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Latino Studies Catholicism
by
Timothy Matovina, Michael Anthony Abril

Introduction

Spanish-speaking Catholics have lived in what is now the United States for twice as long as the nation has existed. Until World War II, however, Latinos constituted a relatively small and frequently overlooked group among US Catholics. Their numbers and their influence have increased dramatically with an influx of newcomers from such diverse locales as Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, and Argentina along with ongoing Mexican immigration, all swelling the ranks of an established Latino population previously consisting primarily of Mexican-descent Catholics. Latino Catholic communities, once concentrated in New York, the Southwest, and some midwestern cities, now extend from Seattle to Boston and from Miami to Alaska. In the early 21st century Catholics comprise the largest religious denomination in the United States, encompassing nearly a fourth of all US residents, and Latinos constitute more than a third of US Catholics. Moreover, given the relative youthfulness of Latinos, they will continue to represent an increasing percentage of US Catholics over time. But numbers alone do not define the significance of the Latino presence. The mutual influence of Catholicism and Latinos in the United States is shaping not just the future of American Catholic life but also the life of the nation and of course the lives of millions of Latino Catholics. Latinos approach their Catholic faith in a multitude of ways: as primarily a heritage of devotional traditions, as a marker of cultural identity, as a means to struggle for justice, as a source of spiritual growth and comfort, and as an institution with a defined body of doctrines and teachings. Not surprisingly, a considerable number are involved with Catholicism only nominally or not at all. Protestantism, especially in its Pentecostal and evangelical forms, has expanded rapidly though unevenly among Latinos and indeed throughout Latin America. A growing number of Latinos state that they have no religious affiliation. Yet the 60 to 65 percent of the US Latino population that professes to be Catholic continues the long history of Latino Catholicism in the United States and has a strong social and ecclesial impact through such activities as their activism on immigration, workers’ rights, and other issues; their pastoral outreach; their culturally conditioned expressions of faith; and their analyses of their people’s faith and struggles in publications of history, theology, religious studies, literature, sociology, anthropology, and related disciplines.

General Overviews

Sandoval 2006 is one of a growing number of works on the History of Latino Catholics. It provides the best available short overview of Latino Catholic history. Fernández 2000 presents an overview and assessment of the authors of Foundational Works in US Latino theology. Avalos 2004 is a collection of essays that introduces Latino religion both by particular ethnic groups and by themes. Espinosa and García 2008 focuses on the study of Mexican American religions through the disciplinary lens of religious studies. León 2004 attempts a more synthetic analysis of Mexican American religions, employing what the author calls “religious poetics” as an interpretative tool for understanding those religions more profoundly. Even more broadly, Díaz-Stevens and Stevens-Arroyo 1998, written by two sociologists, presents a comprehensive paradigm for understanding the dynamics and trajectories of contemporary Latino religions and their impact on the wider society. Matovina 2012 examines Latinos within US Catholicism, assessing the multiple ways that the US context, the US Catholic Church, and Latinos mutually transform one another. Pew Hispanic Center and Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life 2007 is a frequently cited national statistical study of the state of Latino religion in the United States.

  • Avalos, Hector, ed. Introduction to the U.S. Latina and Latino Religious Experience. Religion in the Americas 2. Boston: Brill, 2004.

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    Multiauthor collection that first analyzes the particular religious experiences of various US Latino ethnic groups then discusses themes in light of these experiences, including art, film, health care, literature, music, politics, and women.

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  • Díaz-Stevens, Ana María, and Anthony M. Stevens-Arroyo. Recognizing the Latino Resurgence in U.S. Religion: The Emmaus Paradigm. Explorations. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998.

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    Comprehensive and bold volume from two eminent sociologists. These authors posit a resurgence within Latino religion beginning in the 1960s, which, in contrast to an assimilationist model, shows how Latino culture and leadership have been reshaping religion and notions of authentic pluralism in the United States.

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  • Espinosa, Gastón, and Mario T. García, eds. Mexican American Religions: Spirituality, Activism, and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008.

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    The book’s six sections include “History and Interpretations of Mexican American Religions,” “Mexican American Mystics and Prophets” (César Chávez, Reies López Tijerina, Católicos por la Raza), “Mexican American Popular Catholicism” (Guadalupe, home altars, pastorelas [dramatic popular expressions of the shepherds who worshipped the child Jesus]), “Mexican American Religions and Literature” (Gloria Anzaldúa, Mary Helen Ponce, Denise Chávez, Sandra Cisneros), “Mexican American Religions and Healing” (Pentecostal and curanderismo [healing]), and “Mexican American Religions and Popular Culture” (pastorela, hybrid art and spiritualities, and Selena).

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  • Fernández, Eduardo C. La Cosecha: Harvesting Contemporary United States Hispanic Theology (1972–1998). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2000.

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    Details the emergence of the field of US Latino theology: its early historical roots, the historical situation of its birth, and the development of explicitly contextual theology in general and of US Latino theology in particular. It also analyzes key figures according to their distinct contributions and their categorization within five models of contextual theology: translation, anthropological, praxis, synthetic, and transcendental.

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  • León, Luis D. La Llorona’s Children: Religion, Life, and Death in the U.S.-Mexican Borderlands. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

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    Comparative study of Latino religion in the US-Mexican borderlands. Author analyzes “religious poetics”—the selective engagement and hybridization of stories, rituals, gestures, bodies, relations, interactions, and sacred figures—in case studies of Guadalupan devotion, the healing tradition of curanderismo, the Mexican-origin religion known as espiritualismo, and Latino evangelical Protestantism.

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  • Matovina, Timothy M. Latino Catholicism: Transformation in America’s Largest Church. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.

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    Historical and contemporary analysis of major trends in Latino Catholicism, including key leaders, organizations, and events in Hispanic ministry. Shows how the US Catholic Church and context have affected Latinos and how Latino leadership and culture are transforming the US Catholic Church and wider society.

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  • Pew Hispanic Center, and Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Changing Faiths: Latinos and the Transformation of American Religion. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center and Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 2007.

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    Extensive national survey on how the growing Latino population is shaping and being shaped by religion in the United States. Key findings include the prevalence of charismatic, spirit-filled religious expressions among Latinos, their preference for ethnic-oriented congregations and worship, and the ways faith shapes their participation in politics and public life.

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  • Sandoval, Moises. On the Move: A History of the Hispanic Church in the United States. Rev. 2d ed. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2006.

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    Succinct overview of Latino Catholic History in the United States, from indigenous roots and Spanish conquest to the US conquest of the Southwest to the religious and political struggles of Latinos in the early 21st century, including civil rights, Hispanic ministry, and immigration. Includes a chapter on US Latino Protestants.

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Reference Works

Three reference works deal with particular aspects of the Latino religious experience: De La Torre 2009, on Latino religious cultures examined from various disciplinary angles; Aponte and De La Torre 2006, on Latino theology; and Gaspar de Alba 1998, on Chicano art, which entails depictions of many religious images and themes.

  • Aponte, Edwin David, and Miguel A. De La Torre, eds. Handbook of Latina/o Theologies. Saint Louis, MO: Chalice, 2006.

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    Thirty-four brief essays from diverse authors introduce a broad range of topics. The first half explores major theological and doctrinal themes, while the second presents contextual essays about various Latino groups, Latino participation in different religions, and topics such as health and healing, sexuality, and Latina feminist theologies.

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  • De La Torre, Miguel A., ed. Hispanic American Religious Cultures. 2 vols. American Religious Cultures. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2009.

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    Encyclopedia with more than one hundred entries encompassing the many diverse religious traditions of US Latinos. Also contains eighteen more detailed essays, primarily on theological topics, such as Christology, God, liturgy and worship, sacraments, liberation theology, Latino theology, spirituality, and popular religion.

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  • Gaspar de Alba, Alicia. Chicano Art inside/outside the Master’s House: Cultural Politics and the CARA Exhibition. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998.

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    Analyzes the art exhibit “Chicano Art: Resistance and Affirmation, 1965–1985,” which toured the United States from 1990 to 1993. Highlights expressions of Chicano culture, including a number of assessments of religious images, such as that of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Both color and black-and-white photographs enhance the author’s written text.

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Anthologies

The first general anthology of primary documents on the history of Latino Catholics was Stevens-Arroyo 1980, which focuses primarily on the writings of ethnic Mexicans and Puerto Ricans. Matovina and Poyo 2000 adds documents from the two decades after Stevens-Arroyo 1980 and encompasses selections from Cubans and other Latino groups. Steele 1997 is a more focused collection of primary sources from 19th-century New Mexico, while García 2007 and García 2009 present selections from the documents of the famous farmworker organizer César Chávez and from Católicos por la Raza, an organization founded in 1969 to advance Chicano Catholics’ efforts at political and ecclesial activism. Bañuelas 1995 provides pivotal selections from the writings of fourteen Latina and Latino theologians, including most of the writers who produced Foundational Works in Latino theology. Castillo 1996 is an anthology of mostly literary writings on Our Lady of Guadalupe, the most acclaimed religious image indigenous to the American hemisphere.

  • Bañuelas, Arturo J., ed. Mestizo Christianity: Theology from the Latino Perspective. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1995.

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    Multiauthor collection covering major founding figures and topics in US Latino theology, including mestizaje or racial and cultural mixture, methodology, pastoral theology, popular religion, Latina theology, ethics, spirituality, and ecumenism. Includes a bibliography of Latino theology.

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  • Castillo, Ana, ed. Goddess of the Americas / La diosa de las Américas: Writings on the Virgin of Guadalupe. New York: Riverhead, 1996.

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    Diverse authors express their dedication to the Virgin of Guadalupe in their own ways, through fiction, poetry, theology, or history. Presents diverse views while favoring a perspective on Guadalupe as a mother goddess from the time of the indigenous figure of Tonantzin to the present.

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  • García, Mario T., ed. The Gospel of César Chávez: My Faith in Action. Celebrating Faith. Lanham, MD: Sheed and Ward, 2007.

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    Collection of statements by the Chicano civil rights leader and cofounder of the United Farm Workers (UFW) César Chávez, arguably the most renowned figure in Chicano history. The anthology is organized topically and highlights Chávez’s spirituality, moral theology, and formative influences.

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  • García, Mario T., ed. Chicano Liberation Theology: The Writings and Documents of Richard Cruz and Católicos por la Raza. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt, 2009.

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    Collection of documents centered on Richard Cruz, founder of Católicos por La Raza, an organization that used militant tactics to try to compel the Catholic Church in Los Angeles to politically and financially support the Chicano movement of the 1960s and 1970s.

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  • Matovina, Timothy M., and Gerald E. Poyo, eds. ¡Presente! U.S. Latino Catholics from Colonial Origins to the Present. American Catholic Identities. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2000.

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    Nearly one hundred original documents ranging from 1534 to contemporary times are included, and six major themes are examined: colonial foundations, enduring communities of faith in the Southwest, immigration, exile, struggles for justice, and the genesis of US Latino theology. Particular attention is given to Latino religious traditions and the perspectives and experiences of Latinas.

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  • Steele, Thomas J., ed. and trans. New Mexican Spanish Religious Oratory, 1800–1900. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.

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    Side-by-side English and Spanish texts of sermons from Catholics, Presbyterians, and Methodists in 19th-century New Mexico that give insight into spiritual and theological themes of the time and devotional practices. Editor’s introductory material provides historical context for the reprinted orations.

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  • Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony M. Prophets Denied Honor: An Anthology on the Hispano Church in the United States. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1980.

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    Presents one hundred historical documents, almost all of them from the 20th century and from Puerto Rican or ethnic Mexican sources, highlighting the genesis and development of a distinctly “Hispano church” in the United States.

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Bibliographies

The largest available bibliography on Latino Catholicism lists largely theological writings, though related disciplines are also represented. More than twenty-five hundred publications are cited in the Latino/a Bibliography of Theology and Religious Studies of the Academy of Catholic Hispanic Theologians of the United States (ACHTUS). Similarly, Davis, et al. 2002 is focused primarily on theological and pastoral writings, in this case those published between 1990 and 2000. Stevens-Arroyo and Pantoja 1995 is an extensive list of social science writings on Latino religion that were published up to 1995.

