Armed Forces of the Ottoman Empire, 1683–1918
- LAST REVIEWED: 28 April 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 24 June 2020
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199791279-0106
- LAST REVIEWED: 28 April 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 24 June 2020
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199791279-0106
The Ottoman Empire (c. 1300–1918) ruled over most of the territories of what is now known as the Middle East. The Ottomans were a Muslim dynasty (the house of Osman) that governed multireligious and multiethnic populations from the steppes of Russia to the Balkans and the Arabian Peninsula as well as North Africa, the Levant, and Turkey from the 1300s to 1918. The Ottoman difference lies in its creation of a ruling class of any and all that joined the sultan’s household, in some cases without even converting to Islam (such as troops that were provided by Ottomans’ vassals in the 14th century through the 16th century). The military power of the dynasty was based initially on the assignment of military fiefs (timars) to a warrior class known as sipahis, and the creation of a unique slave military infantry known as the Janissaries (new troops) and elite formations of household cavalrymen (kapıkulu süvarileri), who have been recognized as the first disciplined standing army of Europe. This combined cavalry and infantry power rapidly conquered Anatolia and the Balkans and absorbed and assimilated existing Byzantine and Islamic institutions. It twice fought its way to the gates of Vienna, the second time in 1683 when a coalition of European monarchs turned the tide in favor of Christendom. The date 1683 has ever since served as one of the great turning points of civilization in having come to represent the moment when “the Turk” was definitively turned back from the gates of Europe. The defeat led to a century of crisis and introspection on the part of the Ottomans, further disastrous defeats, and the gradual realization that the power of the once formidable Janissaries and fief-holding cavalrymen had weakened. Over the next century and a half, the entire premise of Ottoman rule, structured on patrimonial rule and sultanic largesse, would be altered in the struggle for survival. The results of that struggle included the decentralization of state revenues, the building of local paramilitary armies, and the blurring of the traditional categories of bureaucrat-warrior service class (askeri) and tax-paying class (reaya). In addition, the period saw the creation of wealthy state officials and local power holders who engineered (or resisted), largely from the 1790s to the 1830s, the destruction of the traditional armed forces and the creation of a new European-style disciplined, regimental force based on conscription of the Muslim population. The political contract that emerged in the era known as the Tanzimat period (1839–1876) constituted an Ottoman-style constitutional monarchy pledging equality of citizenship and taxation before the law even to non-Muslims, who had previously been tolerated as zimmi (people of the book) and largely excluded from military service and high-level administration. Despite such achievements, economic mismanagement, Christian and Muslim sectarianism, and continuous military pressure from Russia, coupled with empire-wide nationalist movements, led to further crushing defeats and the rise of a militarized and racialized Turkish nationalism in the Young Turks movement. More specifically, the Committee of Union and Progress, which relied on German financing and know-how to reorganize and arm the military at the turn of the 19th century, entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers in 1914, and collapsed into ashes along with the monarchies of Russia and Austria-Hungary at the end of that war in 1918.
General Overviews to 1683
Ottoman historians, in works such as Finkel 1988, Murphey 1999, Ostapchuk 2001, and Ágoston 2005, along with colleagues Géza Dávid and Pál Fodor (see under Dávid and Fodor 2007), constructed much early work on Ottoman warfare, and the authors of these works are responsible for setting the standard. One of the better explanations for the military failure at Vienna is found in Stoye 2006. Gradeva 2001 offers a glimpse of what the Habsburg-Ottoman border towns may have looked like. The collections in Tallett and Trim 2010 and Dávid and Fodor 2007 include a number of articles on the nature of war and society on the frontiers where the empires of the Ottomans, Habsburgs, and Romanovs met. Emecen 2010 is a useful collection of articles that explores Ottoman campaigns, pivotal battles, and management of warfare between the 15th and 17th centuries. Imber 2009 (second edition, first published in 2002) has a number of chapters on the Ottoman military and provides detailed and insightful information to the general reader. By contrast, the essays in Davies 2012 offer an in-depth look at the Ottomans and their borderland rivals.
Ágoston, Gabor. Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
An archival examination of Ottoman gunpowder manufacture, Ágoston’s work demonstrates Ottoman self-sufficiency in the production of gunpowder well into the 17th century, although not necessarily mastery of the evolving technology involving its manufacture.
Dávid, Géza, and Pál Fodor, eds. Ransom Slavery along the Ottoman Borders: Early Fifteenth–Early Eighteenth Centuries. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2007.
Of particular interest in this volume are the articles by Géza Palffy, “Ransom Slavery along the Ottoman-Hungarian Frontier in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries” (pp. 35–82), which discusses the extent of the enterprise in military labor, and Klára Hegyi, “Freed Slaves as Soldiers in the Ottoman Fortresses in Hungary” (pp. 85–91), which offers examples of the options facing Christian prisoners of war. Available as an e-book. See also Pál Fodor and Géza Dávid, Ottomans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe: The Military Confines in the Era of Conquest (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2000).
