Latino Studies Borderlands
by
Gilberto Rosas
  • LAST REVIEWED: 28 April 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 19 March 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199913701-0038

Introduction

Paradoxically cast as material and imaginary; utopic and dystopic; militarized and peaceful; masculine and feminine; and white, brown, and Other, Latinos hold long-standing concerns regarding borders and their representations and possibilities. Indeed the term “borderlands” offers the promise of disrupting stagnating debates on identity. It likewise holds the pitfalls of becoming subject to appropriation sans the anchor of long-standing identity politics. Indeed, these tensions infuse competing approaches to the border, those who take the materiality of the international boundary between the United States and Mexico as a point of departure versus those who take borders in all their permutations as instigating new mediations of difference and broad new cultural imaginaries. Feminists, critical race scholars, Chicano and Latino scholars, and scholars vested in questions of decoloniality have used metaphorical renderings of the border as points of departure. They contrast sharply with those who see it as a site of violent subjugation and oppression. Borders are of particular import as border controls and undocumented border crossings have intensified across the globe during the long moment of neoliberal globalization and particularly following 11 September 2001. Many works, of course, draw from both these currents. In this respect, the vast interdisciplinary nature of the scholarship and the heavy influence of intersectionality, or the notion that race, class, and gender intertwine complexly and are mutually reinforcing, render such categorization fraught if not problematic.

Anthologies

Given their multiple contributors and their respective frameworks, these volumes defy easy categorization and characterization. Aldama and Quiñonez 2002 charts post-9/11 securityscapes enveloping Chicanos and Others in the borderlands. Kaplan, et al. 1999 captures the anxieties about the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and similar liberalization of trade in the Americas. De Genova and Peutz 2010 offers a global view of the new techniques of deportation that migrants face. Dzidzienyo and Oboler 2005 charts the complex relations between Latin American migrants in the United States and African Americans. Michaelsen and Johnson 1997 explores the stakes and tensions surrounding theories of the US-Mexico border and its representations. Pallares and Flores-González 2010 attests to how the borderlands have thickened to Chicago, in the authors’ complex mapping of immigrant Chicago and its mobilizations. Ross 1979 reflects one instantiation of the legacy of Américo Paredes and the Texas school of border scholarship. Segura and Zavella 2007 covers the vast terrain and paradoxes of gender, sexuality, violence, and regulation in the US-Mexico borderlands.

  • Aldama, Arturo J., and Naomi H. Quiñonez, eds. Decolonial Voices: Chicana and Chicano Cultural Studies in the 21st Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002.

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    An interdisciplinary collection of essays drawing on a range of frameworks, from Foucaultian to feminist, that situate Chicano studies and Chicano cultural productions with the then-emerging post-9/11 securityscapes and the resulting anxieties about racialized, diasporic, and subalternized populations.

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    • De Genova, Nicholas, and Nathalie Mae Peutz, eds. The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.

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      This anthology captures new regimes of deportations, incarceration, policing, and related exclusions and the accompanying anxieties about Others. Certain works explore how migrants and their allies grapple with these new state technologies.

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      • Dzidzienyo, Anani, and Suzanne Oboler, eds. Neither Enemies nor Friends: Latinos, Blacks, Afro-Latinos. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

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        An innovative work that details how, to understand the experiences of present-day Latinos in the United States, it is essentially necessary, perhaps fundamental, to inquire into how the United States has historically dominated, racialized, and discriminated against Mexicans, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and African Americans. These dynamics set the stage for how the United States racializes later Latin American immigrants.

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        • Kaplan, Caren, Norma Alarcón, and Minoo Moallem, eds. Between Woman and Nation: Nationalisms, Transnational Feminisms, and the State. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.

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          This anthology explores how rhetorics of margins and centers speak to the initial phases of postcolonial theory. The collection charts how NAFTA and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) have produced rhetorics of borders and hybridities that are juxtaposed to the totalizations of states and their boundaries. The authors draw on feminist sensibilities and experiences.

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          • Michaelsen, Scott, and David E. Johnson, eds. Border Theory: The Limits of Cultural Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

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            This critical anthology intervenes in the debates on what has come to be called border theory and criticism. This entry and the multiple and compelling pieces in it could very well be situated in the Borders of Theory section.

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            • Pallares, Amalia, and Nilda Flores-González, eds. ¡Marcha! Latino Chicago and the Immigrant Rights Movement. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

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              This reader includes chapters on institutions such as churches, schools, and trade unions, from which many of the 2006 mobilizations in Chicago took shape. A key conclusion that can be drawn from the chapters included in ¡Marcha! is that the 2006 mobilizations were not spontaneous. Rather, they were the consequence of years of initiatives taken by a diverse array of individuals and organizations at different scales.

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              • Ross, Stanley R., ed. Views across the Border: The United States and Mexico. Papers presented at a conference in April 1975 in San Antonio. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1979.

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                An anthology of the scholarship of cultural production and an analysis of the Texas-Mexico border.

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                • Segura, Denise A., and Patricia Zavella, eds. Women and Migration in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.

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                  A compelling and significant interdisciplinary collection of primarily Latina authors that tracks the multiple significations of US-Mexico migration, the US-Mexico border, gender, class, and ethnoracial relations.

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                  Border Assemblages

                  The works cited in this section bring flesh to the analysis of the US-Mexico border and competing frameworks to bear. They are embedded primarily in the US-Mexico border experience and its conditions and historical processes. Subjects are people of the US Southwest, migrants, and the always pertinent questions regarding the distribution of wealth, power, and resources. Dorsey and Díaz-Barriga 2007 navigates the complex politics surrounding the immigration debate and the pragmatism of a future president. Flores 2002 captures the continued significance of the Alamo to Mexico-Anglo relations in Texas and its modernity. Limón 1994 represents the cultural work, the seduction, and the violence of late capitalism in postmodern South Texas. Trujillo 2009 grapples with romantic, stifling encroachments of the latest manifestations of capitalism in New Mexico. Similarly, Vélez-Ibáñez 1996 charts the conflicts, competitions, and collaborations among the peoples of Arizona and Sonora. Vila 2000 draws on narrative analysis in El Paso and Ciudad Juárez to explore the complexities of identities and solidarities.

