Geography Globalization
by
Raju Das, Robert Bridi
  • LAST REVIEWED: 19 December 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 October 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199874002-0018

Introduction

Globalization is one of the most widely discussed topics in geography and other social sciences. It refers to intensified geographical movements across national borders of commodities, people seeking employment, money and capital investment, knowledge, cultural values, and environmental pollutants. It also refers to the increased interdependence among nation-states and supranational institutions and to increased connectivity among people’s movements for a more democratic and humane society. Globalization has economic, political, cultural, spatial, and environmental aspects. Causes and impacts of globalization are hotly debated. Some claim that we live in a historically unique globalized world, with a single world market, where national boundaries (including nation-states) are more or less meaningless, and distances have little impact on economic and social relations. Accordingly, globalization affects everyone and all places, and nation-states are powerless to control hypermobile capital, so it is futile to resist it. Others (“internationalists”) accept some aspects of globalization but are skeptical of the view that it is unprecedented (compared to the early part of the 20th century). They emphasize the importance of international companies headquartered in specific national territories, i.e., multinational corporations 9 (MNCs, rather than “footloose” companies or transnational corporations (TNCs). They point to the limited mobility of labor vis-à-vis capital. They say that most of international economic flows are concentrated within the triad (United States, Japan, and Western Europe) and that the emergence of supranational trading blocs (e.g., the European Union) is indicative of regionalization rather than globalization. So, globalization is a geographically uneven process, and nation-states and national cultures are still important factors. These scholars support antiglobalization movements, nationally regulated international processes, and protection of national welfare benefits. Still others, including Marxists, accept the globalization logic of capital and argue that capitalism has always had a tendency to be a global process, as attested by colonialism, which is based on the global search for markets and cheaper raw materials. Competition leads to the monopolistic production of goods and services globally. Capital flight has always been a constraint on governments seeking to control business. Globalization is (at least partly) a new phase of Western imperialism in which national governments are acting as agents of monopoly capital. Marxists’ intellectual-political opposition to the globalization of business activities is a part of their fundamental opposition to production for profit as such. This article introduces some of the main texts on globalization from the growing international literature on the conceptual as well as the empirical aspects of globalization.

General Overviews

Globalization: A Research Guide to Resources in the Princeton University Library provides useful information, statistical and otherwise, on globalization. Allen and Hamnett 1995 provides a geographical perspective on globalization, tackling such issues as multinational corporations (MNCs), global pollution, tourism, global cities, and annihilation of space by communication technologies. Herod 2009 competently summarizes early-21st-century debates on globalization, from a geographical angle, and shows how globalization actually works. Sassen 1998 is a collection of essays dealing with topics such as the “global city,” gender, globalization of labor, information technology, and new forms of inequality. The International Forum on Globalization (IFG) provides information on economic as well as noneconomic aspects of globalization. Cox 1997 speaks to the skeptical view of globalization, arguing that scales below the international (e.g., national and sub-national scales) continue to have wide economic and political significance. Dicken 2003 is a classic text for classroom use as well as for scholarly research on economic globalization. It explores economic globalization from the standpoint of transnational companies (with their national rootedness) and labor and consumer groups. Held and McGrew 2003 is a collection of articles pursuing a variety of views—all more or less skeptical of the view of capital having been footloose—and unpacking economic, political, and cultural aspects of globalization. World Trade Organization (WTO) provides information on world trade and barriers to trade, and is a good source for those who favor capital mobility and free markets. Yale Global Online provides various publications on globalization, including multimedia presentations. The website also includes a section on security and terrorism that highlights the importance of this issue since the 11 September 2001 attacks on New York City and Washington, DC.

  • Allen, John, and Chris Hamnett, eds. A Shrinking World? Global Unevenness and Inequality. Vol. 2 of The Shape of the World: Explorations in Human Geography. Edited by the Open University Course Team. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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    A part of the series of human geography undergraduate texts published by the British Open University, it provides a geographical perspective on globalization. It addresses issues such as MNCs, global pollution, tourism, global cities, and annihilation of space by communication technologies. It includes excerpts from key readings on the topic.

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    • Cox, Kevin R., ed. Spaces of Globalization: Reasserting the Power of the Local. New York: Guilford, 1997.

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      Cox’s collection brings together the work of well-known geographers on globalization. A central argument of the book is that alongside economic globalization, localization of economic life is still important, which has implications for labor organizing. For those interested in an advanced text on a critical view of globalization, this is a useful reading.

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      • Dicken, Peter. Global Shift: Transforming the World Economy. 4th ed. London: SAGE, 2003.

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        Dicken’s text is a geographical classic on economic globalization, which is useful for students and scholars. It has many diagrams and tables of data. The author provides a comprehensive explanation of economic globalization, examining the role of transnational corporations, states, labor, and consumers.

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        • Globalization: A Research Guide to Resources in the Princeton University Library.

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          This website provides a wide variety of resources including literature and statistical data on the topic.

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          • Held, David, and Anthony McGrew, eds. The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization Debate. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2003.

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            This fifty-chapter collection on economic, political, and cultural dimensions and consequences of globalization represents the views of a wide variety of writers. The environmental aspect is missing though. The text has an associated website. An excellent text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and for university teachers.

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            • Herod, Andrew. Geographies of Globalization: A Critical Introduction. Critical Introductions to Geography. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

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              Herod provides a detailed and critical summary of early-21st-century debates on globalization, from a geographical angle. It discusses how globalization really works, unevenly in space, and how it is responded to by labor. A good text for advanced undergraduate students.

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              • Sassen, Saskia. Globalization and Its Discontents: Essays on the New Mobility of People and Money. New York: New Press, 1998.

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                Sassen combines perspectives of cultural studies, feminism, political economy, sociology, and political science, and creates a framework for understanding inequality between metropolitan business centers and low-income inner cities. The author critically discusses common misconceptions of globalization.

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                • World Trade Organization.

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                  The World Trade Organization (WTO) is a forum for governments to negotiate trade agreements that facilitate free trade. The website’s Documents and Resources section provides access to the official documents of the WTO, legal texts (WTO agreements), and a host of other resources, such as trade statistics, videos, audio, and photos.

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                  • Yale Global Online.

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                    This website provides publications including reports, essays, books, multimedia, and related websites that analyze various aspects of globalization. Topics include: economy, environment, gender, health, labor, politics, science and technology, security and terrorism, society and culture, and trade.

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                    Journals

                    Many journals regularly publish articles on globalization. They include: Globalizations, Global Networks, and Global Environmental Change. Review of International Political Economy is also a good source for a critical geographical and interdisciplinary perspective. With the geography discipline being at the forefront of globalization literature, several geographic journals publish research on globalization. These include: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Economic Geography, Antipode, and Human Geography. Progress in Human Geography publishes reviews of works on globalization.

