In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Intelligence

  • Introduction
  • Bibliographies
  • Journals
  • Classic Works
  • Literature Reviews
  • Neurological Bases for Intelligence
  • Intelligence and Giftedness
  • Intelligence and Creativity
  • Mindset
  • Longitudinal Studies of Intelligence
  • Intelligence and the Workplace
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Teaching about Intelligence

Psychology Intelligence
Amber Esping, Jonathan Plucker, Mary Pei
  • LAST REVIEWED: 26 May 2023
  • LAST MODIFIED: 26 May 2023
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199828340-0092


What is human intelligence? There is no indisputable answer to this fundamental question, and there will not be an attempt to define it here. How does one measure intelligence? There is little consensus here, either. Questions about defining and measuring human intelligence captivated ancient philosophers centuries ago, and they continue to intrigue researchers, clinicians, educators, and students today. This long history and diversity of viewpoints poses special challenges to scholars and students who are attempting to sift through the research and commentary on intelligence theory and testing. This article is designed to serve as a guide for students who are interested in learning about intelligence questions and controversies from the past, and for scholars who desire to take these questions and controversies in future directions. The aim is to offer a selective, balanced, and accessible guide to some of the best and most useful literature pertaining to human intelligence theory. Whenever possible, newer and cutting-edge publications have been included. However, classic and foundational works are also listed, as newer research necessarily builds on seminal ideas. This bibliography is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, it is a starting place for beginning an investigation of particular topics. The resources here are merely scaffolding for building a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of intelligence theory and testing. This updated version of the original entry includes some new references and a small section on Artificial Intelligence. Although the majority of this text focuses on human intelligence, the increasing overlap in attention to both human intelligence and artificial intelligence (e.g., J. M. Spector and S. Ma. 2019. Inquiry and critical thinking skills for the next generation: From artificial intelligence back to human intelligence. Smart Learning Environments 6.1: 1–11) may interest some readers.

General Overviews

Topics related to intelligence theory and testing are covered in many introductory psychology and education courses, at both the undergraduate and the graduate levels. Faculty who are looking for textbooks or supplemental readings will find many possibilities in this section, which is broken up into the following subsections: Historical Overviews, Technical Overviews, and Intelligence Chapters for Preservice Teachers (college students who are learning to become classroom teachers).

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