                  • Dorsey, Margaret E., and Miguel Díaz-Barriga. “Senator Barack Obama and Immigration Reform.” Journal of Black Studies 38.1 (2007): 90–104.

                    DOI: 10.1177/0021934707304960Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    Dorsey and Díaz-Barriga wrestle with pragmatism of then-senator Barack Obama’s immigration position in relation to Renato Rosaldo’s notion of cultural citizenship.

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                    • Flores, Richard R. Remembering the Alamo: Memory, Modernity, and the Master Symbol. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.

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                      Flores’s ethnographic reckoning of the multiple significations in the act of remembering the Alamo captures the event and its significance in all its complexities. It likewise captures how the circulation of its memory reproduces Anglo dominance and anti-Mexican racism and a particular permutation on the debates of gifting.

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                      • Limón, José E. Dancing with the Devil: Society and Cultural Poetics in Mexican-American South Texas. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.

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                        A compelling, ethnographically informed grappling with the lived experience, ambivalences, and resistances of the cultural war of late capitalism and its postmodern denigrations among late-20th-century South Texas Mexicans, and counterhegemonic responses.

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                        • Trujillo, Michael L. Land of Disenchantment: Latina/o Identities and Transformations in Northern New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2009.

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                          Land of Disenchantment evokes a something else, some Other, than the stifling positivity and romantic ethnographies of New Mexico. The text is a social and creative anthropological commentary on the Española Valley, confronting issues (drugs, poverty, land loss, diminishing language use) salient to its emergence, transition, and transformation under the shadow of postcolonial, industriotechno capitalism emanating from an ever-encroaching mainstream Anglo America.

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                          • Vélez-Ibáñez, Carlos G. Border Visions: Mexican Cultures of the Southwest United States. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996.

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                            Drawing on mixed methods and a rich academic and personal knowledge of the regions, Vélez-Ibáñez intervenes in the debates on the borderlands through his concept of “cultural bumping” among the peoples of Sonora and Arizona and the larger southwestern United States, from early moments of indigenous histories through the 1990s.

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                            • Vila, Pablo. Crossing Borders, Reinforcing Borders: Social Categories, Metaphors, and Narrative Identities on the U.S.-Mexico Frontier. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000.

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                              Methodologically and theoretically challenges border theory and underscores the tensions among Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and US whites at the international boundary, specifically that of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua.

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                              Bordered Crossings

                              This section includes some of the classic and the more modern work on border crossings. Behar 1993 charts the complex interpersonal relations and other border crossings in the production of anthropological knowledge. Rodríguez 1996 underscores the politics of autonomous migrations. Rouse 1991 captures the complexity of living time-space compression for emigrants from Mexico. Zavella 2011 similarly underscores certain migrant affinities for networks and politics on both sides of the US-Mexico divide.

                              • Behar, Ruth. Translated Woman: Crossing the Border with Esperanza’s Story. Boston: Beacon, 1993.

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                                Reflexive anthropology but with Latino roots. An account of two women—one an anthropologist, the other indigenous—and their intense intertwined lives and discussions about multiple documented and undocumented border crossings across material and ideological terrains.

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                                • Rodríguez, Néstor. “The Battle for the Border: Notes on Autonomous Migration, Transnational Communities, and the State.” In Special Issue: Immigration: A Civil Rights Issue for the Americas in the 21st Century. Social Justice 23.3 (1996): 21–37.

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                                  Recasts the debates on undocumented migration by signaling how the very act of undocumented crossing by laborers is political in defying state regulation.

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                                  • Rouse, Roger. “Mexican Migration and the Social Space of Postmodernism.” Diaspora 1.1 (1991): 8–23.

                                    DOI: 10.1353/dsp.1991.0011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    Shows how certain Mexican migrants experience the United States almost seamlessly as if in Mexico. An article that precedes the intense disruptions of the securitization of the border.

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                                    • Zavella, Patricia. I’m Neither Here nor There: Mexicans’ Quotidian Struggles with Migration and Poverty. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011.

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                                      A powerful, deeply textured ethnography about the racialization of undocumented migrants from Mexico and the structural violence they experience on both sides of the Mexico-US border. Zavella draws on theories of racialization, political economy, and queer theory, among other fields of academic discourse.

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                                      Borders of Citizenship

                                      These works are situated in the borderlands either topically, regionally, or theoretically. Acosta 2009–2010 grapples with the complexities of new migrations to the Midwest. Nájera 2009 innovates in an exploration of desegregation in South Texas. Plascencia 2012 explores the elasticities and exclusivities of citizenship, in an ethnographic research on Mexican migrants. Gonzales and Chavez 2012 captures the violent repercussions of exclusions among Latino youth in Southern California. Golash-Boza 2011 charts the deleterious effects of post-9/11 immigration policy among undocumented migrants. Haney-López 1996 refracts the borderlands of citizenship in its exploration of Mexican Americans and their ambiguous legal standing with respect to the question of race. Rosas 2006 explores how certain border dynamics, particularly militarized policing and its effects, inform solidarities and political visions of immigrant rights marches of 2006.

                                      • Acosta, Aidé. “Negotiating and Engendering Labor Migration in the Twenty-First Century: Mexicanas’ ‘Funds of Knowledge’ in the Midwest.” Latino(a) Research Review 7.3 (2009–2010): 59–85.

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                                        Acosta draws on what some have termed border theory, “funds of knowledge,” and ethnographic and related forms of participatory research to grapple with the daily lives of immigrant women in small-town America.

