- LAST REVIEWED: 12 August 2022
- LAST MODIFIED: 26 February 2020
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199830060-0193
- LAST REVIEWED: 12 August 2022
- LAST MODIFIED: 26 February 2020
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199830060-0193
Plants and insects are highly diverse groups due to their ability to exploit a wide range of niches, from the desert to the arctic zone and also almost all the plant species growing on the planet. Plants and insects make up together approximately half of all known species of multicellular organisms. Each plant interacts with insects in a different manner; insects may act as protection, dispersers, or fertilizers for plants while plants may be a food/energy resource or nest location for insects. Starting with herbivory, plant-insect interactions date back to the Devonian period, about 420 million years ago, when plants first began their conquest of the land. But it was most probably in the Upper Carboniferous, about 320 million years ago, that these interactions became more intense, characterized also by the appearance of entomophily (i.e., insect pollination) about 252 million years ago, before the appearance of flowering plants (angiosperms).
Plant-insect interactions are classically viewed as mutualistic, antagonistic, or commensalistic. Mutualism is characterized by help between each partner, with both benefiting and neither harmed. Mutualisms include pollination (e.g., flowering plant/insect pollinator systems), plant guarding, or seed dispersal (e.g., plant/ant systems). In antagonistic relationships, one counterpart benefits and the other is harmed. This relationship includes phytophagy by insects (e.g., insect pests) but also insectivory by plants (e.g., carnivorous plants). In commensalism, one counterpart benefits but the other is not harmed (e.g., the commensal relationship of the Monarch butterfly larvae with certain species of milkweeds to store cardiac glycosides for defensive purposes). The founders of the field of plant-insect interactions include Jean-Henri Fabre, one of the pioneers of insect behavior and ecophysiology as well as the study of chemical communication in insects (Fabre 1879). Charles Darwin was the first to highlight the coevolution process between insect and plant communities (Darwin 1899). Andrew D. Hopkins’s theory was the first to explain a mechanism of host plant fidelity in phytophagous insects (Hopkins 1916). Karl von Frisch was the first to describe sensorial perception in insects inside their environment, particularly in plants (von Frisch 1953). Several pioneering scientists pointed out the importance of plant chemistry to the establishment of such intimate relations (see Dethier 1941), and Snelling 1941 is the first work to define plants’ defense mechanisms against herbivorous insects. In 1958, the late Jan de Wilde organized the first symposium on insect-plant interactions in Wageningen, The Netherlands. This timing of this symposium corresponded to the first issue of the well-known scientific journal Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata (see Journals). At the same time, a pioneering paper, Fraenkel 1959, defined the role and importance of secondary plant metabolites in plant-insect interactions; and knowledge of the sensory physiology of the gustatory systems of insects took a big step forward with Schoonhoven and Dethier 1966, after incredibly sound research on insect olfaction by pioneering works such as Viallanes 1887, probably the first to study the antennal lobe structure in a hornet. The first major scholars of plant-insect interactions in the early 21st century include May R. Berenbaumand and Art R. Zangerl at the University of Illinois, pioneers in chemical ecology of insect-plant interactions/detoxification of plant defenses/coevolution. Elizabeth (Liz) Bernays at Arizona University was considered one of the most influential scientists working on plant-herbivore interactions in the 1980s. Dame Miriam Rothschild was a classical example of a grand-old lady in caterpillar-plant interactions. Fritz and Simms 1992 is the first synthesis of plant-insect interactions.
Darwin, Charles. 1899. The various contrivances by which orchids are fertilized by insects. 2d ed. London: John Murray.
Darwin was the first to show plant-insect interactions in many orchid flowers that had evolved elaborate structures by natural selection in order to facilitate cross-pollination. He suggested that orchids and their insect pollinators evolved by interacting with one another over many generations, a process referred to as coevolution.
Dethier, Vincent G. 1941. Chemical factors determining the choice of food plants by Papilio larvae. American Naturalist 75:61–73.
One of the first reviews on the importance of chemicals in the attraction between insects and plants (species of Papilio and Umbelliferae).
Fabre, Jean-Henri. 1879. Etudes sur l’instinct et les moeurs des insectes. Souvenirs Entomologiques. Paris: Librairie Charles Delagrave.
The author introduced ethology (i.e., ecological studies) for the first time, studying insects’ behavior and linking it to their environment. The author also described female giant peacock moths’ (Saturnia pyri) attraction of male counterparts by odorant emission, introducing for the first time chemical communication in insects.