  • Davis, Kenneth G., Eduardo Fernández, and Veronica Méndez, eds. United States Hispanic Catholics: Trends and Works, 1990–2000. Hispanic Theological Initiative 1. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press, 2002.

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    Chronicles the significant developments and publications in the field with detailed overviews and annotations. Originally published annually in Review for Religious (1942–January 2012) with appendixes covering additional works not included in the original articles, relevant Internet resources, and detailed contact information for pastoral resources.

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  • Latino/a Bibliography of Theology and Religious Studies. Academy of Catholic Hispanic Theologians of the United States.

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    A regularly updated bibliography of works in theology and related fields that are written by US Latino and Latina Catholics and Episcopalians.

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    • Stevens-Arroyo, Antonio M., and Segundo Pantoja, eds. Discovering Latino Religion: A Comprehensive Social Science Bibliography. PARAL Studies 4. New York: Bildner Center for Western Hemisphere Studies, 1995.

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      Extensive bibliography of works on Latino religion in the social sciences and theology; of various kinds of reports, serials, and unpublished documents; and of dissertations and theses. As the title suggests, the section on the social sciences is the most thorough.

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    Journals

    Latino Catholic theologians formed the Academy of Catholic Hispanic Theologians of the United States (ACHTUS) in 1988. Five years later ACHTUS founding member Orlando O. Espín led the academy’s initiative to establish the quarterly Journal of Hispanic/Latino Theology to enhance scholarly, ecumenical, and interdisciplinary exchange on topics pertinent to US Latino Theology, faith, and struggles for justice in church and society; the journal became an online-only publication in 2006. Apuntes: Reflexiones Teológicas desde el Margen Hispano was begun in 1981 and is a Latino Protestant journal that has regular essay contributions about topics pertinent to Latino Catholicism and ecumenical concerns among Latino Christians. Similarly, Perspectivas is an occasional (usually biannual) journal of the ecumenical Hispanic Theological Initiative housed at Princeton Theological Seminary.

    Special Journal Issues

    While there are three scholarly Journals dedicated to Latino theology and religion, various Catholic journals have dedicated special issues to the study of Latino Catholics. All these issues treat a range of topics with essays from a variety of authors. Segovia 1992 and Deck and Davis 1997 examine issues of pastoral care and theology. Bevans and Pineda 1992 explores Latino theology and the evangelization of the New World. Davis 2004 presents a variety of perspectives on Latino and Latina Catholic theology, while Lassalle-Klein 2009 offers more focused studies on the Galilean Jesus, one of the major Christological themes from the writings of the premier US Latino theologian, Virgilio Elizondo. Sandoval 1990, Matovina and Poyo 2002–2003, and Kauffman 2010 are the issues of U.S. Catholic Historian that gather essays on a wide array of topics concerning the history of Latino Catholics in the United States.

    • Bevans, Stephen B., and Ana María Pineda, eds. Special Issue: Columbus and the New World; Evangelization or Invasion? Missiology: An International Review 20.2 (1992).

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      Focuses especially on the theological, moral, and pastoral implications of the Spanish conquest and evangelization of the New World while also addressing Hispanic ministry in regard to Latina women, adult religious education, and ministerial formation, ending with an overview of US Latino theology.

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    • Davis, Kenneth G., ed. Special Issue: Encountering Latino and Latina Catholic Theology. Theological Studies 65.2 (2004).

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      The first of two issues on US Latino theology from one of the leading journals in Catholic theology. Essays in this issue address the theology of symbols, Hispanic ministry, the acculturation process, spirituality and social justice, mujerista (Latina feminist) theology, and the visual cultures of popular religion.

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    • Deck, Allan Figueroa, and Kenneth G. Davis, eds. Special Issue: Pastoral Care of Hispanics in the United States. Chicago Studies 36.3 (1997).

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      Compilation of articles dealing with Hispanic ministry in regard to both immigrant and native-born US Latinos, Hispanic leadership, youth ministry, and the pastoral care of South Americans and Mexicans.

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    • Kauffman, Christopher J., ed. Special Issue: Remembering the Past, Engaging the Present: Essays in Honor of Moises Sandoval. U.S. Catholic Historian 28.4 (2010).

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      Essays honor Moises Sandoval, the leading figure in the 1975 founding and subsequent development of the US chapter of the Commission for the Study of the History of the Church in Latin America (CEHILA). Articles examine the work of Sandoval, the historiography of Latino Catholics, the Cursillo de Cristiandad retreats, and migration and deportation. Articles available online by subscription or purchase.

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    • Lassalle-Klein, Robert, ed. Special Issue: The Galilean Jesus. Theological Studies 70.2 (2009).

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      The second of two issues on US Latino theology from one of the leading journals in Catholic theology. Discusses the significance of Jesus’ Galilean identity highlighted by US Latino theology, connecting it to topics such as Christology, immigration, Marian studies, the option for the poor, and liberation theology.

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    • Matovina, Timothy M., and Gerald E. Poyo, eds. Special Issue: Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Catholic Heritage. U.S. Catholic Historian 20.4–21.1 (2002–2003).

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      Double issue on the history of Latinos in the US Catholic Church encompassing essays on Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. General topics include transnationalism, politics, identity, parishes, organizations, and Latina leadership. Articles available online for purchase or by subscription.

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    • Sandoval, Moises, ed. Special Issue: Hispanic Catholics: Historical Explorations and Cultural Analysis. U.S. Catholic Historian 9.1–2 (1990).

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      Double issue on the history of Latinos in the US Catholic Church encompassing essays on Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. Deals with a variety of topics stretching from the Spanish colonial missions to the late 20th century. Several essays address immigration, Latino clergy, and relations with the wider US Catholic Church. Articles available online for purchase or by subscription.

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    • Segovia, Fernando F., ed. Special Issue: Hispanic Americans in Theology and the Church. Listening: Journal of Religion and Culture 27.1 (1992).

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      Discusses the foundations of US Latino theology, including mujerista (Latina feminist) theology, Latino theological anthropology, spirituality, and the God of the vanquished.

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    History

    US Catholic historians’ strong foci on the Eastern Seaboard and European settlers and immigrants mirror long-standing emphases in the broader scholarship of North American religious history. Studies in the late 20th and early 21st centuries have addressed lacunae in this historiography, such as the role of regionalism, the frontier, women, African Americans, and Asian Americans, to name but a few. Collectively these studies reveal that, while documenting “forgotten” peoples, histories, and regions is an essential intellectual endeavor, it is only a first step toward the more long-range goal of investigating how to remap general narratives of the past in a manner that more adequately encompasses the various peoples, places, and events that formed it. The Latino Catholic experience is one important lens for reassessing narratives of US religious history and US Catholicism in particular. In broad strokes the history of Latino Catholics inverts the standard depiction of their counterparts from nations such as Ireland, Germany, Poland, and Italy. While Catholics were a small minority in the British colonies, in lands from Florida to California they composed a more substantial population under Catholic Spain. While the first mass group of Catholics to settle in the United States was 19th-century European immigrants, the first large group of Hispanic Catholics became part of the nation during that same era without ever leaving home, as they were incorporated into its boundaries during US territorial expansion into Florida and then westward. Just as European immigration diminished to relatively miniscule numbers as a result of 1920s restrictive immigration legislation, Hispanic immigration began in earnest with the Mexican Revolution. The counter trajectory of Latino Catholic history in the United States vis-à-vis that of their European-descent coreligionists necessitates a reanalysis of each epoch delineated in the standard historiography. This is particularly true for the period since World War II, as waves of Hispanic immigrants have composed an increasingly significant portion of what was purportedly an established, Americanized, postimmigrant church. Latino Catholic struggles for rights in church and society have expanded in tandem with the growth of the Latino population.

    Colonial Era

    The first Catholic diocese in the New World was established in 1511 at San Juan, Puerto Rico, now a commonwealth associated with the United States. Subjects of the Spanish crown founded the first permanent European settlement within the current borders of the fifty states at Saint Augustine, Florida, in 1565, four decades before the establishment of Jamestown, the first lasting British colony. In 1598 Spanish subjects traversed present-day El Paso, Texas, and proceeded north to establish the permanent foundation of Catholicism in what is now the Southwest. Catholics in the thirteen British colonies were a repressed minority in a Protestant land, eventually even losing the elective franchise in Maryland, the only British colony that Catholics founded. Thus from the standpoints of original settlement, societal influence, and institutional presence, the origins of Catholicism in what is now the United States were decidedly Hispanic. Yet on the whole, popular perceptions have frequently relegated the historical significance of Hispanic Catholicism in the colonial period to a romanticized and bygone day of the Spanish missions. Even professional historians fall into the false presumptions that the missions were the only Catholic religious institutions in the Spanish colonies and Mexican territories and that all the missions underwent a period of abandonment and decline. In fact parishes, military chapels, and missions housed active Catholic faith communities, and a number of them continue to do so in the early 21st century. Castañeda 1936–1958 encompasses six volumes on the history of the Catholic Church in Texas under Spain and Mexico, while Gannon 1999, Kessell 1976, and Kessell 2008 examine Catholicism during the colonial period in Florida, Arizona, and New Mexico, respectively. Gutiérrez 1991 is a groundbreaking study of colonial New Mexico that sheds significant light on indigenous responses to Spanish colonization efforts, while Hackel 2005 critically assesses Indian-Spanish relations within the California missions. Weber 1992, the most highly acclaimed study of what is now the Southwest United States under Spanish rule, devotes a chapter to the missions throughout the region. Wright 1992 provides a needed corrective to the misconception that the missions were the only Spanish Catholic colonial institutions, presenting a history of the Laredo parish community. Such parishes primarily served the spiritual welfare not of indigenous converts but of Hispanic civilian and military settlers and their descendants. Gutiérrez 1995 examines another type of Catholic religious establishment during the colonial era, the shrine or private chapel, detailing the founding and development of the famous sanctuary of Chimayó in New Mexico.

    • Castañeda, Carlos E. Our Catholic Heritage in Texas, 1519–1936. 7 vols. Austin, TX: Von Boeckmann-Jones, 1936–1958.

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      Seven-volume chronicle of the Catholic Church in Texas from the time of the first Spanish explorers to the mid-20th century. Focuses heavily on the Spanish colonial period and is vast in its scope of people, places, and events during that period. Reprinted in 1993 (Temecula, CA: Reprint Services).

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    • Gannon, Michael V. The Cross in the Sand: The Early Catholic Church in Florida, 1513–1870. 2d ed. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1999.

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      Succinct history of the Catholic Church in Florida from the Spanish colonization up to the creation of the diocese of Saint Augustine during the First Vatican Council (1869–1870). Aimed at a general audience and useful as an undergraduate textbook. Originally published in 1965 (Gainesville: University of Florida Press).

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    • Gutiérrez, Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.

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      Examines New Mexican colonial society through the lens of marriage with particular focus on the perspective of Pueblo Indians to the changes in social relations, sexuality, and power dynamics wrought in the aftermath of Spanish conquest. Encompasses analysis of how Hispanic Catholic marital practices, beliefs, and imagery were part of these broader transformations.

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    • Gutiérrez, Ramón A. “El Santuario de Chimayó: A Syncretic Shrine in New Mexico.” In Feasts and Celebrations in North American Ethnic Communities. Edited by Ramón A. Gutiérrez and Geneviève Fabre, 71–86. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.

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      Examines the sanctuary of Chimayó in New Mexico, where Spanish subjects dedicated a chapel in 1816 on a site Tewa Indians had long acclaimed for the healing properties of its sacred earth. Focuses on the rise to prominence of the shrine, its miraculous dirt, and its Santo Niño de Atocha image.

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    • Hackel, Steven W. Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian-Spanish Relations in Colonial California, 1769–1850. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

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      One of various scholarly attempts to recover the perspectives of Native Americans in the Spanish missions. The geographic range of these works spans the Southwest, with some analyses directed at cultural exchange in the missions. Hackel focuses on California, highlighting natives’ resistance to the destruction of their ancestral religion and culture.

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    • Kessell, John L. Friars, Soldiers, and Reformers: Hispanic Arizona and the Sonora Mission Frontier, 1767–1856. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1976.