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                                        • Golash-Boza, Tanya Maria. Immigration Nation: Raids, Detentions, and Deportations in Post-9/11 America. Boulder, CO: Paradigm, 2011.

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                                          Golash-Boza provides a critical analysis and important review of the impact that US immigration policy has on human rights in the post-9/11 era.

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                                          • Gonzales, Roberto G., and Leo Ralph Chavez. “‘Awakening to a Nightmare’: Abjectivity and Illegality in the Lives of Undocumented 1.5-Generation Latino Immigrants in the United States.” Current Anthropology 53.3 (2012): 255–281.

                                            DOI: 10.1086/665414Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Gonzales and Chavez capture how the conditions of illegality constrain daily life, create internalized fears, in some ways immobilize young Latino immigrants in Southern California, and in other ways motivate young Latino immigrants to engage politically to resist the dire conditions of their lives.

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                                            • Haney-López, Ian F. White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. Critical America. New York: New York University Press, 1996.

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                                              Shows how the borderlands extend into questions of citizenship, such as with Mexican Americans who, although legally white, are treated as socially and racially subordinate.

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                                              • Nájera, Jennifer. “Practices of Faith and Racial Integration in South Texas: A Case Study of Mexican Segregation.” Cultural Dynamics 21.1 (2009): 5–28.

                                                DOI: 10.1177/0921374008100405Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                A case study about the experience of desegregation and the process of racial integration in a local Catholic church in South Texas. The author maintains that racial integration could occur only through community building and the cultural empowerment of the Mexican-origin community, particularly in this case in the revival of Mexican popular religious practices.

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                                                • Plascencia, Luis F. B. Disenchanting Citizenship: Mexican Migrants and the Boundaries of Belonging. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2012.

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                                                  The book explores the meaning of US citizenship, through the experience of a group of Mexican migrants who were granted temporary status under the “legalization” provisions of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), attained lawful permanent residency, and later became US citizens. Plascencia integrates an extensive and multifaceted collection of interviews, ethnographic fieldwork, ethnohistorical research, and public policy analysis in examining efforts that promote the acquisition of citizenship, the teaching of citizenship classes, and naturalization ceremonies.

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                                                  • Rosas, Gilberto. “The Thickening Borderlands: Diffused Exceptionality and ‘Immigrant’ Social Struggles during the ‘War on Terror.’” Cultural Dynamics 18.3 (2006): 335–349.

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                                                    This works explores the key forces of migration, neoliberalism, and forms of sociality across the US-Mexico border, in the making of the migrant movements of 2006.

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                                                    Bordering on Foundational

                                                    These works approach foundational status for border theory and border criticism. They are often cited, critiqued, and celebrated. Anzaldúa 1987 explores the complexities of identity in a poetics rendition of the borderlands. Chabram-Dernersesian 1999 explores the cultural movements of ideas across borders. Gutiérrez 1991 offers a revisionist account of the colonization of New Mexico. Paredes 1971 sets the stage for modern border work, in the author’s semiautobiographical treatise on the making of a border bandit among “border people.” Rosaldo 1989 shows the potential innovations that Chicano writing, under the sign of border theory, could provide to staid academic disciplines.

                                                    • Anzaldúa, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza / La Frontera. San Francisco: Spinsters / Aunt Lute, 1987.

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                                                      Combining creative writing and cultural analysis, Anzaldúa explores the shifting politics of identity and subjectivity in the borderlands of Texas and offers a new imaginary horizon of revolutionary potentiality.

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                                                      • Chabram-Dernersesian, Angie. “En-Countering the Other Discourse of Chicano-Mexicano Difference.” Cultural Studies 13.2 (1999): 263–289.

                                                        DOI: 10.1080/095023899335284Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        Holds that not only people but also ideas cross Mexican-American borders. It is doubly important to scrutinize those intellectual movements that cross state-sanctioned borders, while restricting social possibilities and movements. This article consciously assumes this charge, by focusing critical attention on an influential venue of transnational(ist) travel in cultural productions that laid the foundation for an “alternative” Chicano studies epistemology and tradition in the early 1970s.

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                                                        • Gutiérrez, Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.

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                                                          Ramón Gutiérrez’s highly innovative, interdisciplinary, and commanding history of colonial New Mexico embraces sexuality and particularly sexual practices as key technologies of the early colonization of the Pueblos by the Spanish. The book also segues into an exploration of race, class, and gender in the mature colony.

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                                                          • Madsen, William. Mexican-Americans of South Texas. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.

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                                                            An ethnography of the health practices of the Mexican Americans in South Texas that represents this population as hopeless and unable to grasp complexities, such as germs. It spurred the fiery response of Octavio Romano and later Chicano authors and thus is central in the birth of Chicano/Latino studies.

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                                                            • Paredes, Américo. “With His Pistol in His Hand”: A Border Ballad and Its Hero. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971.

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                                                              Originally published in 1958; republished as recently as 2004. Anticipating much of the contemporary work on criminality in the borderlands, Paredes’s work begins as analysis of the veracity of a corridor about a social bandit of South Texas and quickly transforms into a social poem depicting the daily lives of the people of the river and their struggles against an encroaching Anglo hegemony.

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                                                              • Rosaldo, Renato. Culture and Truth: The Remaking of Social Analysis. Boston: Beacon, 1989.

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                                                                Drawing on certain key authors in border theory, such as Américo Paredes and contemporary Chicana writers, Rosaldo introduces border theory to anthropology and shows the production of borders and their consequent cultural imaginaries as the contemporaneous logic of knowledge production.

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                                                                Borders of Indigeneity

                                                                These works address Native Americans or the indigenous, depending on one’s position in relation to the US-Mexico border. Alonso 1995 approaches the shifting politics of the Mexican state and its colonists in Chihuahua in relation to the Apache. Aquino-Moreschi 2010 explores Mexican indigenous migration in relation to the 2006 mobilizations in Los Angeles. Fox 2006 explores the politics of race for Mexican indigenous migrants in the United States. Stephen 2007 shows the effects of crossing a militarized border in the daily lives of indigenous Oaxacans living in the western United States.

