In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Global Mindedness and Global Citizenship Education

  • Introduction
  • Books
  • Reference Resources
  • Policy Papers and Reports
  • Journal Issues
  • Concept of Global Citizenship Education
  • Assessment of the Outcomes of Global Citizenship Education
  • Global Citizenship Education in Higher Education
  • Study Abroad
  • Global Citizenship Education in PK-12 Schools
  • Teacher Preparation in Global Citizenship Education

Education Global Mindedness and Global Citizenship Education
Hyun-Sook Park, Teresa Slobuski, Cassandra Durkee
  • LAST REVIEWED: 27 October 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 October 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756810-0161


The terms global mindedness and global competence refer to the ability of individuals to understand the world in which they live and how they fit into that world, as well as to their willingness to take action on global issues. Global citizenship is a way of thinking and behaving as an active member of a global community who possesses global mindedness and global competence. However, global mindedness, global competence, and global citizenship are highly contested terms used interchangeably in the literature. Global citizenship education aims to build global mindedness, global competence, and global citizenship. Several terms are also used interchangeably with that of global citizenship education in the literature: global education, global learning, international education, and globalization/internationalization of curricula/program. This article uses global citizenship education (GCE) as an umbrella term to be inclusive of all forms of learning that lead to global citizenship. But when citing a specific work, the term that was adopted in that work is employed. There are two main frameworks for GCE: liberalist, cosmopolitan, and humanist; and critical and postcolonial. The former focuses on cultivating humanity with an emphasis on understanding others in a global community and empowering individuals to act, raising awareness of global issues and promoting participation in campaigns. The latter focuses on social inequality and injustice, empowering individuals to reflect critically on their own cultures in relation to power, voice, and differences and to take informed and responsible decisions and actions on global issues. Although the recent literature strongly advocates for the critical framework (critical GCE), the liberal humanistic approach is also appropriate in certain contexts and can serve as an introductory step to GCE. Therefore, assessment of and interventions for GCE in PK-12 and higher education are based on the humanistic or critical framework or a combination of these two. However, it should be noted that some intervention strategies for GCE, especially those adopted by some higher education programs, are based on a neoliberal capitalist approach that is driven by self-interest, adopting neither the humanistic nor the critical framework. The most prevalent intervention in higher education is study abroad, despite mixed findings about its effectiveness. In PK-12 education, GCE has been addressed in the curriculum for civic or citizenship education in social studies for a long time. In recent years, educators have advocated strongly for the integration of critical GCE across subjects, which has accelerated research on instructional strategies at school and classroom levels. Examples of effective interventions include the International Baccalaureate program and project-based learning. In addition, positive teacher dispositions and the use of critical framework in teacher preparation/in-service training were also found to play an important role in implementing critical GCE in PK-12 education. This new emphasis on the critical GCE framework has resulted in the creation of a plethora of resources for teachers and teacher educators.


The books in this section advance understanding of the themes of global citizenship education (GCE) under review. They are included here because they cover more than one GCE theme and, thus, cannot be placed in any one section of this article. They will be of interest to researchers, practitioners, administrators, and policymakers. Burbules and Torres 2000, one of the most influential books in critical and global education, includes theoretical discussions from critical perspectives about the impact of globalization on education. It is useful for researchers and practitioners who wish to understand the theoretical background of critical GCE. Peters, et al. 2008 contends that GCE should be viewed in contemporary political contexts and, thus, issues of globalization should be addressed through education. Schattle 2008 proposes six concepts of global citizenship to frame insights about how individuals and organizations practice global citizenship in everyday life. Lindsay and Blanchett 2011 provides a survey of GCE around the world, offering information to guide higher education in responding effectively to globalization as well as contexts for research. Williams and Lee 2015 provides strategies for implementing intercultural pedagogy in contemporary higher education for administrators and faculty who are interested in internationalizing the curriculum. It is a useful resource for researchers as well. Lewin 2009 provides a wealth of strategies for, and models of, study abroad programs, and offers useful resources for higher education policymakers, administrators, and faculty who are interested in aligning university study abroad programs with the mission of helping college students achieve global citizenship. It is also relevant for researchers. Harshman, et al. 2015 is an excellent collection of studies on pedagogical strategies utilized in GCE. The work discusses theoretical perspectives and key terms for understanding critical GCE. Peterson and Warwick 2015 is a useful teaching tool for teacher educators with activities that prompt students to engage critically and reflectively on key themes of GCE.

  • Burbules, Nicholas C., and Carlos Alberto Torres. 2000. Globalization and education: Critical perspectives. New York: Routledge.

    One of the most influential books for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers for understanding how globalization affects educational concepts, policies, and practices. Discusses key themes of globalization and critical pedagogy that include neoliberalism, the state, restructuring, reform, management, feminism, identity, citizenship, community, multiculturalism, new social environment, popular culture, and the local aspect.

  • Harshman, Jason, Tami Augustine, and Merry Merryfield, eds. 2015. Research in global citizenship education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age.

    An excellent book that provides researchers with a foundation for further inquiry on theoretical perspectives and pedagogical practices to enhance global citizenship education (GCE). Addresses theoretical frameworks in GCE, studies of classroom practices, and variables that affect GCE in the United States and elsewhere.

  • Lewin, Ross, ed. 2009. The handbook of practice and research in study abroad: Higher education and the quest for global citizenship. New York: Routledge.

    A comprehensive reference book for developing and implementing study abroad programs. Consists of four sections: theory and concept of global citizenship, models for aligning study abroad with academic mission, challenges and strategies for achieving global citizenship through study abroad, and innovative curricular models for helping students realize global citizenship. Also relevant for researchers.

  • Lindsay, Beverly, and Wanda Blanchett, eds. 2011. Universities and global diversity. New York: Routledge.

    Provides an informative overview of approaches that universities in various countries have taken to globalization and diversity for preparing the future workforce, including teachers. It illustrates challenges and structural changes associated with global diversity. Examples from Asia, Africa, Australia, the Caribbean, Europe, New Zealand, North America, and South America.

  • Peters, Michael A., Alan Britton, and Harry Blee, eds. 2008. Global citizenship education: Philosophy, theory and pedagogy. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

    Essays on conceptual, philosophical, historical, and theoretical backgrounds of global citizenship education (GCE). The contributors present political contexts of global issues and how issues are addressed through citizenship education in Europe, Africa, South Africa, Middle East, and the United States. Advocates a social justice approach to GCE. Relevant for researchers, policymakers, and teacher educators.

  • Peterson, Andrew, and Paul Warwick. 2015. Global learning and education: Key concepts and effective practice. New York: Routledge.

    A useful tool for teacher educators for developing the ability of teacher education students to think critically and reflectively on key themes of global citizenship education. Includes activities that guide students through critical engagement and reflexivity.

  • Schattle, Hans. 2008. The practices of global citizenship. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Schattle presents a framework for understanding global citizenship as practiced by individuals and organizations in everyday life. The author delineates six concepts of global citizenship: awareness, responsibility, participation, cross-cultural empathy, international mobility, and achievement.

  • Williams, Rhiannon, and Amy Lee, eds. 2015. Internationalizing higher education: Critical collaborations across curriculum. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

    A volume packed with strategies for university administers and faculty for developing and implementing intercultural pedagogy. Strategies are relevant for interventions at institutional and instructional levels, including course design and use of technology such as social media. Also relevant for researchers.

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