Vocational/Career and Technical Education
- LAST REVIEWED: 19 August 2020
- LAST MODIFIED: 26 May 2021
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756810-0068
- LAST REVIEWED: 19 August 2020
- LAST MODIFIED: 26 May 2021
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756810-0068
Vocational/career and technical education has historically been known as “education for work.” It has focused on providing learners with the skills and knowledge needed to successfully transition to the workplace. The present vocational-technical education system in the United States is broad and complex, spanning many grade levels, subject areas, and educational institutions. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the system also has evolved from being initially focused on entry-level job preparation to include adult retraining programs, college preparatory coursework, postsecondary options and programs, and many other options. This complexity is confounded by the broader educational system in the United States, which leaves decisions regarding vocational and career and technical education programming largely to each of the states. Despite these challenges, vocational and career and technical education continues to be a key component of the overall education system in the United States. In addition, with the rapidly changing context of work and the need for a skilled, adaptable workforce, the US vocational and technical education system will continue to hold a vital role in the US economy. Vocational education, referred to in many other countries as technical vocational education and training (TVET), also plays a significant role in educational systems across the globe. In many countries TVET has a more centralized focus than in the United States and does not have to contend with the different state structures found in the United States. In developed countries such as Australia, Germany, Great Britain, and South Korea, TVET is a key to economic prosperity, while in developing countries TVET is seen as a key to economic self-sufficiency.
The works in this section provide a general overview of vocational and technical education from both US and international perspectives. Gordon 2020, Miller 1985, Prosser and Quigley 1949, and Venn 1964 provide historical and philosophical views of vocational and technical education in the United States from different time periods, while Barabasch and Rauner 2012 and Scott 2014 give excellent perspectives on the different program areas and issues within vocational and technical education. Maclean and Wilson 2009, Pilz 2012, Pilz 2017, and Rauner and Maclean 2009 provide comprehensive views of vocational and technical education across the globe.
Barabasch, Antje, and Felix Rauner, eds. 2012. Work and education in America: The art of integration. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
A comprehensive academic volume on vocational education and training (VET) or career and technical education (CTE) in the United States, which features insights into a variety of issues. Provides an up-to-date synthesis with a critical analysis of the relevant history, philosophy, governance, legislation, and organizational structures of the field in the United States.
Gordon, Howard R. D. 2020. The history and growth of career and technical education in America. 5th ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland.
Relevant, up-to-date synthesis of the history, philosophy, legislation, and organizational and curricular structure of career and technical education in the United States. Examines the current issues that shape the role of career and technical education in the global, technology-driven economy and issues and trends that will impact the future of the field.
Maclean, Rupert, and David N. Wilson, eds. 2009. International handbook of education for the changing world of work. 6 vols. New York: Springer.
Covers the latest practice in technical and vocational education and training. Presents models from all over the world, reflections on innovative practice, and case studies. Includes the work of established and promising researchers and features comprehensive coverage of developments in research, policy, and practice.
McGrath, Simon, Martin Mulder, Joy Papier, and Rebecca Suart, eds. 2019. Handbook of vocational education and training: Developments in the changing world of work. 2 vols. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Two-volume set examines nine critical areas of vocational education and training, including the changing world of work, skills for sustainable human development, planning and reforming skills systems, private training markets, vocational learning, competence and excellence, measuring learning and instructional performance, supporting learners, and vocational education and training (VET) teacher/trainer education.
Miller, Melvin. 1985. Principles and a philosophy for vocational education. Columbus: National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Ohio State Univ.
Provides a set of principles to state preferred practices to serve as guidelines for programs and curriculum, instruction and evaluation. Postulates philosophy to provide a conceptual framework for vocational education to guide future decision-making and policy development.
Pilz, Matthias, ed. 2012. The future of vocational education and training in a changing world. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer.