                                                                • Alonso, Ana María. Thread of Blood: Colonialism, Revolution, and Gender on Mexico’s Northern Frontier. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1995.

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                                                                  A historical ethnography of the shifting politics of masculinity and honor in relation to the Mexican state among a population of Mexican colonists, and their subjugation of the indigenous.

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                                                                  • Aquino-Moreschi, Alejandra. “De la indignación moral a las protestas colectivas: La participación de los migrantes zapotecos en las marchas de migrantes de 2006.” Norteamérica 5.1 (2010): 63–90.

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                                                                    Using ethnographic research in the Los Angeles area and interviews with Zapotec migrants and certain theoretical reflections about the public space, Aquino-Moreschi analyzes what rendered migrant mobilizations possible. She maintains that key to these processes were the many “subordinate counter-publics” where public opinion, solidarity, and collective identity were produced, making possible the moral indignation sparked by anti-immigrant legislation to turn into an unprecedented collective and transnational mobilization.

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                                                                    • Fox, Jonathan. “Reframing Mexican Migration as a Multi-ethnic Process.” Latino Studies 4.1–2 (2006): 39–61.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600173Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Using a comparative, hemispheric approach, this article holds that Mexican migrant and Mexican indigenous collective identities complicate widely held ideas about race, ethnicity, and national identity.

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                                                                      • Stephen, Lynn. Transborder Lives: Indigenous Oaxacans in Mexico, California, and Oregon. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.

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                                                                        An ethnography that charts the lived consequences of border crossing without documentation, by one of the preeminent scholars of transnationalism and Oaxaca.

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                                                                        Borders of Militarization and Policing

                                                                        These authors analyze the new forms of border control from a range of theoretical positions. Alonso 2005 looks at the post-9/11 border in terms of its gender politics. Andreas 2000 grapples with the contradictions of border policing in the 1990s. Dunn 1996 situates the militarization of the border in the dynamics of low-intensity conflict doctrine. Falcón 2001 interrogates the brutal effects of the intensification of border policing. Coleman 2005 grapples with the contradictions between the necessity of illegal flows across the US-Mexico border and concurrent security dynamics. Inda 2006 analyzes the targeted policing and technologies marshaled against the undocumented. Nevins 2002 historicizes and analyzes Operation Gatekeeper, a major Border Patrol campaign of the 1990s in Southern California.

                                                                        • Alonso, Ana M. “Sovereignty, the Spatial Politics of Security, and Gender: Looking North and South from the US-Mexico Border.” In State Formation: Anthropological Perspectives. Edited by Christian Krohn-Hansen and Knut G. Nustad, 27–54. London and Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto, 2005.

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                                                                          Drawing on the debates involving biopower and sovereignty, Alonso reckons with the post-9/11 security state in the US Southwest.

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                                                                          • Andreas, Peter. Border Games: Policing the U.S.-Mexico Divide. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.

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                                                                            Explores the politics of the intensification of border policing in the 1990s.

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                                                                            • Coleman, Matthew. “U.S. Statecraft and the U.S.-Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus.” Political Geography 24.2 (2005): 185–209.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.polgeo.2004.09.016Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Holds that the border controls can best be explained by exploring them as convergence of state-mediated economic and security processes.

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                                                                              • Dunn, Timothy J. The Militarization of the U.S.-Mexico Border, 1978–1992: Low-Intensity Conflict Doctrine Comes Home. Austin, TX: Center for Mexican American Studies, 1996.

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                                                                                Charts the gradual adoption of military strategy, tactics, and technology in US Border Patrol practices and ties this transformation to the low-intensity conflict doctrine from the late 1970s through the 1990s.

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                                                                                • Falcón, Sylvanna M. “Rape as a Weapon of War: Advancing Human Rights for Women at the U.S.-Mexico Border.” In Special Issue: Gatekeeper’s State: Immigration and Boundary Policing in an Era of Globalization. Social Justice 28.2 (2001): 31–50.

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                                                                                  Drawing on Dunn 1996, Falcón suggests that the exercise of low-intensity conflict regimes in the US-Mexico border zone has created conditions that facilitate rape and related practices of sexual terror.

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                                                                                  • Inda, Jonathan Xavier. Targeting Immigrants: Government, Technology, and Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006.

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                                                                                    Intervenes in the debates on biopower in capturing the production of undocumented immigrants to new regimes of militarized policing and the multiple policies that create them at the US-Mexico border.

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                                                                                    • Nevins, Joseph. Operation Gatekeeper: The Rise of the “Illegal Alien” and the Making of the U.S.-Mexico Boundary. New York: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                      Outlines elite-level discourse to offer a historical and geographic history of the processes of state formation and how they have rendered undocumented immigration through the border, ultimately creating the problem of “illegal immigration.”

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                                                                                      New Borders of Violence

                                                                                      With the ongoing intensified militarized policing and migration from the global South across the US-Mexico borderlands, this growing body of scholarship charts a concurrent intensification in borderlands violence. Rosas 2006 analyzes the new regimes of militarized policing in relation to a politics of labor subordination and larger neoliberal restructuring. Rubio-Goldsmith, et al. 2006 charts the “funnel effect,” how migrants have been channeled to the “killing deserts” (see Rosas 2012, cited under Other Borders). Wright 1999 shows the links among the maquiladoras, the then-emergent femicide, and the devaluation of female laborers in the transnational political economy.

                                                                                      • Rosas, Gilberto. “The Managed Violences of the Borderlands: Treacherous Geographies, Policeability, and the Politics of Race.” Latino Studies 4.4 (2006): 401–418.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600221Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        Explores the contradiction and effects of vast undocumented migrations and the multiple Border Patrol campaigns in the 1990s along the US-Mexico border as multiple and incomplete manifestations of labor subordination by the US state and the accompanying creation of treacherous geographies, such as the “killing deserts.”