                    Contested Conceptualizations

                    Globalization appears to be a simple concept, referring to, as mentioned earlier, the cross-border flow of commodities, money, people, and pollutants. But upon analysis, it is a complicated concept whose meanings are hotly debated. Ohmae 1999 provides a placeless view of globalization, saying that we live in a borderless, hypercompetitive world creating opportunities for everyone. Introducing a special issue on the topic, Allen and Thompson 1997 discusses several meanings of the concept and distinguishes between globalization and internationalization. Guillén 2001 provides a sophisticated overview of the relevant debates on globalization. Wood 1997 doubts the claim that globalization represents an epochal shift and says that we are experiencing the maturation and universalization of capitalism. Capitalism must be distinguished from globalization, which is its geographical form. According to van Hamme and Pion 2012, as per the world-systems theory, the world economy is still divided between the core and the periphery, but one must recognize the new core (East Asia). Patnaik 1996 acknowledges the need to understand globalization from the perspective of imperialism. Harvey 2005 thinks about globalization in terms of the contradiction between the need for capital to be place bound and the need to invest and sell overseas. Mahutga 2012 approaches globalization from the commodity chain perspective. Yeung 2002 provides a scalar perspective on the geography of globalization.

                    • Allen, John, and Grahame Thompson. “Think Global, Then Think Again—Economic Globalization in Context.” Area 29.3 (1997): 213–227.

                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.1997.tb00024.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      The authors interrogate the meaning of the term globalization. The article is published in a geography journal that publishes shorter interventions. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                      • Guillén, Mauro F. “Is Globalization Civilizing, Destructive or Feeble? A Critique of Five Key Debates in the Social Science Literature.” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (2001): 235–260.

                        DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.235Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        This article reviews the existing literature around five key issues/questions. It invites scholars to think about globalization in a way that is sensitive toward local variations and how globalization’s outcomes are mediated by agency. It will be of interest to those who favor a spatially inflected sociological imagination. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                        • Harvey, David. The New Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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                          This widely read text discusses globalization in terms of the profit-driven logic of commercial spatial expansion in tension with the state’s territorial logic. Harvey illustrates his arguments in the context of US domestic and foreign policies. A good graduate-level text.

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                          • Mahutga, Matthew. “When Do Value Chains Go Global? A Theory of the Spatialization of Global Value Chains.” Global Networks 12.1 (2012): 1–21.

                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2011.00322.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            This article provides insights into the theoretical literature on global commodity chain and global value chain governance; it sheds light on the global aspects of value chains and the spatialization of the value chain analysis. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                            • Ohmae, Kenichi. The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy. Rev. ed. New York: HarperCollins, 1999.

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                              In this six-chapter book, Ohmae emphasizes that national borders are less relevant than ever before, and that to serve global markets, companies must lose their nationality. Since it was first published more than twenty years ago, this has remained an influential text among the business-elite and globalization critics.

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                              • Patnaik, Prabhat. “Globalization of Capital and the Theory of Imperialism.” Social Scientist 24.11–12 (1996): 5–17.

                                DOI: 10.2307/3520099Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                This article will be of interest to scholars with a theoretical and empirical focus on globalization as imperialism from the standpoint of the Global South. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                • van Hamme, Gilles, and Geoffrey Pion. “The Relevance of the World-System Approach in the Era of Globalization of Economic Flows and Networks.” Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 94.1 (2012): 65–82.

                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0467.2012.00396.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  This article looks at the empirical evidence on globalization by employing world-systems and dependency thinking and finds not a flat world, but a fractured world—one that is split into core and periphery. Those with a theoretical interest in globalization in Asia and from a North–South perspective will find this article interesting. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                  • Wood, Ellen. “‘Globalization’ or ‘globaloney?’” Monthly Review 48.9 (1997): 21–32.

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                                    Wood stresses the fundamental continuity of capitalism at the level of class relations between its late-20th-century globalization stage and its past. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                    • Yeung, Henry Wai-chung. “The Limits to Globalization Theory: A Geographic Perspective on Global Economic Change.” Economic Geography 78.3 (2002): 285–305.

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                                      Yeung argues that economic globalization is an inherently geographic phenomenon in relation to the transcendence and switching of geographic scales and discursive practices, such as sociospatial constructions. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                      Is There a Borderless World Already?

                                      Because the very idea of globalization is contested, its objective existence, i.e., whether it exists and to what extent it does, is also debated. Friedman 2007 argues that with the spread of free markets, outsourcing, shifts in production processes, technology, and innovative ideas (many of which originate in the United States), the world is getting “flatter,” less hierarchical, and more interconnected. World Bank 2009 deals with international market integration from an economic geographic angle. Kose 2009 says that the globalization process is particularly marked in the area of finance. McCann 2008 argues that there are trends both toward globalization and toward localization. Hirst, et al. 2009 questions globalization as a myth by providing empirical evidence on the world economy. The authors’ text argues that a globalized economy does not yet exist, and in its place are global trading blocs. For geographers, one of the best empirical sources of evidence on different aspects of globalization is Dicken 2003, mentioned earlier (cited under General Overviews). Raab, et al. 2008 develops a multidimensional index of globalization, combining its economic, technological, cultural, and political aspects. Chase-Dunn, et al. 2000 uses an improved measure of trade globalization to show three waves of globalization since 1795. Glyn 2004 says that intercountry and North–South differences in profitability, government spending and poverty, inequality, and the extent to which workers work in protected sectors continue to exist.

                                      • Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin D. Brewer. “Trade Globalization since 1795: Waves of Integration in the World-System.” American Sociological Review 65.1 (2000): 77–95.

                                        DOI: 10.2307/2657290Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        The authors discuss three waves of globalization. Written by a well-known globalization scholar, this will be of interest to scholars studying the historical geography of globalization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                        • Friedman, Thomas. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. Expanded ed. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007.

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                                          Friedman, a New York Times correspondent, makes an observation that has intrigued geographers who believe the process of globalization and its effects are spatially uneven. Friedman instead argues that with the spread of deregulation, outsourcing, shifts in production processes, and new transportation and communication technologies, the world is getting “flatter,” less hierarchical, and more interconnected, and that specific countries are competing on an equal footing.

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                                          • Glyn, Andrew. “The Assessment: How Far Has Globalization Gone?” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 20.1 (2004): 1–14.

                                            DOI: 10.1093/oxrep/grh001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Using appropriate indicators, Glyn reveals that the view of hyperglobalization only exceptionally applies, and that in spite of an increasing trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) trends, there are enormous international differences in social spending, profitability, and poverty. Glyn’s data give scholars supporting “the race to the bottom” argument something to think about. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                            • Hirst, Paul Q., Grahame Thompson, and Simon Bromley. Globalization in Question. 3d ed. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2009.

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                                              Skeptical of the borderless worldview, this book provides a historical view and statistical evidence on economic integration over time. However, it makes insufficient distinctions between the nature of early-21st-century globalization—the speed of cross-border movements and the globalized character of production itself—and globalization in the early 20th century. Originally published in 1999.

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                                              • Kose, M. Ayhan. “Introduction: Frontiers of Research on Financial Globalization.” In Special Issue: Frontiers of Research on Financial Globalization. Edited by M. Ayhan Kose. IMF Staff Papers 56.1 (2009): 1–7.