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      Distinguished in the author’s effort to tell the stories of real people, both indigenous and Spanish, rather than making general claims about friars or natives in the missions of Arizona. Highlights complex struggles and debates over power, authority, and native rights, revealing both the heroism and the corruption of historical actors.

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    • Kessell, John L. Pueblos, Spaniards, and the Kingdom of New Mexico. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008.

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      Narrative history of colonial New Mexico focusing on the fighting between Pueblo natives and Spanish newcomers. While the Catholic Church plays only a minor role in this primarily political and military history, this book still provides a helpful look at the nature of the missions in New Mexico.

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    • Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. Yale Western Americana. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.

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      Detailed overview of the Spanish conquest and settlement of lands now part of the United States, from Florida to California, and the propagation of the “black legend” about the Spaniards and its contributions to racism toward Latinos. Includes a chapter on religion focused largely on the Spanish missions.

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    • Wright, Robert E. “Popular and Official Religiosity: A Theoretical Analysis and a Case Study of Laredo–Nuevo Laredo, 1755–1857.” PhD diss., Graduate Theological Union, 1992.

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      Examines the interrelations between popular and officially sanctioned religious expressions through a case study of Catholics in Laredo, Texas, from the founding of the first local parish, San Agustín, in the mid-18th century until the appointment of the first French clergy to pastor the parish in the 1850s.

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    Enduring Communities of Faith

    Latino Catholic establishments that originated during the colonial era underwent substantial transformation during US territorial expansion first into Florida in 1821 and then westward. The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo brought an official end to war between Mexico and the United States, established new international borders, and purportedly guaranteed the citizenship, property, and religious rights of Mexican citizens who chose to remain in the conquered territories. Thus unlike the saga of their 19th-century European coreligionists who as émigrés sought haven in a new land, the story of the first large group of Hispanic Catholics in the United States is primarily a tale of faith, struggle, and endurance in places where their Spanish and Mexican forebears had already created a homeland. In one often-repeated phrase they were “foreigners in our native land” who survived the US takeover of northern Mexico. A number of local communities in the former Mexican territories asserted their heritage and pride in the public spaces of civic life through their long-standing rituals and devotions. As Engh 1992 and Matovina 1995 illustrate, from Texas to California various communities continued to enthusiastically celebrate established local traditions, such as pilgrimages, pastorelas (festive proclamations of the shepherds who worshipped the newborn infant Jesus), Holy Week, Corpus Christi, and established patronal feast days like that of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The most renowned lay group that served as the protectors of treasured local traditions was Los Hermanos de la Fraternidad Piadosa de Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno (Brothers of the Pious Fraternity of Our Father Jesus the Nazarene), or Penitentes, in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, a group treated in Pulido 2000 (cited under Faith Expressions). As their titles indicate, the time frame of several works focused primarily on Catholicism in the Colonial Era extends into the 19th century. Wright 1998 underscores local efforts to provide native priests for faith communities, contesting standard depictions of a largely “priestless” Latino Catholicism. Several priests were key community leaders and became controversial figures when they defended the rights of their people, as Chávez 1981 and Neri 1997 reveal in the respective cases of the renowned New Mexican priest Antonio José Martínez and his Californian counterpart José González Rubio. Yohn 1995 focuses on yet another dimension of 19th-century Latino history, the interactions between Protestants and Catholics, in Susan M. Yohn’s case specifically the work of Presbyterian women among the Hispanos of New Mexico. Deutsch 1989 assesses culture, class, and gender dynamics between Anglo-Americans and ethnic Mexican Catholics and Protestants.

    • Chávez, Angélico. But Time and Chance: The Story of Padre Martínez of Taos, 1793–1867. Santa Fe, NM: Sunstone, 1981.

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      Contests the frequent negative portrayals of the 19th-century New Mexican priest Antonio José Martínez. Also narrates Martínez’s many accomplishments, including the establishment of two schools in his hometown of Taos, authorship of numerous books and pamphlets, and extensive service as an elected representative under the Mexican and later the US governments.

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    • Deutsch, Sarah. No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on an Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880–1940. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

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      Examines Anglo-Hispano relations in the US Southwest—particularly in New Mexico and Colorado—around the turn of the 20th century. Focuses especially on the role of women in cross-cultural relations and on social and economic struggles with some brief references to topics related to Latino religion, both Catholic and Protestant.

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    • Engh, Michael E. Frontier Faiths: Church, Temple, and Synagogue in Los Angeles, 1846–1888. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1992.

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      Analysis of the role of religion in the process of community building in the West. This book presents a case study of Los Angeles during a period when it went from being an overwhelmingly Mexican Catholic town to a religiously diverse Anglo-American city.

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    • Matovina, Timothy M. Tejano Religion and Ethnicity: San Antonio, 1821–1860. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.

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      Examines the historical role of religion and ethnicity in the lives of native Mexican Catholics of San Antonio, Texas, during the Mexican period, the Texas Republic, and the first fifteen years after incorporation into the United States.

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    • Neri, Michael Charles. Hispanic Catholicism in Transitional California: The Life of José González Rubio, O.F.M. (1804–1875). Academy of American Franciscan History Monograph 14. Berkeley, CA: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1997.

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      Biography of the Franciscan priest José González Rubio, the most important Catholic leader in the transitional period from Mexican to US rule in California. González Rubio served as secretary or diocesan vicar general for three bishops and was the administrator of the diocese during the crucial years following the US takeover.

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    • Wright, Robert E. “How Many Are ‘a Few’? Catholic Clergy in Central and Northern New Mexico, 1780–1851.” In Seeds of Struggle / Harvest of Faith: The Papers of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe Catholic Cuarto Centennial Conference Held in Santa Fe, NM, in 1997; The History of the Catholic Church in New Mexico. Edited by Thomas J. Steele, Paul F. Rhetts, and Barbe Awalt, 219–261. Albuquerque, NM: LPD, 1998.

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      Contests the frequent depiction of a “priestless” Catholicism in New Mexico during the periods of Spanish and Mexican rule, concluding that at the end of the 1840s some seventeen or eighteen priests were active in New Mexico, most of them recruited locally.

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    • Yohn, Susan M. A Contest of Faiths: Missionary Women and Pluralism in the American Southwest. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

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      Examines the missionary efforts of Presbyterian women in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado from 1870 to 1924, analyzing the interrelations among the missionaries, Hispanic Catholics whom they sought to convert, and the male hierarchies of the Presbyterian and Roman Catholic Churches.

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    New Immigrants

    Émigrés from various backgrounds increased the presence and diversity of Latinos in the 19th-century United States. Navia 2002 presents the life of one of the earliest and most influential Cuban exiles, Father Félix Varela, who advocated for Cuban independence while serving as a parish priest and eventually as vicar general for the diocese of New York. Nascent 19th-century Hispanic immigration quickened over the course of the 20th century, further expanding the diversification of national origins among Latinos in the United States. Massive Mexican immigration began after the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, expanding the population of existing ethnic Mexican communities in the Southwest and establishing scores of new populations in that region and beyond. Dolan and Hinojosa 1994 examines the wide influences of this migration on existing Mexican American Catholic communities and on the Catholic Church in the Southwest and in the Midwest. Treviño 2006 is a more focused study on ethnic Mexican Catholics in Houston beginning in the period of the Mexican Revolution. The urbanization of a primarily rural people and the uneven participation in the economic benefits of industrialization caused many Puerto Ricans to leave home in an unprecedented migration to the mainland after World War II. Díaz-Stevens 1993 focuses on the large numbers of migrants who went to New York City and the impact they had on the Catholic Church there, as does Dolan and Vidal 1994, which further examines Puerto Rican Catholics in mainland locales beyond New York. Thousands of Cubans also left their homeland, largely as a result of Fidel Castro’s 1959 rise to power in the Cuban Revolution. Analyses of their Catholic practice as exiles in the United States are in Dolan and Vidal 1994 and in the more expansive study Poyo 2007. Countries from throughout the Western Hemisphere were represented in the US immigration flows by the 1990s, making the US Latino population more complex and diverse than ever. Civil wars during the 1970s and 1980s in Central America, especially in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, were the catalyst for growing numbers of refugees from that region. Their dealings with Catholic and Protestant leaders in initiatives such as the Sanctuary Movement are treated in García 2006.

    • Badillo, David A. Latinos and the New Immigrant Church. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

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      Comparative study of ethnic Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban Catholics in 20th-century San Antonio, Chicago, New York, and Miami. Focuses on the influence of urban environments, Catholic parishes, and the formation of ethnicity as factors that shape Latino impact in church and society.

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    • Díaz-Stevens, Ana María. Oxcart Catholicism on Fifth Avenue: The Impact of the Puerto Rican Migration upon the Archdiocese of New York. Notre Dame Studies in American Catholicism. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993.

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      Examines the adaptations of institutional Catholic leaders in New York to Puerto Ricans’ faith and religious practices. Tracks Puerto Rican Catholic experience from its origins on the island under Spain to the period following the 1898 US conquest of Puerto Rico to the subsequent waves of migration to the mainland.

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    • Dolan, Jay P., and Gilberto M. Hinojosa, eds. Mexican Americans and the Catholic Church, 1900–1965. Notre Dame History of Hispanic Catholics in the U.S. 1. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.

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      The first of three volumes in the Notre Dame History of Hispanic Catholics in the U.S. series. Presents three essays on 20th-century Mexican American Catholics that allow for regional and comparative analysis: Gilberto Hinojosa on Texas and the Southwest, Jeffrey Burns on California, and David Badillo on the Midwest.

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    • Dolan, Jay P., and Jaime R. Vidal, eds. Puerto Rican and Cuban Catholics in the U.S., 1900–1965. Notre Dame History of Hispanic Catholics in the U.S. 2. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.

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      Encompasses major essays from Jaime R. Vidal on Puerto Rican “citizen immigrants” whose status as US citizens by birth shapes their adaptation to church and society on the mainland and from Lisandro Pérez on the Catholic Church in Cuba and the experience of Cuban Catholic exiles up to 1965.

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    • García, María Cristina. Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

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      Discusses the political and social circumstances surrounding the migration of Central Americans to North America in the latter half of the 20th century and the various responses of North Americans through outreach and government programs, including the responses of religious groups.

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    • Navia, Juan M. An Apostle for the Immigrants: The Exile Years of Father Félix Varela y Morales, 1823–1853. Salisbury, MD: Factor, 2002.

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      Examines the life of one of the earliest Cuban exiles to the United States. In exile he served as a parish priest in New York and eventually rose to the position of diocesan vicar general. He also published an important exile newspaper, El Habanero, and continued to advocate for Cuban independence.

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    • Poyo, Gerald E. Cuban Catholics in the United States, 1960–1980: Exile and Integration. Latino Perspectives. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.

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      Examines the interrelation between Cuban Catholics’ commitment to exile identity and their reluctant integration into US church and society during the 1960s and 1970s. Also narrates the prior involvement and activism of these Cuban Catholics in their homeland before the socialist turn in the Cuban Revolution under Fidel Castro.

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    • Treviño, Roberto R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

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      Explores the interrelation of faith and ethnicity among ethnic Mexican Catholics in Houston from the waves of immigration beginning with the 1910 Mexican Revolution to the rise of the Chicano movement in the 1960s and 1970s. Topics include national parishes, church institutional response to Mexican Americans, and faith and justice.