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                                                                                        • Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel, M. Melissa McCormick, Daniel Martinez, and Inez Magdalena Duarte. The “Funnel Effect” and Recovered Bodies of Unauthorized Migrants Processed by the Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner, 1990–2005. Tucson: Binational Migration Institute, 2006.

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                                                                                          Charts the hundreds of politically organized premature deaths of undocumented immigrants in the borderlands of Arizona, in what Rosas 2006 has termed the “killing deserts.”

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                                                                                          • Wright, Melissa W. “The Dialectics of Still Life: Murder, Women, and Maquiladoras.” Public Culture 11.3 (1999): 453–473.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1215/08992363-11-3-453Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            By focusing on the discourse concerning the female worker in the Juárez maquiladoras and what were then two hundred murders, Wright links the deaths to the transnational political economy. In her terms, it evokes a culture of corporate death and the gradual symbolic decay of the female laborer in the maquiladora.

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                                                                                            Gendering Borders

                                                                                            While many if not most of the works in this bibliography provide a gender analysis, particularly given the reliance on frameworks vested in intersectionality or in conversation with it, the works in this section privilege such questions. There has long been work on gender in early incarnations of Chicano studies and the borderlands, but the publication of Anzaldúa 1987 (cited under Bordering on Foundational) and other post-Chicano-movement writings foregrounded this question in borderland cultural criticism. Fregoso 2003 tackles a range of phenomena that include both the material and popular culture in terms of the forging of gendered identities in the borderlands. Hondagneu-Sotelo 1994 shows how border crossings inflect gender relations. Luibhéid 2002 shows how the surveillance and maintenance of gender norms occur in the borderlands. Peña 1997, a gripping ethnography, captures female subordination and resistance in a Juárez maquiladora. Pérez 2004 shows the borderlands of Puerto Rican identity in the ethnography of Chicago. Rodríguez 2009 wrestles with the heteronormative mobilizations of family Chicano discourse. Soto 2010 calls for a critical privileging of gender and sexuality over race in Chicano and Chicana studies.

                                                                                            • Fregoso, Rosa Linda. MeXicana Encounters: The Making of Social Identities on the Borderlands. American Crossroads 12. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

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                                                                                              Fregoso’s work brings together the new cultural imaginaries and the border materiality poles that characterize border writing in her unraveling of the cultural symbolism of “Mexicana identity,” the transborder interface between Mexicanas and Chicanas. Moving backward from early-21st-century documentaries and popular feature films to early silent films and her own “home movies,” Fregoso decodes the racial, sexual, and national anxieties embedded in representations of Mexicanas and Chicanas.

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                                                                                              • Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. Gendered Transitions: Mexican Experiences of Immigration. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                Demystifies the effects of migration on gender relations on both sides of the Mexico-US divide.

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                                                                                                • Luibhéid, Eithne. Entry Denied: Controlling Sexuality at the Border. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                  Drawing on mixed methods, this groundbreaking work reveals how regimes of border controls are productive and reproductive of sexual categories, identities, and normativities.

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                                                                                                  • Peña, Devon G. The Terror of the Machine: Technology, Work, Gender, and Ecology on the U.S.-Mexico Border. Austin, TX: CMAS, 1997.

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                                                                                                    A gripping study of Fordist gendered subjugation in a maquiladora in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, and the consequent social mobilization that it instigated.

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                                                                                                    • Pérez, Gina M. The Near Northwest Side Story: Migration, Displacement, and Puerto Rican Families. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                      Border complexities can also be seen in the Puerto Rican diaspora, such as in this ethnography of Puerto Rican life in Chicago and San Sebastian.

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                                                                                                      • Rodríguez, Richard T. Next of Kin: The Family in Chicano/a Cultural Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                        Next of Kin explores the concept of la familia (the family) in the political and cultural discourse of the Chicano movement of the 1960s and the 1970s. Drawing both on a traditional Chicana feminist and an emerging Chicana and Chicano cultural-studies critique, Rodríguez argues that notions of kinship and family in a Chicana and Chicano cultural narrative are fundamentally heteropatriarchal as expressed through the aesthetics of Chicana and Chicano literature, film, music, and art.

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                                                                                                        • Soto, Sandra K. Reading Chican@ like a Queer: The De-Mastery of Desire. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                          The new borderlands imaginary is definitely evident in Soto’s work, which challenges the dominant race-centered oppositional paradigm informing Chicano studies and points to the alternative of a flexible queer orientation to Chicano identity.

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                                                                                                          Mexico’s Borders

                                                                                                          The works in this section speak to the foundational and the contemporaneous work on transnational migration and borders, from a variety of perspectives situated in Mexico. Bustamante 1981 emphasizes the centrality of Anglos in Mexican border culture. Gamio 1971 wrestles with questions of migration for the Mexican nation. Hernández Castillo 2001 explores Chiapas while mobilizing border theory. Rénique 2003 charts the centrality of an imaginary whiteness in a specific iteration of Mexican frontier violence.

                                                                                                          • Bustamante, Jorge. “La interacción social en la frontera norte México–Estados Unidos: Un marco conceptual para la investigación.” In La frontera norte: Integración y desarrollo. Edited by Roque González Salazar, 26–45. Mexico City: Colegio de México, 1981.

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                                                                                                            Bustamante maintains that the main process of identity construction on the Mexican side of the border is the constitution of the Anglos as “others.”

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                                                                                                            • Gamio, Manuel. Mexican Immigration to the United States, 1883–1960: A Study of Human Migration and Adjustment. New York: Dover, 1971.

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                                                                                                              Originally published in 1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). This father of Mexican anthropology and a central architect in the politics of indigenismo grapples with the significance of migration for the post-revolutionary Mexican state.

