In This Article Journalism and the Press

  • Introduction
  • Chinese Reference Works
  • Bibliographies
  • Additional Communication Perspectives

Chinese Studies Journalism and the Press
by
Judy Polumbaum
  • LAST MODIFIED: 22 April 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199920082-0010

Introduction

China’s news media have hybrid origins with political and intellectual antecedents in imperial court circulars and literati tradition; the missionary press of the 19th century; the vernacular culture movement of the early 20th century; and idiosyncratic adaptations of foreign models, methods, and approaches. The structure and practices of Chinese journalism after the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 emerged from the exigencies of decades of war, indigenous variations on the role Marxist-Leninist theory assigned to the press, and the revolutionary experiences and propaganda objectives of the Chinese Communist leadership. China’s international reengagement from the 1970s on and the country’s dramatic economic reorientation in the post-Mao period opened the way for significant changes in media, as in every other social institution, including a proliferation of outlets, greater specialization and diversity of content, major reform and expansion in the training of journalists, and new latitude for investigative reporting. As government subsidies shrank and advertising grew, so too did tensions among the media’s multiple obligations as promoter of official propaganda, commercial enterprise dependent on audience appeal, and instrument of civic conscience. Renewed economic experimentation from the 1990s on brought changes to financing, including the formation of media groups, mixed state-private ownership configurations, raising of capital through stock offerings, and growing opportunities (de facto if not always de jure) for foreign investment. The advent of digital media technologies introduced further complexities, creating new channels for information and expression while triggering new mechanisms of control.

Chinese Reference Works

The Chinese-language material is legion, but essential resources include Zhongguo xinwen nianjian (Chinese journalism yearbook; Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan xinwen yu chuanbo yanjiusuo 1982–) and Zhongguo xinwen shiye tongshi (General history of Chinese journalism; Fang 1992–1999). Zhongguo xinwen nianjian is an annual compilation of major events, documents, studies, statistics, and other materials that make it an essential reference for the post-Mao period and a gauge of changing politics and economics. The three-volume Zhongguo xinwen shiye tongshi, edited by contemporary China’s foremost scholar of Chinese journalism history, provides an authoritative rendering of mainland perspectives on the field. This work’s useful appendixes include important articles, an inventory of relevant master’s and doctoral theses, and a time line from the 8th century on. Each volume also contains an English table of contents.

  • Fang Hanqi 方漢奇, ed. Zhongguo xinwen shiye tongshi (中國新聞事業通史). 3 vols. Zhongguo renmin daxue congshu. Beijing: Renmin daxue chubanshe, 1992–1999.

    E-mail Citation »

    Volume 1 (1992) of this general history of Chinese journalism covers the press of ancient times, foreign publications, and the press of the republican period; Volume 2 (1996) the period of “revolutionary journalism” from the May Fourth Movement (1919), the formation and early years of the Chinese Communist Party, the wartime period, and the experience in the Communist base areas; and Volume 3 (1999) the press from the founding of the PRC through the Cultural Revolution and the first two decades of post-Mao reforms.

    Find this resource:

    • Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan xinwen yu chuanbo yanjiusuo 中国社会科学院新闻与传播研究所, ed. Zhongguo xinwen nianjian (中国新闻年鉴). 1982–.

      E-mail Citation »

      This series of journalism yearbooks is available in academic libraries in greater China and in US university libraries with serious collections of contemporary Chinese-language materials. A good accounting of such Chinese holdings is offered in Yuan Zhou’s “An Unstated Mission: Chinese Collections in Academic Libraries in the U.S. and Their Services to Overseas Chinese,” Journal of East Asian Libraries 139 (2006): 10–17.

      Find this resource:

      Bibliographies

      The steady growth of scholarly attention to Chinese communication, media, and journalism is evident in the online bibliography Chinese Communication Association: Research and is also reflected in work by graduate students, accessible through the Proquest Dissertations and Theses Database. Some general bibliographies on contemporary China incorporate sections on media and communications, the most noteworthy being the periodically revised survey “Contemporary China: A Book List” (Malik and White 2007–2008).

      • Chinese Communication Association: Research.

        E-mail Citation »

        The Chinese Communication Association has compiled an ongoing and unusually complete bibliography of English-language research in the field, online.

        Find this resource:

        • Malik, Lubna, and Lynn T. White III, eds. Contemporary China: A Book List. 2007–2008.

          E-mail Citation »

          The Princeton University political scientist Lynn T. White III for years has been updating a comprehensive book list on contemporary China with a section on media and communications. Relevant sources also are in sections on intellectuals, ideology, democracy, law and human rights, and science and technology.

          Find this resource:

          • ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database.

            E-mail Citation »

            Dissertations and theses are important sources, because graduate student work on Chinese media, journalism, propaganda, and related topics—some of the best coming from Chinese studying in Great Britain, the United States, Australia, Hong Kong, and elsewhere outside the mainland—often contain the most cutting-edge research in these areas. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database is accessible through many academic libraries.

            Find this resource:

            Other Resources and Reports

            Several English-language websites focused on Chinese media and communications are especially reliable and useful. Numerous government agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with contemporary China, some dealing with human rights and freedom of expression, also produce relevant materials.

            China Media Monitors

            The bilingual curators of the China Digital Times, China Media Project, Danwei, and EastSouthWestNorth track Chinese news sources closely, offering timely translations and informed commentary.

            • China Digital Times.

              E-mail Citation »

              Founded and edited by Xiao Qiang of the University of California, Berkeley. Aggregates news on China from across the web, translates news from Chinese cyberspace, and provides original analysis and commentary.

              Find this resource:

              • China Media Project.

                E-mail Citation »

                Produced by the Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong. Emphasis on documenting and tracking Chinese media reforms; draws extensively on media scholarship and professional expertise within the PRC.

                Find this resource:

                • Danwei.

                  E-mail Citation »

                  Daily report published by a research and monitoring firm run by Jeremy Goldkorn, Joel Martinsen, and Eric Mu.

                  Find this resource:

                  • EastSouthWestNorth.

                    E-mail Citation »

                    Long-running project by Roland Soong, based in Hong Kong, this site offers lengthy, timely, fluid English translations of Chinese media content and an eclectic selection of links to news and commentary in both English and Chinese.

                    Find this resource:

                    Government Agencies and Nongovernmental Organizations

                    A US committee of congressional appointees, the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission, maintains a Hearings Archive of papers and transcripts that is exceptionally useful for exploring international implications of communication issues ). Various human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and Human Rights in China, and groups that monitor freedom of expression and the press internationally, such as the Committee to Protect Journalists, Freedom House, Index on Censorship, and Reporters without Borders, periodically release reports on Chinese media-government relations, journalists’ rights, Internet controls, and related topics.

                    • Amnesty International: China.

                      E-mail Citation »

                      International human rights organization best known for calling attention to government violations of civic rights and the plight of political prisoners. Issues regular reports on China and occasional reports dealing specifically with freedom of expression and information.

                      Find this resource:

                      • Committee to Protect Journalists: China.

                        E-mail Citation »

                        A US organization dedicated to tracking dangers to journalists and press freedom worldwide.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Freedom House: China.

                          E-mail Citation »

                          Generally viewed as a “Western-centric” organization, this US NGO is best known for its annual report rating governments worldwide on press freedom.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Human Rights in China.

                            E-mail Citation »

                            An activist organization monitoring all dimensions of human rights in China, from political participation and labor organizing to reproductive rights and press freedom.

                            Find this resource:

                            • Human Rights Watch: China and Tibet.

                              E-mail Citation »

                              A major NGO with extensive research resources documenting discrimination, injustice, inhuman conduct during wartime, abridgment of political freedoms, and a vast array of other issues worldwide. Releases regular country reports and many ad hoc studies.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Index on Censorship.

