- LAST REVIEWED: 13 January 2022
- LAST MODIFIED: 31 March 2016
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199830060-0145
- LAST REVIEWED: 13 January 2022
- LAST MODIFIED: 31 March 2016
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199830060-0145
Victor Ernest Shelford (b. 1877–d. 1968) was instrumental in the establishment and development of ecology as a new experimental science at the turn of the 20th century. Ecology drew on the more established fields of zoology and botany to examine the distribution and abundance of organisms and their adaptations to a fluctuating natural world. Shelford was a pioneer animal ecologist interested in biomes and communities and how they form through ecological succession. His scientific breadth spanned terrestrial and aquatic systems, and as he sought synthesis between animal and plant ecology he developed new approaches and new techniques in both laboratory and field studies. He created one of the first courses in physiological ecology in the United States and collaborated on developing laboratory equipment such as photoelectric cells for measuring light penetration in water. He was known for his transcontinental field trips to teach students about the ecology of different habitats. His research outlook and his scientific field trips inspired many others who went on to become well known for their ecological work, including British ecologist Charles Elton (see Oxford Bibliographies article Charles Elton), and students S. Charles Kendeigh, Robert Whittaker (see Oxford Bibliographies article Robert Whittaker), and Eugene P. Odum. Shelford served as first president of the Ecological Society of America (ESA), chaired its Committee for the Preservation of Natural Conditions from 1917–1938 (whose motto was “An undisturbed area in every national park and public forest”) and was a driving force behind the creation of the premier nonprofit conservation organization The Nature Conservancy in 1951. He was a fierce defender of both conservation and efficient resource management, and he published widely on those topics, including in the ESA flagship journal Ecology (formerly Plant World).
Croker 1991 is a biography of Shelford and the only comprehensive treatment of his life, drawing in part upon interviews and archival sources at the University of Illinois Archives. Shelford, born in New York State, earned his S. B. (1903) and PhD (1907) in zoology from University of Chicago, where he was taught by physiologist Charles Manning Child, Charles Davenport, Charles O. Whitman, and early plant ecologist Henry C. Cowles. Shelford worked on tiger beetles but quickly expanded his studies to other organisms and researched physiological explanations for differential distribution in dune environments. His 1913 Animal Communities in Temperate America monograph was foundational for animal ecological studies and teaching. From 1914 until his retirement in 1946 he taught and carried out research at the University of Illinois. The same year he also took charge of the Illinois Natural History Survey (1914–1929) and of marine ecology during summers at the Puget Sound Biological Station in Washington State. Throughout his life he conducted field trips across the continent. At the end of his life he was honored with the 1968 Eminent Ecologist award from the ESA (Kendeigh 1968). He held true to the opening sentence in the first of a series of articles in the Biological Bulletin (Shelford 1911a and Shelford 1911b) on ecological succession in which he proclaimed, “The writer is interested primarily in experimental work.” This commitment derived not only from Shelford’s mentor Cowles and colleague Frederic Clements but also from fellow graduate student Charles C. Adams, who wrote Guide to the Study of Animal Ecology (Adams 1913), which Shelford himself used. His commitment was upended, however, by his summers in Puget Sound where according to Benson 1992 he returned to descriptive work after being unable to apply his earlier techniques to the intertidal. Many of Shelford’s early laboratory experiments were on the response of organisms to environmental gradients such as pollutants, while his many extensive field trips allowed him to study and survey the distribution of both animals and plants in their natural habitats. Though his early training was as a zoologist, he said of himself that he was “able to examine the work of plant ecologists with a large degree of sympathy. . .” and he collaborated with botanist Frederic Clements (see the Oxford Bibliographies article The Community Concept) on a novel synthesis of animal, plant, and aquatic ecology (Clements and Shelford 1939) that promoted biomes as the community on land and in the sea. Although much of Shelford’s work was terrestrial, he also published on stream and benthic communities, as well as on Mississippi floodplains, often with an eye toward the impact on economics, whether of codling moths or chinch bugs.
Adams, Charles C. 1913. Guide to the study of animal ecology. New York: Macmillan.
A classic pioneering how-to manual and bibliography for students in ecology. Emphasizes the importance of the scientific method, ecological surveys, collection of specimens, and the dynamic links between landscapes and their communities.
Benson, Keith R. 1992. Experimental ecology on the Pacific Coast: Victor Shelford and his search for appropriate methods. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14.1: 73–91.
Describes Shelford’s thwarted efforts to apply novel techniques of physiological ecology developed in the Midwest to the study of marine organisms in the Pacific intertidal. Argues that Shelford was forced to step back from experimental studies toward descriptive ones.