Fraenkel, Gottfried S. 1959. The raison d’être of secondary plant substances. Science 129:1466–1470.
The founder of the notion of the influence/importance of secondary plant substances on insect’s physiology and behavior.
Fritz, Robert S., and Ellen L. Simms. 1992. Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
The first synthesis book on plant-herbivore interactions mostly focused on plant resistance, emphasizing ecological and evolutionary bases of resistance.
Hopkins, Andrew D. 1916. Economic investigations of the scolytid bark and timber beetles of North America. In US Department of Agriculture Program of Work for 2017. Edited by US Department of Agriculture, 353. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture.
Hopkins was the first to observe that “a species which breeds in two or more hosts will prefer to continue to breed in the host to which it has become adapted” (p. 353). This concept was called HHSP (Hopkins’ Host Selection Principle).
Schoonhoven, Louis M., and Vincent G. Dethier. 1966. Sensory aspects of host-plant discrimination by lepidopteraous larvae. Archives Néerlandaises de Zoologie 16:497–530.
Among the first studies on chemosensory systems in insects. The authors are among the pioneers of sensory systems analyses in phytophagous insects for host-plant discrimination.
Snelling, Ralph O. 1941. Resistance of plants to insect attack. Botanical Review 7:543–586.
This is the first paper to define plants’ resistance to insects. In 1951, Painter categorized the mechanisms of plant resistance into three: tolerance, antibiosis, and non-preference (R. H. Painter, “Insect Resistance in Crop Plants,” Botanical Review 7.10 : 543–586). Available online by subscription.
Viallanes, Henri. 1887. Etudes histologiques et organologiques sur les centres nerveux et les organes des sens des animaux articulés. Paris: Masson.
This book in French contains one of the first studies of the olfactory system of arthropods.
von Frisch, Karl. 1953. The dancing bees: An account of the life and senses of the honey bee. New York: Harcourt, Brack.
Centered on sensory perceptions of honeybees inside their environments, and particularly toward plants, including the first investigation into the meaning of the waggle dance. A translation of Aus dem Leben der Bienen, 5th revised edition (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1953).
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- Accounting for Ecological Capital
- Adaptive Radiation
- Allocation of Reproductive Resources in Plants
- Animals, Functional Morphology of
- Animals, Reproductive Allocation in
- Animals, Thermoregulation in
- Antarctic Environments and Ecology
- Applied Ecology
- Aquatic Conservation
- Aquatic Nutrient Cycling
- Archaea, Ecology of
- Assembly Models
- Bacterial Diversity in Freshwater
- Benthic Ecology
- Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
- Biodiversity, Dimensionality of
- Biodiversity Patterns in Agricultural Systms
- Biological Chaos and Complex Dynamics
- Biome, Alpine
- Biome, Boreal
- Biome, Desert
- Biome, Grassland
- Biome, Savanna
- Biome, Tundra
- Biomes, African
- Biomes, East Asian
- Biomes, Mountain
- Biomes, North American
- Biomes, South Asian
- Braun, E. Lucy
- Bryophyte Ecology
- Butterfly Ecology
- Carson, Rachel
- Chemical Ecology
- Classification Analysis
- Coastal Dune Habitats
- Communicating Ecology
- Communities and Ecosystems, Indirect Effects in
- Communities, Top-Down and Bottom-Up Regulation of
- Community Concept, The
- Community Ecology
- Community Genetics
- Community Phenology
- Competition and Coexistence in Animal Communities
- Competition in Plant Communities
- Complexity Theory
- Conservation Biology
- Conservation Genetics
- Coral Reefs
- Darwin, Charles
- Dead Wood in Forest Ecosystems
- De-Glaciation, Ecology of
- Disease Ecology
- Drought as a Disturbance in Forests
- Early Explorers, The
- Earth’s Climate, The
- Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics
- Ecological Dynamics in Fragmented Landscapes
- Ecological Education
- Ecological Engineering
- Ecological Forecasting
- Ecological Informatics
- Ecological Relevance of Speciation
- Ecology, Introductory Sources in
- Ecology, Microbial (Community)
- Ecology of Emerging Zoonotic Viruses
- Ecology of the Atlantic Forest
- Ecology, Stochastic Processes in
- Ecosystem Ecology
- Ecosystem Engineers
- Ecosystem Multifunctionality
- Ecosystem Services
- Ecosystem Services, Conservation of
- Elton, Charles
- Endophytes, Fungal
- Energy Flow
- Environmental Anthropology
- Environmental Justice
- Environments, Extreme
- Ethics, Ecological
- European Natural History Tradition
- Evolutionarily Stable Strategies
- Facilitation and the Organization of Communities
- Fern and Lycophyte Ecology
- Fire Ecology
- Flood Ecology
- Food Webs
- Foraging Behavior, Implications of
- Foraging, Optimal
- Forests, Temperate Coniferous
- Forests, Temperate Deciduous
- Freshwater Invertebrate Ecology
- Genetic Considerations in Plant Ecological Restoration
- Genomics, Ecological
- Geographic Range
- Gleason, Henry
- Grazer Ecology
- Greig-Smith, Peter
- Gymnosperm Ecology
- Habitat Selection
- Harper, John L.
