- LAST REVIEWED: 09 July 2019
- LAST MODIFIED: 25 October 2017
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199941728-0093
- LAST REVIEWED: 09 July 2019
- LAST MODIFIED: 25 October 2017
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199941728-0093
Phenotypic plasticity (often termed “plasticity”) is generally defined as the capacity of an individual organism to alter its behavior, physiology/gene expression, and/or morphology (i.e., some aspect of its phenotype) in direct response to changing environmental conditions. Plasticity is ubiquitous and many have suggested that it can have important ecological and evolutionary implications. Among other things, plasticity may allow organisms to persist in otherwise unfavorable environments, produce novel, complex traits, and experience altered interactions with other members of their community. In recent decades, the evolutionary power of plasticity has received renewed interest. In particular, the process of genetic accommodation has dominated the literature because of its potential relevance to all aspects of biology. However, there is some skepticism regarding the importance of phenotypic plasticity generally, and genetic accommodation specifically, in evolution. Indeed, despite plasticity being acknowledged for over 100 years, its importance to evolutionary biology has evolved from being a relevant source of phenotypic variation, to being considered just developmental noise, to possibly forming the basis of an extended evolutionary synthesis. While phenotypic plasticity may be viewed as a primarily ecological/evolutionary phenomenon, it touches on such diverse fields as behavior, learning, conservation biology, and human health. Because of its pervasiveness, appreciation for and understanding of phenotypic plasticity would be beneficial to all biologists.
Although interest in phenotypic plasticity has increased since the 1980s (Forsman 2014), the resulting proliferation of the literature can make it difficult to keep concepts organized. As a starting point, Whitman and Agrawal 2009 should be the first piece read in this entire bibliography because of its accessibility. A common problem when sifting through literature on phenotypic plasticity is the terminology. The authors of Fusco and Minelli 2010 do a good job of defining and clarifying terms in their review. Stearns 1989 provides a historical perspective in terms of the writing, but also provides a brief history of the field (to that point). While a lot of plasticity research focuses on “higher-order” phenotypes, Callahan, et al. 1997 sets the stage for current work on phenotypic plasticity at the molecular level, which is complemented by Piersma and Drent 2003, which emphasizes how physiological processes are phenotypically plastic. Wund 2012 and Forsman 2014 are particularly useful as introductions to the types of questions being asked by plasticity researchers and how one can test hypotheses relating to plasticity. Finally, Nijhout 1990 provides an excellent introduction to the thinking that drives much of the current research being done on plasticity and evolution—particularly that development is completed by genes alone.
Callahan, H. S., M. Pigliucci, and C. D. Schlichting. 1997. Developmental phenotypic plasticity: Where ecology and evolution meet molecular biology. BioEssays 19:519–525.
This review highlights how evolutionary and molecular biology can successfully be married to investigate questions of developmental plasticity. It uses the phytochrome-mediated shade-avoidance and light-seeking responses of flowering plants as a model for this approach.
Forsman, A. 2014. Rethinking phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for individuals, populations, and species. Heredity 115:276–284.
The major strength of this review is its emphasis on how to study and test hypotheses relating to phenotypic plasticity. It provides a “whole-organism” rather than “single-trait” perspective for understanding plasticity.
Fusco, G., and A. Minelli. 2010. Phenotypic plasticity in development and evolution: Facts and concepts. In Special issue: From polyphenism to complex metazoan life cycles. Edited by G. Fusco and A. Minelli. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365:547–556.
As an introduction to a special volume in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, this article provides one of the more succinct overviews of phenotypic plasticity, how it evolves, and its role in evolution. It is useful in trying to sort out the myriad of terminology associated with phenotypic plasticity.
Nijhout, H. F. 1990. Problems and paradigms: Metaphors and the role of genes in development. BioEssays 12:441–446.
An excellent review of how a gene-driven view of development is flawed. Although it gets a bit technical in places, this generally accessible essay should be read by anyone interested in genetics, development, and/or evolution.
Piersma, T., and J. Drent. 2003. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:228–233.
By focusing on reversible forms of phenotypic plasticity (termed phenotypic flexibility), Piersma and Drent offer a perspective that highlights the ubiquity of phenotypic plasticity. They utilize less frequently noted examples of plasticity, pay particular attention to diet-induced changes in body and organ size and life-cycle staging, and emphasize the role of intra-individual variation.
Stearns, S. C. 1989. The evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity. BioScience 39:436–445.
As an introductory article to a special issue of BioScience, this work sets the stage for the rest of its volume, but also introduces readers to terms and concepts used throughout plasticity literature. Among other things, it gives a short, informative history of the reaction norm concept in evolutionary biology.
