Literary and Critical Theory Jacques Rancière
by
Oliver Davis
  • LAST MODIFIED: 26 July 2017
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780190221911-0002

Introduction

Jacques Rancière (b. 1940) is a French philosopher and cultural critic whose work spans history, politics, philosophy, art, and aesthetics. He is particularly known for his work on equality and for his writings on art, literature, and film. He is professor emeritus of the Department of Philosophy at Paris 8 (the experimental campus founded at Vincennes in the aftermath of Mai’68 and which moved to Saint-Denis in 1980). He lives in Paris and Brittany and is regularly invited to speak at a wide variety of international venues. Rancière began publishing in the mid-1960s while a student of Louis Althusser, the leading French Marxist philosopher of the postwar period. Yet in the aftermath of Mai’68 and through the 1970s and early 1980s, Rancière publicly distanced himself from Althusser and other leading intellectuals of the French left, while undertaking historical and historiographical work of his own in the archives of the French labor movement. This brought him into contact with the History Workshop group in the United Kingdom, with whose politically resonant historiographical commitment to “history from below” Rancière’s work shares affinities. The concern with equality developed in writings of this archival phase coalesced in the 1980s and 1990s into a radically egalitarian critique of mainstream politics and the discourse of political philosophy. Since the late 1990s, Rancière’s main focus has been on art and aesthetics, with extensive theoretical and critical engagement with film, literature, visual, and contemporary art. In recent years Rancière’s work has increasingly been read by artists and in art schools, where his suggestion that the interconnectedness of art and politics may readily be understood in terms of le partage du sensible (the division, distribution, and sharing out of the Kantian “sensible”) has gained considerable currency, as has his emphasis on the perceptual elements of political disagreement with the term “dissensus.” Some educationalists have found his provocative work on the teacher as intellectual emancipator to be a useful contrast to more traditional conceptions of teaching in terms of delivering content and achieving results. Rancière has characterized his own body of work as “indisciplined” for the way in which it readily traverses established disciplinary boundaries. This radically interdisciplinary approach has yielded singular reflections on central political and aesthetic concepts including equality, consensus, democracy, and Modernism.

Primary Texts

Rancière’s first publication was in 1965, and he continues to publish new work. As his ideas have become better known, the interval between the original publication of his work in French and that of English translations has tended to diminish. Moreover, publishers have commissioned translations of previously untranslated work from earlier decades so that most of Rancière’s work is now available in English. Rancière has rightly characterized his own work, in relation to established academic disciplines, as “indisciplined”; readers should accordingly be aware that there is something more than usually schematic and tentative about the subdivision of his writings by academic discipline which is proposed here: history and historiography, politics, literature, art and aesthetics, film, and interviews and occasional writings. Some of the most striking moments in his work occur when disciplinary boundaries are overstepped, but these have also given rise in some cases to confusion in the reception of his work; for example, Proletarian Nights (Rancière 2012, cited under Primary Texts: History and Historiography) brings to bear a very close scrutiny, which could be described as literary-critical, on material which is not mainly literary and in a way that many historians found problematic because they mistakenly took Rancière to be offering a causal account of political unrest in the 19th century on the basis of a reading of the work of a small number of exceptional individuals. Similarly, Rancière often uses striking juxtapositions of heterogeneous material to frame his approach to a topic; in The Philosopher and His Poor (Rancière 2003, cited under Primary Texts: History and Historiography), for example, sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s account of aesthetic judgment is questioned by way of a fragment from the writings of 19th-century worker-intellectual Louis-Gabriel Gauny. Gauny pauses for a moment from his labors in the mansion of a wealthy employer to admire elements of his surroundings with disinterest and detachment in a way that certainly does not disprove Bourdieu’s analysis but that nevertheless sows seeds of doubt that Rancière will go on to cultivate in his argument proper. Some of the most stimulating of his work, for instance, The Ignorant Schoolmaster (Rancière 1991, cited under Primary Texts: Politics), is almost impossible to classify but has been widely read by educationalists, philosophers, historians, and artists, among others.