Davies, Brian L. Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500–1800. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2012.
Eleven essays by distinguished scholars on the military systems of the Ottomans and their Eurasian rivals—the Habsburgs, Poles, and the Russians.
Emecen, Feridun. Osmanlı Klasik Çağında Savaş. Istanbul: Timaş Yayınları, 2010.
English translation: Warfare in the Ottoman classical age. Utilizing a large array of Middle Eastern primary sources, Emecen investigates Ottoman military policies, decisive battles, and conduct of warfare as the empire bid for supremacy in the Middle East and the Balkans.
Finkel, Caroline. The Administration of Warfare: The Ottoman Military Campaigns in Hungary, 1593–1606. Vienna: Verlag des Verbandes der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften Österreichs, 1988.
An in-depth account of the provisioning capabilities of the Ottoman army in the long war that ended with the Treaty of Zsitvatorok.
Gradeva, Rossitsa. “War and Peace along the Danube: Vidin at the End of the Seventeenth Century.” Oriente Moderno 20.1 (2001): 149–175.
One of a very few articles that examines the impact of warfare on the borders of the empire.
Imber, Colin. The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power. 2d ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Imber is an expert on Ottoman legal history and this book is a general survey for the empire from its emergence to its zenith. Nevertheless, the chapters that deal with the Ottoman army, navy, and military recruitment (especially for the collection and training of Janissary recruits) are invaluable for the average reader.
Murphey, Rhoads. Ottoman Warfare, 1500–1700. London: University College London Press, 1999.
A truly microcosmic look at the workings of the pre-reform Ottoman military, Murphey’s intimate knowledge of the Ottoman archives is on display in discussing topics such as camel loads, provisioning, distances the army had to march, and practices on the march and in camp.
Ostapchuk, Victor. “The Human Landscape of the Ottoman Black Sea in the Face of the Cossack Naval Raids.” Oriente Moderno 20.1 (2001): 23–95.
Ostapchuk’s knowledge of northern Black Sea Tatar and Cossack culture of the 17th century is without parallel.
Stoye, John. The Siege of Vienna: The Last Great Trial between Cross and Crescent. New York: Pegasus Books, 2006.
This work is a reprint of the 1964 edition published in Edinburgh by Birlinn Press. Stoye’s evocation of the period is without equal in English. His knowledge of the terrain and of international relations surrounding the Ottomans prior to the 18th century is unparalleled.
Tallett, Frank, and David J. B. Trim, eds. European Warfare, 1350–1750. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
This exceptional collection includes two articles on the Ottomans: Gábor Ágoston, “Empires and Warfare in East-Central Europe, 1550–1770: The Ottoman-Habsburg Rivalry and Military Transformation” (pp. 110–134), which privileges the Habsburgs; and Rhoads Murphey, “Ottoman Military Organisation in South-Eastern Europe, c. 1428–1720” (pp. 135–158), which argues for the ability of the Ottomans to sustain successful siege warfare into the later 17th century.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
How to Subscribe
Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.
- 1916 Easter Rising, The
- 1812, War of
- Aerial Bombardment, Ethics of
- Afghanistan, Wars in
- Africa, Gunpowder and Colonial Campaigns in
- African Wars of Independence
- Air Transport
- Allenby, Edmund
- All-Volunteer Army, Post-Vietnam Through 2016
- American Colonial Wars
- American Indian Wars
- American War of Independence
- Animals and the Military
- Antietam, Battle of
- Arab-Israeli Wars, 1948-Present
- Arctic Warfare
- Armed Forces of the Ottoman Empire, 1683–1918
- Armored War
- Arms Control and Disarmament
- Army, Roman
- Artists and War Art
- Australia from the Colonial Era to the Present
- Austrian Succession, War of the
- Austro-Hungarian Armed Forces
- Balkan Liberation, 1878–1913, Wars of
- Battle of Plassey, 1757
- Battle of Route Coloniale 4, 1950: France’s first devastat...
- Battle of Salamis: 480 BC
- Boer Wars
- Bonaparte, Napoleon
- Brazilian Armed Forces
- Britain and the Blitz
- British Armed Forces, from the Glorious Revolution to Pres...