                                                DOI: 10.1057/imfsp.2008.37Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                This introduces a special issue of IMF Staff Papers on financial globalization. It deals with these questions: What do we know about the macroeconomic implications of financial globalization, and what policies can be put in place to improve its benefits? A state-of-the-art review of research on financial globalization from the “free-er market” perspective.

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                                                • McCann, Philip. “Globalization and Economic Geography: The World Is Curved, Not Flat.” Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 1.3 (2008): 351–370.

                                                  DOI: 10.1093/cjres/rsn002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  McCann claims that the global economy simultaneously exhibits trends toward increasing globalization and localization. Cities are seen as the critical context for growth. The author uses diagrams to illustrate the arguments. Those with an interest in globalization as a contradictory process will find this useful. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                  • Raab, Marcel, Michael Ruland, Benno Schönberger, et al. “GlobalIndex: A Sociological Approach to Globalization Measurement.” International Sociology 23.4 (2008): 596–631.

                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0268580908090729Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Readers will find in this article a new multidimensional globalization measure, encompassing the economic, technological, cultural, and political aspects. This measure (called GlobalIndex) builds on and extends previous work, including that of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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                                                    • World Bank. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009.

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                                                      This World Bank publication has several chapters that deal with increasing global integration from an economic geography standpoint. This text has elicted an interest from many geographers.

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                                                      World Economic Development and Uneven Development

                                                      Several authors have examined globalization in relation to world economic development and its unevenness. Irwin 2000 states that globalization has positive effects on less developed and developed countries. United Nations Development Programme 1999 argues that the lives of people can be better everywhere if efforts are made to ensure that the benefits are not monopolized by business owners. Quinn and Toyoda 2008, a study of ninety-four countries, shows that financial liberalization leads to world economic growth. According to Stiglitz 2010, in the absence of government interventions, global financial integration of national economies must necessarily result in a crisis of the type the world had experienced in the early-21st-century. Pike and Pollard 2010 explores the implication of financial globalization for uneven development. Wagle 2012 suggests that the poorer-income groups of the world do not benefit much from economic openness. Not only do some income groups lose out, but also not all regions benefit from globalization. In this context, Scott and Storper 2003 discusses the active role of regions and cities in economic development in relation to globalization. Deichmann, et al. 2010 responds to geographers’ criticisms of the World Bank’s economic geographic discussion on globalization and regional/urban development issues.

                                                      • Deichmann, Uwe, Indermit Gill, Chor Ching Goh. “World Development Report 2009: A Practical Economic Geography.” Economic Geography 86.4 (2010): 371–380.

                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1944-8287.2010.01095.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        The authors respond to criticisms of the World Development Report 2009 by economic geographers who place economic geography at the forefront of globalization thinking. This article will be useful for a critical examination of the World Bank’s economic geography approach to the topic under discussion. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                        • Irwin, Douglas A. “The Two Faces of Globalization.” In Special Issue: Globalization. Edited by Jeffrey Friedman. Critical Review 14.1 (2000): 11–18.

                                                          DOI: 10.1080/08913810008443543Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          According to Irwin, globalization is a win-win scenario. The negative effects of free trade, including on the United States, are overstated. He reviews two important texts: Globaphobia (by Gary Burtless, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998) and Has Globalization Gone Too Far? (by Dani Rodrik, Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1997). Will be useful to those looking for arguments for and against globalization in terms of its effects on economic growth. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                          • Pike, Andy, and Jane Pollard. “Economic Geographies of Financialization.” Economic Geography 86.1 (2010): 29–51.

                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01057.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            The authors make a conceptual argument, illustrated empirically, about the importance of financialization in the understanding of geographically uneven development. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                            • Quinn, Dennis P., and Maria A. Toyoda. “Does Capital Account Liberalization Lead to Growth?” Review of Financial Studies 21.3 (2008): 1403–1449.

                                                              DOI: 10.1093/rfs/hhn034Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              The authors provide an analysis of ninety-four countries. They show that capital market liberalization is positively associated with economic growth, and this is the case for both developed countries and emerging market economies. One needs to have a statistical background in order to fully appreciate the arguments. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                              • Scott, Allen, and Michael Storper. “Regions, Globalization, Development.” Regional Studies 37.6–7 (2003): 549–578.

                                                                DOI: 10.1080/0034340032000108697aSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                The authors provide useful insights on how regionally uneven development is to be understood in the epoch of globalization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                • Stiglitz, Joseph E. “Risk and Global Economic Architecture: Why Full Financial Integration May Be Undesirable.” American Economic Review 100.2 (2010): 388–392.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1257/aer.100.2.388Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Students and scholars skeptical of financial globalization will find some support for their view in this article, written by Stiglitz, a former World Bank chief economist. He provides an analytic framework to analyze financial integration and suggests that autarky may be superior to full integration. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                  • United Nations Development Programme. Globalization with a Human Face. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

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                                                                    According to this report, globalization is characterized by shrinking space, shrinking time, and disappearing borders and can enrich the lives of people everywhere; however, efforts have to be made to ensure that the benefits are shared equitably and not monopolized by business owners.

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                                                                    • Wagle, Udaya R. “The Economic Footing of the Global Poor, 1980–2005: The Roles of Economic Growth, Openness and Political Institutions.” Journal of International Development 24.S1 (2012): S173–S197.

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                                                                      Using quantitative techniques, Wagle shows that lower-income groups of the world have not benefited much from globalization. This adds a distribution dimension to the linkage between globalization and world economic development. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                      Economic Development in the Global South

                                                                      A specific aspect of uneven development at the international scale is the issue of economic development in the Global South (comprising relatively less developed countries). The effects of globalization on economic development in the Global South are widely debated. Dollar 2005 suggests that countries in the Global South that are more integrated into the global economy have experienced faster reduction in poverty and faster growth rates. Krugman and Venables 1995 shows that peripheral countries tend to gain from trade due to reduced transportation costs associated with economic globalization. Scholz 2000, however, criticizes the idea of unlimited, globalized competition benefiting the South as a whole and argues that globalization produces excluded spaces and peoples everywhere in the world. Rodrik and Subramanian 2009 claims that geographical mobility of finance capital can be a barrier to investment, with adverse consequences for economic growth in less developed countries. Chossudovsky 1997 examines how economic globalization, encouraged by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, creates poverty in specific countries and regions of the less developed world. De Haan and Zoomers 2003 provides conceptual insights into the relation between globalization and local development in terms of livelihood issues. Bebbington 2003 encourages geographers and others to think about Third World development in the age of globalization in terms of expansion of commercial relations and government interventions. The International Forum on Globalization produces critical analyses of impacts of economic globalization on less developed countries.

                                                                      • Bebbington, Anthony. “Global Networks and Local Developments: Agendas for Development Geography.” Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 94.3 (2003): 297–309.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/1467-9663.00258Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Bebbington suggests a research agenda for development geographers with an interest in globalization. The agenda concentrates on two main themes: expansion of capitalism, and state and civil society sector engagements in specific places and across scales. Although focused on conceptual issues, the article provides empirical examples. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                        • Chossudovsky, Michel. The Globalisation of Poverty: Impacts of IMF and World Bank Reforms. Penang, Malaysia: Third World Network, 1997.