Volume comprised of thirty individual contributions providing a comprehensive overview of early-21st-century issues in vocational education and training, its strengths and weaknesses, and its prospects. Vocational education and training experts from Canada, the United States, India, China, Japan, and Korea, as well as from a number of European countries are featured.
Pilz, Matthias, ed. 2017. Vocational education and training in times of economic crisis. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Volume comprised of twenty-six individual contributions revealing how youth in transition is affected by economic crises. Provides essential insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the various systems and prospects of VET in contexts ranging from North America to Europe (e.g., Spain, Germany, or the United Kingdom) to Asia (such as China, Thailand, and India).
Pilz, Matthias, and Junmin Li, eds. 2020. Comparative vocational education research: Enduring challenges and new ways forward. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Edited volume of eighteen chapters focused on research of comparative vocational education and training.
Prosser, Charles A., and T. H. Quigley. 1949. Vocational education in a democracy. Chicago: American Technical Society.
Seminal text first published in 1925. Reexamines the role of vocational education in US society. A comprehensive examination of all aspects of the discipline, including theories of vocational education, vocational education for youth and adults, federal involvement in vocational education, and the training of vocational education teachers.
Rauner, Felix, and Rupert Maclean, eds. 2009. Handbook of technical and vocational education and training research. New York: Springer.
Provides a comprehensive coverage of technical and vocational education and training research in an international context with special focus on research and research methods. Focuses include early research, policy research, planning and practice, individual disciplines of vocational education, case studies, and research methods.
Scott, John. 2014. Overview of career and technical education. 5th ed. Chicago: American Technical.
Broad overview of career and technical education and information on current federal legislation. Also includes material covering the roles of teachers, guidance counselors, and administrators in career and technical education programs and material on dual enrollment programs and career academies and how these programs prepare students for the workforce.
Venn, Grant. 1964. Man, education, and work: Post secondary vocational and technical education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Following passage of the Vocational Education Act of 1963, describes the long-standing neglect of vocational and technical education, examines the historical development of the discipline, and posits new opportunities for growth. An assessment of the manpower needs of the American workplace and vocational and technical education’s role in those requirements.
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- Academic Achievement
- Academic Audit for Universities
- Academic Freedom and Tenure in the United States
- Action Research in Education
- Adjuncts in Higher Education in the United States
- Administrator Preparation
- Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Courses
- Advocacy and Activism in Early Childhood
- African American Racial Identity and Learning
- Alaska Native Education
- Alternative Certification Programs for Educators
- Alternative Schools
- American Indian Education
- Art Education
- Artificial Intelligence and Learning
- Assessing School Leader Effectiveness
- Assessment, Behavioral
- Assessment, Educational
- Assessment in Early Childhood Education
- Assistive Technology
- Augmented Reality in Education
- Beginning-Teacher Induction
- Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
- Blended Learning
- Case Study in Education Research
- Changing Professional and Academic Identities
- Character Education
- Children’s and Young Adult Literature
- Children's Beliefs about Intelligence
- Children's Rights in Early Childhood Education
- Citizenship Education
- Civic and Social Engagement of Higher Education
- Classroom Learning Environments: Assessing and Investigati...
- Classroom Management
- Coherent Instructional Systems at the School and School Sy...
- College Admissions in the United States
- College Athletics in the United States
- Community Relations
- Comparative Education
- Computer-Based Testing
- Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Evaluating Improvement Net...
- Continuous Improvement and "High Leverage" Educational Pro...
- Counseling in Schools
- Critical Perspectives on Educational Innovation and Improv...
- Critical Race Theory
- Crossborder and Transnational Higher Education
- Cross-National Research on Continuous Improvement
- Cross-Sector Research on Continuous Learning and Improveme...
- Cultural Diversity in Early Childhood Education
- Culturally Responsive Leadership
- Culturally Responsive Pedagogies
- Culturally Responsive Teacher Education in the United Stat...
- Curriculum Design
- Data Collection in Educational Research
- Data-driven Decision Making in the United States
- Deaf Education
- Desegregation and Integration
- Design Thinking and the Learning Sciences: Theoretical, Pr...
