In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Epistemology

  • Introduction
  • Analyzing Knowledge
  • Externalism and Internalism
  • Evidence

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Philosophy Epistemology
Jeremy Fantl, Matthew McGrath, Ernest Sosa
  • LAST REVIEWED: 14 September 2022
  • LAST MODIFIED: 10 May 2010
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396577-0041


Much epistemological work in the Western tradition focuses on the nature of knowledge—its sources, significance, and scope. But justified belief, epistemic virtue and responsibility, understanding, and evidence are epistemologically important, and not just because of the role they play in knowledge. The readings in this section represent the most recent influential work, as of the first decade of the 21st century, on the range of issues covered by General Epistemology.


Whether one is a professor looking to design a course in epistemology or a student looking to see what the discipline has to offer, the quickest way to do so can be with a textbook. Most textbooks do not get into all the possible details on the various objections and moves that are made within each epistemological subdiscipline; however, textbooks can provide a helpful overview of the epistemological terrain. And some upper-level textbooks can even advance the field in their own right.

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