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                                                                                                              • Hernández Castillo, Rosalva Aída. Histories and Stories from Chiapas: Border Identities in Southern Mexico. Translated by Martha Pou. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                An anthropology of Chiapas and its postcolonial permutations that draws on border theory.

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                                                                                                                • Rénique, Gerardo. “Race, Region, and Nation: Sonora’s Anti-Chinese Racism and Mexico’s Postrevolutionary Nationalism, 1920s–1930s.” In Race and Nation in Modern Latin America. Edited by Nancy P. Appelbaum, Anne S. Macpherson, and Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt, 211–236. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                  Intervenes in the borderlands literature by charting the historical production of whiteness in Sonora, a Mexican border state, and its violent unsheathing in an episode of anti-Chinese violence.

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                                                                                                                  Undocumented Identities

                                                                                                                  From erasures to negations, these works chart certain undocumented identities in the borderlands and in the borderlands of academic discourse. Campbell 2009 tracks the multitude of perspectives in the drug war. Chappell 2012 offers a complex reading of the making of lowriders in central Texas. Chavez 1998 anticipates the study of “illegality” and “deportability.” Davalos 1998 captures the borders between anthropology and Chicano studies. Holguín Mendoza 2011 shows how narco-narratives circulate in the drug war. Menchaca 2001 unearths new complexities in the historical ethnography of Mexican Americans of the southwestern United States. Spener 2009 challenges the social-science conventions about the militarization of the border in Texas.

                                                                                                                  • Campbell, Howard. Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juárez. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                    In this anthropological study of drug trafficking and antidrug law enforcement efforts on the US-Mexico border, Howard Campbell uses an ethnographic perspective to chronicle the Mexican drug war, focusing especially on people and events in the El Paso–Juárez area. It is the first social-science study of the violent drug war that is tearing Mexico apart.

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                                                                                                                    • Chappell, Ben. Lowrider Space: Aesthetics and Politics of Mexican American Custom Cars. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                      All of Chappell’s friends are lowriders, in this deeply textured ethnography of lowriding and lowriders in Austin, Texas. Chappell, an anthropologist, explores the affective dimensions of lowriding as a cultural and spatial practice intimately tied to questions of location, distance, mobility, and containment.

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                                                                                                                      • Chavez, Leo Ralph. Shadowed Lives: Undocumented Immigrants in American Society. Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College, 1998.

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                                                                                                                        One of the early and all-too-unappreciated studies of living in the shadows of the US state, or the daily lives of undocumented migrants.

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                                                                                                                        • Davalos, Karen Mary. “Chicana/o Studies and Anthropology: The Dialogue That Never Was.” Aztlán: A Journal of Chicano Studies 23.2 (1998): 13–45.

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                                                                                                                          Davalos theorizes that Chicana and Chicano scholars, in their critique of the (mis)representations of Mexican Americans, “anticipated a new anthropology and the problems of an apolitical postmodernism by encouraging a decolonized social science” (p. 14).

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                                                                                                                          • Holguín Mendoza, Claudia. “Dining with the Devil: Identity Formations in Juarez, Mexico.” Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 18.5 (2011): 415–436.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/1070289X.2011.654739Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Holguín Mendoza analyzes popular narratives surrounding the theme of drug lords in the Mexican border city of Juárez and their multifaceted social, ideological, and material effects. She maintains that complex formations of the Mexican identity are being reformulated in hierarchical, gendered, and racialized identities, which project the very strong and powerful social frictions emerging from complex socioeconomic factors, resulting in mass poverty and migration.

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                                                                                                                            • Menchaca, Martha. Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                              Drawing on notions of racialization and on government documents and policies, Menchaca’s innovative work underscores the often-repressed racial histories of contemporary Mexican Americans in the Southwest, particularly the repressed histories of Afro-mestizo communities and American Indian connections under Spanish colonial, then Mexican, and finally US rule.

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                                                                                                                              • Spener, David. Clandestine Crossings: Migrants and Coyotes on the Texas-Mexico Border. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                Spener’s book is based on extremely thorough, well-grounded field research conducted in South Texas and Northeast Mexico that disrupts the dominant narrative that all human smuggling is awful and instead reveals the multifaceted, even service-providing nature of such activities (for immigrants and employers). Spener begins with an insightful overview of coyotaje and the key concepts he uses (social capital, international migration as an autonomous working class, and peasant resistance to border enforcement, an essential feature of global apartheid).

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                                                                                                                                Borders of Theory

                                                                                                                                These works suggest that the US-Mexico border experience and its vexing tensions and conditions can serve as the site for certain universal claims. That is, the US-Mexico border can generate social theory. Bejarano 2005, ethnographic research on youth on the border, elaborates on the borders of theory. Limón 1998 challenges dominant trends in social theory, in an ethnography of South Texas. Lugo 2008 sheds new light and needed ethnographic data on the debates on the borders of theory. Saldívar 1997 foregrounds how Chicano studies can complement the work on militarization at the border and across the globe.

                                                                                                                                • Bejarano, Cynthia L. Qué onda? Urban Youth Culture and Border Identity. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                  Drawing on new cultural imaginaries that have emerged in the border region, Bejarano explores being a youth at the border at a time of criminalization and rampant anti-Mexican xenophobia.

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                                                                                                                                  • Limón, José E. American Encounters: Greater Mexico, the United States, and the Erotics of Culture. Boston: Beacon, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                    Traversing popular culture, Texas history, interdisciplinary debates on representation and knowledge production, and the complexities of late capitalism, Limón shows how Greater Mexico has been transformed under the power of late capitalism.

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                                                                                                                                    • Lugo, Alejandro. Fragmented Lives, Assembled Parts: Culture, Capitalism, and Conquest at the U.S.-Mexico Border. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                      Drawing on long-term, deep, ethnographic research on the daily lives of worker maquiladoras in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and the works of Renato Rosaldo, Michelle Rosaldo, Gloria Anzaldúa, and other border theorists, Lugo’s groundbreaking work intervenes in the debates on nation, capitalism, gender, race, and power.

