- LAST REVIEWED: 07 January 2022
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 March 2017
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0157
- LAST REVIEWED: 07 January 2022
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 March 2017
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0157
“Active aging” emerged among other semantically similar constructs, such as successful, healthy, and productive aging to express and to promote the positive potential of older adulthood. Active aging differs from other concepts, however, because it is equally both a model of individual aging and a holistic policy approach for societies as a whole. The World Health Organization’s Active Ageing: A Policy Framework offered the first, and still most widely referenced definition of active aging: “the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security over the life course in order to enhance quality of life as people age.” This core definition has since been modified by its originator, Alexandre Kalache, to add lifelong learning as a fourth dimension, underscoring the imperative for a continual updating of skills at all ages. Several principles to guide active aging policy action have been articulated, notably by WHO, Alan Walker, and the International Longevity Centre Brazil. A life-course perspective is a central focus to active aging. It stresses a rights-based approach that embraces all age groups, not purely older adults. The concept encompasses the full range of meaningful endeavor, not only physical activity and employment. It applies to persons at all stages of the life course, including those who are frail, dependent, or dying. Active aging promotes personal autonomy, independence, interdependence, and intergenerational solidarity. It combines top-down policy action with bottom-up empowerment by citizens in policy decisions. It promotes individual responsibility but avoids blaming vulnerable persons who may have been excluded from opportunities throughout life. The focus of active aging policy is multisectoral action designed to positively influence the economic, social, behavioral, environmental, and health policy determinants that enhance or hinder quality of life in all settings. Despite the clear universality of the theoretical model, some researchers have criticized the narrow focus taken by some OECD countries in particular, for their concentration on economically productive activity as well as their perceived imposition of a normative model of old age that excludes marginalized groups and cultural minorities, and that ignores other definitions and expressions of activity. Active aging as a construct has strongly influenced policy in many countries on every continent. In addition to influencing national and state policy strategies, active aging also underpins other successful policy initiatives, notably age-friendly primary health care and the global age-friendly cities and communities’ initiative.
The two major thinkers associated with active aging as a policy construct provide overviews covering the emergence of the concept and its translation from an abstract idea to policy action and its future direction, from their separate yet converging perspectives. From the view of global public health, Kalache 2016 offers a personal account of the evolution of the concept of active aging within WHO and the realignment from a pure focus on health to one that also encompasses participation, security, and lifelong learning. Written by a social gerontologist, Walker 2016 describes the conceptual trajectory from successful and healthy aging to a more inclusive and policy-relevant definition. World Health Organization 2002 is the landmark policy framework of active aging. It is targeted to policymakers but is accessible to a general public. It provides the first comprehensive definition of active aging, describes the multisectoral determinants, and proposes specific policy recommendations. Addressing a South Australian policy audience, Kalache 2013 adds new elements to World Health Organization 2002, including lifelong learning and more complex models of intertwining social roles in an active aging life course. International Longevity Centre Brazil 2015 presents a comprehensive update of the active aging model that incorporates intersecting demographic, social, and economic trends, new evidence regarding the determinants of active aging, and targeted policy advice. A second major reference is Walker 2002, which articulates seven principles to guide practical implementation of active aging policy. The author returns to these principles in subsequent writings. Walker and Maltby 2012 analyzes the current use of “active aging” in the EU to critique a narrow interpretation of the model. Fernández-Ballesteros, et al. 2013 features ten articles that address theoretical and empirical issues associated with the concept and present applications of the active aging construct to public health and social policies in several countries.
Fernández-Ballesteros, R., J. M. Robine, A. Walker, and A. Kalache, eds. 2013. Special issue: Active aging: A global goal. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research 2013.
For advanced students, scholars, and policy readers, this special journal issue provides theoretical, policy-focused, and empirical articles on active aging, with much cross-national data.
International Longevity Centre Brazil. 2015. Active ageing: A policy framework in response to the longevity revolution. Rio de Janeiro: International Longevity Centre Brazil.
This 100-page publication revises and updates the World Health Organization 2002 policy framework and incorporates and expands upon the ideas expressed by Kalache 2013. Directed to academia, governments, intergovernmental organizations, civil society, the media and the private sector, the report is accessible to a general public while retaining full scholarly references.