                                E-mail Citation »

                                Dedicated to upholding expressive rights of journalists, writers, artists, academics, and activists. Its magazine, Index on Censorship, published since the 1970s, is supplemented by web reports and blogs.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Reporters without Borders: China.

                                  E-mail Citation »

                                  Founded in France in 1985, this organization has two main divisions focused on endangered journalists and Internet censorship. Issues the Press Freedom Index ranking countries, generally with results markedly different from those of Freedom House.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission: Hearings Archive.

                                    E-mail Citation »

                                    See especially “China’s Information Control Practices and the Implications for the United States” (30 June 2010), “China’s Media and Information Controls—the Impact in China and the United States” (10 September 2009), and “Access to Information and Media Control in the People’s Republic of China” (18 June 2008).

                                    Find this resource:

                                    Historical Background

                                    The English-language scholarship on China’s pre-1949 journalism history includes a number of illuminating studies of developments through the late imperial era with relatively less attention to the republican period and wartime years. A few scholars have examined the Chinese Communist Party’s earliest press policies and most important publications, but this literature too is far from comprehensive. No good studies exist on the nationalization of the media in the early years of the PRC, and few works have focused concertedly on the role of the press in campaigns of the 1950s and the early 1960s, although more general works of intellectual history do shed some light on this period. Studies of Chinese mass communication through the 1960s were dominated by Cold War perspectives and normative assumptions, while attempts to fathom the information climate of the Cultural Revolution continued to be hampered by the lack of scholarly access that long made Hong Kong the best vantage point for China watching.

                                    Pre-PRC Press History

                                    These studies represent some of the most useful English-language sources on Chinese journalism history and include two enduring works originally published in the 1930s (Britton 1966, Lin 1968). The studies document the earliest indigenous gazetteers, popular news sheets, and market reports, and the introduction of Western journalism via missionaries in both foreign languages and Chinese and describe the emergence of a vigorous, modern-style press, both missionary and secular, in the foreign-controlled treaty ports. Some of these works examine significant regional press movements in places such as Hong Kong and Shanghai (Ting 1974, Mittler 2004). Some expand on reform, revolutionary and independent journalism of the late Qing dynasty (Lee and Nathan 1985, Zhang 2007) or focus on the republican period (Ting 1974, MacKinnon 1997) or emerging Chinese Communist media (Stranahan 1990).

                                    • Britton, Roswell S. The Chinese Periodical Press, 1800–1912. Taipei: Ch’eng-wen, 1966.

                                      E-mail Citation »

                                      Originally published in 1933 (Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh). This work traces the beginnings of modern journalism in China through the end of the imperial era, drawing on a wide range of primary sources.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • Lee, Leo Ou-fan, and Andrew J. Nathan. “The Beginnings of Mass Culture: Journalism and Fiction in the Late Ch’ing and Beyond.” In Popular Culture in Late Imperial China. Edited by David Johnson, Andrew J. Nathan, and Evelyn S. Rawski, 360–395. Studies on China 4. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.

                                        E-mail Citation »

                                        Lee, a literary scholar, illuminates the continuity between journalistic and fictional modes and the rising status of both as new developments of the late Qing period.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Lin Yutang. A History of the Press and Public Opinion in China. New York: Greenwood, 1968.

                                          E-mail Citation »

                                          Originally published in 1936 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Lin (b. 1895–d. 1976), a product of a missionary education who spent the latter half of his life in the United States, saw news as a civilizing and democratizing force that governments have always sought to suppress. This short, readable account of China’s long history of press coercion and censorship is set in the context of imperial government and Confucian paternalism.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • MacKinnon, Stephen R. “Toward a History of the Chinese Press in the Republican Period.” Modern China 23.1 (1997): 3–32.

                                            E-mail Citation »

                                            Looks at the role of the press in the changing political culture of the 20th century. As the title implies, this topic has yet to be thoroughly explored. The historian MacKinnon is one of the few to study journalism during what he calls the interregnum period between the fall of the Qing Empire and the Communist victory. Available online by subscription.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Mittler, Barbara. A Newspaper for China? Power, Identity, and Change in Shanghai’s News Media, 1872–1912. Harvard East Asian Studies Monograph 26. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2004.

                                              E-mail Citation »

                                              This work by a German scholar of Chinese cultural history examines the power of newspaper texts in the emergence of modern China through a study of Shanghai’s urban press in the late imperial era with particular attention to how journalism helped create a public sphere and a context for revolutionary change.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • Stranahan, Patricia. Molding the Medium: The Chinese Communist Party and the Liberation Daily. Studies on Contemporary China. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1990.

                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                This study of the Chinese Communist Party’s central newspaper during the Yan’an period offers insights into the origins of propaganda policy and practices that would be applied nationwide after 1949. The Liberation Daily—the forerunner of the People’s Daily—is analyzed as both a record of its times and a site where conflicts and controversies of the day were played out.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • Ting, Lee-hsia Hsu. Government Control of the Press in Modern China, 1900–1949. Harvard East Asian Monograph 57. Cambridge, MA: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1974.

                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                  Tracing government censorship back to the Tang dynasty, this monograph focuses on methods and effects of government control from the late Qing years to the aftermath of Japan’s defeat in World War II with an emphasis on the Guomindang (Kuomintang) period. The text describes the travails of independent journalists, writers, and publishers and documents leftist and Communist press struggles against political suppression.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • Zhang, Xiantao. The Origins of the Modern Chinese Press: The Influence of the Protestant Missionary Press in Late Qing China. Routledge Media, Culture, and Social Change in Asia 10. London: Routledge, 2007.

                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                    This book deals with the significance of the missionary press in particular, with a final chapter discussing its complex influences on 20th-century modernity.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    The PRC Propaganda System

                                                    Following the Korean War, scholarship on China suffered from the climate of mutual suspicion and hostility between the PRC and the West, China’s diplomatic isolation and self-imposed reclusiveness, and the lack of scholarly exchange and access. Studies of Chinese communications from the 1960s to the 1970s, relying on normative readings of official propaganda (e.g., Houn 1961, Yu 1964, Liu 1975), have not held up well over the years. Nevertheless, this literature is historically important for its role in helping define the Cold War–inflected view of China. Schurmann 1968 departed from the tenor of the times, however, and stands as an enduring work unusual both for the scope of its scholarship and for the author’s serious consideration of the Chinese Communist leadership’s desire to transform society.

                                                    • Houn, Franklin W. To Change a Nation: Propaganda and Indoctrination in Communist China. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1961.

                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                      This study of China’s propaganda system during the opening decade of the PRC depicts a closed, totalistic system by which the governing elite endeavors to impose unanimity and uniformity.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Liu, Alan P. L. Communications and National Integration in Communist China. Michigan Studies on China 2. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                        Argues that PRC media serve the multiple purposes of maintaining social and political control, fostering national identity, legitimizing the ruling regime, and promoting economic development. These objectives are explored in sections on mass campaigns, radio broadcasting, the press, book publishing, and film. Originally published in 1971; a new preface added for the 1975 paperback edition.

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Schurmann, Franz. Ideology and Organization in Communist China. 2d ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.

                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                          A detailed and engrossing inquiry that situates communication in a much larger sociological and historical context based on extensive use of Chinese sources and interviews with mainland refugees in Hong Kong. Schurmann describes China’s information system as an integral part of a flexible organizational apparatus with ideology motivated by practical needs. Widely acclaimed as a classic by commentators from across the political spectrum.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Yu, Frederick T. C. Mass Persuasion in Communist China. Praeger Publications in Russian History and World Communism 145. New York: Praeger, 1964.