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                                                                                                                                      • Saldívar, José David. Border Matters: Remapping American Cultural Studies. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                        An overview of literature and popular culture in the Mexico borderlands that puts border theory and questions of border militarization into a productive dialogue.

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                                                                                                                                        Thickening Borders

                                                                                                                                        This section explores works that remain linked to the US-Mexico border or its theory and that introduce related issues such as transnational migration and its policing, or related transnational questions, effectively thickening the border. This section also includes relevant literature on the borderlands of citizenship. Brady 2002 represents the effects of the multiple colonization of what has become the southwestern United States. Bigo 2002 shows how immigration has been securitized in Europe. Camacho 2006 wrestles with the multiple permutations of neoliberal flows and their containments among migrants and their vexed psyches. Cantú 2009 unveils the sexual politics underpinning immigrant policing. Chavez 2008 shows an effective thickening of the border, through a pernicious, racist, anti-immigrant discourse. Romero 2011 shows the bordered intersections of race, class, and gender that the children of migrants often experience. Viruell-Fuentes 2007 wrestles with the immigrant condition and its representation from the field of public health.

                                                                                                                                        • Bigo, Didier. “Security and Immigration: Toward a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease.” Alternatives 27.1 (2002): 63–92.

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                                                                                                                                          Charts the securitization of migration discourse among experts and among constituencies as varied as border patrols, militarized police forces, journalists, banks, and the general public, and the convergence between international concerns and domestic concerns about security that the topic of immigration involves.

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                                                                                                                                          • Brady, Mary Pat. Extinct Lands, Temporal Geographies: Chicana Literature and the Urgency of Space. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                            Captures how the multiple colonizations of the Southwest have been critically reimagined in Chicano and Chicana literature.

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                                                                                                                                            • Camacho, Alicia Schmidt. “Migrant Melancholia: Emergent Discourses of Mexican Migrant Traffic in Transnational Space.” South Atlantic Quarterly 105.4 (2006): 831–861.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1215/00382876-2006-007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              This works seeks to critically explore questions of migrant agency, through the concept of “migrant melancholia,” in order to consider the effects of the decade of Operation Gatekeeper, free trade, and neoliberalism for Mexican migrants and what these changes may signify for understandings of human mobility and transnational community.

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                                                                                                                                              • Cantú, Lionel, Jr. “Border Patrol: Sexuality, Citizenship, and U.S. Immigration Policy.” In The Sexuality of Migration: Border Crossings and Mexican Immigrant Men. By Lionel Cantú Jr. Edited by Nancy A. Naples and Salvador Vidal-Ortiz, 39–54. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                Cantú charts how the state, through immigration policy, has produced identities to regulate groups of people located within and across national borders. The author examines the historical conditions that gave rise to the gay immigrant “problem” and how it relates to other systematic patterns of exclusion.

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                                                                                                                                                • Chavez, Leo Ralph. The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                  Chavez excavates an unseemly narrative threading its way through discussions of immigration, which he calls the Latino threat. It infiltrates “truths” in debates over immigration on radio and TV talk shows, in newspaper editorials, and on Internet blogs and arises concomitantly with the contemporaneous crisis of US citizenship.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Romero, Mary. The Maid’s Daughter: Living inside and outside the American Dream. New York: New York University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                    In this moving and penetrating case study that deconstructs the intersecting borders of race, class, and gender, Romero examines the life history of Olivia Salazar, a successful public relations professional who grew up in a wealthy Anglo household where her mother worked as a domestic servant. The work is based on over twenty years of interviews and analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Saldívar, Ramón. The Borderlands of Culture: Américo Paredes and the Transnational Imaginary. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                      This works situates the US-Mexico border and the work of Américo Paredes as instrumental in new American studies that look at a Latino America.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A. “Beyond Acculturation: Immigration, Discrimination, and Health Research among Mexicans in the United States.” Social Science & Medicine 65.7 (2007): 1524–1535.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.05.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        In contrast to the dominance in the health studies of notions of assimilation, Viruell-Fuentes underscores the structural and contextual factors, such as social and economic inequalities, that could affect the health of immigrants and their descendants. The findings point to “discrimination” as potential pathways through which the health of immigrants and their descendants erodes.

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                                                                                                                                                        Other Borders

                                                                                                                                                        These works chart new directions, other borders, and new subjects of analysis in border studies. Balibar 2002 discusses borders and their multiple significations, with the European Union in mind. Chang 1997 offers compelling analysis of the inscription of the migrant body from the margins of the United States. Cintron 1997, an ethnography, offers important insights into the border and acknowledges how gang members make respect under trying conditions. Coutin 2005 explores the implications of the reliance on clandestinity as a strategy of survival for Central American border crossers. Menjívar 2000 shows how Central Americans navigate through the borders of everyday life in the United States. Ramos-Zayas 2004 shows the criminalizing of difference of Puerto Ricans that occurs in public schools. Rosas 2012 charts the refusal of marginalized youth to accept the new order at the post–North American Free Trade Agreement US-Mexico border, particularly the aspect of intensified policing practices and regimes of dispossession. Saldaña-Portillo 2003 examines how subaltern studies vastly complicate Chicano identity politics.