Kalache, A. 2013. The longevity revolution: Creating a society for all ages. Adelaide: Government of South Australia.
The product of the Adelaide Thinker in Residence Programme on longevity, this publication is directed to both a public and policy readership. It revisits the World Health Organization 2002 strategy with a particular focus on South Australia and discusses contemporary social trends relevant to the state in addition to presenting an elaborate model of evolving roles over the life course. It provides many recommendations to guide state policy in South Australia toward creating a society for all ages.
Kalache, A. 2016. Active ageing and age-friendly cities—A personal account. In Age-friendly cities and communities in international comparison. International Perspectives on Aging 14. Edited by Thibauld Moulaert and Suzanne Garon, 65–77. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International.
Gives an account of the evolution of the WHO framework that arose out of new thinking on health promotion and a broader understanding of health in the 1990s. It explains how active aging informed major WHO policy directions for primary health care and urban environments.
Walker, A. 2002. A strategy for active ageing. International Social Security Review 55.1: 121–139.
This essential reference corroborates the World Health Organization 2002 framework and argues for an intersectoral approach to develop responses to population aging in industrialized countries. It outlines core principles that need to be incorporated in order to frame effective policy, and the author returns to this in later writings.
Walker, A. 2016. Population ageing from a global and theoretical perspective: European lessons on active ageing. In Age-friendly cities and communities in international comparison. International Perspectives on Aging 14. Edited by Thibauld Moulaert and Suzanne Garon, 47–64. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International.
An accessible introduction for new lay, scholarly, and professional readers by one of the most widely acclaimed proponents of active aging as a policy construct in Europe, this chapter reviews its emergence, rationale, and current status as well as barriers to implementation.
Walker, A., and T. Maltby. 2012. Active ageing: A strategic policy solution to demographic ageing in the European Union. International Journal of Social Welfare 21.Suppl. 1: 117–130.
For policy readers, this article analyses the “active aging” discourse in EU policies and critiques its narrow economic focus. It introduces an alternative model of roles over the life course into the active aging strategy, which is further developed by Kalache 2013 and International Longevity Centre Brazil 2015.
World Health Organization. 2002. Active ageing: A policy framework. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Original articulation of the policy construct by WHO. Concise and accessible to both policy and lay audiences, this framework has inspired supranational, national, regional, and local policies since its launch and is an essential reference. The publication continues to be a relevant source for those seeking a framework to guide health, social, and economic policy in an aging world.
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- Access to Health Care
- Action Research
- Active Aging
- Active Living
- Adolescent Health, Socioeconomic Inequalities in
- Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior in the United States
- Advocacy, Public Health
- Agricultural Safety and Public Health
- Air Quality: Health Effects
- Air Quality: Indoor Health Effects
- Alcohol Availability and Violence
- Alternative Research Designs
- Ambient Air Quality Standards and Guidelines
- American Perspectives on Chronic Disease and Control
- Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
- Arts in Health
- Asthma in Children
- Asthma, Work-Related
- Attachment as a Health Determinant
- Behavior Change Theory in Health Education and Promotion
- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
- Bicycling and Cycling Safety
- Birth and Death Registration
- Birth Cohort Studies
- Board of Health
- Built Environment and Health, The
- Business and Corporate Practices
- Cancer Communication Strategies in North America
- Cancer Prevention
- Cancer Screening
- Capacity Building
- Capacity Building for NCDs in LMICs
- Capacity-Building for Applied Public Health in LMIC: A US ...