                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                            In Yu’s view, China’s distinctive mass communication strategies combine emulation of the Soviet model with elements of Chinese traditional culture. The result is a totalistic propaganda effort permeating every activity and aimed at producing mass ideological conversion.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            Politics in Command

                                                            Upon coming to nationwide power in 1949, China’s new government adapted methods pioneered in the Communist base areas throughout the country. Although the Soviet Union was a “big brother,” model, and helpmate until the Sino-Soviet split of 1960, Chinese Communist leaders took an idiosyncratic path of political and economic development. Mao Zedong initiated a succession of campaigns in which media played a key part, with periods of intense mobilization followed by corrective retrenchment. In addition to its propaganda and mobilization functions, PRC journalism used elements particular to Chinese politics and literary forms—the institution of “internal publications” (neican 内参), by which the leadership acquired news of problems, and the practice of reportage (baogao wenxue 报告文学), China’s brand of literary journalism.

                                                            Campaigns, Intellectuals, and the Media

                                                            The 1942 “rectification” campaign in the Communist base area of Yan’an set a pattern for others to come. With his 1957 call to “let a hundred flowers bloom, let a hundred schools of thought contend,” Mao Zedong invited intellectuals to speak freely and then responded with the 1958 “antirightist” campaign. Journalists and media organizations were important agents at every stage, serving as conduits for social criticism and then as an instrument of party discipline. Dai 1994 examines a key episode of the Yan’an period, Benton 1982 relates early campaigns to later ones, MacFarquhar 1960 covers the 1950s upheavals, Liu 1990 relates the author’s personal experience with political movements, and Cheek 1997 follows the career of one prominent editor up to the Cultural Revolution.

                                                            • Benton, Gregor, ed. Wild Lilies: Poisonous Weeds; Dissident Voices from People’s China. London: Pluto, 1982.

                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                              This collection of essays, interviews, reports, and translations focuses on the Democracy Wall movement of the late 1970s, a robust debate on Beijing’s streets that was first indulged and then cut short. The book sets these events against the backdrop of incidents of political dissidence and repression from earlier Chinese Communist history, including the case of the journalist and author Wang Shiwei (see Dai 1994).

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Cheek, Timothy. Propaganda and Culture in Mao’s China: Deng Tuo and the Intelligentsia. Studies on Contemporary China. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.

                                                                DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198290667.001.0001E-mail Citation »

                                                                Both intellectual biography and social history, this book explores the revolutionary service and tragic fate of one of New China’s foremost editors and propaganda officials. As an elite intellectual and party insider, Deng Tuo also embodied traditions of erudite learning and loyal criticism. His critiques, expressed in popular essay form, came under attack at the start of the Cultural Revolution, and his despair led him to suicide.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Dai Qing. Wang Shiwei and “Wild Lilies”: Rectification and Purges in the Chinese Communist Party, 1942–1944. Edited by David E. Apter and Timothy Cheek. Translated by Nancy Liu and Lawrence R. Sullivan. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994.

                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Wang Shiwei, a left-wing writer who joined the Communist cause in the wartime base of Yan’an, was expelled from the party in 1942 for a series of writings proposing an independent and critical role for Communist intellectuals. He was executed in 1947. Dai Qing’s own experience partially recapitulates Wang’s. Also a loyal Communist of democratic persuasion, she quit the party after the crackdown on the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstrations and spent ten months in prison.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Liu Binyan. A Higher Kind of Loyalty: A Memoir of China’s Foremost Journalist. Translated by Zhu Hong. New York: Pantheon, 1990.

                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Liu drew criticism for his work as a journalist in the 1950s and acclaim for his literary journalism at the start of the post-Mao reforms. This memoir traces how he came to question the Communist Party’s intolerance of criticism. Expelled from the party in 1989, he spent his final years in exile in the United States. (See also Liu 2006, cited under Reportage, and Liu 1989, cited under the Tiananmen Demonstrations.)

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • MacFarquhar, Roderick, ed. The Hundred Flowers Campaign and the Chinese Intellectuals. New York: Praeger, 1960.

                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                      A documentary history of the outpouring of intellectual discontent unleashed by Mao’s 1957 call to “let a hundred flowers bloom.” Using translations from the Chinese press and news agency reports, MacFarquhar provides material expressing views from different sectors, including journalists and writers.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      Cultural Revolution Communications

                                                                      The Cultural Revolution, launched with the Red Guard movement of 1966–1968, grew out of Mao’s desire to keep China on a revolutionary path. But the movement to harness the idealism of young people soon degenerated into factional violence, and the army was dispatched to restore order. After an initial period of anarchic expression, the media became a kind of caricature of propaganda with diminished outlets and a uniform voice. The educational system was largely dismantled over the course of a decade, with urban youth sent to factories and farms and scientists and professionals exiled to the countryside. The period came to an end with Mao’s death and the arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976. Bennett 1976 examines Maoist political campaigns, including their communication elements, and Leijonhufvud 1990 provides historical perspective on the peculiarly Chinese mode of political expression known as the big-character poster. Godwin C. Chu, based at Hawaii’s East-West Center, wrote, edited, or coedited a succession of volumes on Chinese media under Mao, including Chu and Hsu 1979.

                                                                      • Bennett, Gordon. Yundong: Mass Campaigns in Chinese Communist Leadership. China Research Monograph 12. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1976.

                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                        This monograph explores mass campaigns as a mechanism of social change from a perspective that was unconventional for the time, arguing that China’s methods of top-down mobilization offered genuine opportunities for democratic participation and contributed to economic development.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Chu, Godwin C., and Francis L. K. Hsu, eds. Moving a Mountain: Cultural Change in China. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1979.

                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                          Lynn T. White III’s essay “Local Newspapers and Community Change” (pp. 76–112), a brilliant study of China’s pre–Cultural Revolution regional and local press, is especially noteworthy.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          • Leijonhufvud, Göran. Going against the Tide: On Dissent and Big-Character Posters in China. Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies Monograph 58. London: Curzon, 1990.

                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                            This study describes how Mao encouraged the use of big-character posters as part of an effort to circumvent the party bureaucracy that he sought to combat. At the same time, the medium reflected traditional forms of expressing grievance and seeking redress from government.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            Internal Publications

                                                                            The importance of this system, which funnels exclusive reports on sensitive matters to government and party officials, has varied in different periods. At times, notably in the midst of political campaigns, such reports have lacked reliability; at other times, including during the early post-Mao reform period, they have supplied the leadership with important information and high-quality investigative journalism. Grant 1988 looks at how this system of internal reporting designed to alert leaders to problems considered too controversial or sensitive for general consumption continued into the post-Mao period. Journalists may produce such reports in tandem with their public work, providing more detailed accounts of issues, or from separate investigations of stories not covered in the regular press. But as the public news and information system has expanded, internal channels have declined in exclusiveness and importance, and some publications once produced for internal reference only have evolved into professional journals and publicly available materials. The growing availability of Cankao xiaoxi (Reference news), the focus of Atwood and Lin 1982, is a case in point. Rudolph 1984 questions whether this publication and others like it were ever that useful to China’s leadership. Schoenhals 1992 takes a broader approach, studying Chinese Communist use of language as a tool of power, which entails examination of a variety of internal documents.

                                                                            • Atwood, L. Erwin, and N. Lin. “Cankao xiaoxi: News for China’s Cadre.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 59.2 (1982): 240–248.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/107769908205900208E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Introduces Cankao xiaoxi, a daily translation from international news sources produced by Xinhua News Agency that originated as a limited circulation tabloid available to a relatively low level of officialdom. In the early 21st century the newspaper is in public circulation. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Grant, Jennifer. “Internal Reporting by Investigative Journalists in China and Its Influence on Government Policy.” International Communication Gazette 41.1 (1988): 53–65.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/001654928804100105E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Grant focuses on the early 1980s and concludes that this system of “intelligence” provided by journalists makes significant contributions to government monitoring and policy making in that period. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Rudolph, Jörg-Meinhard. Cankao xiaoxi: Foreign News in the Propaganda System of the People’s Republic of China. Occasional Papers, Reprint Series in Contemporary Asian Studies 6. Baltimore: University of Maryland School of Law, 1984.

