In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Buddhism and Hinduism

  • Introduction
  • General Philosophical Texts
  • Yoga
  • Tantra
  • Social and Geographical Issues
  • Polemics
  • Philosophical Comparisons between Hinduism and Buddhism
  • Theoretical Approaches
  • Ecology
  • Ethics

Buddhism Buddhism and Hinduism
GJ Mason
  • LAST REVIEWED: 21 February 2022
  • LAST MODIFIED: 21 February 2022
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195393521-0273


A chronological approach is used in this bibliographic article in sequencing emergent categories and concepts as they appear in history, although technically what is understood as “Hinduism” as practiced today did not exist prior to Buddhism. Hinduism and Buddhism are terms framed by modern understandings of religion that delineate a coherent set of beliefs, texts, and practices, according to theorists of the “materialist turn” in religious studies. This argument is borne out in this bibliographical article. In the lived experience, the lines that delineate “Hinduism” and “Buddhism” are porous. As research into Hinduism and Buddhism progresses, interesting intersections and influences challenge categories. The examination of the relationships between Hinduism and Buddhism increasingly takes into account the interpenetrating influences of geography, history, and cultures that problematize any attempt at a discrete view of each religion. This selective record of texts and studies of Hinduism and Buddhism reflects the relationships and interpenetrating influences that continue to shape the field. There are very early texts that provide a history of the field’s beginnings. These texts are of perennial interest in that they provide a view of the foundations of the studies into Hinduism and Buddhism, for example, James George Jennings, The Vedāntic Buddhism of the Buddha: A Collection of Historical Texts Translated and Edited by J.G Jennings (1947). As the field progresses, the categories of research increase in number and overlap. In this regard, there are various comparative categories and any number of entries may fit into any number of these categories. Nevertheless, an attempt is made to find the most conducive category for each entry.

General Overviews

There are very few overview studies of Hinduism and Buddhism. Buddhist studies tends to see itself as discrete from Hinduism. Studies on Indian philosophy and Hinduism tend to include Buddhism within the Hindu context. A common approach is to view the Buddha or Lord Buddha as continuing the unfoldment of Indian orthodox philosophical traditions. Very often his perceived role was to bring Hinduism back to its spiritual roots, away from the decay that had influenced it due to social and philosophical ignorance. This section is divided into three sections; Early Studies, Dictionaries and Encyclopedias, and Textbooks.

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