Whitman, D. W., and A. A. Agrawal. 2009. What is phenotypic plasticity and why is it important? In Phenotypic plasticity of insects: Mechanisms and consequences. Edited by D. W. Whitman and T. N. Ananthakrishna, 1–63. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.
This book chapter should be the first piece read by anyone interested in phenotypic plasticity. Although this chapter is in a book on insects, it provides one of the most accessible, comprehensive overviews of phenotypic plasticity available.
Wund, M. A. 2012. Assessing the impacts of phenotypic plasticity on evolution. Integrative and Comparative Biology 52:5–15.
This review (in particular Table 1) is a vital resource for those interested in testing hypotheses related to phenotypic plasticity. Almost acting as a “how-to” guide, it outlines approaches and empirical examples for testing eight key hypotheses of plasticity’s role in evolution.
- Adaptive Radiation
- Ancient DNA
- Behavioral Ecology
- Canalization and Robustness
- Character Displacement
- Cognition, Evolution of
- Constraints, Evolutionary
- Contemporary Evolution
- Convergent Evolution
- Cooperation and Conflict: Microbes to Humans
- Cooperative Breeding in Insects and Vertebrates
- Cryptic Female Choice
- Darwin, Charles
- Disease Virulence, Evolution of
- Ecological Speciation
- Epigenetics and Behavior
- Epistasis and Evolution
- Eusocial Insects as a Model for Understanding Altruism, Co...
- Evidence of Evolution, The
- Evolution and Development: Genes and Mutations Underlying ...
- Evolution and Development of Individual Behavioral Variati...
- Evolution, Cultural
- Evolution of Animal Mating Systems
- Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance
- Evolution of New Genes
- Evolution of Plant Mating Systems
- Evolution of Specialization
- Evolutionary Biology of Aging
- Evolutionary Biomechanics
- Evolutionary Computation
- Evolutionary Developmental Biology
- Evolutionary Ecology of Communities
- Experimental Evolution
- Field Studies of Natural Selection
- Founder Effect Speciation
- Frequency-Dependent Selection
- Fungi, Evolution of
- Gene Duplication
- Gene Expression, Evolution of
- Gene Flow
- Genetics, Ecological
- Genome Evolution
- Geographic Variation
- Group Selection
- History of Evolutionary Thought, 1860–1925
- History of Evolutionary Thought before Darwin
- History of Evolutionary Thought Since 1930
- Human Behavioral Ecology
- Human Evolution
- Hybrid Speciation
- Hybrid Zones
- Identifying the Genomic Basis Underlying Phenotypic Variat...
- Inbreeding and Inbreeding Depression
- Inclusive Fitness
- Innovation, Evolutionary
- Islands as Evolutionary Laboratories
- Kin Selection
- Land Plants, Evolution of
- Landscape Genetics
- Landscapes, Adaptive
- Language, Evolution of
- Macroevolutionary Rates
- Male-Male Competition
- Mass Extinction
- Mate Choice
- Maternal Effects
- Medicine, Evolutionary
- Meiotic Drive
- Modern Synthesis, The
- Molecular Clocks
- Molecular Phylogenetics
- Mutation Rate and Spectrum
- Mutualism, Evolution of
- Natural Selection in Human Populations
- Natural Selection in the Genome, Detecting
- Neutral Theory
- New Zealand, Evolutionary Biogeography of
- Niche Construction
- Niche Evolution
- Non-Human Animals, Cultural Evolution in
- Origin and Early Evolution of Animals
- Origin of Eukaryotes
- Origin of Life, The
- Paradox of Sex
- Parental Care, Evolution of
- Personality Differences, Evolution of
- Phenotypic Plasticity
- Phylogenetic Comparative Methods and Tests of Macroevoluti...
- Phylogenetic Trees, Interpretation of
- Polyploid Speciation
- Population Genetics
- Population Structure
- Post-Copulatory Sexual Selection
- Psychology, Evolutionary
- Punctuated Equilibria
- Quantitative Genetic Variation and Heritability
- Reaction Norms, Evolution of
- Reproductive Proteins, Evolution of
- Selection, Directional
- Selection, Disruptive
- Selection Gradients
- Selection, Natural
- Selection, Sexual
- Selfish Genes
- Sexual Conflict
- Sexual Selection and Speciation
- Sexual Size Dimorphism
- Speciation Genetics and Genomics
- Speciation, Sympatric
- Species Concepts
- Sperm Competition
- Systems Biology
- Taxonomy and Classification
- Tetrapod Evolution
- The Philosophy of Evolutionary Biology
- Trends, Evolutionary
- Wallace, Alfred Russel