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                                                                          Chossudovsky, a well-known Canadian scholar, argues that globalization of finance, along with the policies of international financial institutions, have been causing another kind of globalization: the globalization of poverty.

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                                                                          • de Haan, Leo, and Annelies Zoomers. “Development Geography at the Crossroads of Livelihood and Globalisation.” Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 94.3 (2003): 350–362.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/1467-9663.00262Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            The authors provide insights into the relation between globalization and local development, focusing on the decomposition of households, the increased diversification of livelihoods, and the emergence of multilocal livelihoods and livelihood networks. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                            • Dollar, David. “Globalization, Poverty, and Inequality since 1980.” World Bank Research Observer 20.2 (2005): 145–175.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/wbro/lki008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              In this article, Dollar provides some intellectual basis for a more favorable view about the globalization-South relationship. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                              • International Forum on Globalization.

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                                                                                Formed in 1994, the International Forum on Globalization (IFG) is a North–South research institution providing critical analyses of the economic and noneconomic impacts of globalization. Alternatives to Economic Globalization is a useful report by the IFG, whose summary is available online.

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                                                                                • Krugman, Paul, and Anthony J. Venables. “Globalization and the Inequality of Nations.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 110.4 (1995): 857–880.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2946642Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  The laureate of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 2008, Krugman is one of the most geographically minded economists in the world. He shows that when transport costs fall below a critical value, a core-periphery relationship forms. As costs of trading are reduced over time, real incomes converge; peripheral nations gain and core nations may lose. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                  • Rodrik, Dani, and Arvind Subramanian. “Why Did Financial Globalization Disappoint?IMF Staff Papers 56.1 (2009): 112–138.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1057/imfsp.2008.29Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Rodrik and Subramanian make a contested argument that foreign finance can lead to the appreciation of the real exchange rate and reduce profitability and investment opportunities, and therefore can be a barrier to investment. This will have adverse long-run growth consequences on less developed countries.

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                                                                                    • Scholz, Fred. “Perspektiven des ‘Südens’ im Zeitalter der Globalisierung.” Geographische Zeitschrift 88.1 (2000): 1–20.

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                                                                                      Scholz reconceptualizes the North–South in relation to globalization. Globalized competition and its benefits are not accessible to countries per se, but only to certain localities/regions. Globalization creates the “New South,” which is present everywhere. In German, title translated as “Perspectives of the ‘South’ in the Era of Globalisation.” Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                      Agro-Food System

                                                                                      Globalization processes intersect with agricultural issues in various ways. Robinson 2003 discusses the geographically oriented literature on this topic. Ward and Almås 1997 provides an overview of the special issue in the Review of International Political Economy (RIPE) on the theoretical debates surrounding the globalization of the agro-food sector in developed countries. Goodman and Watts 1994 explores the political economy approach to globalization and agriculture in general and specifically in the US context. Patnaik 1999 points out how export-oriented production of nontraditional crops leads to the shrinkage of land availability for food production in less developed countries. Oya 2012 provides an extensive survey of literature on contract farming as a form of agro-globalization, which does not require land dispossession. Pechlaner and Otero 2008 illustrates how agro-globalization is enabling the use of new technologies in agriculture with geographically specific effects. Ufkes 1993 provides a geographical examination of the role of trade liberalization in agricultural commodities. Anderson 2009, based on a World Bank study, discusses a (need for) market-based globalized agriculture, focusing on how policies distort agro-food markets in different geographical regions.

                                                                                      • Anderson, Kym, ed. Distortions to Agricultural Incentives: A Global Perspective, 1955–2007. Trade and Development Series. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7662-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        This edited collection summarizes research on policy distortions of markets in agriculture. The authors discuss policies affecting agro-trade from a global perspective as well as in each major world region. This collection is the fifth and last in the World Bank’s Distortions to Agricultural Incentives titles, part of the Trade and Development Series.

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                                                                                        • Goodman, David, and Michael Watts. “Reconfiguring the Rural or Fording the Divide? Capitalist Restructuring and the Global Agro-Food System.” Journal of Peasant Studies 22.1 (1994): 1–49.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/03066159408438565Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          The authors provide a critique of the ways in which the internationalization of food production has been examined and make some suggestions as to how this topic could be tackled from within political economy. It is a text aimed at advanced graduate students and scholars. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                          • Oya, Carlos. “Contract Farming in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Approaches, Debates and Issues.” Journal of Agrarian Change 12.1 (2012): 1–33.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0366.2011.00337.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Geographers regularly contribute to the Journal of Agrarian Change. Although Oya focuses on sub-Saharan Africa, he provides a good general review of the literature on contract farming, which has become an important aspect of globalization of agriculture, with important consequences for farmers and laborers as well as for agro-industrial accumulation. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                            • Patnaik, Utsa. The Long Transition: Essays on Political Economy. New Delhi: Tulika, 1999.

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                                                                                              Patnaik provides essays on political-economy–based theory of agriculture in less developed countries. Among other things, she explores the impacts of international trade in agriculture and global agrarian accumulation for food security and national development. Scholars with an interest in Africa, China, and India will find this particularly helpful.

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                                                                                              • Pechlaner, Gabriela, and Gerardo Otero. “The Third Food Regime: Neoliberal Globalism and Agricultural Biotechnology in North America.” Sociologia Ruralis 48.4 (2008): 351–371.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2008.00469.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                According to the authors, free trade is enabling the use of biotechnology, forming the basis for a new international food regime. Whether or not readers will agree that mere resistance against biotechnology can halt its use, this is a useful article on the politics of biotechnology and its place in globalized agriculture. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                • Robinson, Guy. Geographies of Agriculture: Globalisation, Restructuring and Sustainability. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2003.

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                                                                                                  This undergraduate text contains four chapters dealing with globalization of agriculture, including: globalization of agro-production, the relation between agriculture and supranational institutions, and globalizing developing countries’ agriculture.