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    Struggles for Justice

    Whether entering the United States as the result of US territorial expansion or as immigrants or exiles, many Latinas and Latinos face the common challenge of adapting to life in a new country. One of the most defining challenges has been confronting the persistent racism of and rejection by the dominant society. Through their community organizations and activism, which included mutual aid societies, newspapers, labor unions, political organizations, and civil rights groups, Latinos have long struggled to ensure dignity, self-determination, and the right of full participation in US church and society. Efforts to engage faith resources to promote community improvement and struggles for justice are part of these long-standing struggles. One defender of Hispanic historical and cultural legacy was Fray Angélico Chávez, whose life and impressive corpus of literary works about Hispanos in New Mexico are examined in McCracken 2009. As Privett 1988 reveals, some non-Latino Catholic Church leaders advocated for Latinos, such as San Antonio archbishop Robert E. Lucey, who was a tireless promoter of social action, labor unions, and civil rights and the founder of the US Catholic Bishops’ Committee for the Spanish Speaking in 1945. Like the struggles of African Americans and other “minority” groups, Latino activism increased dramatically during the 1960s. This increased activism, along with the reforms of Vatican II and the inspiration of Latin American liberation theology, incited many US Hispanic Catholic leaders to establish new organizations and efforts. Latino activism was most visible in the efforts of the Chicano leaders César Chávez, Dolores Huerta, and the United Farm Workers (UFW). The most renowned figure in Chicano history, Chávez is also known for his Catholic faith, devotion, and enactment of Catholic social teaching. Dalton 2003 is one of numerous writings on his life and labor activism and focuses particularly on his moral vision and faith. During the 1960s and 1970s Latina and Latino Catholics founded organizations such as the priests’ association Padres Asociados por los Derechos Religiosos, Educativos, y Sociales (PADRES, Priests Associated for Religious, Educational, and Social Rights) and Las Hermanas, the only national Catholic organization of Hispanic women. These two organizations and their initiatives for ecclesial and social reform are examined in Martínez 2005 and Medina 2004, respectively. Dolan and Deck 1994 and García 2008 provide a wider panorama of Latinos’ Ecclesial and Social Activism since the early 1960s. Recinos 2011 examines how faith communities of diverse backgrounds can seek common ground to create a more just social order.

    • Dalton, Frederick John. The Moral Vision of César Chávez. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2003.

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      Examines the moral thought of César Chávez, the renowned Chicano leader who engaged prayer, fasting, devotion to the Virgin of Guadalupe, nonviolent resistance, and the principles of Catholic social teaching in his struggle for justice on behalf of farmworkers. Highlights links between Chávez’s thought and liberation theology.

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    • Dolan, Jay P., and Allan Figueroa Deck, eds. Hispanic Catholic Culture in the U.S.: Issues and Concerns. Notre Dame History of Hispanic Catholics in the U.S. 3. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.

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      Multiauthor volume on US Latino Catholics from 1965 to the early 1990s. Presents analyses of Latino efforts to advance their concerns in the US Catholic Church, including examinations of struggles for recognition and identity, the development of leadership, community and church movements, women and youth, liturgy, and popular Catholicism.

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    • García, Mario T. Católicos: Resistance and Affirmation in Chicano Catholic History. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008.

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      Examines how Chicanos engaged Catholicism as popular religious practice and as a basis for social action during the 20th century. Topics include the writings of Fray Angélico Chávez, Catholic social teaching, Chicano priests, the organization Católicos por la Raza, and various popular expressions of Mexican American faith.

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    • Martínez, Richard Edward. PADRES: The National Chicano Priest Movement. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005.

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      Draws on interviews in a history of PADRES from its founding in the late 1960s to its demise two decades later. Details PADRES’s influence on church, on society, and especially on the lives of the Chicano priests who founded and developed the organization.

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    • McCracken, Ellen. The Life and Writing of Fray Angélico Chávez: A New Mexico Renaissance Man. Pasó por Aquí. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2009.

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      Literary biography of Fray Angélico Chávez, a Franciscan priest whose prolific writing and creative efforts to engage New Mexican history and culture elevated the pride of many New Mexican and other Hispanics in their heritage.

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    • Medina, Lara. Las Hermanas: Chicana/Latina Religious-Political Activism in the U.S. Catholic Church. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004.

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      History of Las Hermanas (the sisters), the first national organization of Latina Catholic women, which Chicana nuns founded in 1971 and subsequently opened to all Latina Catholics. Includes analyses of Las Hermanas activism in church and society and its role in developing Latina spirituality and theology.

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    • Privett, Stephen A. The U.S. Catholic Church and Its Hispanic Members: The Pastoral Vision of Archbishop Robert E. Lucey. Trinity University Monograph Series in Religion 9. San Antonio, TX: Trinity University Press, 1988.

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      Examines San Antonio archbishop Robert Lucey, an advocate for social action, labor unions, and civil rights. Lucey led the first national Catholic effort in Hispanic ministry, the Bishops’ Committee for the Spanish Speaking, which he founded in 1945 and then headed for over two decades.

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    • Recinos, Harold J., ed. Wading through Many Voices: Toward a Theology of Public Conversation. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2011.

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      Conversational multiauthor work that brings together thinkers from various racial and ethnic backgrounds in the United States—African Americans, Asian Americans, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans—to discuss the relationship between theology and society.

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    Ecclesial and Social Activism

    Latinos have long engaged in Struggles for Justice within both church and society. Their engagement continues in the early 21st century in advocacy surrounding Immigration and in labor activism, such as that of the United Farm Workers (UFW), the Justice for Janitors campaigns, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees (HERE). Schultze 2007 examines the participation of Latino Catholics in contemporary labor organizing. Arguably the most unnoted Latino Catholic influence in political activism is Latinos’ foundational role in shaping the faith-based model of community organizing. Saul Alinsky’s organizing model, developed in his well-known work in the Back of the Yards neighborhood in Chicago in the late 1930s and his founding of the Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in 1940, has been the most influential among the national community-organizing efforts. Warren 2001 and Wood 2002 contend that the first predominantly Hispanic faith-based community organization, San Antonio’s Communities Organized for Public Service (COPS), played a key role in transforming Alinsky’s organizing model to root it more deeply in local congregations and the faith convictions of their members. Wilson 2008 explores how Latino leaders’ understanding of the Christian narrative and faith shapes the religious identity and political activism of these organizations. The approach of building a community organization on the foundation of congregations and faith-based leaders has been adapted and further developed in various forms throughout the national networks of community organizations, which in the early 21st century total some 160 organizations and exist in nearly every state. Espinosa, et al. 2003 and Espinosa, et al. 2005, respectively, provide a statistical overview and a series of critical essays from the Hispanic Churches in American Public Life study, the most comprehensive study to date on the social activism of contemporary Hispanic Christians.

    • Espinosa, Gastón, Virgilio P. Elizondo, and Jesse Miranda. Hispanic Churches in American Public Life: Summary of Findings. Interim Reports (Institute for Latino Studies, University of Notre Dame) 2. Notre Dame, IN: Institute for Latino Studies, University of Notre Dame, 2003.

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      Summary and analysis of findings from the Hispanic Churches in American Public Life national survey. Includes a religious profile of Latinos in the United States and its relation to data on politics and social engagement, political participation, choice of political parties, and core issues for Latino voters.

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    • Espinosa, Gastón, Virgilio P. Elizondo, and Jesse Miranda, eds. Latino Religions and Civic Activism in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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      Multiauthor work that includes chapters on Catholics and examines César Chávez, the activism of Latina women and Latino priests, Catholic participation in the Sanctuary Movement, faith-based community organizing, Cuban response to young Elián Gonzalez’s arrival in Miami, and efforts to remove the US Navy from the Puerto Rican island of Vieques.

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    • Schultze, George E. Strangers in a Foreign Land: The Organizing of Catholic Latinos in the United States. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2007.

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      Provides an overview of the US Catholic Church and labor organizing in the United States. Includes an examination of César Chávez, Dolores Huerta, and the UFW along with a briefer treatment of more recent organizing efforts among Latinos, largely in service-oriented occupations.

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    • Warren, Mark R. Dry Bones Rattling: Community Building to Revitalize American Democracy. Princeton Studies in American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

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      Provides a case study of faith-based community organizations in Texas and the Southwest. Latino Catholics have had a substantial influence in these organizations beginning with the 1973 founding of COPS among six Mexican American parishes in San Antonio under the leadership of the organizer Ernie Cortés.

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    • Wilson, Catherine E. The Politics of Latino Faith: Religion, Identity, and Urban Community. New York: New York University Press, 2008.

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      Examines how Latino leaders’ understanding of the Christian message and scriptures shapes the religious identity and political activism of their respective organizations and their approach to faith-based activism. Includes analysis of the Resurrection Project, a predominantly Latino Catholic faith-based community organization in Chicago.

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    • Wood, Richard L. Faith in Action: Religion, Race, and Democratic Organizing in America. Morality and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

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      Extensive study of faith-based community organizations by a prominent sociologist with expertise in faith and political participation. Includes a case study of the Pacific Institute for Community Organization (PICO), founded in Oakland in 1972 and subsequently developed into a statewide California and then a national network of faith-based community organizations.

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    Immigration

    Latino newcomers to the United States since the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910 are often deemed New Immigrants as compared to earlier émigrés from Europe. Along with Asian and African counterparts, these Latino émigrés have come in increasingly large numbers the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Numerous grassroots Latinos and church leaders advocate publicly for the rights of émigrés, especially for comprehensive immigration reform. The contemporary immigrant advocacy of Protestants and Catholics, Latinos, and their non-Latino coreligionists is summarized in Hondagneu-Sotelo 2008. Among Catholic bishops, immigration is the social issue that draws the most consistent public response across regions and theological perspectives. Catholic Bishops of Mexico and the United States 2003, the first collaborative pastoral letter between the bishops of Mexico and the United States, presents the Catholic bishops’ collective stance on migration as a hemispheric and global phenomenon and as a long-standing concern in the Bible and in Catholic social teaching. While a sizable group of US Catholics disagrees with all or at least significant parts of the bishops’ stance on immigration, numerous others promote education on the church’s immigration teaching and on policy debates, seek to focus attention on the human struggles and life stories of immigrants, and engage in conversation about responding in faith. Groody 2002 and Groody and Campese 2008, two well-known works on the spirituality and theology of migration, also explicate the perilous experience of border crossing and life as an undocumented immigrant and the responses of people of faith to the plight of émigrés. Ruiz 2011 is a work of exegesis of various biblical passages that deal with migration. The most widespread Catholic responses to immigration are the numerous outreach efforts in local faith communities. Many parishes are a “safe haven” for immigrants, such as Saint Pius V in the Pilsen neighborhood of Chicago. An impressive array of ministries enable émigré parishioners to learn and act on their faith and to provide for one another’s everyday needs, such as food, shelter, clothing, parenting skills, family counseling, refuge from spousal abuse, employment, safe neighborhoods, English-language classes, and legal defense. Dahm 2004, authored by the priest who led Saint Pius during the time when leaders initiated many of these ministries, examines pastoral outreach in Latino immigrant communities through the lens of Saint Pius V Parish.

    • Catholic Bishops of Mexico and the United States. Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope; A Pastoral Letter concerning Migration. Publication 5-529. Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2003.

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      Examines migration as a global phenomenon and as a long-standing concern in the Bible and in Catholic social teaching. Also addresses five major areas of public policy concern: the root causes of migration, protection of family unity, the process of legalization, just treatment for immigrant workers, and humane enforcement policies.

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    • Dahm, Charles W. Parish Ministry in a Hispanic Community. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2004.

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      Study of Saint Pius V Parish in Chicago, where the author served as pastor for two decades. A predominantly Mexican immigrant Saint Pius congregation addressed its everyday needs, such as food, shelter, clothing, parenting skills, family counseling, refuge from spousal abuse, employment, safe neighborhoods, English-language classes, and legal defense.

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    • Groody, Daniel G. Border of Death, Valley of Life: An Immigrant Journey of Heart and Spirit. Celebrating Faith. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.

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      Explores the spirituality of immigrants through a case study of Mexican émigrés, many of them undocumented, who developed the Valley Missionary Program in Southern California. The heart of the program is a retreat movement through which immigrants confront the many difficulties of their lives in the light of faith.

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    • Groody, Daniel G., and Gioacchino Campese, eds. A Promised Land, a Perilous Journey: Theological Perspectives on Migration. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2008.

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      Multiauthor work that encompasses overviews of migration in the Bible, early Christian writings, spirituality, and Catholic social teaching and reflections on migration in light of the option for the poor, the theology of mission, reconciliation, the cross, the Eucharist, and sexual violence against undocumented women.

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    • Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. God’s Heart Has No Borders: How Religious Activists Are Working for Immigrant Rights. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

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      Studies religious leaders’ activism in struggles for immigrant rights. Includes Catholics’ involvement in immigrant labor organizing, initiatives on immigration law reform, and protests and rituals, such as the Posadas sin Fronteras, which interlinks the rejection of the migrant Mary and Joseph at Bethlehem with the plight of immigrants in the early 21st century.

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    • Ruiz, Jean-Pierre. Readings from the Edges: The Bible and People on the Move. Studies in Latino/a Catholicism. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2011.