Clements, Frederic E., and Victor E. Shelford. 1939. Bio-ecology. New York: John Wiley.
The product of a challenging collaboration between Clements (plant ecology) and Shelford (animal ecology) inspired by Clements’s books Plant Succession (1916) and Plant Indicators (1920). Their effort to synthesize plant and animal ecology applied Clements’s classification system to animal communities and is a thorough description of the biome concept. (See also Oxford Bibliographies article The Community Concept).
Croker, Robert A. 1991. Pioneer ecologist: The life and work of Victor Ernest Shelford, 1877–1968. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
This biography presents Shelford’s personal and professional life and includes his early years at the University of Chicago, his research on physiological ecology, anecdotes about his teaching, and achievements in natural area conservation. It details Henry Cowles’s influence but is otherwise light on the conceptual issues driving Shelford’s work.
Kendeigh, Charles S. 1968. Victor Ernest Shelford, eminent ecologist, 1968. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 49:97–100.
A biographical reflection on Shelford’s life and accomplishments on the occasion of Shelford’s being named the ESA “eminent ecologist” for 1968.
Shelford, Victor E. 1911a. Ecological succession. I. Stream fishes and the method of physiographic analysis. Biological Bulletin 21:9–35.
First of a series of papers on applying principles of physiography to succession among fish in streams and ponds.
Shelford, Victor E. 1911b. Ecological succession: II. Pond fishes. Biological Bulletin 21:127–151.
A pioneering and classic study of succession in a series of ponds at the southern end of Lake Michigan in which species of fish are related to the age of the ponds, and ponds of different ages represent historical stages of older ponds. Thus, one can infer the pattern of the succession of fish communities in older ponds.
Shelford, Victor E. 1913. Animal communities in temperate America, as illustrated in the Chicago region: A study in animal ecology. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
A landmark animal ecology monograph that inspired the development of animal ecology in North America. It draws upon both observation and experimentation to describe animals, their relation to various environments, and the role of physiological ecology. Ecologists must combine “naturalistic observation and controlled experiments” for progress.
Correspondence, reports, and articles reflecting his wide-ranging scientific interests spanning plant, animal, and aquatic ecology. Includes early records of the workings of the Ecological Society of America and the rationale to preserve natural areas. Also includes reprints of Shelford’s articles and those of his students’ to 1946. The biography Croker 1991 drew heavily upon these papers.
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- Accounting for Ecological Capital
- Adaptive Radiation
- Allocation of Reproductive Resources in Plants
- Animals, Functional Morphology of
- Animals, Reproductive Allocation in
- Animals, Thermoregulation in
- Antarctic Environments and Ecology
- Applied Ecology
- Aquatic Conservation
- Aquatic Nutrient Cycling
- Archaea, Ecology of
- Assembly Models
- Bacterial Diversity in Freshwater
- Benthic Ecology
- Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
- Biodiversity Patterns in Agricultural Systms
- Biological Chaos and Complex Dynamics
- Biome, Alpine
- Biome, Boreal
- Biome, Desert
- Biome, Grassland
- Biome, Savanna
- Biome, Tundra
- Biomes, African
- Biomes, East Asian
- Biomes, Mountain
- Biomes, North American
- Biomes, South Asian
- Braun, E. Lucy
- Bryophyte Ecology
- Butterfly Ecology
- Carson, Rachel
- Chemical Ecology
- Classification Analysis
- Coastal Dune Habitats
- Communicating Ecology
- Communities and Ecosystems, Indirect Effects in
- Communities, Top-Down and Bottom-Up Regulation of
- Community Concept, The
- Community Ecology
- Community Genetics
- Community Phenology
- Competition and Coexistence in Animal Communities
- Competition in Plant Communities
- Complexity Theory
- Conservation Biology
- Conservation Genetics
- Coral Reefs
- Darwin, Charles
- Dead Wood in Forest Ecosystems
- De-Glaciation, Ecology of
- Disease Ecology
- Drought as a Disturbance in Forests
- Early Explorers, The
- Earth’s Climate, The
- Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics
- Ecological Dynamics in Fragmented Landscapes
- Ecological Education
- Ecological Engineering
- Ecological Forecasting
- Ecological Informatics
- Ecological Relevance of Speciation
- Ecology, Introductory Sources in
- Ecology, Microbial (Community)
- Ecology of Emerging Zoonotic Viruses
- Ecology of the Atlantic Forest
- Ecosystem Ecology
- Ecosystem Engineers
- Ecosystem Multifunctionality
- Ecosystem Services
- Ecosystem Services, Conservation of
- Elton, Charles
- Endophytes, Fungal
- Energy Flow
- Environmental Anthropology
- Environmental Justice
- Environments, Extreme
- Ethics, Ecological
- European Natural History Tradition
- Evolutionarily Stable Strategies
- Facilitation and the Organization of Communities
- Fern and Lycophyte Ecology
- Fire Ecology
- Food Webs
- Foraging Behavior, Implications of
- Foraging, Optimal
- Forests, Temperate Coniferous
- Forests, Temperate Deciduous
- Freshwater Invertebrate Ecology
- Genetic Considerations in Plant Ecological Restoration
- Genomics, Ecological
- Geographic Range
- Gleason, Henry
- Grazer Ecology
- Greig-Smith, Peter
- Gymnosperm Ecology
- Habitat Selection
- Harper, John L.