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                                                                                                  • Ufkes, Frances M. “Trade Liberalization, Agro-Food Politics and the Globalization of Agriculture.” In Special Issue: The Globalization of Agriculture. Edited by Frances M. Ufkes. Political Geography 12.3 (1993): 215–231.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/0962-6298(93)90054-BSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Using empirical data on the Japanese-American agro-trade, Ufkes argues that liberalization represents two tendencies: the dismantling of regulation structures supporting national farm sectors, and relocation of agro-food capital. The article is useful to those with a conceptual interest in agro-globalization and in agro-trade in the advanced world. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                    • Ward, Neil, and Reidar Almås. “Explaining Change in the International Agro-Food System.” In Special Issue: Rethinking Globalization: Debates from Agro-Food Studies. Edited by Neil Ward. Review of International Political Economy 4.4 (1997): 611–629.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/09672299708565785Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      The authors provide an overview of the literature on the restructuring of the international agro-food system. Scholars with an interest in the advanced-country contexts will gain much from this article and from the special issue of Review of International Political Economy. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                      Environmental Change

                                                                                                      Many scholars see the relation between globalization and the environment as positive, negative, and context dependent. Dardati and Saygili 2012 shows that foreign firms have less of a negative environmental impact than domestic firms. Judith Dean’s Trade and the Environment (a World Bank study) surveys the literature on trade-environment linkage and claims that trade barriers are, at best, a second-best means of reducing environmental degradation. However, a significant body of research highlights the adverse impacts of globalization on the environment. Faber 2008 investigates the “polluter-industrial complex” in the United States in the age of globalization and shows how trade agreements ultimately end up displacing environmental hazards (e.g., hazardous waste and banned pesticides) to the Global South. Clark and Foster 2009, an ecological imperialism framework, discusses the flow of natural resources from poorer countries to the richer countries. In Malm 2012, the author’s “fossil capital hypothesis” proposes that globally mobile capital will tend to relocate production to countries with cheap and disciplined labor, but only through the accelerated consumption of fossil energy, causing massive pollution. Bond 2012 examines the linkages between the financial market and emissions market in the context of a deeper over-accumulation crisis and investors’ desperate need for new speculative outlets. Jorgenson and Kick 2006 provides an empirical and concept treatment of the impacts on the environment of economic and political globalization from a world-systems perspective. Apart from the studies cited above, there is a large amount of literature outlining how to study the link between globalization and the environment. Bridge 2002, a geographical discussion, falls in this genre.

                                                                                                      • Bond, Patrick. “Emissions Trading, New Enclosures and Eco-Social Contestation.” Antipode 44.3 (2012): 684–701.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2011.00890.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Bond discusses the linkages between the financial market and emissions trading in the context of a deeper over-accumulation crisis. An important intervention on the environmental aspect of financial globalization by a geographer working in the South. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                        • Bridge, Gavin. “Grounding Globalization: The Prospects and Perils of Linking Economic Processes of Globalization to Environmental Outcomes.” Economic Geography 78.3 (2002): 361–386.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/4140814Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          The author provides an example of ongoing research into the environmental impacts of foreign direct investment (FDI) to illustrate how such an approach may engage globalization on the ground. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                          • Clark, Brett, and John Bellamy Foster. “Ecological Imperialism and the Global Metabolic Rift: Unequal Exchange and the Guano/Nitrates Trade.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 50.3–4 (2009): 311–334.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0020715209105144Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Clark and Foster provide a conceptual discussion of how richer countries ecologically exploit poorer countries, a process they call “ecological imperialism.” The authors provide a distinct conceptual contribution to the globalization-environment linkage. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                            • Dardati, Evangelina, and Meryem Saygili. “Multinationals and Environmental Regulation: Are Foreign Firms Harmful?” Environment and Development Economics 17.2 (2012): 163–186.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S1355770X11000398Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              The authors argue that other things constant, foreign firms have less impact on the environment than domestic plants. This article will be of use to globalization scholars with an interest in a quantitative study of the environment. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                              • Dean, Judith. Trade and the Environment: A Survey of the Literature. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1992.

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                                                                                                                This is a background paper for the World Bank’s World Development Report 1992 that dealt with the environment. The author argues that trade barriers cannot be an effective solution to environmental degradation.

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                                                                                                                • Faber, Daniel. Capitalizing on Environmental Injustice: The Polluter-Industrial Complex in the Age of Globalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

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                                                                                                                  Faber investigates the polluter-industrial complex in the United States in relation to globalization. Trade agreements ultimately end up displacing environmental hazards to the Global South. The article is useful for understanding a North–South approach to global environmental problems.

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                                                                                                                  • Jorgenson, Andrew, and Edward Kick, eds. Globalization and the Environment. Studies in Critical Social Sciences 5. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2006.

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                                                                                                                    This is an advanced collection based on a conference on World system history and global environmental change in Lund (September 19–22, 2003). The book includes contributions from some of the most well-known practitioners of the world-systems approach to the globalization-environment linkage. It provides both empirical-historical and conceptual insights.

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                                                                                                                    • Malm, Andreas. “China as Chimney of the World: The Fossil Capital Hypothesis.” Organization and Environment 25.2 (2012): 146–177.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/1086026612449338Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Malm introduces the fossil capital hypothesis and proposes that mobile capital relocates production to countries with cheap and disciplined labor, but only through the accelerated consumption of fossil energy. The hypothesis is applied to China and other Asian countries. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                      Labor Conditions

                                                                                                                      Globalization has had far-reaching effects on labor conditions everywhere. Gunter and van der Hoeven 2004 reviews an extensive body of literature on the impact of globalization on wages, poverty, child labor, gender, and migration. Fenton and Heffron 1989 provides a directory of resources on transnational companies and labor, including: books, articles, periodicals, and visual resources. Rama 2003 shows that globalization initially leads to a fall in wages as a result of the openness to trade and rise in foreign direct investment, but that after a few years, the effect of trade on wages becomes positive. Flanagan 2006 questions the notion that increasing economic integration initiates a race to the bottom in terms of wages and working conditions. The report by the International Labour Organization (ILO) on the social dimension of labor is a major study of globalization from the standpoint of the global working class. Peck, et al. 2005 discusses how temporary staffing—temp agencies placing people in temporary jobs—has become a globalizing service industry. Zeller 2008 shows that the internationalization of investment and financial capital has created an international reserve army of labor with adverse impacts on wages and working conditions for those who are employed. Aguiar and Herod 2006 provides an excellent collection of studies on working conditions in a specific sector (the cleaning industry) in the globalizing world.

                                                                                                                      • Aguiar, Luis L. M., and Andrew Herod, eds. The Dirty Work of Neoliberalism: Cleaners in the Global Economy. Antipode Book Series 50. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1002/9781444397406Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        This book is part of the Antipode book series. The authors provide the first intensive study of the impact of globalization on working conditions of cleaners in different geographical contexts.

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                                                                                                                        • Fenton, Thomas P., and Mary J. Heffron, eds. Transnational Corporations and Labor: A Directory of Resources. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1989.

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                                                                                                                          Although this collection is a little dated, the editors have amassed a large number of different intellectual resources on the topic (e.g., articles, visuals, books, and so on).

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                                                                                                                          • Flanagan, Robert J. Globalization and Labor Conditions: Working Conditions and Worker Rights in a Global Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/0195306007.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Flanagan examines how international trade, international migration, and the activities of multinational corporations (MNCs) positively shape working conditions and labor rights. The findings are based on an analysis of a database on international labor conditions.

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                                                                                                                            • Gunter, Bernhard, and Rolph van der Hoeven. “The Social Dimension of Globalization: A Review of the Literature.” International Labour Review 143.1–2 (2004): 7–43.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1564-913X.2004.tb00545.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              In this article, the authors review ideas about the impact of globalization on the life and work of people, their families, and their societies. They begin by describing globalization through a series of graphs, following which they examine wages, employment, migration, and gender aspects of labor in the age of globalization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                              • International Labour Organization.