History and Historiography

Rancière’s work in the archives of the French labor movement spanned the 1970s and early 1980s and can be understood as part of his distinctive response to the events of Mai’68 and as a reaction against the theoreticism of Althusser’s “Marxist science.” Some of this archival work was undertaken by Rancière in collaboration with historians, including notably Arlette Farge and the feminist historian and theorist Geneviève Fraisse, in a collective based at the Vincennes campus of the University of Paris, where Rancière taught. Together the collective published fifteen ordinary issues of a journal entitled Les Révoltes Logiques (“logical revolts”) (1975–1981). Like the History Workshop movement in the United Kingdom, the collective behind Les Révoltes Logiques was committed to “history from below”; it espoused an egalitarian, anti-theoreticist, attentiveness to the concrete reality of popular struggle. Rancière 2011 and Rancière and Vauday 1987 give a flavor of the journal’s approach. Rancière and Faure 2007 (first published in 1976) is a joint publication with a student in Rancière’s philosophy class at Vincennes, but it advances a position that Rancière would soon come to reject—namely, that the root of working-class speech lay in a homogeneous working-class identity and consciousness. The fragmented and hybrid character of working-class identity and “class consciousness,” as well as cultural and intellectual production by individuals attached to that class, would later preoccupy him in Rancière 2012, Rancière 2003, and Rancière 1983, the last being his edition of selections from the unpublished work of the mid-19th-century joiner-intellectual, Louis-Gabriel Gauny. In Rancière’s practice of the archive, there is an emphasis on the rare testimony of those atypical worker-artists and worker-intellectuals who found themselves in an invariably uncomfortable social position, earning their living from manual labor while also producing artistic and intellectual work, often by staying up long into the night after completing their day’s paid work and thereby transgressing the social role allotted to them as manual workers who need the night’s rest to recuperate before their next day of toil. Rancière 2012 brings a close literary scrutiny to the work of a handful of worker-intellectuals and worker-artists of the 1820s and 1830s and highlights the complexity and conflict in their own understanding of their position. Rancière 1994 and Rancière 2014 are works of critical historiography written at a greater distance from the archive.

  • Rancière, Jacques, ed. Le philosophe plébéien. Paris: Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 1983.

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    Rancière’s edition of the selected writings of Louis-Gabriel Gauny, the joiner-intellectual of the mid-19th century, salvaging his thought from the archives.

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    • Rancière, Jacques. The Names of History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

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      Contains a helpful foreword by Hayden White, a leading historian and theorist of the narrativity of historical writing. Some of these essays in historiography critique the way in which a claim to the scientific status of their knowledge is framed by historians of the Annales School; others present original readings of Michelet, Braudel, and others. Originally published as Les noms de l’histoire: Essai de poétique du savoir (Paris: Seuil, 1992). Another edition was published with the revised and original title, Les mots de l’histoire (Paris: Points, 2014).

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      • Rancière, Jacques. Short Voyages to the Land of the People. Translated by James Swenson. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003.

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        Reflects on travel narratives and ethnographies that seek to represent “the people.” Examines the utopian discourse of the Saint-Simonians, the correspondence and theatre of Büchner, Rilke’s work, and the performance of Ingrid Bergman in Rossellini’s Europa ’51 (1952). Trustworthy and elegant translation by James Swenson. Published in French as Courts voyages au pays du peuple (Paris: Seuil, 1990).

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        • Rancière, Jacques. Staging the People: The Proletarian and His Double. Translated by David Fernbach. London: Verso, 2011.

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          Translations of selected articles by Rancière from Les Révoltes Logiques, including pieces on working-class identity, the dictatorship of the proletariat, collaboration by French trade unions with France’s Vichy government during World War II and the decline of the factory as the emblematic site of working-class struggle and solidarity.

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          • Rancière, Jacques. Proletarian Nights: The Workers’ Dream in Nineteenth-Century France. London: Verso, 2012.

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            Rare copies of a 1989 edition of the same English translation, by John Drury, are still in circulation under the title Nights of Labor: The Workers’ Dream in Nineteenth-Century France (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989). Unfortunately, the translation is quite stilted and erroneous in places. Published in French as La nuit des prolétaires: Archives du rêve ouvrier (Paris: Fayard, 1981). For discussion of the reception of this and other historical work by Rancière, see Steedman 2013 (cited under Critical and Secondary Works: History and Historiography).