- Cardiovascular Health and Disease
- Child Labor
- Child Maltreatment
- Children, Air Pollution and
- Children, Injury Risk-Taking Behaviors in
- Children, Obesity in
- Citizen Advisory Boards
- Climate Change and Human Health
- Climate Change: Institutional Response
- Clinical Preventive Medicine
- Community Air Pollution
- Community Development
- Community Gardens
- Community Health Assessment
- Community Health Interventions
- Community Partnerships and Coalitions
- Community-Based Participatory Research
- Complexity and Systems Theory
- Cultural Safety
- Culture and Public Health
- Definition of Health
- Dental Public Health
- Design and Health
- Dietary Guidelines
- Directions in Global Public Health Graduate Education
- Driving and Public Health
- Ecological Approaches
- Enabling Factors
- Environmental Health, Pediatric
- Environmental Laws
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Ethics of Public Health
- Evidence-Based Pediatric Dentistry
- Evidence-Based Public Health Practice
- Family Planning Services and Birth Control
- Food Safety
- Food Security and Food Banks
- Food Systems
- Frail Elderly
- Functional Literacy
- Genomics, Public Health
- Geographic Information Systems
- Geography and Health
- Global Health
- Global Health Diplomacy
- Global Health Promotion
- Global Health Security
- Guide to Community Preventive Services, The
- Health Administration
- Health Communication
- Health Disparities
- Health Education
- Health Impact Assessment
- Health in All Policies
- Health in All Policies in European Countries
- Health Literacy
- Health Literacy and Non-Communicable Diseases
- Health Measurement Scales
- Health Planning
- Health Promoting Hospitals
- Health Promotion
- Health Promotion Foundations
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Health Systems of Low and Middle-Income Countries, The
- Healthy People Initiative
- Healthy Public Policy
- Hepatitis C
- High Risk Prevention Strategies
- Human Rights, Health and
- Human Sexuality and Sexual Health: A Western Perspective
- IANPHI and National Public Health Institutes
- Immigrant Populations
- Immunization and Pneumococcal Infection
- Immunization in Pregnancy
- Indigenous Peoples, Public Health and
- Indigenous Populations of North America, Australasia, and ...
- Indoor Air Quality Guidelines
- Infant Mortality
- Internet Applications in Promoting Health Behavior
- Intersectoral Action
- Intersectoral Strategies in Low - Middle Income Countries ...
- Justice, Social
- Knowledge Translation and Exchange
- Knowledge Utilization and Exchange
- Law of Public Health in the United States
- Media Advocacy
- Mental Health
- Mental Health Promotion
- Migrant Health
- Migrant Worker Health
- Motor Vehicle Injury Prevention
- Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
- National Association of Local Boards of Health
- National Public Health Institutions
- Needs Assessment
- Needs Assessments in International Disasters and Emergenci...
- Obesity Prevention
- Occupational Cancers
- Occupational Exposure to Benzene
- Occupational Exposure to Erionite
- Occupational Safety and Health
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
- Oral Health Equity for Minority Populations in the United ...
- Ottawa Charter
- Parenting and Work
- Parenting Skills and Capacity
- Participatory Action Research
- Patient Decision Making
- Pesticide Exposure and Pesticide Health Effects
- Physical Activity and Exercise
- Physical Activity Promotion
- Polio Eradication in Pakistan
- Population Aging
- Population Determinants of Unhealthy Foods and Beverages
- Population Health Objectives and Targets
- Precautionary Principle
- Prenatal Health
- Program Evaluation in American Health Education
- Program Planning and Evaluation
- Public Health, History of
- Public Health Surveillance
- Public-Private Partnerships in Public Health Research and ...
- Public-Private Partnerships to Prevent and Manage Obesity ...
- Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
- Racism as a Structural Determinant of Health
- Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies
- Randomized Controlled Trials
- Real World Evaluation Strategies
- Reducing Obesity-Related Health Disparities in Hispanic an...
- Research Integrity in Public Health
- Resilient Health Systems
- Rural Health in the United States
- Safety, Patient
- School Health Programs in the Pacific Region
- Sex Education in HIV/AIDS Prevention
- Skin Cancer Prevention
- Smoking Cessation
- Social Determinants of Health
- Social Epidemiology
- Social Marketing
- Statistics in Public Health
- STI Networks, Patterns, and Control Strategies
- Sustainable Development Goals
- Systems in the United States, Public Health
- Systems Modeling and Big Data for Non-Communicable Disease...
- Systems Theory in Public Health
- Traditional, Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative M...
- Translation of Science to Practice and Policy
- Traumatic Stress and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Tuberculosis among Adults and the Determinants of Health
- UK Public Health Systems
- Unintentional Injury Prevention
- Urban Health
- Vaccination, Mandatory
- Vaccine Hesitancy
- Violence Prevention
- Water Quality
- Water Quality and Water-Related Disease
- Weight Management in US Occupational Settings
- Welfare States, Public Health and Health Inequalities
- Worksite Health Promotion
- World Health Organization (WHO)