In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Cross-tools and Cross-media Effects

  • Introduction
  • Textbooks
  • Journals

Communication Cross-tools and Cross-media Effects
Hilde Voorveld
  • LAST REVIEWED: 22 April 2013
  • LAST MODIFIED: 22 April 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756841-0125


Effects of persuasive messages depend on the content of the message itself and on the media or tools that deliver the persuasive messages. Nowadays almost all campaigns make use of multiple media or multiple promotional tools. Therefore, it is important to study so-called cross-media (or cross-tools) effects. Cross-media effects and cross-tools effects are mainly studied in the field of advertising and marketing. In cross-media campaigns, marketers seek to maximize the effectiveness of their budgets by exploiting the unique strengths of each advertising medium (for example, advertising on television and on the Internet). In cross-tools campaigns, marketers combine multiple promotion instruments or marketing communication forms, such as advertising, publicity, direct marketing, and sales promotion. Cross-tools effects are an important part of the concept of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC). The ultimate goal of cross-media or cross-tools campaigns is to induce synergy, whereby the combined effect of multiple marketing activities exceeds the sum of the individual effects. While cross-media and cross-tools effects are a hot topic in the advertising industry, academic theoretical and empirical literature is very scarce. This bibliography provides an overview of the existing academic literature and consists of two parts. The first part focuses on cross-media effects, the second part on cross-tools effects. The main streams of research within these two topics are distinguished and the most important citations are provided.


Most textbooks on advertising and media planning contain some information that may be helpful for undergraduate students who want to learn more on cross-media or cross-tools effects. Sissors and Baron 2010 is distinctive from other textbooks because it explicitly discusses cross-media and cross-tools effects.

  • Clow, Kenneth E., and Donald Baack. 2011. Integrated advertising, promotion and marketing communications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Interesting textbook on integrated marketing communications. Discusses the benefits of integrated marketing communications. Especially suitable for undergraduate students.

  • Sissors, Jack Z., and Roger B. Baron. 2010. Advertising media planning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Interesting introductory textbook on advertising media planning, especially suitable for undergraduates. Chapters 9 and 10 discuss cross-media campaigns. Originally published in 1975.

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