                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  On the basis of a detailed study of items related to PRC affairs appearing in Cankao xiaoxi from 1981 to 1982, Rudolph finds that the publication’s contents are “neither informative nor objective”; rather, translations from foreign news are selected and excerpted to align with official policy positions. This monograph also provides an excellent inventory of higher-level internal publications.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Schoenhals, Michael. Doing Things with Words in Chinese Politics: Five Studies. China Research Monograph 41. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1992.

                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Schoenhals, an expert on contemporary Chinese politics, argues that the party and its leaders have shaped and constrained political discourse through verbal and written prescription and taboos in ways that prevent creative thought and that hold back social progress. The chapter on conversations a top propaganda official held with young newspaper editors in 1955 is particularly revealing about how the party sought to direct the press during the early PRC years.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    Reportage

                                                                                    China has a distinctive literary tradition of long-form reportage that became an important form of radical intellectual expression in the 1930s, drew both acclaim and criticism in the 1950s, and had another brief heyday from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s. Klaschka 1998 and Laughlin 2002 are concerted studies of the genre, whereas Wagner 1992 focuses on specific works, including those of Liu Binyan. As a young journalist in the 1950s, Liu gained attention for reports thinly veiled as fiction that earned him a “rightist” label and ostracism throughout the course of the Cultural Revolution (see Liu 2006). He returned to journalism at the start of the post-Mao reforms, again making a mark by exposing endemic official corruption through literary reportage, weaving meticulous investigation with interpretation and impression. See also his autobiography, Liu 1990 (cited under Campaigns, Intellectuals, and the Media) and Liu 1989 (cited under the Tiananmen Demonstrations).

                                                                                    • Klaschka, Siegfried. Die chinesische Reportageliteratur: Das Genre baogao wenxue und seine politisch-gesellschaftlichen Bezüge. Opera sinologica 4. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 1998.

                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      Published dissertation by a German scholar on the political and social forms of baogao wenxue, the genre of Chinese reportage literature. The text draws on many Chinese language sources that, in contrast to most studies of reportage, emphasize the genre’s journalistic rather than literary dimensions.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Laughlin, Charles A. Chinese Reportage: The Aesthetics of Historical Experience. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002.

                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        Invaluable historical background for understanding the practice of Chinese literary reportage during later periods. The work traces the origins of the genre to travel writing of the Qing dynasty and explores the genre’s role in critical social engagement and the construction of modernity in the first part of the 20th century.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Liu Binyan. Two Kinds of Truth: Stories and Reportage from China. Edited by Perry Link. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          This volume showcases some of Liu’s most important work, including “People or Monsters?” about a notorious woman embezzler in Northeast China who eventually was put to death, an account that caused a sensation when it appeared in Chinese in 1979. Along with other reports and reviews, the book includes an interview with Liu from 2004, a year before his death in the United States, where he had lived in exile since falling out with Chinese authorities in 1989.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          • Wagner, Rudolf G. Inside a Service Trade: Studies in Contemporary Chinese Prose. Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph 34. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1992.

                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            A terrific introduction to China’s literary reportage of the 1920s–1930s and the genre’s controversial writers and writings of the 1950s. Three chapters scrutinize the early work of Liu Binyan, notably his “At the Building Sites of the Bridges” and “Inside News of Our Paper” and their social and political ramifications.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            Post–Mao Zedong Media Reforms

                                                                                            Scholarship on journalism, media, and communication in China has burgeoned since Deng Xiaoping led the redirection of national development strategy from 1978 on. Both energizing and scrutinizing China’s embrace of the market, international reengagement, and rapid economic growth, the country’s communications networks have become increasingly varied and expansive. Ownership configurations have diversified to allow for some private investment, while the government’s modes and mechanisms for managing the media have become correspondingly more strategic and targeted.

                                                                                            Media Transition and Evolution

                                                                                            A series of thematic collections of original studies edited by Chin-Chuan Lee, beginning with Voices of China (Lee 1990) and followed by three others (Lee 1994, Lee 2000, Lee 2003), brought a wide range of expertise and perspectives to bear on communication in and about mainland and greater China. These collections are an important foundation for much subsequent work. Each offers overviews, topical analyses, and case studies that illuminate origins, dynamics, ambiguities, and contradictions of mass communication in post-Mao China. Lee, a noted international communication scholar of Taiwanese background with a long teaching career in the United States and Hong Kong, was founding president of the US-based Chinese Communication Association.

                                                                                            • Lee, Chin-Chuan, ed. Voices of China: The Interplay of Politics and Journalism. Guilford Communication Series. New York: Guilford, 1990.

                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              The first of Lee’s edited volumes in Chinese media, this combines the work of scholars and journalists to address the journalism reform movement of the 1980s, the media’s role in the Tiananmen demonstrations of 1989, and international reporting about China.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              • Lee, Chin-Chuan, ed. China’s Media, Media’s China. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1994.

                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                This volume centers on themes of control and change in Chinese media and ideology in US media coverage of China.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Lee, Chin-Chuan, ed. Power, Money, and Media: Communication Patterns and Bureaucratic Control in Cultural China. Media Topographies. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2000.

                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Topics in this volume range from changes in PRC media structures and practices to Taiwanese press coverage of mainland China and to journalism during and after the Hong Kong handover.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Lee, Chin-Chuan, ed. Chinese Media, Global Contexts. RoutledgeCurzon Studies in Asia’s Transformations. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Nationalism, globalization, media and youth, information technology, and popular culture are among the topics addressed in this volume.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    Early Assessments

                                                                                                    Opportunities for foreign academics to tour and teach in China in the 1980s and the 1990s along with a growing contingent of Chinese graduate students entering communications programs abroad gave rise to writings about Chinese media whose significance stemmed more from novelty than from rigor. They include personal accounts, impressionistic essays, and a good deal of speculation, all of which fail to contribute significantly to enduring scholarship, but a few of the better scholarly pieces are worth revisiting. These include Starck and Yu 1988, one of the first important assessments of post-Mao media developments, and Chu 1994, a readable review of scholarship on post-Mao media reforms up to the early 1990s. Reports prior to these tend to be superficial, time bound, and unsystematic, but were important as early harbingers. Robinson 1981, for instance, provides a useful account of how Chinese sources described media developments of the time to nonspecialists.

                                                                                                    • Chu, Leonard L. “Continuity and Change in China’s Media Reform.” Journal of Communication 44.3 (1994): 4–21.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1994.tb00685.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Leading off a set of articles on communications in China, Chu contrasts post-Mao changes in media concepts, structures, and operations with prior Communist Party attempts at media reform in the 1940s and the 1950s and argues that unintended liberalization combined with marketization is eroding the party’s ideological power, with new media outlets and entertainment sources weakening “big official media.” Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Robinson, Deanna Campbell. “Changing Functions of Mass Media in the People’s Republic of China.” Journal of Communication 31.4 (1981): 58–73.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1981.tb00451.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Based on a 1980 tour by a group of US editorial writers, this article characterizes post-Mao changes in mass media as a “conversion,” with an expanding repertoire of news, entertainment, and advertising being added to propaganda functions. Particularly striking to this group were media efforts to “sweep away” memories of the Cultural Revolution and the legacy of Mao. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        • Starck, Kenneth, and Yu Xu. “Loud Thunder, Small Raindrops: The Reform Movement and the Press in China.” International Communication Gazette 42.3 (1988): 143–159.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/001654928804200301E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Drawing on early discussions of journalism reform in China, the authors envision two possibilities: modest adjustments that would emphasize improving newswriting and presentation within the existing framework, in which news media are instruments of the party and government, or redefinition of the basic role of the press. The Chinese saying in the title underscores the point that reformist rhetoric was considerably ahead of any practical change. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          Political Communication

                                                                                                          Scholars based outside China have produced a number of comprehensive studies focused on the changing dynamics of political communication since the 1980s that are essential reading for understanding the post-Mao media environment. Political scientists have contributed significantly to this realm with book-length studies and scholarly articles (Lynch 1999, Shambaugh 2007, Brady 2008, Tang and Iyengar 2011). A communication scholar who trained as a journalist in China and who pursued her scholarly career mainly in Canada, Yuezhi Zhao has produced two important books examining Chinese journalism as an institution interweaving politics and economics (Zhao 1998, Zhao 2008). Sun 2001 collects writings by a PRC scholar who emerged prominently in 1980s discussions of journalism reform.

