Philosophy Knowledge
John Turri
  • LAST REVIEWED: 18 November 2022
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 June 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396577-0062


Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies knowledge. Often “epistemology” and “theory of knowledge” are used interchangeably, but this is misleading. Knowledge is just one of the topics studied in epistemology, though many epistemologists focus exclusively on knowledge, and even when epistemologists turn their attention to other topics—such as justification, reasons, evidence, testimony, experience, epistemic duty, epistemic value, and intellectual virtue—much of their work relates closely to knowledge.

General Overviews

There are several good overviews of recent work on knowledge. Steup and Sosa 2005 is the most accessible. Moser 2002 offers a good mix of accessibility and comprehensiveness. Hendricks and Pritchard 2008 is best in its coverage of formal work in the discipline. Dancy, et al. 2010 offers the most comprehensive and current overview. The essays in Greco and Sosa 1999 offer a mix of exposition and partisanship. The Epistemology Research Guide Bibliography is a helpful tool, freely available online. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy and The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy are indispensable, high-quality, peer-reviewed, freely available, frequently updated and ever-expanding online reference works containing dozens of articles relevant to the philosophical investigation of knowledge.

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