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      Presents reading strategies for engaging biblical texts from the perspective of marginalized peoples, such as refugees and migrants, then applies these strategies to studies of select biblical texts in Genesis, Ezekiel, Nehemiah, and Matthew and Christopher Columbus’s El libro de las profecías.

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    Pastoral Ministry

    Pastoral ministry initiatives have sought in varying ways to evangelize and make a difference in people’s lives, from the first Catholic subjects of Spain to arrive in territories now part of the United States to the early 21st century. But the genesis of regional and national structures for Hispanic ministry did not emerge until the end of World War II with the 1945 founding of the Bishops’ Committee for the Spanish Speaking. Subsequently, Latino leaders convened national Encuentros Hispano de Pastoral (Hispanic pastoral encounters) in 1972, 1977, and 1985 to build solidarity, to articulate to ecclesial officials their concerns about Hispanics in the church, and to enhance pastoral planning and ministries in Hispanic communities. They also promoted numerous Hispanic leadership and ministry efforts at the parish, diocesan, regional, and national levels. In the early 21st century more than 80 percent of the 195 Catholic dioceses (regional territorial divisions in the Catholic Church) in the United States have diocesan staff assigned to coordinate Hispanic ministry, albeit with varying degrees of time commitment, ranging from part-time coordinators to full-time directors of Hispanic ministry. A growing number of parishes have Spanish-language masses and other forms of Hispanic ministry, and numerous Latinos participate in apostolic movements, such as the Cursillo de Cristiandad (literally, short course in Christianity) and the Catholic Charismatic Renewal. Though somewhat dated, Bishops’ Committee for Hispanic Affairs 1999 provides a detailed statistical survey of Hispanic ministry in US Catholicism, while Ospino 2010 is a qualitative assessment of issues and concerns in that ministry. Other works are focused on particular elements of Hispanic ministerial efforts: Pineda and Schreiter 1995 on theology and approaches to ministry, De Luna 2002 on faith formation and catechesis, Hernandez and Davis 2003 on the theological education of clergy and lay ecclesial ministers, Fernández 2007 on the pastoral care of Mexican American Catholics, Sosa 2008 on liturgy and worship, and Nabhan-Warren 2010 on the origins and development of the influential Cursillo de Cristiandad. Pastoral outreach with those who have undergone the dislocation of Immigration is treated in various works cited under that heading, such as Groody 2002 and Dahm 2004.

    • Bishops’ Committee for Hispanic Affairs, ed. Hispanic Ministry at the Turn of the New Millennium. Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1999.

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      National study that encompasses survey results of US Catholic bishops and diocesan directors of Hispanic ministry and summaries of on-site interviews of leaders in Hispanic ministry. Topics addressed include diocesan and parish structures, priests and seminarians, lay participation and leadership, evangelization and outreach, and key issues and challenges.

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    • De Luna, Anita. Faith Formation and Popular Religion: Lessons from the Tejano Experience. Celebrating Faith. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.

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      Explores the dynamic interplay between Hispanic popular religion and catechesis. Critically assesses catechisms and catechetical initiatives in three formative moments in Mexican American history: the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the US conquest of what is now the Southwest, and the rise of Mexican American catechetical leaders during the 20th century.

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    • Fernández, Eduardo C. Mexican-American Catholics. Pastoral Spirituality. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2007.

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      Synthesizes extant scholarship on the history, religious traditions, spirituality, theology, and especially pastoral ministry among Mexican American Catholics. Includes a helpful list of resources and a glossary of important terms.

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    • Hernandez, Edwin I., and Kenneth G. Davis III. Reconstructing the Sacred Tower: Challenge and Promise of Latina/o Theological Education. Hispanic Theological Initiative 3. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press, 2003.

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      Analyzes obstacles to Latino access to the “sacred towers” of seminaries and other centers of theological education. Authors propose concrete measures to address these obstacles to various stakeholders in this enterprise: educational institutions, accrediting agencies of theological schools, private foundations, denominations, and theological school administrators.

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    • Nabhan-Warren, Kristy. “‘Blooming Where We’re Planted’: Mexican-Descent Catholics Living out Cursillo de Cristiandad.” U.S. Catholic Historian 28.4 (2010): 99–125.

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      Study of the premier apostolic movement among US Hispanic Catholics, the Cursillo de Cristiandad (short course in Christianity), a retreat movement from Spain. Spanish-speaking Catholics in Waco, Texas, enacted the first US cursillo in 1957, and subsequently it spread to Latino and English-speaking Catholics and even many Protestants. Available online by subscription.

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    • Ospino, Hosffman, ed. Hispanic Ministry in the 21st Century: Present and Future. Series Hispania. Miami, FL: Convivium, 2010.

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      Multiauthor work with essays on Hispanic ministry in relation to various core themes: the overall context of US Catholicism, evangelization and faith formation, theology, youth and young adult ministry, liturgy and spirituality, social justice, and leadership formation.

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    • Pineda, Ana María, and Robert Schreiter, eds. Dialogue Rejoined: Theology and Ministry in the United States Hispanic Reality. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1995.

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      Multiauthor work that presents pastoral perspectives on Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Central Americans, and Hispanics more generally and explorations of concerns in Hispanic ministry, such as biblical interpretation, theological formation, Basic Christian Communities, ethics, personal and ministerial formation, and popular piety and liturgy.

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    • Sosa, Juan J. One Voice, Many Rhythms: A Series of Reflections for Pastoral Agents on the Role of Liturgy, Spirituality, and Popular Piety in the Culturally Diverse Assemblies of the United States. Portland, OR: Pastoral Press, 2008.

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      A series of essays by the president of the Instituto Nacional Hispano de Liturgia (National Hispanic Liturgy Institute), an organization that Latino Catholic leaders established in 1979. Essays examine liturgy, spirituality, and popular piety as they relate to Latinos and culturally diverse worship assemblies in the United States.

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    Youth

    Latinos compose more than half of US Catholics under the age of twenty-five and more than three-fourths of Catholics under eighteen in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. These statistics reflect the staggering demographic reality of generational transition in the overall US Latino population. Between 2010 and 2040 the number of third-generation Latinos will triple, the second generation will double, and the overall percentage (though not necessarily the raw numbers) of first-generation immigrants will decline. Clearly, young Latino Catholics are a significant and potentially transformative force in US Catholicism and the wider society, though there are also considerable obstacles to that force being actualized. In this context, analyses of generational transition among Latinos are critical, particularly the difficulty of relations and passing on values from immigrant parents to their US-born or US-reared children. Pew Hispanic Center 2009 is the best national study of second- and subsequent-generation Latinos coming of age in the United States. The central challenge for Catholics of course is passing on the faith to young Latinos. Notre Dame Task Force 2009 explores the early-21st-century state and future possibilities of forming Latinos as Catholics and as leaders in Catholic elementary and high schools. Boyle 2010 is the major work of the Catholic priest most renowned for his ministry among Latino gang members and at-risk youth. Johnson-Mondragón 2007 is a comprehensive work on youth and young-adult ministry among Latinos. It provides analysis of a number of aspects of that ministry and expands on and deepens many of the themes that Latino young people themselves expressed in National Catholic Network de Pastoral Juvenil Hispana 2008, the concluding document from the First National Encounter for Hispanic Youth and Young Adult Ministry. The National Catholic Network de Pastoral Juvenil Hispana, popularly known as La Red (literally, the net), convoked that landmark 2006 event in collaboration with other supporters. Their conclusions stem from the insights and contributions of an estimated 40,000 young people and ministry leaders who participated in the parish, diocesan, and regional encounters that culminated in a national gathering with 1,680 Latino youth delegates and 250 leaders who accompany young Hispanics in ministry.

    • Boyle, Gregory. Tattoos on the Heart: The Power of Boundless Compassion. New York: Free Press, 2010.

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      A Jesuit Catholic priest’s inspiring reflections about helping Latino gang members and at-risk youth through founding Homeboy Industries at Dolores Mission Church in Los Angeles, which provides employment services, education, mental health counseling, tattoo removal, and other programs and services.

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    • Johnson-Mondragón, Ken, ed. Pathways of Hope and Faith among Hispanic Teens: Pastoral Reflections and Strategies Inspired by the National Study of Youth and Religion. Pathways and Journeys for a New Generation 1. Stockton, CA: Instituto Fe y Vida, 2007.

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      Comprehensive study of Hispanic youth and young-adult ministry. Leading experts contributed essays on topics such as education, moral life, social and political involvement, faith and culture in Hispanic families, and passing on the faith. Includes a demographic profile of young Latinos and their religious beliefs and experiences.

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    • National Catholic Network de Pastoral Juvenil Hispana. Conclusiones: Primer Encuentro Nacional de Pastoral Juvenil Hispana; PENPJH. Beaumont, TX: National Catholic Network de Pastoral Juvenil Hispana–La Red, 2008.

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      Conclusions of the 2006 First National Encounter for Hispanic Youth and Young Adult Ministry. An estimated forty thousand young people and ministry leaders participated in the consultative process that culminated in a national gathering with nearly two thousand participants. Topics include the encounter process, statistics on participants, and best practices in ministry.

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    • Notre Dame Task Force on the Participation of Latino Children and Families in Catholic Schools. To Nurture the Soul of a Nation: Latino Families, Catholic Schools, and Educational Opportunity. Notre Dame, IN: Alliance for Catholic Education, 2009.

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      Explicates the “Catholic school advantage,” an array of educational benefits that sociological studies demonstrate are widespread among students in Catholic schools. Also addresses the mere 3 percent enrollment of Latinos in Catholic parochial and high schools, presenting multiple strategies to double this percentage by the year 2020.

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    • Pew Hispanic Center. Between Two Worlds: How Young Latinos Come of Age in America. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center, December 2009.

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      National survey focused on young Latinos whose daily existence occurs at the intersection of two worlds, those of the United States and of their family’s Latino origin. Topics examined include identity, language use, economic well-being, education, family, sexual behaviors, gang involvement, crime, and values and religion.

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    Official Statements of the US Catholic Bishops

    Latino initiatives in Pastoral Ministry have gained official endorsement from the US Catholic bishops. The three most important documents the bishops have promulgated are a pastoral letter on Hispanic ministry (National Conference of Catholic Bishops 1984), the National Pastoral Plan for Hispanic Ministry (National Conference of Catholic Bishops 1988), and a follow-up document to the national pastoral plan (United States Conference of Catholic Bishops 2002). Each of these documents received approval at the annual meeting of the full body of US Catholic bishops. Together the documents articulate the bishops’ pastoral vision for ministries with Hispanics. Related official statements include Committee on African American Catholics and Bishops’ Committee on Hispanic Affairs 1997, a joint declaration of African American and Hispanic bishops to promote reconciliation and collaboration between their respective communities, and a 2003 joint pastoral letter on immigration from the Mexican and US Catholic bishops (Catholic Bishops of Mexico and the United States 2003, cited under Immigration).

    • Committee on African American Catholics, and Bishops’ Committee on Hispanic Affairs. Reconciled through Christ: On Reconciliation and Greater Collaboration between Hispanic American Catholics and African American Catholics. Washington, DC: United States Catholic Conference, 1997.

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      Notes that division and mistrust often mark African American and Latino intergroup relations even though they have common struggles with discrimination, poverty, and a lack of opportunity that could potentially unite them as allies. Document also recommends means to enhance collaboration and unity. National Conference of Catholic Bishops is now the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.

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    • National Conference of Catholic Bishops. The Hispanic Presence, Challenge, and Commitment: A Pastoral Letter on Hispanic Ministry, December 12, 1983. Washington, DC: United States Catholic Conference, 1984.

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      Pastoral letter of the US Catholic bishops promulgated in 1983 to promote ministries among Hispanic Catholics. Addresses a range of pastoral concerns, including liturgy, popular piety, preaching, catechesis, leadership formation, migrant farmworkers, youth, social action, and prejudice in church and society.

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    • National Conference of Catholic Bishops. National Pastoral Plan for Hispanic Ministry. Publication 199-7. Washington, DC: National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1988.