                                                                                                          • Brady, Anne-Marie. Marketing Dictatorship: Propaganda and Thought Work in Contemporary China. Asia/Pacific/Perspectives. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Brady takes issue with studies suggesting that Chinese authorities are losing control of the media, arguing rather that media commercialization and conglomeration have actually helped reinforce the Chinese Communist Party’s legitimacy. Her scholarship is meticulous, and her analysis of China’s media control apparatus is the most detailed available. She also provides a thorough literature review on political communication in China.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Lynch, Daniel C. After the Propaganda State: Media, Politics, and “Thought Work” in Reformed China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999.

                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              Asserts that commercialization, globalization, and greater pluralism are eroding the Chinese government’s ability to control the media and characterizes the results as “public-sphere praetorianism,” in which no organized political force is capable of dominating communication messages.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • Shambaugh, David. “China’s Propaganda System: Institutions, Processes, and Efficacy.” China Journal 57 (2007): 25–58.

                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Bringing together a wealth of information on agencies, actors, mechanisms, and processes of China’s propaganda apparatus in the post-Mao period, Shambaugh offers an organizational guide to a system of complex redundancy and sometimes clashing operations and goals. He concludes that an “atrophied” party and state bureaucracy maintain much control over information but face many challenges, from commerce and new technology to public cynicism and sophistication. Available online by subscription.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Sun Xupei. An Orchestra of Voices: Making the Argument for Greater Speech and Press Freedom in the People’s Republic of China. Edited by Elizabeth C. Michel. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.

                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Translated essays by a former director of the Institute of Journalism under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences who was active in late-1980s discussions of journalism reform. Sun is concerned with the practical ramifications of law, theory, and ideology. This book is unique among translated works relevant to the field in that it conveys the coherent vision of an important Chinese communication scholar.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  • Tang, Wenfang, and Shanto Iyengar. “The Emerging Media System in China: Implications for Regime Change.” In Special Issue: Political Communication in China; Convergence or Divergence between the Media and Political System? Edited by Wenfang Tang and Shanto Iyengar. Political Communication 28.3 (2011): 263–267.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/10584609.2011.572446E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    This editors’ introduction to a special journal issue on media in China discusses prospects for media’s facilitation of both regime support and regime resistance and identifies areas for future research. The articles that follow explore key issues in Chinese political communication, including commercialization, technology, public opinion, and political discussion. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    • Zhao, Yuezhi. Media, Market, and Democracy in China: Between the Party Line and the Bottom Line. History of Communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.

                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      This book synthesizes a large volume of primary and secondary research, including the author’s original fieldwork from 1994 to 1995, to trace the evolution of a media system in which politicized propaganda functions interact with new commercial pressures in complex and confusing ways.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Zhao, Yuezhi. Communication in China: Political Economy, Power, and Conflict. State and Society in East Asia. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        A densely theoretical work undergirded by solid empirical study, this text also represents a political critique of China’s postsocialist development strategy, reflecting the so-called New Left perspective among Chinese intellectuals. Zhao views government and commerce as conjoined forces, with the state continuing to refine media management while promoting privatization, and identifies the emergence of a new national media elite with a vested interest in promoting leisure culture and mass entertainment.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        News Production and Reception

                                                                                                                        New findings and insights on Chinese media production and reception commonly appear first in dissertations and conference papers, then in journal articles, and finally in books. In the context of China’s rapid change, it is especially hard to keep up with the subject matter, but an expanding international community of researchers studying news in China has done a commendable job. The literature on Chinese news producers is well represented in book form. Meanwhile, studies on the context and conduct of journalism, production studies of specific media outlets, story and program examples and genres, journalism education, and related topics flow liberally along the journal pipeline. Surveys of media consumers have become common since breakthrough examples of the early 1980s, with business and marketing agencies and social scientists constantly generating new data, but theoretical understanding of the Chinese media audience still lags.

                                                                                                                        Journalists and News Work

                                                                                                                        An extensive and constantly growing literature focuses on Chinese journalists and their work, including the multifaceted nature of the occupation (de Burgh 2003, Polumbaum 2008, Hassid 2011, Shirk 2011, Zhang and Su 2012), the conduct of investigative and specialized reporting (Bandurski and Hala 2010), and the processes by which journalists negotiate political and economic constraints with sometimes counterintuitive results (Lee, et al. 2006; Lee, et al. 2007).

                                                                                                                        • Bandurski, David, and Martin Hala, eds. Investigative Journalism in China: Eight Cases in Chinese Watchdog Journalism. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010.

                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Relating stories of dogged, entrepreneurial, and intrepid reporting by Chinese journalists on topics ranging from disaster and medical crisis to financial corruption and official malfeasance, these detailed narratives give a good sense of some of the most admirable journalism in China and the political, commercial, practical, and ethical problems associated with these efforts.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • de Burgh, Hugo. The Chinese Journalist: Mediating Information in the World’s Most Populous Country. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.4324/9780203323267E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            A survey of historical and political developments in Chinese journalism spanning nearly a century, this well-organized book incorporates a case study of journalists in Hangzhou but is mainly a synthesis of secondary materials. Addresses themes such as patriotism, professionalism, and commercialism and examines how contemporary Chinese journalists see themselves and their roles.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            • Hassid, Jonathan. “Four Models of the Fourth Estate: A Typology of Contemporary Chinese Journalists.” China Quarterly 208 (2011): 813–832.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S0305741011001019E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Fieldwork entailing interviews with more than sixty Chinese journalists leads Hassid to identify four basic types, which he labels “American-style professionals,” “Communist professionals,” “workaday journalists,” and “advocacy professionals.” He cautions against taking the US occupational model as the likely goal for China and—emphasizing that advocacy has its particular Chinese traditions, forms, and empirical uses—views the fourth group as the vanguard of progress in Chinese journalism. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Lee, Chin-Chuan, Zhou He, and Yu Huang. “‘Chinese Party Publicity Inc.’ Conglomerated: The Case of the Shenzhen Press Group.” Media, Culture, and Society 28.4 (2006): 581–602.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0163443706065031E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Based on extensive fieldwork in Shenzhen, this article documents the complicity of state and media agents and institutions, contradicting conventional wisdom that market forces are eroding political power in China. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • Lee, Chin-Chuan, Zhou He, and Yu Huang. “Party-Market Corporatism, Clientelism, and Media in Shanghai.” International Journal of Press/Politics 12.3 (2007): 21–42.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/1081180X07303216E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  In this companion piece to Lee, et al. 2006 the authors, drawing on fieldwork in Shanghai, find media-state accommodation at many levels and argue that these collaborations ultimately serve both political and economic power. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  • Polumbaum, Judy. China Ink: The Changing Face of Chinese Journalism. Asian Voices. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Based on interviews with twenty young Chinese journalists working for a variety of media outlets, including official and quasi-official, print and broadcast, and new commercial and experimental publications. Useful introduction makes the case for using individual stories to overcome stereotypes about Chinese society. The journalists offer personalized views, conveyed with zest and humor, of their educations, newsroom socialization, reporting and editing practices, and tactics and strategies for overcoming obstacles.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Shirk, Susan L., ed. Changing Media, Changing China. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

                                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      This collection reviews developments in newspapers, broadcasting, and the Internet. Chapters on specialized areas consider business, environmental, investigative, and military journalism. The essays vary in scholarly sophistication and originality. Benjamin L. Liebman’s study of the relationship between China’s courts and media and Xiao Qiang’s study of the implications of online communications for China’s political evolution are especially noteworthy.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • Zhang, Hongzhong, and Linsen Su. “Chinese Media and Journalists in Transition.” In The Global Journalist in the 21st Century. Edited by David H. Weaver and Lars Willnat, 9–21. New York: Routledge, 2012.