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                                                                                                                                The ILO produces valuable information on globalization and labor. Its report, A Fair Globalization: Creating Opportunities for All, is the first attempt at a structured dialogue among representatives of constituencies with different interests and opinions on how globalization affects labor issues. This report is available online.

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                                                                                                                                • Peck, Jamie, Nik Theodore, and Kevin Ward. “Constructing Markets for Temporary Labour: Employment Liberalization and the Internationalization of the Staffing Industry.” Global Networks 5.1 (2005): 3–26.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2005.00105.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  The authors discuss how temporary staffing has become a global service industry. The agencies that profit from placing employees in temporary jobs have globalized their operations, particularly in deregulated economies of the Global North. As a result, these agencies have been contributing to the liberalization of labor markets. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                  • Rama, Martin. “Globalization and the Labour Market.” World Bank Research Observer 18.2 (2003): 159–186.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1093/wbro/lkg010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Rama addresses the globalization-labor linkage through an analytical survey of the literature. Some of the studies the author draws on use new cross-country databases of wages and other labor market indicators. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                    • Zeller, Christian. “Globalisierung der Arbeit und der Verunsicherung.” Geographische Zeitschrift 96.1–2 (2008): 78–96.

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                                                                                                                                      Zeller argues that the internationalization of capital has increased global competition between workers for wages and labor conditions. The author makes an important theoretical contribution to the topic focused on the concept of industrial reserve army, a relatively neglected concept in geography. In German, title translated as “Globalization of Labor and Uncertainty.” Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                      Women Workers

                                                                                                                                      Scholars have analyzed the dynamics of globalization in relation to women’s labor. Nagar, et al. 2002 draws attention to the feminist research on the gendering of work, gender, and structural adjustment programs, and mobility, in relation to globalization. Yeates 2012 provides a state-of-the-art review of the research on global care chains and shows how this research contributes to an understanding of globalization. The author also provides empirical work on women workers and globalization. Gray, et al. 2006 shows that economic globalization can bring new opportunities and resources for women. Papyrakis, et al. 2012 claims that globalization allows women to gain in employment relative to men, but trade results in a larger gender gap in wages. Kabeer 2004 sheds light on the positive benefits of economic globalization for women. She challenges the idea that the attempt to enforce global labor standards through international trade agreements serves the interests of women export workers in the Global South. Kolářová 2006 criticizes the masculine bias in much of the existing work on globalization and asserts that global production is dependent on cheap women’s labor in the factories of multinational corporations in the Global South, with care work and migration becoming feminized on a global scale. Federici 2001 conceptualizes globalization as primarily an attack on female workers and reproduction, and examines the main forms of this attack. Domínguez, et al. 2010, based on the authors’ studies of export-oriented zones in Mexico, problematizes the viewpoints (such as those of Kabeer) that export-based, industrial jobs are dignified alternatives for women in the Global South and questions the skepticism about global labor standards as a possible alternative for improving work conditions in all sectors producing for export.

                                                                                                                                      • Domínguez, Edmé, Rosalba Icaza, Cirila Quintero, Silvia López, and Åsa Stenman. “Women Workers in the Maquiladoras and the Debate on Global Labor Standards.” Feminist Economics 16.4 (2010): 185–209.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/13545701.2010.530603Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Domínguez, and others make a contribution to an ongoing debate on the advantages and disadvantages of export-based, industrial jobs for women. Based on studies of export-oriented zones in Mexico, they problematize the idea that export-based, industrial jobs are dignified alternatives for women workers in the Global South.

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                                                                                                                                        • Federici, Silvia. “Women, Globalization and the International Women’s Movement.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies 22.4 (2001): 1025–1036.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/02255189.2001.9669953Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Federici claims that globalization intensifies labor exploitation through a process of expropriation of workers (from their land and government benefits) and disinvestment in the process of reproduction, and that globalization understood in this way is primarily an attack on women and reproduction. The author provides a very interesting feminist-materialist analysis of globalization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                          • Gray, Mark M., Miki Caul Kittilson, and Wayne Sandholtz. “Women and Globalization: A Study of 180 Countries, 1975–2000.” International Organization 60.2 (2006): 293–333.

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                                                                                                                                            Gray, and others offer a quantitative study of the following issue: How do rising levels of international interconnectedness affect women’s sociopolitical and economic conditions? On balance and over time, increasing cross-national exchange and communication improves women’s status and gender equality. The authors provide an optimistic view about women and globalization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                            • Kabeer, Naila. “Globalization, Labor Standards, and Women’s Rights: Dilemmas of Collective (In)action in an Interdependent World.” Feminist Economics 10.1 (2004): 3–35.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/1354570042000198227Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Using empirical material from Bangladesh, Kabeer challenges the idea that a “social clause” to enforce global labor standards serves the interests of women export workers in less developed countries (LDCs). She argues that for many women workers in the Global South, these standards represent genuine opportunities. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                              • Kolářová, Marta. “Gender and Globalisation: Labour Changes in the Global Economy.” Czech Sociological Review 42.6 (2006): 1241–1257.

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                                                                                                                                                Kolářová criticizes the masculine bias in much of the existing globalization research. Global production depends on cheap female labor in the Global South, with care work and migration becoming feminized on a global scale. The author provides an east European perspective on feminized work under globalization.

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                                                                                                                                                • Nagar, Richa, Victoria Lawson, Linda McDowell, and Susan Hanson. “Locating Globalization: Feminist (Re)readings of the Subjects and Spaces of Globalization.” Economic Geography 78.3 (2002): 257–284.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/4140810Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  The authors draw attention to a large body of feminist research on global economic processes, which is largely absent from the economic globalization literature. Feminist scholars have shed light on: the gendering of work, gender and structural adjustment programs, and mobility issues. This article will be of particular interest to feminist geographers studying globalization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Papyrakis, Elissaios, Arlette Covarrubias, and Arjan Verschoor. “Gender and Trade Aspects of Labour Markets.” Journal of Development Studies 48.1 (2012): 81–98.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2011.561324Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    The authors provide an up-to-date review of the literature on the relation between trade liberalization and gender inequality in income, wages, and employment. On balance, women in the Global South gain in employment relative to men, but trade increases the gender gap in wages. Those with conceptual and empirical interests in the topic will find this article useful. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Yeates, Nicola. “Global Care Chains: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Directions in Care Transnationalization Research.” In Special Issue: Transnational Mobilities for Care: Rethinking the Dynamics of Care in Asia. Edited by Shirlena Huang, Leng Leng Thang, and Mika Toyota. Global Networks 12.2 (2012): 135–154.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2012.00344.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Yeates provides a state-of-the-art review and sympathetic critique of global care chain (GCC) research, and shows how GCC analysis contributes to a sophisticated understanding of globalization. The article is useful to scholars researching women as caregivers in the globalizing world. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                      International Migrant Labor

                                                                                                                                                      The movement of workers across borders has been an integral aspect of globalization. Page and Plaza 2006 reviews the conceptual and empirical literature on how migrants contribute to the economic development of their countries of origin. Conway 2006 examines the increasing mobility of people in an era of globalization. He argues that global economic imperatives drive the international exchange of skilled labor as well as the flight of the discriminated and vulnerable from the Global South to the Global North. May, et al. 2007 explores the emergence of a new “migrant division of labor” in London. The authors show that foreign-born workers now fill a disproportionate number of London’s low-paid jobs. Rosewarne 2010 shows that there has been a qualitative shift in the character of international labor migration with increased temporary labor migration, and with workers having fewer social rights. Samers 1999 contributes to the debate over the links among “globalization,” international political economy, and the geopolitical economy of migration. Samers forwards a “spatial vent” theory of international migration, which is interesting. Beaverstock 1994 argues that world cities, and the patterns of labor demand in them, influence the international migration of professional workers. Benton-Short, et al. 2005 studies immigration in global cities of the world. Findlay, et al. 2010 advances our understanding of international migration by exploring its link to business cycles.