- Harvesting Alternative Water Resources (US West)
- Heavy Metal Tolerance
- Himalaya, Ecology of the
- Host-Parasitoid Interactions
- Human Ecology
- Human Ecology of the Andes
- Human-Wildlife Conflict and Coexistence
- Hutchinson, G. Evelyn
- Indigenous Ecologies
- Industrial Ecology
- Insect Ecology, Terrestrial
- Invasive Species
- Island Biogeography Theory
- Island Biology
- Keystone Species
- Kin Selection
- Landscape Dynamics
- Landscape Ecology
- Laws, Ecological
- Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis, The
- Leopold, Aldo
- Lichen Ecology
- Life History
- Literature, Ecology and
- MacArthur, Robert H.
- Mangrove Zone Ecology
- Marine Fisheries Management
- Mass Effects
- Mathematical Ecology
- Mating Systems
- Maximum Sustainable Yield
- Metabolic Scaling Theory
- Metacommunity Dynamics
- Metapopulations and Spatial Population Processes
- Microclimate Ecology
- Multiple Stable States and Catastrophic Shifts in Ecosyste...
- Mutualisms and Symbioses
- Mycorrhizal Ecology
- Natural History Tradition, The
- Networks, Ecological
- Niche Versus Neutral Models of Community Organization
- Nutrient Foraging in Plants
- Ocean Sprawl
- Odum, Eugene and Howard
- Old Fields
- Ordination Analysis
- Organic Agriculture, Ecology of
- Parental Care, Evolution of
- Pastures and Pastoralism
- Patch Dynamics
- Phenotypic Plasticity
- Phenotypic Selection
- Philosophy, Ecological
- Phylogenetics and Comparative Methods
- Physiological Ecology of Nutrient Acquisition in Animals
- Physiological Ecology of Photosynthesis
- Physiological Ecology of Water Balance in Terrestrial Anim...
- Physiological Ecology of Water Balance in Terrestrial Plan...
- Plant Blindness
- Plant Disease Epidemiology
- Plant Ecological Responses to Extreme Climatic Events
- Plant-Insect Interactions
- Polar Regions
- Pollination Ecology
- Population Dynamics, Density-Dependence and Single-Species
- Population Dynamics, Methods in
- Population Ecology, Animal
- Population Ecology, Plant
- Population Fluctuations and Cycles
- Population Genetics
- Population Viability Analysis
- Populations and Communities, Dynamics of Age- and Stage-St...
- Predation and Community Organization
- Predator-Prey Interactions
- Reductionism Versus Holism
- Religion and Ecology
- Remote Sensing
- Restoration Ecology
- Ricketts, Edward Flanders Robb
- Secondary Production
- Seed Ecology
- Serpentine Soils
- Shelford, Victor
- Simulation Modeling
- Soil Biogeochemistry
- Soil Ecology
- Spatial Pattern Analysis
- Spatial Patterns of Species Biodiversity in Terrestrial En...
- Spatial Scale and Biodiversity
- Species Distribution Modeling
- Species Extinctions
- Species Responses to Climate Change
- Species-Area Relationships
- Stability and Ecosystem Resilience, A Below-Ground Perspec...
- Stoichiometry, Ecological
- Stream Ecology
- Sustainable Development
- Systematic Conservation Planning
- Systems Ecology
- Tansley, Sir Arthur
- Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle
- Terrestrial Resource Limitation
- Theory and Practice of Biological Control
- Thermal Ecology of Animals
- Tragedy of the Commons
- Transient Dynamics
- Trophic Levels
- Tropical Humid Forest Biome
- Urban Ecology
- Urban Forest Ecology
- Vegetation Classification
- Vegetation Mapping
- Vicariance Biogeography
- Weed Ecology
- Wetland Ecology
- Whittaker, Robert H.
- Wildlife Ecology