                                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Considers demographics, education, attitudes and values, professionalism, and other issues. An update that makes for useful comparison with Chen Chongshan, Jonathan H. Zhu, and Wu Wei’s corresponding chapter, “The Chinese Journalist,” in Weaver’s prior version of this work, The Global Journalist: News People around the World (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton, 1998).

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        Journalism Education

                                                                                                                                        The expansion of journalism and mass communication programs in China in the post–Mao Zedong period has attracted considerable commentary but little systematic attention. Although scholars have covered developments through the 1990s fairly well (Greenberg and Lau 1990, Hao and Xu 1997, Wu 2006), later practices, such as the upgrading of departments into schools, increased emphasis on academic scholarship, acceleration in the creation of new programs, and meanings of these trends for professional and academic aspirations, remain to be studied.

                                                                                                                                        • Greenberg, Bradley S., and Tuen-Yu Lau. “Revolution in Journalism and Communication Education in the People’s Republic of China.” International Children’s Gazette 45.1 (1990): 19–31.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/001654929004500103E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          One of the earliest attempts to inventory Chinese journalism programs, evaluate changes in curriculum, and gauge anticipated demand in the field, this study counts thirty-three tertiary-level schools offering journalism in China by 1986 and looks closely at seven departments. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          • Hao Xiaoming and Xu Xiaoge. “Exploring between Two Worlds: China’s Journalism Education.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 52.3 (1997): 35–47.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/107769589705200305E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Traces the evolution of Chinese journalism up to the mid-1990s, offering a clear and comprehensive survey of expanding and emerging programs in the post-Mao period. The authors identify an educational patchwork incorporating both Soviet and American features but lacking a model of its own and characterize China’s experiments in journalism education as evolving “by default rather than by design.” Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Starck, Kenneth. The Dragon’s Pupils: A China Odyssey. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1991.

                                                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Starck, the former director of the University of Iowa’s School of Journalism and Mass Communication, taught journalism to Chinese graduate students in Beijing from 1986 to 1987. This is a qualified but generally optimistic account of his experiences of the culture and the classroom.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • Wu, Tingjun. “Journalism Education in China: A Historical Perspective.” In Global Trends in Communication and Education and Research. Edited by Kenneth W. Y. Leung, James Kenny, and Paul S. N. Lee, 133–157. Hampton Communication Series: New Media. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Examines traditional Chinese journalism programs of the first half of the 20th century and elite programs that endured or that were set up after 1949, before turning to the post-Mao period and the search for new approaches to meet new social needs. Wu sees the mid-1990s as a pivotal point, because Internet communications along with the growth of Chinese academic studies of media accentuated demand for experts and practitioners in the field.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                Media Audiences

                                                                                                                                                Emerging in China in the 1980s as newly introduced tools of social science, polls and surveys have come into widespread use in academic study and consumer research and marketing despite complicating factors, including expense; bureaucratic resistance; and problems with transparency, sampling, and rigor. China’s first systematic audience studies (Rogers, et al. 1985; Womack 1987) remain significant, as they highlight both newfound concerns for media users in the reform period and the adaptation of a methodology new to China. Meanwhile, a different way of gauging audience concerns flourished briefly for the first few years of the reform period, when newspapers often spotlighted and investigated letters from ordinary citizens (Thomas 1980). This practice helped revive flagging readership after the Cultural Revolution decade but has since diminished. Yu 2006 explores the changing nature of the audience in the reform period, an area of research that is expanding with the growth of interactive digital media.

                                                                                                                                                • Rogers, Everett M., Xiaoyan Zhao, Zhongdang Pan, and Milton Chen. “The Beijing Audience Study.” Communication Research 12.2 (1985): 179–208.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/009365085012002002E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  This article introduced the 1982 Beijing Audience Survey, the first large-scale communication field study in China, which indicated that audiences for newspaper, radio, and television were rapidly expanding. The article also made comparisons with audience surveys done in other developing countries. Zhao and Pan, then PRC graduate students at Stanford University, made possible translation and informed analysis of the Beijing materials. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • Thomas, Hugh, ed. and trans. Comrade Editor: Letters to the People’s Daily. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing, 1980.

                                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    This collection shows how, in the more tolerant political climate of the late 1970s that emphasized redressing old wrongs, newspapers and government offices grew more open and responsive to individual complaints, with the People’s Daily a particularly lively messenger.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Womack, Brantly, ed. Media and the Chinese Public: A Survey of the Beijing Media Audience. Chinese Sociology and Anthropology. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1987.

                                                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Originally published in Chinese Sociology and Anthropology 18.3–4 (1986). This monograph includes a masterful editor’s introduction; a key 1986 speech by Hu Yaobang, “On the Party’s Journalism Work”; and more original material from the Beijing audience study (see Rogers, et al. 1985).

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      • Yu, Haiqing. “From Active Audience to Media Citizenship: The Case of Post-Mao China.” In Special Issue: Mediated Citizenship(s). Edited by Karin Wahl-Jorgensen. Social Semiotics 16.2 (2006): 303–326.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/10350330600664888E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        In a unique contribution to the study of media uses in China, Yu examines the idea of the “active audience” in the age of new media. Using two detailed case studies illustrating the amplification and promotion of journalistic coverage of controversial news events through Internet discussion, the author identifies new configurations of citizenship in which people’s rights to know and speak have become salient as values and in practice. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        The Tiananmen Demonstrations

                                                                                                                                                        The student demonstrations centered in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square during the spring of 1989, sparked by the death of Hu Yaobang in April, received much sympathetic coverage in domestic and international media. The response of Chinese intellectuals and the participation of many journalists in support marches were no surprise to those who had followed that decade’s freewheeling discussions of democracy and press freedom. What was a shock both in China and to foreign observers was the military crackdown of 4 June 1989. A large literature has emerged from these events, with much written on journalists’ involvement (Liu 1989, Yi and Thompson 1989). Some informative accounts of Chinese media behavior in the period surfaced not long afterward (Faison 1990, Tan 1990), although no single work provides a complete picture, and these works need to be supplemented by studies from other fields.

                                                                                                                                                        • Faison, Seth. “The Changing Role of the Chinese Media.” In The Chinese People’s Movement: Perspectives on Spring 1989. Edited by Tony Saich, 145–163. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1990.

                                                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Thoughtful essay by a foreign correspondent who covered the demonstrations describing a Chinese press that for a time opened a more transparent window on Chinese politics. Faison was then the China correspondent for the South China Morning Post; he later was the Shanghai bureau chief for the New York Times.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Liu Binyan. “Tell the World”: What Happened in China and Why. Translated by Henry L. Epstein. New York: Pantheon, 1989.

                                                                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Three insiders who broke with the party after the 1989 crackdown provide their explanation of the students’ demands, popular sympathy, high-level factionalism, and government response.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            • Tan, Frank. “The People’s Daily: Politics and Popular Will; Journalistic Defiance in China during the Spring of 1989.” Pacific Affairs 63.2 (1990): 151–169.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/2759720E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              A former editor of the People’s Daily analyzes coverage from the declaration of martial law in Beijing to the military crackdown, identifying the signs of newsroom resistance, including the black border surrounding the small front-page box tallying up the days of martial law. Available online by subscription.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              • Yi Mu and Mark V. Thompson. Crisis at Tiananmen: Reform and Reality in Modern China. San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals, 1989.

                                                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Includes a long, informative section on the role of the press during the demonstrations.