- Harvesting Alternative Water Resources (US West)
- Heavy Metal Tolerance
- Himalaya, Ecology of the
- Host-Parasitoid Interactions
- Human Ecology
- Human Ecology of the Andes
- Human-Wildlife Conflict and Coexistence
- Hutchinson, G. Evelyn
- Indigenous Ecologies
- Industrial Ecology
- Insect Ecology, Terrestrial
- Invasive Species
- Island Biogeography Theory
- Island Biology
- Keystone Species
- Kin Selection
- Landscape Dynamics
- Landscape Ecology
- Laws, Ecological
- Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis, The
- Leopold, Aldo
- Lichen Ecology
- Life History
- Literature, Ecology and
- MacArthur, Robert H.
- Mangrove Zone Ecology
- Marine Fisheries Management
- Mass Effects
- Mathematical Ecology
- Mating Systems
- Maximum Sustainable Yield
- Metabolic Scaling Theory
- Metacommunity Dynamics
- Metapopulations and Spatial Population Processes
- Microclimate Ecology
- Multiple Stable States and Catastrophic Shifts in Ecosyste...
- Mutualisms and Symbioses
- Mycorrhizal Ecology
- Natural History Tradition, The
- Networks, Ecological
- Niche Versus Neutral Models of Community Organization
- Nutrient Foraging in Plants
- Ocean Sprawl
- Odum, Eugene and Howard
- Old Fields
- Ordination Analysis
- Organic Agriculture, Ecology of
- Parental Care, Evolution of
- Pastures and Pastoralism
- Patch Dynamics
- Phenotypic Selection
- Philosophy, Ecological
- Phylogenetics and Comparative Methods
- Physiological Ecology of Nutrient Acquisition in Animals
- Physiological Ecology of Photosynthesis
- Physiological Ecology of Water Balance in Terrestrial Anim...
- Physiological Ecology of Water Balance in Terrestrial Plan...
- Plant Blindness
- Plant Disease Epidemiology
- Plant Ecological Responses to Extreme Climatic Events
- Plant-Insect Interactions
- Polar Regions
- Pollination Ecology
- Population Dynamics, Density-Dependence and Single-Species
- Population Dynamics, Methods in
- Population Ecology, Animal
- Population Ecology, Plant
- Population Fluctuations and Cycles
- Population Genetics
- Population Viability Analysis
- Populations and Communities, Dynamics of Age- and Stage-St...
- Predation and Community Organization
- Predator-Prey Interactions
- Reductionism Versus Holism
- Religion and Ecology
- Remote Sensing
- Restoration Ecology
- Ricketts, Edward Flanders Robb
- Secondary Production
- Seed Ecology
- Serpentine Soils
- Shelford, Victor
- Simulation Modeling
- Soil Biogeochemistry
- Soil Ecology
- Spatial Pattern Analysis
- Spatial Patterns of Species Biodiversity in Terrestrial En...
- Spatial Scale and Biodiversity
- Species Distribution Modeling
- Species Extinctions
- Species Responses to Climate Change
- Species-Area Relationships
- Stability and Ecosystem Resilience, A Below-Ground Perspec...
- Stochastic Processes
- Stoichiometry, Ecological
- Stream Ecology
- Sustainable Development
- Systematic Conservation Planning
- Systems Ecology
- Tansley, Sir Arthur
- Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle
- Terrestrial Resource Limitation
- Theory and Practice of Biological Control
- Thermal Ecology of Animals
- Tragedy of the Commons
- Trophic Levels
- Tropical Humid Forest Biome
- Urban Ecology
- Vegetation Classification
- Vegetation Mapping
- Vicariance Biogeography
- Weed Ecology
- Wetland Ecology
- Whittaker, Robert H.
- Wildlife Ecology