and Aguinis 2011) and equal employment opportunity law (Gutman, et al. 2010; Hanvey and Sady 2015; Landy 2005). Other books provide more focused coverage of adverse impact, including those that focus on data-analysis (Morris and Dunleavy 2017), as well as broader discussions of the causes of disparities and how to reduce them (Outtz 2010).
Cascio, W. F., and H. Aguinis. Applied Psychology in Human Resource Management. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011.
Comprehensive text on industrial psychology, covering broad content domains such as legal issues, selection systems, adverse impact, job analysis, performance management, and succession planning.
Gutman, A., L. Koppes, and S. Vodanovich. EEO Law and Personal Practices. 3d ed. New York: Routledge, 2010.
This book presents a comprehensive summary of equal employment opportunity laws, legal theories of discrimination, and legal obligations regarding human resource practices, presented in a way that is accessible to non-lawyers.
Hanvey, C., and K. Sady, eds. Practitioner’s Guide to Legal Issues in Organizations. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2015.
This edited volume helps HR practitioners promote fairness and legal defensibility of employment practices related to employee selection, compensation, disability accommodation, and wage and hour policies.
Landy, F. J., ed. Employment Discrimination Litigation: Behavioral, Quantitative and Legal Perspectives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2005.
This edited volume provides a broad overview of employment discrimination, integrating legal frameworks, data-analysis strategies, professional practice, and social-science theories of discrimination.
Morris, S. B., and E. M. Dunleavy, eds. Adverse Impact Analysis: Understanding Data, Statistics and Risk. New York: Routledge, 2017.
This edited volume provides a comprehensive examination of the data and statistical tools used to evaluate employment disparities in hiring, promotion, termination, and compensation practices.
Outtz, J. L. ed. Adverse Impact: Implications for Organizational Staffing and High Stakes Selection. New York: Psychology Press, 2010.
This edited volume provides a broad overview of research and practice related to assessing, understanding, and reducing minority-group disparities in employment decisions.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
How to Subscribe
Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.
- Abusive Supervision
- Adverse Impact and Equal Employment Opportunity Analytics
- Applied Political Risk Analysis
- Approaches to Social Responsibility
- Assessment Centers: Theory, Practice and Research
- Authentic Leadership
- Bayesian Statistics
- Behavior, Organizational
- Behavioral Approach to Leadership
- Behavioral Theory of the Firm
- Between Organizations, Social Networks in and
- Brokerage in Networks
- Career Studies
- Charismatic and Innovative Team Leadership By and For Mill...
- Computational Modeling
- Conflict Management
- Corporate Social Performance
- Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB)
- Cross-Cultural Communication
- Cross-Cultural Management
- Cultural Intelligence
- Culture, Organization
- Data Analytic Methods
- Decision Making
- Emotional Labor
- Employee Aging
- Employee Engagement
- Employee Voice
- Empowerment, Psychological
- Entrepreneurship, Corporate
- Entrepreneurship, Women's
- Equal Employment Opportunity
- Faking in Personnel Selection
- Family Business, Managing
- Financial Markets in Organization Theory and Economic Soci...
- Findings, Reporting Research
- Fit, Person-Environment
- Goal Setting
- Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions
- Human Capital Pipelines
- Human Resource Management
- Human Resource Management, Strategic
- Human Resources, Global
- Human Rights
- Humanitarian Work Psychology
- Humility in Management
- Impression Management at Work
- Innovative Behavior
- Intelligence, Emotional
- International Economic Development and SMEs
- International Economic Systems
- International Strategic Alliances
- Job Analysis and Competency Modeling
- Job Crafting
- Job Design
- Job Satisfaction
- Leader-Member Exchange
- Leadership Development
- Leadership Development and Organizational Change, Coaching...
- Leadership, Ethical
- Leadership, Global and Comparative
- Leadership, Strategic
- Management History
- Management In Antiquity
- Meaningful Work
- Multinational Corporations and Emerging Markets
- Neo-institutional Theory
- Neuroscience, Organizational
- Organization Design, Global
- Organization Development and Change
- Organization Theory
- Organizational Adaptation
- Organizational Behavior, Emotions in
- Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs)
- Organizational Corruption
- Organizational Identity
- Organizational Justice
- Organizational Legitimacy
- Organizational Networks
- Organizational Performance, Personality Theory and
- Organizational Responsibility
- Organizational Surveys, Driving Change Through
- Organizations, Big Data in
- Organizations, Political Ideology in
- Organizations, Social Identity Processes in
- Pay for Skills, Knowledge, and Competencies
- People Analytics
- Performance Appraisal
- Planning And Goal Setting
- Psychological Contracts
- Regional Entrepreneurship
- Reputation, Organizational Image and
- Research, Ethics in
- Research, Longitudinal
- Research Methods
- Research Methods, Qualitative
- Resource-Dependence Theory
- Response Surface Analysis, Polynomial Regression and
- Role of Time in Organizational Studies
- Safety, Work Place
- Selection, Applicant Reactions to
- Self-Fulfilling Prophecy In Management
- Self-Management and Personal Agency
- Service Management
- Shared Team Leadership
- Status in Organizations
- Strategic Human Capital
- Strategy and Cognition
- Structural Contingency Theory/Information Processing Theor...
- Team Conflict
- Team Newcomers
- Teams, Global
- Technology and Innovation Management
- Technology, Organizational Assessment and
- the Workplace, Millennials in
- Theory X and Theory Y
- Time and Motion Studies
- Training and Development
- Training Evaluation
- Unobtrusive Measures
- Virtual Teams
- Work and Family: An Organizational Science Overview
- Work Contexts, Nonverbal Communication in
- Work, Mindfulness at
- Workplace Commitment
- Workplace Gossip
- Workplace Meetings
- Workplace, Spiritual Leadership in the
- World War II, Management Research during