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                Culture Industries and New Technologies

                                                                                                                                                                Developments in any given sector of communications, including journalism and news, cannot be detached from related issues of culture, technology, and globalization. Intertwined trends in China’s intellectual and cultural production industries are especially evident in the fields of popular and digital media, and studies from those areas help illuminate the connections. Both areas have produced a great deal of rich literature beyond the scope of this entry.

                                                                                                                                                                Popular Culture and Globalization

                                                                                                                                                                Popular media forms in China; transnational influences on domestic culture; and the ramifications for information, expression, and identity have gained growing attention from scholars. The work in this section comes from diverse fields, including cultural studies (Sun 2002, Keane 2007), literary studies (Link, et al. 2002; Barmé 1999), and journalism (Zha 1995). These texts explore how artists, writers, intellectuals, and entrepreneurs are adapting and contributing to China’s market-driven culture and how cultural institutions are evolving in the national and the global marketplace.

                                                                                                                                                                • Barmé, Geremie R. In the Red: Contemporary Chinese Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

                                                                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Barmé, who writes extensively on cultural politics in China, provides a tour of the lively and complex culture of China in the 1990s and shows how creative and ingenious artists and writers use creative and ingenious methods to operate in a fluctuating political climate.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  • Keane, Michael. Created in China: The Great New Leap Forward. Routledge Media, Culture, and Social Change in Asia. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    This somewhat disjointed but innovative work brings together scholarship on cultural production, historical background on the development of creative industries, and extensive fieldwork to illuminate new clusters of media and creative activity emerging in urban China.

                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                    • Link, Perry, Richard P. Madsen, and Paul G. Pickowicz, eds. Popular China: Unofficial Culture in a Globalizing Society. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.

                                                                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      A diverse volume ranging from religion and ritual to youth, to private entrepreneurship, and to domesticity, focusing on grassroots cultural phenomena during the first decade of reform. Link’s account of the circulation of hand-copied popular literature is a good reminder that unofficial communication had its ways in the pre-Internet era.

                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                      • Sun, Wanning. Leaving China: Media, Migration, and Transnational Imagination. World Social Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.

                                                                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Sun explores production, circulation, and consumption of media products within China and across the Chinese diaspora. She is especially concerned with construction of global identities that, even in disparate locales, remain tethered to a strong national narrative. Among the forms that enter into the constitution of this modern transnational imagination are film, television dramas, satellite television, and the Internet.

                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                        • Zha, Jianying. China Pop: How Soap Operas, Tabloids, and Bestsellers Are Transforming a Culture. New York: New Press, 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          This book offers vivid portraits, scenarios, and examples that add up to an overall picture of changing values. Although outdated, the work holds up well as a harbinger of things to come. The author, a uniquely positioned cultural translator who travels easily between her native China and the West, is a frequent contributor on China to the New Yorker.

                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                          Cyberspace Communications

                                                                                                                                                                          The Internet has become an essential adjunct of news reporting, a crucial conduit for dissemination and amplification of ideas and information, and a vehicle for commentary and expression in China and a dynamic media form in itself. Not surprisingly, the literature is expanding apace. Empirical study can hardly keep up with developments in technology and the expansion of Internet access, usage, and scope; nevertheless, the enduring value of the most perceptive and nuanced Internet scholarship already seems evident in the early 21st century. Topics of interest include government control over cyberspace (one of the earliest solid studies is Hughes and Wacker 2003), blogging and other forms of unofficial discourse (Esarey and Xiao 2011), technological modes of civic activism (Tai 2006, Zhou 2006, Yang 2011), and global dimensions (Mengin 2004, Zhang and Zheng 2009).

                                                                                                                                                                          • Esarey, Ashley, and Xiao Qiang. “Digital Communication and Political Change in China.” International Journal of Communication 5 (2011): 298–319.

                                                                                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            This piece, based partly on a content analysis of blogs and newspapers, identifies expanding online space for political expression. The authors see state ideological influence weakening despite new modes of monitoring, technologically and legally.

                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                            • Hughes, Christopher R., and Gudrun Wacker, eds. China and the Internet: Politics of the Digital Leap Forward. Politics in Asia. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              This book counters the idea that new information technologies are significantly eroding the power of the Chinese state. The book provides excellent background on the creation of China’s information infrastructure in the context of economic development strategy and addresses such topics as censorship, bureaucratic turf wars, the digital divide, national security, and the Internet’s role in the construction of a “greater China” identity.

                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                              • Mengin, Françoise, ed. Cyber China: Reshaping National Identities in the Age of Information. Papers presented at a conference at the Centre d’Études et de Recherches Internationales, Paris, 16–17 December 2002. Centre d’Études et de Recherches Internationales Series in International Relations and Political Economy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                Conference volume centering on the political implications of borderless information technologies for greater China with chapters illuminating how state and private interests benefit from the information society and how online communications contribute paradoxically, promoting both unification and fragmentation.

                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                • So, Sherman, and J. Christopher Westland. Red Wired: China’s Internet Revolution. London: Marshall Cavendish, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  So and Westland examine China’s explosive Internet development in a book aimed largely at popular and business readers. Although key issues and controversies have been well covered in international media, with episodes involving Google, eBay, PayPal, Alibaba, and Taobao, the book’s comprehensive chronicle of relevant events and solid reporting on China Internet players and entrepreneurs make this a good contemporary reference for scholars as well.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Tai, Zixue. The Internet in China: Cyberspace and Civil Society. Routledge Studies in New Media and Cyberculture. New York: Routledge, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Begins with historical analysis of notions of civil society throughout the world and in China followed by a detailed explanation of the players, policies, and dynamics producing China’s contemporary information economy. Tai then focuses on online activism and protest. He shows how the Internet is opening new social spaces, recalibrating social relationships, and facilitating social movements.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yang, Guobin. The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online. Contemporary Asia in the World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      Explores interrelated issues of creativity, community, and control through the lens of the Internet, but Yang’s larger purpose is to illuminate social change in China. He analyzes how diverse elements contend and converge in participatory activity online and how online activity interacts with state, market, and transnational influences and other forces, shaping struggles that reflect broader societal processes.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Zhang, Xiaoling, and Yongnian Zheng, eds. China’s Information and Communications Technology Revolution: Social Changes and State Responses. Papers presented at the International Symposium on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Transformation in China, University of Nottingham, 14–15 June 2007. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Based on a 2007 symposium held in the United Kingdom, this volume addresses not only common topics, including propaganda and government control and democratic prospects for blogging and other online forms, but also less studied ones, including China’s information initiatives directed abroad, export of information technologies, Internet pornography, and involvement of domestic and foreign nongovernmental organizations.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Zhou Yongming. Historicizing Online Politics: Telegraphy, the Internet, and Political Participation in China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Looking at the relationship between communications technologies and politics in China, Zhou emphasizes the need to unravel how human interaction shapes technology in historical context, with examples of the use of telegrams for popular mobilization during the late Qing dynasty. He reviews the government’s efforts to foster Internet growth while maintaining control and draws on extensive original fieldwork to explain Chinese citizens’ strategies for employing the Internet to make their voices heard.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                          Other Sectors

                                                                                                                                                                                          Chinese journalism and news media figure importantly in studies of many other areas of communications. The selection here is simply indicative of the considerable intersection of kindred subjects.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Television

                                                                                                                                                                                          Chinese television is a fascinating crucible of complications subject to the multitude of factors affecting domestic and global media institutions, processes, and substance, it generally and constantly tempts and challenges researchers with its unending generation of multimedia overload. China’s television has been studied from the perspective of many fields, through the lenses of political economy, law and regulation, new technologies, and culture and information flows. From among a growing mountain of academic literature, this section singles out a few significant works by communication scholars whose emphases range from China’s television audience and controversial programming (Lull 1991) to television’s internationalization and program importation (Hong 1998) to Chinese television news representations of the rest of the world (Chang 2002). Huang and Green 2000 presents a useful descriptive overview.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Chang, Tsan-Kuo. China’s Window on the World: TV News, Social Knowledge, and International Spectacles. Hampton Press Communication Series: Mass Communication and Journalism. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton, 2002.