- Development, Moral
- Dialogic Pedagogy
- Digital Age Teacher, The
- Digital Citizenship
- Digital Divides
- Distance Learning
- Distributed Leadership
- Doctoral Education and Training
- Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in Denmark
- Early Childhood Education and Development in Mexico
- Early Childhood Education in Aotearoa New Zealand
- Early Childhood Education in Australia
- Early Childhood Education in China
- Early Childhood Education in Europe
- Early Childhood Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Early Childhood Education in Sweden
- Early Childhood Education Pedagogy
- Early Childhood Education Policy
- Early Childhood Education, The Arts in
- Early Childhood Mathematics
- Early Childhood Science
- Early Childhood Teacher Education
- Early Childhood Teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand
- Early Years Professionalism and Professionalization Polici...
- Economics of Education
- Education For Children with Autism
- Education for Sustainable Development
- Education Leadership, Empirical Perspectives in
- Education of Native Hawaiian Students
- Education Reform and School Change
- Educational Statistics for Longitudinal Research
- Educator Partnerships with Parents and Families with a Foc...
- Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
- Epistemic Beliefs
- Equity and Improvement: Engaging Communities in Educationa...
- Equity, Ethnicity, Diversity, and Excellence in Education
- Ethical Research with Young Children
- Ethics and Education
- Ethics of Teaching
- Ethnic Studies
- Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention
- Family and Community Partnerships in Education
- Family Day Care
- Federal Government Programs and Issues
- Finance, Education
- Financial Aid
- Formative Assessment
- Future-Focused Education
- Gender and Achievement
- Gender and Alternative Education
- Gifted Education
- Global Mindedness and Global Citizenship Education
- Global University Rankings
- Governance, Education
- Grounded Theory
- Growth of Effective Mental Health Services in Schools in t...
- Higher Education and Globalization
- Higher Education and the Developing World
- Higher Education Faculty Characteristics and Trends in the...
- Higher Education Finance
- Higher Education Governance
- Higher Education Graduate Outcomes and Destinations
- Higher Education in Africa
- Higher Education in China
- Higher Education in Latin America
- Higher Education in the United States, Historical Evolutio...
- Higher Education, International Issues in
- Higher Education Management
- Higher Education Policy
- Higher Education Research
- Higher Education Student Assessment
- High-stakes Testing
- History of Early Childhood Education in the United States
- History of Education in the United States
- History of Technology Integration in Education
- Inclusion in Early Childhood: Difference, Disability, and ...
- Inclusive Education
- Indigenous Education in a Global Context
- Indigenous Learning Environments
- Indigenous Students in Higher Education in the United Stat...
- Infant and Toddler Pedagogy
- Inservice Teacher Education
- Integrating Art across the Curriculum
- Intensive Interventions for Children and Adolescents with ...
- International Perspectives on Academic Freedom
- Intersectionality and Education
- Knowledge Development in Early Childhood
- Leadership Development, Coaching and Feedback for
- Leadership in Early Childhood Education
- Leadership Training with an Emphasis on the United States
- Learning Analytics in Higher Education
- Learning Difficulties
- Learning, Lifelong
- Learning, Multimedia
- Learning Strategies
- Legal Matters and Education Law
- LGBT Youth in Schools
- Linguistic Diversity
- Linguistically Inclusive Pedagogy
- Literacy Development and Language Acquisition
- Literature Reviews
- Mathematics Instruction and Interventions for Students wit...
- Mathematics Teacher Education
- Measurement for Improvement in Education
- Measurement in Education in the United States
- Meta-Analysis and Research Synthesis in Education
- Methodological Approaches for Impact Evaluation in Educati...
- Methodologies for Conducting Education Research
- Mindfulness, Learning, and Education
- Mixed Methods Research
- Multiliteracies in Early Childhood Education
- Multiple Documents Literacy: Theory, Research, and Applica...