                                                                                                                                                        • Balibar, Étienne. “What Is a Border?” In Politics and the Other Scene. By Étienne Balibar, 75–86. Translated by Christine Jones, James Swenson, and Chris Turner. London: Verso, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                          Analyzes competing ideas on the qualities of borders. Particularly useful in the resonances and differences between borders in the United States and those in Europe.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Chang, Robert S. “A Meditation on Borders.” In Immigrants Out! The New Nativism and the Anti-immigrant Impulse in the United States. Edited by Juan F. Perea, 244–253. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                            Describes the mutually constitutive nature of regulation at and in the national borders, by suggesting that historically subordinated groups in the United States carry a figurative border with them and by focusing on certain Asian American populations.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Cintron, Ralph. Angels’ Town: Chero Ways, Gang Life, and Rhetorics of the Everyday. Boston: Beacon, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                              With a rhetorician’s grace and anthropological sensibilities, Cintron’s ethnography contributes to the debates on bordered knowledge production, as he puts it “a collection of ways by which a variety of people created respect under conditions of little or no respect” (p. 164). Cintron weaves together the macroworld and the microworld, as he describes them, seeking to understand the daily realities of a Mexican American community struggling to live in deeply marked situations of difference that he sees inscribed in their very bodies and ideologies.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Coutin, Susan Bibler. “Being En Route.” American Anthropologist 107.2 (2005): 195–206.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1525/aa.2005.107.2.195Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Through an ethnography of unauthorized migration from El Salvador to the United States, Coutin explores clandestinity as a hidden yet known dimension of social reality.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Menjívar, Cecilia. Fragmented Ties: Salvadoran Immigrant Networks in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Cecilia Menjívar offers a detailed account of the inner workings of the networks by which immigrants leave their homes in Central America to start new lives in the Mission District of San Francisco, in relation to hostile immigration policies and shrinking economic opportunities.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Ramos-Zayas, Ana Y. “Delinquent Citizenship, National Performances: Racialization, Surveillance, and the Politics of ‘Worthiness’ in Puerto Rican Chicago.” Latino Studies 2.1 (2004): 26–44.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600059Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Drawing from ethnographic research on “national performances” in Puerto Rican Chicago, this article charts the ways Puerto Rican residents of Humboldt Park are criminalized and rendered “delinquent.”

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Rosas, Gilberto. Barrio Libre: Criminalizing States and Delinquent Refusals of the New Frontier. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Rosas’s ethnography on the production of delinquency and criminality at the Arizona-Sonora border engages contemporaneous debates on sovereignty and biopolitics to show how intensification of border enforcement and its necessary failures have instigated new cultural imaginaries at criminal and activist levels. Moreover, Rosas underscores the significance of Mexico in these processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Saldaña-Portillo, María Josefina. The Revolutionary Imagination in the Americas and the Age of Development. Latin America Otherwise. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Shows how borderlands or, indeed, border crossings have essentially intensified, in a critical reading of subaltern studies in the Americas and the limits of Chicano cultural politics as identification in Chiapas.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Decolonizing Borders

                                                                                                                                                                        These new mediations of difference gesture at new, broad, postborder interlocking complexities and for some post-nation-state cultural imaginaries. Feminists, critical race scholars, Chicano and Latino scholars, and other scholars approach questions of the border as points of departure, as an edge—cutting, jagged, and biting––with vast new mediations and political alternatives. Guidotti-Hernández 2011 challenges the multiple colliding nationalisms found in the US-Mexico borderlands. Mohanty 2003 gestures to the emancipatory nature of the border crossings of daily life. Moraga 2000 foregrounds borders, their policing, and their instabilities among Mexican Americans. Pérez 1999 reimagines Chicano and Chicana historiography through a different lens. Sandoval 2000 speaks against postmodern pessimism with an activist footing. Romero 1995 refuses those who would cast Chicanos and Chicanas as postcolonial. Saldaña-Portillo 2004 foregrounds the borders of certain renditions of the Chicano imagination.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Guidotti-Hernández, Nicole Marie. Unspeakable Violence: Remapping U.S. and Mexican National Imaginaries. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                          This work disrupts nationalisms in the Mexico-US borderlands, by showing that not only does the violence represented textually reproduce the violence lived socially but that all too often, nationalist conventions infiltrate these representations.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. Feminism without Borders: Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                            A book of Mohanty’s essays vested in the politics of knowledge production and instigated by a feminism that draws attention to the simultaneous plurality and narrowness and the emancipatory potential of crossing through, with, and over borders in daily life, and vested in an antiracist, feminist, and anticapitalist critique.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Moraga, Cherríe. Loving in the War Years: Lo que nunca pasó por sus labios. Cambridge, MA: South End, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Moraga’s writing cuts. This semiautobiographical work foregrounds the borders in the Chicano community and highlights their policing and disciplining toward masculinity embedded in the Chicano movement and certain deep, racial anxieties she feels and the writing in itself conveys.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Pérez, Emma. The Decolonial Imaginary: Writing Chicanas into History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                An important exercise in decolonizing historiography. Pérez deconstructs the dominant paradigms in Chicano history and subtly offers her decolonizing alternative.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Romero, Lora. “Nationalism and Internationalism: Domestic Differences in a Postcolonial World.” American Literature 67.4 (1995): 795–800.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2927897Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  In what could be cast as new forms of border making and in response to the challenges offered by multicultural projects, Romero examines the term “postcolonial” and its multiple permutations. In her reading, the term begs the question as to why there has “been an alignment but not necessarily a containment of the study of U.S. minorities and a geopolitical history of Anglo-European colonization of the Third World” (p. 797), and she characterizes the term “postcolonial” as “premature” (p. 799) with respect to Chicanos.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Saldaña-Portillo, María Josefina. “‘Wavering on the Horizon of Social Being’: The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo and the Legacy of Its Racial Character in Ámerico Paredes’s George Washington Gómez.” Radical History Review 89 (Spring 2004): 135–164.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1215/01636545-2004-89-135Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Traces the psychic structure of disavowal, particularly a repressed politics of whiteness, embedded in Chicano cultural productions, particularly works of literature, such as Paredes 1971 (cited under Bordering on Foundational).

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sandoval, Chela. Methodology of the Oppressed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Sandoval excavates “Third World feminism” as it recovers and implements methods of resistance developed by subjugated people under colonial rule, slavery, and oppression, and combines these methods with the contemporaneous perspective of US feminists of color, a perspective quite different from the mainly European and Anglo-American feminism derived from the 1970s.

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