                                                                                                                                                      • Beaverstock, Jonathan V. “Re-thinking Skilled International Labour Migration: World Cities and Banking Organisations.” Geoforum 25.3 (1994): 323–338.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/0016-7185(94)90034-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Beaverstock provides a new framework to understand the link between globalization and the international migration of skilled workers (professionals); he argues that world cities, and the patterns of labor-market demand in them, influence this type of migration. World city researchers with an interest in migration will benefit from this work. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Benton-Short, Lisa, Marie D. Price, and Samantha Friedman. “Globalization from Below: The Ranking of Global Immigrant Cities.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29.4 (2005): 945–959.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2005.00630.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          The authors examine immigration in more than one hundred metropolitan areas from more than fifty countries. They rank major cities of immigration and compare them to well-known global city hierarchies, and find much overlap between the two systems of ranking. The authors provide an international urban-immigrant data set and index. This article is useful to world city researchers.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Conway, Dennis. “Globalization of Labor: Increasing Complexity, More Unruly.” In Globalization’s Contradictions: Geographies of Discipline, Destruction and Transformation. Edited by Dennis Conway and Nik Heynen, 79–94. New York: Routledge, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                            Conway examines factors related to the increasing mobility of workers globally, such as: uneven global economic, political, and social effects; temporary migration; transport and communications; knowledge-based services; migration programs and policies; the trafficking of women and children; and the politicization of migration.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Findlay, Allan, Alistair Geddes, and David McCollum. “International Migration and Recession.” Scottish Geographical Journal 126.4 (2010): 299–320.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/14702541.2010.549346Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Migrant laborers are substitutes for domestic workers or they work in areas where domestic workers do not. In the former case, and not the latter case, the demand for migrant labor is highly sensitive to business cycles. This intervention will be of interest to scholars studying global recession (economic crisis) and migration. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                              • May, Jon, Jane Wills, Kavita Datta, Yara Evans, Joanna Herbert, and Cathy McIlwaine. “Keeping London Working: Global Cities, the British State and London’s New Migrant Division of Labour.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 32.2 (2007): 151–167.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-5661.2007.00241.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Drawing on original survey data, the authors explore the pay and working conditions of London’s low-paid migrant workers and develop a framework for understanding the emergence of a new migrant division of labor in London. This article will be useful for scholars with an interest in international migration to Western Europe.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Page, John, and Sonia Plaza. “Migration Remittances and Development: A Review of Global Evidence.” Journal of African Economies 15 Suppl. 2 (2006): 245–336.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1093/jae/ejl035Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  The authors provide a global survey of the literature on remittance and development. They discuss restrictions on labor mobility and the relationships among international trade, development policies, and migration policies. This wide-ranging article will be of interest to scholars with a broad interest in the globalization of labor. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Rosewarne, Stuart. “Globalisation and the Commodification of Labour: Temporary Labour Migration.” Economic and Labour Relations Review 20.2 (2010): 99–110.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/103530461002000207Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Rosewarne focuses on the increasing trend of temporary labor migration. The author examines the link between temporary migration and development, and considers the fewer social rights that migrant workers have. The article is useful for scholars wanting to theorize international migration, especially around the commodification of labor. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Samers, Michael. “‘Globalization,’ the Geopolitical Economy of Migration and the ‘Spatial Vent.’” Review of International Political Economy 6.2 (1999): 166–199.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/096922999347272Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Samers contributes to the debate over the links among globalization, international political economy, and the geopolitical economy of migration. The concept of spatial vent is introduced, describing the forced or encouraged repatriation of migrant workers as a means of diffusing threats to accumulation and legitimation in the (advanced) host country. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Labor Unions

                                                                                                                                                                      Labor unions, including those that work in alliance with communities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), are important agents fighting the effects of globalization. This has been variously analyzed in the globalization literature. The authors in the collection of Harrod and O’Brien 2002 explore a range of issues concerning labor unions, including: models of trade unionism, the prospects for multinational collective bargaining, relation between labor standards and the international financial institutions, and the impact of new communications technologies on unionization. The special 2012 issue in the Journal of Industrial Relations explores the concept of “varieties of unionism” in the context of the Asia Pacific region. Munck and Waterman 1999 claims that traditional trade union forms are not effective vehicles for resisting globalization. Moreover, labor unions must engage in community unionism and address civil society instead of primarily acting in the political and economic spheres. This implies that there is a need for new organizational modes (networking and grassroots, instead of formal and hierarchical) and new tactics (direct action). Castree 2000 discusses a case of grass-roots internationalism organized largely outside the formal apparatuses of national and international unionism, and is critical of the stress laid on supranational labor organizations. The authors in the collection of Gamble, et al. 2007 stress, through a comparative study of several countries, the “positive side” of globalization, which can be seen as part of democratization and which offers labor opportunities to organize and act at local, national, and global scales. Hensman 2001 provides a critique of why unions and NGOs are opposed to the labor rights clause in the World Trade Organization’s trade agreements and what can be done to make unions and labor-oriented NGOs more internationalist. Wills 1988 asserts that the internationalization of capital can bring workers into closer contact with each other. Her general claim is that globalization can lead to both working-class nationalism and internationalism. Herod 1995 shows how workers through their cross-border political organization can influence the actions of large companies and thus economic globalization itself.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Castree, Noel. “Geographic Scale and Grass-Roots Internationalism: The Liverpool Dock Dispute, 1995–1998.” Economic Geography 76.3 (2000): 272–292.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/144293Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Castree critically comments on the international scale of labor organizing by focusing on a strike in England. The author critiques the idea that even in a globalizing world, labor organization must be preeminently supranational. Those who understand the international character of capitalism will find much to critique in this. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Gamble, Andrew, Steve Ludlam, Andrew Taylor, and Stephen Wood, eds. Labour, the State, Social Movements and the Challenge of Neo-Liberal Globalisation. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                          This text is important for two reasons. First, it offers a comparative study of several countries. Second, it presents the “positive side” of globalization, which can be seen as part of democratization that offers labor opportunities to organize and act in a range of spheres at the local and global scales.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Harrod, Jeffrey, and Robert O’Brien, eds. Global Unions? Theory and Strategies of Organized Labour in the Global Political Economy. RIPE Series in Global Political Economy. London: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                            This collection brings together a variety of themes: the unity of labor, models of trade unionism and the prospects for multinational collective bargaining, relation between core labor standards and the international financial institutions, labor as an actor within civil society, the impact of new communications technologies, and strategies of resistance.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Hensman, Rohini. “World Trade and Workers’ Rights: In Search of an Internationalist Position.” Antipode 33.3 (2001): 427–450.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/1467-8330.00192Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Hensman provides insights into the nature of the debate among unions and NGOs over the relation between workers’ rights and economic globalization, including trade. The author claims that what divides the sides in the debate is a mix of nationalism and protectionism. Scholars with an internationalist perspective will find the article useful. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Herod, Andrew. “The Practice of International Labor Solidarity and the Geography of the Global Economy.” Economic Geography 71.4 (1995): 341–363.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/144422Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                Herod makes the oft-repeated, social-democratic argument that workers shape capitalism’s geography, and in particular, that international organizations of workers shape the geography of globalization. The author provides some empirical material from a particular working-class action in the United States against a global company that was forced to give some concessions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Lee, Byoung-Hoon, and Russell D. Lansbury, eds. Special Issue: Symposium—Varieties of Labour Movements in the Asia-Pacific Region. Journal of Industrial Relations 54.4 (2012).