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      Pastoral plan that the US Catholic bishops ratified in 1987. Presents objectives, programs, and projects under the general headings pastoral de conjunto (the integrated coordination of pastoral efforts), evangelization, missionary option, and formation and procedures to evaluate the implementation of the plan.

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    • United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Encuentro and Mission: A Renewed Pastoral Framework for Hispanic Ministry. Publication 5-496. Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2002.

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      US Catholic bishops’ document issued on the fifteenth anniversary of the National Pastoral Plan for Hispanic Ministry. Addresses the four major areas of the national pastoral plan and the “new evangelization”; liturgy and prayer life; and pastoral responses, principles, and challenges in Hispanic ministry.

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    Faith Expressions

    The growing presence of Latina and Latino Catholics in the United States is often observed in the wide array of rituals, devotions, religious traditions, and sacred imagery that they practice and foster. Scholars have examined Latino religious expressions from a variety of approaches and disciplinary lenses. Stevens-Arroyo and Díaz-Stevens 1994 contains essays from various authors who examine Latino popular religion largely from a sociological perspective. García-Rivera 1995 engages semiotics to explore theological testimonies about the life of San Martín de Porres, a mulatto who despite racial prejudice became a Dominican brother in colonial Peru and remains a popular saint among many Latinos. Various other Foundational Works of theology explore Latino faith expressions from within the approaches of that discipline, such as Goizueta 1995 and Espín 1997 (both cited under Foundational Works). Flores 1995 employs an ethnographic method to examine the pastorela, a dramatic popular expression of the shepherds who worshipped the child Jesus. Davalos 1996 also draws on ethnography for the author’s gender and ethnic analysis of the quinceañera, a celebration that traditionally marks a young woman’s maturation to adulthood. Pulido 2000 uses oral and social history to explore Los Hermanos de la Fraternidad Piadosa de Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno (Brothers of the Pious Fraternity of Our Father Jesus the Nazarene), or Penitentes, which for several centuries has exercised ritual and communal leadership in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Chestnut 2012 employs a similar approach to study the growing phenomenon of devotion to a skeletal figure of Santa Muerte (literally, the holy death). Empereur and Fernández 2006 examines the relationship between popular piety and sacraments through the lenses of liturgical theology and ritual studies. Matovina and Riebe-Estrella 2002 is an edited volume whose various authors draw on most of the methodological approaches mentioned here to examine four Mexican-origin traditions practiced in the United States.

    • Chestnut, R. Andrew. Devoted to Death: Santa Muerte, the Skeleton Saint. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

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      The first book-length study of the rising popularity of the enigmatic skeleton Santa Muerte, a folk saint many mainstream Christian leaders reject, which is nonetheless popular among devotees for miracles ranging from healing to matchmaking to protecting drug traffickers.

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    • Davalos, Karen Mary. “La Quinceañera: Making Gender and Ethnic Identities.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 16.2–3 (1996): 101–127.

      DOI: 10.2307/3346805Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Davalos’s ethnographic study shows divergent understandings of this tradition among church leaders, parents, and young Latinas, including a means to honor family and cultural heritage, a rite of passage to adulthood, an affirmation of the young woman’s faith commitment, or a festive gathering with friends and loved ones. Available online by subscription.

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    • Empereur, James L., and Eduardo C. Fernández. La Vida Sacra: Contemporary Hispanic Sacramental Theology. Celebrating Faith. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006.

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      Provides an illuminating look at Roman Catholic sacraments and other faith expressions from a Latino perspective. Deals with key issues in Hispanic ministry while probing into the theological significance of human rituals and sacramentality in general.

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    • Flores, Richard R. Los Pastores: History and Performance in the Mexican Shepherds’ Play of South Texas. Smithsonian Series in Ethnographic Inquiry. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1995.

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      Ethnographic exploration of pastorelas—festive proclamations of the shepherds who worshipped the newborn infant Jesus—in South Texas. Assesses this tradition’s historical origins, performances, and social and religious dimensions.

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    • García-Rivera, Alex. St. Martín de Porres: The “Little Stories” and the Semiotics of Culture. Faith and Cultures. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1995.

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      Explores stories about the Peruvian mulatto saint Martín de Porres using semiotics to argue that popular religion reveals a fuller theological anthropology, entailing an understanding of the uniqueness of the human person not based on the faculty of reason but on the categories of creatureliness, relationality, and imagination.

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    • Matovina, Timothy M., and Gary Riebe-Estrella, eds. Horizons of the Sacred: Mexican Traditions in U.S. Catholicism. Cushwa Center Studies of Catholicism in Twentieth-Century America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.

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      Various authors explore Mexican and Mexican American religious practices, including Guadalupan devotion, the Via Crucis (Way of the Cross), the Día de los Muertos (Day of the Dead), and the healing practice of curanderismo. Concludes with analyses of the worldview underlying Mexican religious traditions and the relation of those traditions to doctrines of faith.

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    • Pulido, Alberto López. The Sacred World of the Penitentes. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000.

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      With an emphasis on oral storytelling, follows the history and practices of Los Hermanos de la Fraternidad Piadosa de Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno—also known as the Penitentes—lay communities of Catholic men in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado who have helped preserve Latino traditions amid a shifting social and ecclesial climate.

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    • Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony M., and Ana María Díaz-Stevens, eds. An Enduring Flame: Studies on Latino Popular Religiosity. PARAL Studies 1. New York: Bildner Center for Western Hemisphere Studies, 1994.

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      Multiple authors address the cultural and sociological significance of Latino popular religion. Assesses historical influences on popular religion, such as ecclesiastical authority, social context, medieval Catholicism, indigenous spirituality, and the Spanish conquest.

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    Marian

    Every Spanish-speaking country in Latin America and the Caribbean along with Portuguese-speaking Brazil has a national Marian patroness. Hispanic Catholic communities in the United States celebrate Marian traditions from their respective homelands, such as Our Lady of Altagracia from the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua’s Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception of El Viejo, and the Cuban Nuestra Señora de la Caridad del Cobre (Our Lady of Charity of El Cobre). Given that people of Mexican descent have long lived in what is now the United States and compose about two-thirds of US Latinos, it is not surprising that devotion to Mexico’s Our Lady of Guadalupe is the oldest, most widespread, and most studied Marian devotion among Latinos. Matovina 2005 explores the historical evolution of Guadalupan devotion in San Antonio, Texas, from the origins of the town in 1731 to the early 21st century. Three other case studies provide ethnographic examinations of Guadalupan devotion: Sklar 2001 on dance and other ritual practices for the annual Guadalupe feast in Tortugas, New Mexico; Gálvez 2010 on the engagement of Guadalupe to foster solidarity and struggles for rights among undocumented immigrants in New York; and Peña 2011 on the creation of Guadalupe shrines in the Chicago area. Rodriguez 1994 draws on interviews the author conducted with Mexican American women to assess Guadalupe’s significance in their lives. Elizondo 1997 is an influential theological analysis of the Nican mopohua (a title derived from the document’s first words, “here is recounted”), the Nahuatl-language account of Guadalupe’s 1531 apparitions to the indigenous neophyte Juan Diego that Guadalupan devotees acclaim as the foundational text of the Guadalupe tradition. Tweed 1997, a major work on the Cuban national patroness, explores diasporic religion among Cuban exiles at the shrine they created in Miami to honor Nuestra Señora de la Caridad del Cobre. Nabhan-Warren 2005 is a thorough ethnography of the Marian visionary Estela Ruiz and the religious movement she helped to create in South Phoenix and has continued since 1988.

    • Elizondo, Virgilio P. Guadalupe: Mother of the New Creation. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1997.

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      Introduces, translates, and analyzes the indigenous Nican mopohua text of the Guadalupe event, highlighting themes that are significant for the experience of US Latinos in the early 21st century and drawing theological reflections for the wider community of Christian believers.

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    • Gálvez, Alyshia. Guadalupe in New York: Devotion and the Struggle for Citizenship Rights among Mexican Immigrants. New York: New York University Press, 2010.

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      Ethnographic study that shows how Our Lady of Guadalupe and devotion to the suffering and crucified Jesus play a major role in the political struggles of Mexican immigrants in New York City, as they fight for rights and immigration reform.

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    • Matovina, Timothy M. Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present. Lived Religions. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

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      Traces the Guadalupan devotion of parishioners at San Fernando Cathedral in San Antonio—the oldest cathedral sanctuary in the United States—from its Mexican colonial origins to the early 21st century. Shows how the devotion shapes and is shaped by the community, transforming its meanings in the context of changing political, social, and spiritual contexts.

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    • Nabhan-Warren, Kristy. The Virgin of el Barrio: Marian Apparitions, Catholic Evangelizing, and Mexican American Activism. Qualitative Studies in Religion. New York: New York University Press, 2005.

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      Situates in contemporary religious and social trends the experiences of Estela Ruiz, a contemporary Marian visionary from Phoenix. With the help of friends and family members, Ruiz founded two community-based initiatives for evangelization and social justice: Mary’s Ministries and Espiritu Community Development Corporation.

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    • Peña, Elaine A. Performing Piety: Making Space Sacred with the Virgin of Guadalupe. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

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      Examines the production of sacred space at the original Guadalupe shrine in Mexico City; a replica in Des Plaines, Illinois; women’s pilgrimages in Mexico; and a sidewalk shrine in Chicago. Highlights the complex political, religious, and societal factors in this production and the way it transcends national borders.

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    • Rodriguez, Jeanette. Our Lady of Guadalupe: Faith and Empowerment among Mexican-American Women. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994.

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      Theological and ethnographic study based on interviews with a focused demographic sampling of Mexican American women. Seeks to conceptualize the meaning that Our Lady of Guadalupe has for these women and then to elucidate theological conclusions based on these data.

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    • Sklar, Deidre. Dancing with the Virgin: Body and Faith in the Fiesta of Tortugas, New Mexico. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

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      A scholar who immersed herself in the yearly fiesta in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe in Tortugas, New Mexico, analyzes the local community’s dances, processions, pilgrimages, and other ritual practices to understand the connection between communal practices and the sacred.

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    • Tweed, Thomas A. Our Lady of the Exile: Diasporic Religion at a Cuban Catholic Shrine in Miami. Religion in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

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      Explores the history and significance of the Miami shrine dedicated to Nuestra Señora de la Caridad del Cobre (Our Lady of Charity of El Cobre) and the exilic religious practices enacted there, especially as they bring together diverse religious meanings and faith expressions and contribute to the group identity of Cubans in the United States.

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    Christological

    Latino dedication to Jesus accentuates the moments in his life when he is most human and vulnerable: in the crib and on the cross. Hispanics’ widespread participation and leadership efforts to organize Way of the Cross rituals are their most conspicuous influence on worship practices for Good Friday, the day Jesus was crucified. Karen Mary Davalos’s essay on the Via Crucis (Way of the Cross) in Chicago’s Pilsen neighborhood in Matovina and Riebe-Estrella 2002 (cited under Faith Expressions) and the chapter on New York’s El Viacrucis del Inmigrante (the Way of the Cross of the Immigrant) in Gálvez 2010 (cited under Marian) provide two superb examples of how this devotion is linked to contemporary struggles for justice in Latino communities. Goizueta 1995 and Ashley 1999 encompass treatments of Way of the Cross rituals conducted through the streets of San Antonio and Manhattan’s Lower East Side, respectively. The premier theological work to examine Latino Christology is Elizondo 1983. This book and Elizondo 2003 address the question of Jesus’ origins as a Galilean and probe how awareness of Jesus’ Galilean background deepens our understanding of Jesus and those like him whose lives straddle two (or more) cultural worlds. De La Torre 2002 examines Cuban artistic and other symbolic representations of Christ through the lens of Cuban history and culture. Recinos and Magallenes 2010 is a multiauthor, ecumenical work that explores various practices and theological analyses of Christ from US Latino perspectives. Pescador 2009 is an ethnographic and historical study of El Santo Niño de Atocha (the Holy Child of Atocha), an image of Christ as a young man that is highly revered in New Mexico and other parts of the Southwest.

    • Ashley, Wayne. “The Stations of the Cross: Christ, Politics, and Processions on New York City’s Lower East Side.” In Gods of the City: Religion and the American Urban Landscape. Edited by Robert A. Orsi, 341–366. Religion in North America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

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      Study of Good Friday rituals at Saint Brigid’s Parish and their links to the topography of Manhattan’s Lower East Side. Significant tensions arose between activist Euro-American priests and their predominantly Puerto Rican parishioners, because various congregants objected to the clergy’s messages correlating Christ’s way to Calvary with contemporary political issues.