                                                                                                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            The outcome of nearly two decades of study, this book scrutinizes China Central Television’s international news coverage and additional Chinese news content, with comparison with US network news. Chang makes the case that China’s authorities use central news media as a tool for building common interpretations and political consensus about the world.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hong, Junhao. The Internationalization of Television in China: The Evolution of Ideology, Society, and Media since the Reform. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

                                                                                                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hong provides a detailed accounting of import purposes and criteria, program formats and categories, and changes in these features over time. He finds that growth and decentralization of domestic broadcasting, advance of cross-border technologies, and competition of media outlets for Chinese people’s time and attention are among the factors propelling change and anticipates the rising production values and popularity of domestic television fare.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Huang, Yu, and Andrew Green. “From Mao to the Millennium: 40 Years of Television in China (1958–98).” In Television in Contemporary Asia. Edited by David French and Michael Richards, 267–292. New Delhi: SAGE, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Useful overview tracing the history and technology of a medium that was rudimentary until the onset of the post–Mao Zedong reforms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lull, James. China Turned On: Television, Reform, and Resistance. London: Routledge, 1991.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  This book suffers from the author’s linguistic limitations and is quite dated, but it remains significant as the first book-length study in English of Chinese television. Lull draws on interviews with television viewers in disparate parts of China conducted in 1986 and 1989 and foregrounds two popular and politically controversial television programs to highlight what he sees as the subversive potential of the medium during times of relatively lax control.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Photojournalism

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Photographic documentation of Chinese life and times from the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries comes largely from European and American visitors and correspondents, although Chinese photographers had the inside track on the Communists’ rise to power. A much larger photography corps, which includes art as well as news photographers, has grown up during China’s reform period, with some individuals and bodies of work gaining international exposure. Ho 2009 introduces an important pre-PRC photographer, whereas Li 2003 supplies a rare photographic record of the Cultural Revolution. Guangdong meishuguan 2009 and Wang and Liu 2011 provide good surveys of the work of contemporary Chinese photojournalists. But analysis and scholarship on the history and conduct of Chinese photojournalism is scarce; Kenney 1993 is a very dated exception.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Guangdong meishuguan 广东美术馆编, ed. Zhongguo renben (中国人本). Guangdong meishuguan cangpin tulu: Sheying. Guangzhou, China: Ling nan meishu chubanshe, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    English title, Humanism in China: A Contemporary Record of Photography. Works of 270 Chinese photographers documenting China’s daily life and diversity from an exhibit developed at the Guangdong Museum of Art in Guangzhou. The show also traveled to Shanghai, Beijing, and other Chinese cities and to Scotland, Germany, and New York.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ho, Eliza. Art, Documentary, and Propaganda in Wartime China: The Photography of Sha Fei. Ohio State University Urban Arts Space. Columbus, OH: East Asian Studies Center, Ohio State University, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Catalogue with biographical material and essays prepared in conjunction with an exhibition of the work of Sha Fei (b. 1912–d. 1950), one of China’s most influential wartime photographers, who documented social and military struggles from 1937 to 1949, first from a leftist perspective and then in the formal service of the Communist Party.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kenney, Keith R. “Photographic Content in Chinese Newspapers.” International Communication Gazette 51.2 (1993): 149–169.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/001654929305100204E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        A limited and outdated study based on content analysis and interviews with photographers and editors at eleven Chinese newspapers and the national Xinhua News Agency but important as a baseline in an area with very sparse attention. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Li Zhensheng. Red-Color News Soldier: A Chinese Photographer’s Odyssey through the Cultural Revolution. Edited by Robert Pledge. London: Phaidon, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Li, a provincial photographer, sequestered his photographs from the Cultural Revolution for decades before he began to exhibit images that would have been deemed “counterrevolutionary” in Mao Zedong’s time. Eventually, Contact Press Images in New York helped reconstruct Li’s extraordinary documentation of the period. Information on the book, the author, and a corresponding exhibit is available online.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wang Miao and Liu Yang, eds. China’s Thirty Years. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chinese title, Jianzheng: Gaige ka fang sanshinian (见证: 改革开放30 年). Presents three hundred news pictures by Chinese photographers capturing moments of the reform era that began in 1978, with section introductions providing social, political, and economic context.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Advertising

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Banned during the Cultural Revolution, advertising reemerged in 1979 and rapidly supplanted shrinking state subsidies as the most important source of media financing. Books on China’s advertising, marketing, and branding are a growing sector of popular business literature, whereas much of the scholarly work has a business and management emphasis. Communication scholars, however, have focused on the content and operations of media advertising and the consumer potential of the media audience (Wang 2000, Wang 2008).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wang, Jian. Foreign Advertising in China: Becoming Global, Becoming Local. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Reviews the history and practice of advertising in China from the beginning of the 20th century, describing the early booms of the 1920s and the 1930s. Also focuses on “glocalization” strategies by which international companies attempt to adapt their contemporary messages to the Chinese context.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wang, Jing. Brand New China: Advertising, Media, and Commercial Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                A detailed account of transnational advertising and branding in contemporary China, drawing on fieldwork, academic study, and professional experience in Beijing and US advertising agencies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Additional Communication Perspectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Communication scholars periodically have surveyed Chinese media studies and offered new theoretical approaches (Ma 2000, Lee 2000, Akhavan-Majid 2005) and new ways to organize the field (Donald and Yu 2011).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Akhavan-Majid, Roya. “Mass Media Reform in China: Toward a New Analytical Framework.” International Communication Gazette 66.6 (2005): 553–565.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0016549204047576E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Seeking an alternative to an emphasis on freedom circumscribed by state control, the author suggests that official and unofficial agents in China have interests that often converge in media policy. She says that state initiatives have enabled nonstate agents to engage in “creative renegotiation and expansion,” contributing to mass media reform, and identifies trends that are mutually beneficial to these diverse categories of actors. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Donald, Stephanie Hemelryk, and Haiqing Yu, eds. Special Issue: Chinese Media Studies; The State of the Field. Media International Australia 138 (2011).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A series of articles by scholars with good access to China (in a fine journal deserving of more attention) that collate, organize, categorize, and comment on Chinese media scholarship; the best cumulative literature reviews. Especially valuable are contributions by Donald (pp. 57–65), Yu (pp. 66–79), Michael Keane (pp. 80–87), Jeesoon Hong (pp. 88–97), Joyce Nip (pp. 112–127), and Oliva Khoo (pp. 128–136).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lee Chin-Chuan. “China’s Journalism: The Emancipatory Potential of Social Theory.” Journalism Studies 1.4 (2000): 559–575.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/146167000441303E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Representative of numerous articles and papers in which Lee argues for new discourses in analyzing China’s media with respect to state and market in the context of globalization. He critiques absolutist or intransigent approaches, draws attention to the significance of both national narratives and universal principles, and calls for developing theoretical visions from China’s cultural specifics. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ma, Eric Kit-wai. “Rethinking Media Studies: The Case of China.” In De-Westernizing Media Studies. Edited by James Curran and Myung-Jin Park, 21–34. Communication and Society. London: Routledge, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In this contribution to a larger discussion on moving media scholarship away from Eurocentric and American standpoints, Ma reevaluates Western theoretical perspectives in light of trends in media experience in China and Hong Kong and advocates applying both liberal and critical approaches “creatively and flexibly.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        back to top

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        How to Subscribe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions and individuals. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Purchase an Ebook Version of This Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ebooks of the Oxford Bibliographies Online subject articles are available in North America via a number of retailers including Amazon, vitalsource, and more. Simply search on their sites for Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guides and your desired subject article.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        If you would like to purchase an eBook article and live outside North America please email onlinemarketing@oup.com to express your interest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Up

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Down