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Employing the concept of “varieties of unionism,” this special issue is a study of the unionism of countries in the Asia Pacific region. The comparative study sheds light on economic, sociocultural, and ethnic factors that influence the nature of industrial relations and unionism in each country in the age of globalization. Articles available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Munck, Ronaldo, and Peter Waterman, eds. Labour Worldwide in the Era of Globalization: Alternative Union Models in the New World Order. New York: St. Martin’s, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This collection asserts that traditional trade union forms are not effective vehicles for resisting globalization. Labor must see itself less as a class and more as a social movement actor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wills, Jane. “Taking On the CosmoCorps? Experiments in Transnational Labor Organization.” Economic Geography 74.2 (1988): 111–130.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Wills challenges the idea that globalization necessarily undermines workers’ organization. She provides some historical material on labor internationalism and examples from Europe. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      The Nation-State

                                                                                                                                                                                      The nation-state has had a formidable impact on globalization, which in turn impacts the nation-state. Stiglitz 2003 explains how two contradictory forces restrict the power of the nation-state: demands of global economics and political demands for devolution of power. Sparke 2006 explores the connection between globalization and the neoliberal form of governance. Hirst and Thompson 1995 argues that political globalization—international agreements between states—played an important role in establishing the power of the state over society and that globalization has not eroded national autonomy. Das 2012 explains the close links between globalization and the interests of the domestic capitalist class and its political supporters. For Brenner 1999, globalization is leading to the transcendence of state-centric capitalist territorial organization, toward sub- and supernational levels. Gill 1992 discusses the contradiction between economic globalization and nation-state systems, and the attempts to create an international apparatus of economic management. Glassman 1999 presents a theoretical approach to the internationalization of the state, showing how specific business factions can end up sharing concrete interests in specific state policies across national boundaries. Jessop 2012 discusses the obstacles to the development of a world-state rooted in the dominance of the capitalist world market and other factors. Agnew 2009 accepts that globalization can undermine the monopoly of states over their territories, but is critical of the ready association between sovereignty (which states aspire to but never succeed in exercising) and territory, the association that globalization is just complicating.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Agnew, John. Globalization and Sovereignty. Globalization. Lanham, MA: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Agnew argues that globalization is merely complicating the already-problematic association between sovereignty (which states aspire to but never succeed in exercising) and territory. The book contains four chapters apart from the conclusion, and each chapter examines sovereignty.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brenner, Neil. “Beyond State-Centrism? Space, Territoriality, and Geographical Scale in Globalization Studies.” Theory and Society 28.1 (1999): 39–78.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1023/A:1006996806674Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Brenner discusses how globalization is leading to the transcendence of nation-state–centric operation of economic processes and how supra- and subnational scales of economic activities are occurring, partly due to the contemporary role of the nation-state itself in making globalization happen. A sophisticated understanding of state-globalization linkage at multiple scales. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Das, Raju J. “The Dirty Picture of Neoliberalism: India’s New Economic Policy.” Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal, 11 April 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            In this article, Das discusses, among other things, how the nation-state remains a site where economic interests of capital at the national and global scale are met, such that what appears as neoliberal policy is actually a business accumulation strategy, and how even the Left forces can be a part of this process politically.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gill, Stephen. “Economic Globalization and the Internationalization of Authority: Limits and Contradictions.” Geoforum 23.3 (1992): 269–283.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/0016-7185(92)90042-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Gill points to a central contradiction, one between the territorialization of political authority and the universalization of economic forces, and discusses attempts to create an international apparatus of economic management in the form of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and so on. This article is an important intervention by a political scientist speaking to a geography audience. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Glassman, Jim. “State Power beyond the ‘Territorial Trap’: The Internationalization of the State.” Political Geography 18.6 (1999): 669–696.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/S0962-6298(99)00013-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Glassman proposes a theoretical approach to state internationalization, showing how specific factions of business share concrete interests in specific state policies across national boundaries. The potential for transnational coalitions among various factions of capital has helped create the early-21st-century hegemony of neoliberalism among many Third World state officials. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hirst, Paul, and Grahame Thompson. “Globalization and the Future of the Nation-State.” Economy and Society 24.3 (1995): 408–442.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/03085149500000017Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  This article says that inter-state relations themselves contributed to the establishment of the power of the nation-state over society, and that in spite of globalization, national-level economic processes remain central, and that the international economy can be controlled by major nation-states. Social-democratic minded scholars will find much support for their view here. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Jessop, Bob. “Obstacles to a World State in the Shadow of the World Market.” Cooperation and Conflict 47.2 (2012): 200–219.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0010836712443172Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jessop explores the obstacles to the emergence of a world-state that are rooted in the world market, among other factors. He claims to provide some novel arguments about multispatial governance as an alternative approach to the problems posed by a world-state as the guarantor of global social order. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sparke, Matthew. “Political Geography: Political Geographies of Globalization (2)—Governance.” Progress in Human Geography 30.3 (2006): 357–372.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1191/0309132506ph606prSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      It discusses globalization from the angle of (the less directly coercive aspects of) neoliberalism. It provides a critical review of a large amount of early-21st-century literature on the neoliberal form of governance in relation to globalization, from different ends of the political spectrum, and from different geographical contexts of the world. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Stiglitz, Joseph. “Globalization and the Economic Role of the State in the New Millennium.” Industrial and Corporate Change 12.1 (2003): 3–26.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/icc/12.1.3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Globalization has placed new pressures on nation-states and has also reduced their capacities to deal with those. Stiglitz offers the “Third Way Perspective,” which is midway between government domination of economy and free market, a perspective in which the nation-state has a more-than-minimalist role to play in the age of globalization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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