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    • De La Torre, Miguel A. The Quest for the Cuban Christ: A Historical Search. History of African-American Religions. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.

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      Presents themes of liberation theology through analyzing symbols of Christ in Cuban history and Cubans’ contemporary social context, including the Spanish conquest, the life and thought of the father of Cuban independence José Martí, African-descent Cubans and Santeria, women, 20th-century figures, and works of art.

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    • Elizondo, Virgilio P. Galilean Journey: The Mexican-American Promise. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1983.

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      With the Mexican American borderlands experience as a starting point, probes how awareness of Jesus’ background as a Galilean deepens our understanding of him. Then probes how knowledge of Jesus’ Galilean identity sheds light on our understanding of his public ministry; table fellowship; and eventual passion, death, and resurrection.

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    • Elizondo, Virgilio P. A God of Incredible Surprises: Jesus of Galilee. Celebrating Faith. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

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      Rereading of Jesus’ life centered on his origins in the obscure village of Galilee and the implications for Christian faith that he was born among not the powerful but the marginalized. Creatively interweaves reflections on the lived experience of Mexican American Catholics with meditations on the life of the Galilean Jesus.

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    • Goizueta, Roberto S. Caminemos con Jesús: Toward a Hispanic/Latino Theology of Accompaniment. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1995.

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      Encompasses an ethnographic and theological analysis of the San Fernando Cathedral community in San Antonio, Texas, as they accompany Jesus and Mary in prayer, particularly in the dark hours of the crucifixion on Good Friday, with unwavering confidence that Jesus and Mary will also accompany them in their daily struggles.

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    • Pescador, Juan Javier. Crossing Borders with the Santo Niño de Atocha. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2009.

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      Follows the origins, development, and variations of the devotion to Santo Niño de Atocha, an image of the Christ child popular in Spain, parts of Latin America, and the Philippines. Focuses especially on the significance of the devotion for Mexican immigrants and the people of the US-Mexico borderlands.

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    • Recinos, Harold J., and Hugo Magallanes, eds. Jesus in the Hispanic Community: Images of Christ from Theology to Popular Religion. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2010.

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      Ecumenical, multiauthor work that encompasses chapters on the Galilean Jesus, Latina feminist understandings of Christology, visual images of Jesus in Latino popular Catholicism, and a case study of the Chapel of the Lord of Miracles, a private shrine in San Antonio that Latinos have maintained for two centuries.

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    Engagement with African and Indigenous Religious Traditions

    Many Latinos engage in practices partly rooted in indigenous religions, such as the healing tradition of curanderismo or in African religions such as Santeria. Curanderos (healers) have long served among Hispanics in the Southwest, especially those who were too poor to afford doctors or health care. Putnam 1963 and Romano V. 1965 narrate the lives of the two most famous curanderos operating in the United States during the 19th century, Don Pedro Jaramillo and Teresa Urrea, the latter known as La Santa de Cabora. Both were Mexican émigrés known for their compassion, humility, and willingness to freely help their own Mexican people and those from other backgrounds who sought their aid and counsel. Both of their images adorn numerous homes and are imprinted on candles available at religious and retail stores throughout the region. Nava 2005 examines the connections between mysticism and apocalyptic politics in Urrea’s life and public persona. León 2002 is an ethnographic study of a more contemporary curandera who performs her services from a storefront in East Los Angeles. Brown 2003 provides an overview and analysis of the Afro-Cuban religion of Santeria, which has grown in the United States since the late 20th century, concurrent with Caribbean migrations and the attraction to Santeria among other Latino groups. In numerous cities and towns botánicas (folk medicine stores) offer an array of religious goods, such as herbs; powders; incense; candles; prepared waters; and images of saints, gods, goddesses, and other spiritual entities. In a number of botánicas the services of a curandera, santera (faith healer), or other spiritual guide are also available. Stevens-Arroyo and Pérez y Mena 1995 provides an overview of such developments along with analyses of Latino Catholics’ engagement with African and indigenous religions. It also provides assessments of the controversial term “syncretism,” which refers to the mixing of religions but often carries negative connotations that have led both scholars and practitioners of religions such as Santeria to reject its usage.

    • Brown, David H. Santería Enthroned: Art, Ritual, and Innovation in an Afro-Cuban Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

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      Extensive historical, cultural, and sociological study of the art and rituals of the Afro-Cuban tradition Santeria, a collection of beliefs and practices comprising African, indigenous, and Christian elements.

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    • León, Luis D. “‘Soy una Curandera y Soy una Católica’: The Poetics of a Mexican Healing Tradition.” In Horizons of the Sacred: Mexican Traditions in U.S. Catholicism. Edited by Timothy M. Matovina and Gary Riebe-Estrella, 95–118. Cushwa Center Studies of Catholicism in Twentieth-Century America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.

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      Study of a contemporary curandera named Hortencia who offers her services from the storefront Sagrado Corazón (Sacred Heart) botánica in East Los Angeles. Includes ethnographic analysis of the relationship Hortencia and those who visit her perceive between their practice of curanderismo and their identity as Catholics.

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    • Nava, Alex. “Teresa Urrea: Mexican Mystic, Healer, and Apocalyptic Revolutionary.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.2 (2005): 497–519.

      DOI: 10.1093/jaarel/lfi045Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Focuses on the connections between mystical experiences and political implications of the healing ministry and worldview of Teresa Urrea, a Mexican curandera forced into exile during the dictatorship of Mexican president Porfirio Díaz. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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    • Putnam, Frank Bishop. “Teresa Urrea, ‘the Saint of Cabora.’” Southern California Quarterly 45.3 (1963): 245–264.

      DOI: 10.2307/41169794Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Biographical essay on famous curandera forced into US exile after the Mexican government accused her of inciting rebellion. Subsequently she sojourned for various periods of time at places in Arizona, Texas, and California, always practicing her healing art and attracting a steady stream of those afflicted with various maladies. Available online by subscription.

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    • Romano V., Octavio Ignacio “Charismatic Medicine, Folk-Healing, and Folk-Sainthood.” American Anthropologist 67.5 (1965): 1151–1173.

      DOI: 10.1525/aa.1965.67.5.02a00040Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Examines the concept of charismatic medicine through a case study of the curandero Don Pedrito Jaramillo, a 19th-century Mexican émigré to Texas. Renowned for his gift of healing and his compassion, Jaramillo’s home at Falfurrias in South Texas remains a popular pilgrimage site.

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    • Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony M., and Andres I. Pérez y Mena, eds. Enigmatic Powers: Syncretism with African and Indigenous Peoples’ Religions among Latinos. PARAL Studies 3. New York: Bildner Center for Western Hemisphere Studies, 1995.

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      Multiple authors argue for the legitimacy of how Latino cultures bring together diverse indigenous, African, and Christian elements for healings and folk magic, especially in Cuban Santeria. The book presents various approaches and perspectives, particularly the social sciences.

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    Theology

    Latina and Latino Catholics have engaged in reflection and analysis of their faith experience for generations. Clergy and everyday believers have expressed their spiritual convictions and insights in such diverse sources as rituals and devotions, sermons, letters, petitions, speeches, editorials, testimonials, and prayers. Yet only in the late 20th and early 21st centuries have Latinos produced a body of published theological literature. Various social forces facilitated the emergence of Latino theologies. In the Roman Catholic Church the Vatican II international council of bishops (1962–1965) and subsequent papal teaching, especially the call for theological reflection adapted to particular local contexts, provided impetus and official support for the work of Latino theologians. The growing number of university-educated Latinos and the noteworthy population increase among Latinos generally enhanced the pool of potential theologians and accentuated the need for a theology that addressed Hispanic faith expressions and pastoral needs. Latin American liberation theologians, such as Gustavo Gutiérrez, developed theological works and approaches that inspired many Latino theologians in their work, although from early on Latino theologians in the United States recognized that they had to develop an original theology grounded in their unique historical experience and social reality. By the end of the 1980s the number of Latino Catholic theologians was sufficient for them to form their own professional association. Led by Arturo J. Bañuelas and Allan Figueroa Deck, both noted theologians and widely recognized analysts and practitioners of Hispanic ministry, Latino theologians in 1988 formed the Academy of Catholic Hispanic Theologians of the United States (ACHTUS). The following summer they convened the organization’s first annual meeting. While ecumenical in both its membership and its mission, ACHTUS is largely a Latino Catholic organization that provides a forum for professional Latino theologians to develop their ideas and projects. In 1993 the ACHTUS leader Orlando O. Espín led the academy’s initiative to establish the quarterly Journal of Hispanic/Latino Theology (cited under Journals), which joined the ranks of online journals in 2006. Since its inception this journal has enhanced scholarly, ecumenical, and interdisciplinary exchange on topics pertinent to Latino theology. The Journal of Hispanic/Latino Theology, its Latino Protestant counterpart Apuntes (cited under Journals), begun in 1981, and the dramatic increase in books and articles that Latina and Latino theologians publish in a wide variety of venues have provided a major new voice and perspective in the theological landscape of the United States and beyond.

    Foundational Works

    The spark that ignited a Latino theological movement was the groundbreaking work of Virgilio P. Elizondo, who published his first essay from a distinctly Mexican American perspective in 1972. Elizondo 1983 was the first major work of Latino theology and gave rise to other Latino theological studies that took up his themes of mestizaje (the mixing of cultures), Latino faith expressions, a Galilean Christology, the struggle for justice, and above all theological investigations that take seriously the faith and experience of Latinas and Latinos. Subsequently, both Protestant and Catholic Hispanic colleagues joined Elizondo in a collaborative effort to construct theologies from a Latino perspective. Most noteworthy among Protestant contributors is Justo L. González, a Cuban Methodist leader in theological education who has been the most prolific writer among Latino theologians. His publications include the influential González 1990, which articulates a thorough reassessment of core Christian doctrines grounded in an approach that rereads Christian scriptures, theology, and history from the perspective of marginalized “minority” peoples. Ada María Isasi-Díaz and Yolanda Tarango authored the first book of theological analysis from the perspective of Latinas in the United States (Isasi-Díaz and Tarango 2005, originally published in 1988). Based on extensive ethnographic investigations they conducted with small groups of Latinas around the country, they presented a method for engaging the voices of Latinas in theological work and illustrated that method’s promise through their examination of the religious experiences and ethical understandings of Latina women. While these three writers all have multiple works, the cited volumes are the first major work of each and, respectively, the first significant works from Latino Catholic, Latino Protestant, and Latina authors. Other early works further established the foundation of Latino theologies. Guerrero 1987 examines the multiple dimensions of Chicano oppression and outlines a theology of liberation to address them. Deck 1989 focuses on the theme of Hispanics and evangelization in the US context. Drawing on the insights of Latin American feminist theologians, Aquino 1993 explores core theological themes and struggles in the lives of Latinas. Goizueta 1995 notes the theology of accompaniment evident in Hispanic devotions to Jesus and Mary and opens the crucial question of the relationship between beauty and justice in Christian theology and in Christian life. García-Rivera 1999 picks up on these very questions in the development of a theological aesthetics or theology of beauty. Espín 1997 exemplifies its author’s singular contribution to theological reflection on Latino popular Catholicism.

    • Aquino, María Pilar. Our Cry for Life: Feminist Theology from Latin America. Translated by Dinah Livingstone. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1993.

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      Explores the theological significance of the experience and liberating struggles of Latinas. The first part follows the historical development and distinguishing features of theology done by women, while the second details its methodological and thematic contributions, especially in regard to liberation theology.

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    • Deck, Allan Figueroa. The Second Wave: Hispanic Ministry and the Evangelization of Cultures. Isaac Hecker Studies in Religion and American Culture. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1989.

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      Devises pastoral strategies for Hispanic ministry in the contention that North American culture itself must be evangelized by the positive religious values of Latino culture. The author gives an overview of the pastoral situation of Latinos, its major challenges, and the growing need for ministry while fostering an appreciation of Latino spirituality.

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    • Elizondo, Virgilio P. Galilean Journey: The Mexican-American Promise. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1983.