- British Army in World War II
- British Army of the Rhine, The
- British-India Armies from 1740 to 1849
- Canada from World War I to the Present
- Canada through World War I
- Cavalry since 1500
- China's Modern Wars, 1911-1979
- Chinese Civil War, 1945-1949
- Churchill, John, 1st Duke of Marlborough
- Churchill, Winston
- Clausewitz, Carl von
- Coalition and Alliance War
- Cold War, 1945-1990
- Communications, French Revolution to Present
- Conquest of Mexico and Peru
- Cornwallis, Charles
- Counterinsurgency in the Modern World
- Cromwell, Oliver
- Crusades, The
- Cuban Missile Crisis
- Defense Industries
- Dien Bien Phu, Battle of
- Dominion Armies in World War II
- Eisenhower, Dwight
- Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide
- European Wars, Mid-Nineteenth-Century
- Finland in World War II
- Frederick the Great
- French Armies, Early Modern
- French Military, 1919-1940
- French Revolutionary Wars, The
- Gender Issues
- German Air Forces
- German Army, 1871–1945
- German Sea Power, 1848-1918
- German Unification, Wars of
- Germany's Eastern Front in 1941
- Grant, Ulysses S.
- Guerrilla Warfare, Pre-20th-Century
- Haig, Douglas
- Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert, Jacques Antoine
- Hundred Days Campaign of 1918
- Hundred Years War
- Hungary, Warfare in Medieval and Early Modern
- Imperial China, War in
- India 'Mutiny' and 'Revolution,' 1857-1858
- Indian Army in World War I
- Indian Warfare, Ancient
- India-Pakistan Wars
- Indochina Wars, 1946-1975
- Information Warfare
- Intelligence, Military
- International Efforts to Control War
- Iraq Wars, 1980s-Present
- Irish Civil War, 1922–1923
- Irish Revolution, 1911-1923, The
- Italian Armed Forces in the Modern Age
- Italian Campaign, World War I
- Japanese Army in the World War II Era, The Imperial
- Japanese Navy
- Jomini, Antoine-Henri
- Justice, Military, the Anglo-American Tradition
- Justice of War and Justice in War
- Khan, Genghis
- Kursk, Battle of
- Learning and Adapting: The British Army from Somme to the ...
- Lee, Robert E.
- Lepizig, Battle of
- Literature and Drama, War in
- Loos, Battle of
- Louis XIV, Wars of
- Low-Intensity Operations
- Manzikert, Battle of
- Medicine, Military
- Medieval Japan, 900-1600
- Meuse-Argonne Offensive
- Mexico and the United States, 1836–1848, Wars of
- Midway, Battle of
- Military Officers, United States
- Military Revolutions
- Modern Piracy
- Mongol Wars
- Montgomery, Bernard Law
- Music and War
- Napoleonic Wars, The
- Napoleonic Wars, War and Memory in the
- Navy, British
- Nelson, Horatio
- New Zealand
- Nimitz, Chester
- Nuclear Culture
- Nuclear Weapons
- Occupations and Military Government
- Operational Art
- Ottoman Navy
- Passchaendale, Battle of
- Patton, George
- Peninsular War
- Polish Armed Forces, 1918-present
- Political Purges in the 20th Century
- Poltava, Battle of
- Popular Culture and Modern War
- Prehistoric Warfare
- Psychiatric Casualties
- Race in the US Military
- Red Cross
- Religio-Military Orders
- Roman Empire
- Roses, Wars of the
- Russian and Soviet Armed Forces
- Russian Campaign of 1812
- Russian Civil War, 1918-1921
- Russian Military History
- Russian Military History, 1762-1825
- Russo-Japanese War
- Safavid Army
- Sailing Warships
- Science and Technology in War
- Science Fiction, Military
- Semi-Military and Paramilitary Organizations
- Seven Years' War
- Seven Years' War in North America, The
- Sino-Japanese Wars, 1895-1945
- South West Pacific, 1941–1945, Campaigns in
- Southeast Asian Military History, Colonial
- Southeast Asian Military History, Precolonial
- Space and War
- Spain since the Reconquista
- Spanish Civil War
- Special Operations Forces
- Special Operations Forces
- Stalingrad, Battle of
- Steppe Nomadic Warfare
- Submarine Warfare
- Swedish Armed Forces
- Tet Offensive
- The Allied Bombardment of Occupied Europe During World War...
- The United States and the Middle East, 1945-2001
- Thirty Years War, 1618–1648
- Trench Warfare
- United States Marine Corps, The
- Urban Warfare
- US Air Force
- US Air Power
- US Army
- Verdun, Battle of
- Victorian Warfare, 1837–1902
- Vietnam War
- Vietnam War in Hollywood Feature Films
- War, Chemical and Biological
- War Correspondents
- War, Culture of
- War of the Spanish Succession, 1701–1714
- Warfare, Precolonial, in Africa
- Warships, Steam
- Women in the Military
- World War I in Film
- World War I Origins
- World War I: The Eastern Front
- World War I: The Western Front
- World War II and the Far East
- World War II in Film
- World War II in the Mediterranean and Middle East
- World War II, Indian Army in
- World War II Origins
- World War II, Russo-German War
- Yugoslavian Civil War, 1991-1999
- Zhukov, Georgii
- Zulu Wars