- Multivariate Research Methodology
- Museums, Education, and Curriculum
- Music Education
- Narrative Research in Education
- Native American Studies
- Numeracy Education
- One-to-One Technology in the K-12 Classroom
- Online Education
- Open Education
- Organizing for Continuous Improvement in Education
- Organizing Schools for the Inclusion of Students with Disa...
- Outdoor Play and Learning
- Outdoor Play and Learning in Early Childhood Education
- Pedagogical Leadership
- Pedagogy of Teacher Education, A
- Performance Objectives and Measurement
- Performance-based Research Assessment in Higher Education
- Performance-based Research Funding
- Phenomenology in Educational Research
- Philosophy of Education
- Physical Education
- Podcasts in Education
- Policy Context of United States Educational Innovation and...
- Politics of Education
- Portable Technology Use in Special Education Programs and ...
- Pre-Service Teacher Education
- Problem Solving
- Productivity and Higher Education
- Professional Development
- Professional Learning Communities
- Program Evaluation
- Programs and Services for Students with Emotional or Behav...
- Psychology Learning and Teaching
- Psychometric Issues in the Assessment of English Language ...
- Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques
- Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Research Samp...
- Qualitative Research Design
- Quantitative Research Designs in Educational Research
- Race and Affirmative Action in Higher Education
- Reading Education
- Refugee and New Immigrant Learners
- Relational and Developmental Trauma and Schools
- Reliability in Educational Assessments
- Religion in Elementary and Secondary Education in the Unit...
- Researcher Development and Skills Training within the Cont...
- Research-Practice Partnerships in Education within the Uni...
- Response to Intervention
- Restorative Practices
- Scale and Sustainability of Education Innovation and Impro...
- Scaling Up Research-based Educational Practices
- School Accreditation
- School Choice
- School Culture
- School District Budgeting and Financial Management in the ...
- School Improvement through Inclusive Education
- School Reform
- Schools, Private and Independent
- School-Wide Positive Behavior Support
- Science Education
- Secondary to Postsecondary Transition Issues
- Self-Regulated Learning
- Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices
- Severe Disabilities
- Single Salary Schedule
- Single-sex Education
- Single-Subject Research Design
- Social Context of Education
- Social Justice
- Social Network Analysis
- Social Pedagogy
- Social Science and Education Research
- Social Studies Education
- Sociology of Education
- Standards-Based Education
- Statistical Assumptions
- Student Access, Equity, and Diversity in Higher Education
- Student Assignment Policy
- Student Engagement in Tertiary Education
- Student Learning, Development, Engagement, and Motivation ...
- Student Participation
- Student Voice in Teacher Development
- Sustainability Education in Early Childhood Education
- Sustainability in Early Childhood Education
- Sustainability in Higher Education
- Teacher Beliefs and Epistemologies
- Teacher Collaboration in School Improvement
- Teacher Evaluation and Teacher Effectiveness
- Teacher Preparation
- Teacher Training and Development
- Teacher Unions and Associations
- Teacher-Student Relationships
- Teaching Critical Thinking
- Technologies, Teaching, and Learning in Higher Education
- Technology Education in Early Childhood
- Technology, Educational
- Technology-based Assessment
- The Bologna Process
- The Regulation of Standards in Higher Education
- Theories of Educational Leadership
- Three Conceptions of Literacy: Media, Narrative, and Gamin...
- Tracking and Detracking
- Traditions of Quality Improvement in Education
- Transformative Learning
- Transitions in Early Childhood Education
- Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities in the Unite...
- Understanding the Psycho-Social Dimensions of Schools and ...
- University Faculty Roles and Responsibilities in the Unite...
- Using Ethnography in Educational Research
- Value of Higher Education for Students and Other Stakehold...
- Virtual Learning Environments
- Vocational and Technical Education
- Wellness and Well-Being in Education
- Women's and Gender Studies
- Young Children and Spirituality
- Young Children's Learning Dispositions
- Young Children's Working Theories