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      This first major work of US Latino theology rereads the Gospel through the Mexican American experience of mestizaje, the cultural mixing occurring now just as in the Spanish conquest of Mexico and in the Galilee of Jesus’ day. From this perspective, the marginalized mestizos are called to inaugurate a new creation that transcends divisions.

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    • Espín, Orlando O. The Faith of the People: Theological Reflections on Popular Catholicism. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1997.

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      Shows the revelatory significance of popular faith expressions by exploring the history and theological implications of key devotions and symbols of Latino popular Catholicism, including the crucified Christ and the Virgin Mary. It validates an epistemological appreciation of popular faith expressions by grounding them in the sensus fidelium (sense of the faithful).

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    • García-Rivera, Alejandro. The Community of the Beautiful: A Theological Aesthetics. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1999.

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      Develops a theological aesthetics from a Latino perspective by bringing the Swiss theologian Hans Urs von Balthasar into dialogue with American pragmatism and semiotics in the Latino context, including Latino popular Catholicism and the author’s own experience as a Cuban American. This provides an aesthetic vision of being, truth, liberation, and the church.

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    • Goizueta, Roberto S. Caminemos con Jesús: Toward a Hispanic/Latino Theology of Accompaniment. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1995.

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      Explores the notion of acompañamiento (accompaniment) in US Hispanic popular Catholicism to articulate Latinos’ communal understanding of the self, the aesthetic dimension of liberating praxis and the preferential option for the poor, and the relation of US Latino theology to pluralism and postmodernity.

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    • González, Justo L. Mañana: Christian Theology from a Hispanic Perspective. Nashville: Abingdon, 1990.

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      This first major Protestant work of US Latino theology, written by a Cuban American Methodist, reexamines core Christian sources and doctrines from the perspective of the experience of minority persons. Topics include scripture, the nature of God, the Trinity, the doctrine of creation, theological anthropology, Christology, and eschatology.

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    • Guerrero, Andrés G. A Chicano Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1987.

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      Explores twelve “shared themes” primarily through interviews of nine key Chicana and Chicano leaders, including Dolores Huerta, José Ángel Gutiérrez, and Bishop Gilbert Chávez. Themes examined encompass machismo y la mujer (machismo and woman), racism-classism, and especially the symbolic significance of Our Lady of Guadalupe and the concept of la raza cósmica (the cosmic race).

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    • Isasi-Díaz, Ada María, and Yolanda Tarango. Hispanic Women: Prophetic Voice in the Church. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press, 2005.

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      A constructive analysis of theology and ethics from the perspective of US Latinas (later described as mujerista [Latina feminist] theology) built on the testimonies of Latinas compiled through a series of ethnographic conversations in small discussion groups across the United States. Each chapter ends with a helpful summary in Spanish. Originally published in 1988 (San Francisco: Harper and Row).

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    New Voices

    The scholars who built on the Foundational Works of theologians such as Virgilio P. Elizondo, Justo L. González, and Ada María Isasi-Díaz are too numerous to mention in this bibliography. More than twenty-five hundred publications are listed in the bibliography of ACHTUS, Latino/a Bibliography of Theology and Religious Studies (cited under Bibliographies). The works in this section are the first books of some of the most well-known Latina and Latino theologians. Díaz 2001 broke new ground in comparing the perspectives of Latino theologies with the influential German theologian Karl Rahner on the issue of theological anthropologies; that is, religious understandings of what it means to be human. Méndez Montoya 2009 presents a theological exploration into the relationship among religion, food, and the Christian understanding of the Eucharist, while Gonzalez 2003 retrieves the important writings of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, a 17th-century Mexican religious woman, as a rich source for women of faith and for understanding the relationship between beauty and justice. González-Andrieu 2012 explores theological aesthetics and encounters with God through the experience of beauty. Both Lee 2009 and Pineda-Madrid 2011 examine soteriology or the theology of salvation, the former in the writings of the martyred El Salvadoran Jesuit Ignacio Ellacuría and the latter in the horrific suffering of raped and murdered women in Ciudad Juárez, across the border from El Paso, Texas. Sánchez 2008 assesses the capacity of religion to subvert imperial myths through an examination of religious symbol and discourse in 1st-century Rome, the Spanish conquest of Mexico, and the early-21st-century barrios of East Los Angeles. Nanko-Fernández 2010 explores a range of topics in a single volume that brings together and addresses previously published essays.

    • Díaz, Miguel H. On Being Human: U.S. Hispanic and Rahnerian Perspectives. Faith and Cultures. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2001.

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      Brings US Latino Catholic theological perspectives on the human person, including the sacramental vision of reality in Latino popular Catholicism, into conversation with the theology of Karl Rahner to show how these distinct visions can mutually enrich one another.

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    • Gonzalez, Michelle A. Sor Juana: Beauty and Justice in the Americas. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2003.

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      Draws from Hans Urs von Balthasar, Roberto S. Goizueta, feminist theology, and womanist theology to retrieve the work of the 17th-century Mexican Carmelite nun Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Assesses de la Cruz’s theological contribution to Latin American liberation theology by examining her understanding of the three transcendental realities: beauty, the good, and the true.

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    • González-Andrieu, Cecilia. Bridge to Wonder: Art as a Gospel of Beauty. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2012.

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      Explores art in connection to the concept of revelation, expounding on the image of human creativity as a bridge between religion and art while posing a theological aesthetics method for the mutual engagement of art and religion and of theology and beauty. Includes various color images of artworks examined in the text.

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    • Lee, Michael Edward. Bearing the Weight of Salvation: The Soteriology of Ignacio Ellacuría. New York: Crossroad, 2009.

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      This analysis of the thought of the liberation theologian, Jesuit priest, and El Salvadoran martyr Ignacio Ellacuría makes the case that Ellacuría forges an innovative link between salvation and discipleship. Lee’s book reveals the vital conversions with Latin American theologies that have shaped and have been shaped by US Latino theology.

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    • Méndez Montoya, Angel F. The Theology of Food: Eating and the Eucharist. Illuminations: Theory and Religion. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

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      Explores the theological meaning of certain food practices and narratives to discuss such topics as the nature of theology, relationality and epistemology, ecclesial communion, and the ethical-political implications of the Eucharist.

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    • Nanko-Fernández, Carmen. Theologizing en Espanglish: Context, Community, and Ministry. Studies in Latino/a Catholicism. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2010.

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      A compilation of the author’s essays covering topics including ecclesiology, practical and pastoral theology, theology in context, and the theology of immigration.

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    • Pineda-Madrid, Nancy. Suffering and Salvation in Ciudad Juárez. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2011.

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      Engages as a theological source the experience and struggles of women in Ciudad Juárez, where numerous women have been raped and tortured in a plight of “feminicide.” Reexamines the Christian theology of salvation, particularly as articulated in Anselm of Canterbury’s classical work Cur Deus Homo (1098).

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    • Sánchez, David A. From Patmos to the Barrio: Subverting Imperial Myths. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2008.

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      Links John of Patmos’s Revelation 12 and the 17th-century indigenous transformation of Spanish imagery through Our Lady of Guadalupe to the 1960s–1970s Chicano movement’s cultural and political resistance as expressed in murals. Includes an appendix with pertinent, colorful photographs of images of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

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    Collaborative Volumes

    Latina and Latino theologians advocate a communal approach to their work, often expressed in the phrase teología de conjunto. The five hundredth anniversary of the encounter and clash of the “Old” and “New” Worlds in 1992 coincided with the publication of four initial collaborative efforts: Deck 1992, Goizeuta 1992, Segovia 1992 (cited under Special Journal Issues), and Bevans and Pineda 1992 (also cited under Special Journal Issues). Authors of Foundational Works in Latino theologies were the primary contributors to these four coauthored volumes. Isasi-Díaz and Segovia 1996 and Casarella and Gómez 1998 furthered these efforts to articulate the contours of Hispanic/Latino theology. The latter work employs an intentionally interdisciplinary approach that encompasses analyses from the perspectives of history and pastoral ministry among Hispanic communities. The subsequent edited volumes Espín and Díaz 1999 and Espín and Macy 2006 advanced efforts to articulate systematic theology and a theology of tradition from a Latino perspective, respectively. As its title states, Aquino, et al. 2002 is a collaborative work on Latina feminist theology. The volume includes essays from several Protestant authors, among them the coeditor Daisy L. Machado, and engagement of Latina feminist scholarship from outside the discipline of theology. Valentín 2003 brings together in a single volume the works of young Latina and Latino theologians. Like Isasi-Díaz and Segovia 1996, about half the contributors to Valentín 2003 are of Protestant background—including Benjamin Valentín himself—and the other half are Catholic, making these two collections the most ecumenical of the collaborative volumes cited here.

    • Aquino, María Pilar, Daisy L. Machado, and Jeanette Rodríguez, eds. A Reader in Latina Feminist Theology: Religion and Justice. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.

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      Authors from various Latina backgrounds and religious perspectives cover topics such as theological aesthetics, literature and theology, hermeneutics, spirituality, methodology, immigration, the preferential option for the poor, Our Lady of Guadalupe, and epistemology. Includes a select bibliography of related works.

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    • Casarella, Peter J., and Raúl Gómez, eds. El Cuerpo de Cristo: The Hispanic Presence in the U.S. Catholic Church. New York: Crossroad, 1998.

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      Various authors’ articles bring US Latino theology to bear on such topics as liturgy, popular religion and spirituality, biblical interpretation, Chicano theater, creation and cosmology, history and progress, the Eucharist in colonial Latin America, theological education, Hispanic ministry, leadership, Catholic social teaching, and ecumenism or Catholic-Protestant relations.

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    • Deck, Allan Figueroa, ed. Frontiers of Hispanic Theology in the United States. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1992.

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      Key Latino theologians discuss central themes, including Latina feminist theology, pluralism, scripture, tradition, liturgy, popular religion and spirituality, mestizaje (cultural and biological mixing) and theology, and the Trinity. Contains a short bibliography of important works in Latino Catholic theology.

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    • Espín, Orlando O., and Miguel H. Díaz, eds. From the Heart of Our People: Latino/a Explorations in Catholic Systematic Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1999.

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      Multiauthor work that includes discussions on theology’s method, teaching, and social impact; the Bible; doctrine; metaphysics; theological anthropology; grace and sin; Our Lady of Guadalupe; and La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre. Includes a short bibliography of Latino Catholic theology.

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    • Espín, Orlando O., and Gary Macy, eds. Futuring Our Past: Explorations in the Theology of Tradition. Studies in Latino/a Catholicism. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2006.

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      Multiple authors investigate the transmission and content of Christian tradition from Latino perspectives with topics such as Iberian and African influences in Latino theology, American pragmatism, the Bible, the Trinity, and Marian devotions. Also includes case studies of transmitting Christian tradition in theological education, celebrating a young woman’s coming of age through the quinceañera ritual, and Protestant evangelization in Puerto Rico.

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    • Goizueta, Roberto S., ed. We Are a People! Initiatives in Hispanic American Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992.

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      This collaborative work first introduces the US Latino experience, then it discusses the role of experience in doing theology and, lastly, the impact of Latino theology on doctrine. Topics include the Bible, theological method, mujerista (Latina feminist) theology, Marian devotion, the Trinity, theological anthropology, and grace.

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    • Isasi-Díaz, Ada María, and Fernando F. Segovia, eds. Hispanic/Latino Theology: Challenge and Promise. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996.

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      Various authors discuss US Latino theology according to its sources, social contexts, and expressions. Sources addressed include culture, the Bible, history, and literature. Other topics encompass diasporic identity, Latina feminism, theological aesthetics, popular religion, and social justice.

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    • Valentín, Benjamín, ed. New Horizons in Hispanic/Latino(a) Theology. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 2003.

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      Various authors discuss diverse issues, including historiography, early Christian martyrs, the Bible, the nature of theology, culture and theological anthropology, theological aesthetics, the concept of “liberation,” the problem of evil, Latino Pentecostalism, and Las Hermanas, the only national organization of Latina Catholics, which Lara Medina treats in a full-length book (Medina 2004, cited under Struggles for Justice).

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    LAST MODIFIED: 03/19/2013

    DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199913701-0010

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