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Pliny the Younger

Kathleen M. Coleman

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2018-06-27

Pliny the YoungerIntroductionPliny the Younger—to be distinguished from Pliny the Elder, his maternal uncle and the author of the encyclopedic Natural...


Richard Dufour

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2009-12-14

Plotinus Introduction Plotinus (205–270 ce) is considered to be the founder of Neoplatonism. Pupil of Ammonius Saccas, he taught in Rome fr...

Plutarch's Moralia

Lieve Van Hoof

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2014-01-13

Plutarch’s Moralia Introduction The non-biographical output of Plutarch of Chaeronea (b. c. 45–d. c. 120 ad) is traditionally grouped together...

Poetic Meter, Latin

Llewelyn Morgan, Peter Brown

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2017-05-24

Latin Poetic MeterIntroductionThis article focuses on more recent publications (the material under Bibliographical Surveys will provide excellent guid...

Poetry, Greek: Elegiac and Lyric

Ian Rutherford

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2009-12-14

Greek Poetry: Elegiac and Lyric Introduction Although the best-known genres are epic and drama, most Greek poetry took the form of shorter ...

Poetry, Greek: Epigrams

Ruth Scodel

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2011-05-25

Greek Poetry: Epigrams Introduction Very soon after Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet, they began writing inscriptions in verse, most oft...

Poetry, Greek: Iambos

Christopher G. Brown

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2011-05-25

Greek Poetry: Iambos Introduction The word iambos (sometimes Latinized as iambus; the plural is iamboi or iambi) is a word of uncertain etymolo...

Poetry, Greek: Pre-Hellenistic

Gregory Nagy, Leonard Muellner

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2015-04-29

Pre-Hellenistic Greek Poetry in its Social Contexts Introduction This bibliographical essay is divided into six parts, which supersede an olde...

Poetry, Latin: From the Beginnings through the End of the Republic

Gesine Manuwald

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2009-12-14

Latin Poetry: From the Beginnings through the End of the RepublicIntroductionSetting precise period boundaries within the development of literature is...

Poetry, Latin: Imperial

Charles McNelis

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2009-12-14

Latin Poetry: Imperial Introduction “Imperial” Rome is an arbitrary—but useful—designation that may take as its starting point the years 30–27


Benjamin Gray

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2015-06-29

Polis Introduction The polis (plural poleis), or city-state, was the dominant political unit in the ancient Greek world. It was commonly agree...

Political Philosophy, Greek and Roman

Jed W. Atkins

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2012-12-19

Greek and Roman Political Philosophy Introduction In this bibliography “Greek and Roman political philosophy” is taken to mean philosophical r...


Craige Champion

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2012-06-26

PolybiusIntroductionPolybius is the most important source for the rise of Roman imperialism during the Middle Roman Republic (c. 265–c. 150 bce). By a...


Christopher A. Gregg

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2011-05-25

PompeiiIntroductionFounded around the 6th century bce, perhaps by the Italic Ausonian tribe, Pompeii rests on a plateau overlooking both the Sarno Riv...


Anne Sheppard

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2014-09-29

Porphyry Introduction Porphyry (b. 234–d. 305 ce) came from Tyre in Phoenicia, studied under the rhetorician Cassius Longinus in Athens, and w...

Posidippus of Pella

Enrico Magnelli

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2009-12-14

Posidippus of Pella Introduction Though the Greek Anthology has preserved fewer than thirty epigrams ascribed to him, Posidippus of Pella w...


Teun Tieleman

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2021-05-26

PosidoniusIntroductionPosidonius of Apamea (135–c. 51 bce), Stoic philosopher, scientist, and historian, was one of the foremost intellectuals of his ...

Poverty in the Roman World

Neville Morley

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2015-01-15

Poverty in the Roman World Introduction “The poor you will always have with you” (Matthew 26:11); the ubiquity of poverty in the ancient world...


Lucas Siorvanes

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2013-08-26

ProclusIntroductionProclus (b. 410/412–d. 485 ce) was head of the Athenian philosophy school in Late Antiquity, when Neoplatonism had incorporated the...


Ian Ruffell

Subject: Classics »

Date Added: 2018-03-28

PrometheusIntroductionPrometheus is a foundational figure in Greek myth and thought. He is a trickster, who has been compared with similarly devious c...

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