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            • Rancière, Jacques. Figures of History. Translated by Julie Rose. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2014.

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              Opens with an extraordinary meditation on history in Chris Marker’s The Last Bolshevik (1994), worth reading in conjunction with the essay in Rancière 2006 (cited in this section under Film) Also includes a discussion of Claude Lanzmann’s Shoah in the context of the discourse of Holocaust denial. Published in French as Figures de l’histoire (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2012).

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              • Rancière, Jacques, and Alain Faure, eds. La Parole ouvrière: Textes rassemblés et présentés par Alain Faure et Jacques Rancière. 2d ed. Paris: La Fabrique, 2007.

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                Useful as an insight into Rancière’s thinking in the late 1970s, but note that some of the central premises of this work (first published in 1976) have since been superseded, notably in the emphasis on disidentification in Rancière 1999 (cited under Primary Texts: Politics).

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                • Rancière, Jacques, and Patrick Vauday. “Going to the Expo: The Worker, His Wife, and Machines.” In Voices of the People: The Social Life of “La Sociale” at the End of the Second Empire. Edited by Adrian Rifkin and Roger Thomas, 23–44. London: Routledge, 1987.

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                  Rancière’s very first article to appear in the journal Les Révoltes Logiques was on worker delegations to the 1867 Paris Exhibition. This collection, edited by Rifkin and Thomas, was the first major publication to make Rancière’s work available to an English-speaking audience.

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                  Politics

                  Rancière’s mature politics of radical equality emerge out of his argument with Althusser in the aftermath of Mai’68, documented in Rancière 2011, and in the extension of similar charges to other intellectual heavyweights of the French left in Rancière 2004. The concern is with the proper relationship between the philosopher (or intellectual or critic) and the working-class subjects on whose behalf the philosopher is speaking, with the suggestion that thinkers as diverse as Marx, Sartre, Althusser, and Bourdieu share a common contempt for the understanding and imagination of those on whose behalf they purport to speak. Rancière argues that each assumes, as Plato does, that the philosopher must do the thinking on behalf of those who have no time to think for themselves because they are too busy working. Rancière suggests that this self-serving pedagogy of delay—according to which the moment of change is forever being prepared for by schooling—serves primarily to consolidate the social position of those who say they would do away with society in its current form. In Rancière 1991, the educational experiments of the pedagogue Joseph Jacotot (1770–1840), “the ignorant schoolmaster,” form the basis for Rancière’s mature politics of equality, in which his distinctive conception of “declarative” or “active” equality is first outlined. Rancière’s mature politics are articulated in Rancière 1995 and Rancière 1999; in both, the emphasis is on “political subjectivation,” or the coming into being of political subjects through the presumption and performance of their equality as speaking beings with those who would dominate them. Rancière 2009 contains a good translation of his short “Ten Theses on Politics,” the most succinct introduction to the political dimension of his work. Key concepts in Rancière’s work—in particular, that of a “police order” in opposition to democratic politics, the “sans-part,” that excluded part of society having no share in social goods or political decision making, as well as the “wrong” (le tort) and the “miscount” of democratic politics—are also set out at length in Rancière 1999. The concept of le partage du sensible, which will become so prominent in the aesthetics, is also introduced here. Rancière 2007 is a widely read postscript to his main body of political work that seeks to salvage the subversive ideal of democracy—government of the people by the people—in an authoritarian and technocratic pro-governance climate in which that ideal is increasingly viewed with suspicion.

                  • Rancière, Jacques. The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation. Translation and introduction by Kristin Ross. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.

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                    Arguably the single most suggestive and stylistically the most disarming of Rancière’s books considers the figure of pedagogue Joseph Jacotot (1770–1840), who believed that under certain conditions it was possible to teach subjects about which the teacher knew nothing. Translator Kristin Ross’s introduction is very helpful on the plural contexts of this work and on its stylistic qualities. See also the reworking of motifs from this book in Rancière 2009. Published in French as Le maître ignorant: Cinq leçons sur l’émancipation intellectuelle (Paris: Fayard, 1987).

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                    • Rancière, Jacques. On the Shores of Politics. Translated by Liz Heron. London: Verso, 1995.

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                      Contains significant essays on democracy and community; contests the then much-heralded “end of politics” and “end of history.” Sets out Rancière’s famous distinction between politics and “policing,” later developed in Rancière 1999. In French as Aux bords du politique (Paris: Osiris, 1990; 2nd ed., Paris: La Fabrique 1998).

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                      • Rancière, Jacques. Disagreement: Politics and Philosophy. Translated by Julie Rose. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.

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                        The most substantial and systematic theoretical exposition of Rancière’s mature politics of equality focusing on the process of political subjectivation by the sans-part. Published in French as La mésentente: Politique et philosophie (Paris: Galilée, 1995).

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                        • Rancière, Jacques. The Philosopher and His Poor. Edited by Andrew Parker and translated by John Drury, Corinne Oster, and Andrew Parker. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004.

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                          Extends and amplifies the critique leveled against Althusser by other leading lights of the intellectual left, including Marx, Sartre, and most especially the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, developing that critique by arguing that all unwittingly share the oppressively hierarchizing Platonic injunction that certain types of persons are destined by birth and character to particular social roles and positions. Published in French as Le Philosophe et ses pauvres (Paris: Fayard, 1983).

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                          • Rancière, Jacques. Hatred of Democracy. Translated by Steve Corcoran. London: Verso, 2007.

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                            Seeks to salvage the subversive potential of the democratic ideal by returning to the origins of the concept against a wave of criticism by French intellectuals, in particular, of the inherent individualism of democracy and at a time when a political settlement mistakenly described as “democracy” was being imposed on other nations by force of arms. Published in French as La haine de la démocratie (Paris: La Fabrique, 2005).

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                            • Rancière, Jacques. Dissensus: On Politics and Aesthetics. Edited and translated by Steven Corcoran. London: Continuum, 2009.

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                              This very useful collection of essays, edited and translated by Steven Corcoran, is a good introduction to Rancière’s political and aesthetic work. Includes the influential “Ten Theses on Politics” and essays on democracy, human rights, and September 11.

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                              • Rancière, Jacques. Althusser’s Lesson. Translated by Emiliano Battista. London: Continuum, 2011.

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                                Takes issue with the theoreticism of Althusser’s “Marxist science” in the aftermath of Mai’68 and critiques what is taken to be a constitutive contradiction in Althusser’s work, which is claimed to be a deceptive and self-serving pedagogy of delay that promises to prepare the way for revolution by teaching the truth of politics while deferring the moment of change in order to continue dispensing its instruction to the ignorant. Published in French as La leçon d’Althusser (Paris: Gallimard, 1974).

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                                Literature

                                Rancière’s essays on literature from the mid- to late 1990s and early 2000s prepared the conceptual groundwork for his wider project on art and aesthetics (see also Art and Aesthetics). For Rancière, “literature” is not equivalent to writing but rather names a historically specific form, or “regime,” of writing in existence since the late eighteenth century. Literature, in this particular sense, came into being with the paradigm shift effected by early German Romanticism, yet it continued to be haunted by the regime that preceded it, which Rancière terms the “representational regime.” That former regime of writing was regulated by a set of neo-Aristotelian principles, which condensed and codified certain norms and expectations of works of verbal art, their characters, structure, style, authors, and audiences. Those representational norms were informed by the assumption that the work of verbal art would be written for and consumed by an audience consisting of members of the social elite who had an ingrained preference for governance. Although changes were taking place at the end of the 18th century, the vestiges of the representational regime remained alongside the regime of literature; as a result, literature as an institution is riven by a set of constitutive contradictions. Most of these works are concerned with exploring the relationship between literature and politics—in particular and most directly by Rancière 2011c, but also more obliquely and notoriously difficult because of the superficially, supremely apolitical “test case” of Stéphane Mallarmé (Rancière 2011a). Politics remains the implicit subject of Rancière 2011b. Some of these texts are difficult in their approach and argumentation, notably Rancière 2004 and Rancière 2011b, in part because Rancière still seems to be searching for the overarching conceptual framework in which to contain his close readings. The writing in Rancière 2013 is more accessible, and Rancière 2014, written after the conceptual framework of the regimes of art had been established and consolidated (see the citations in Art and Aesthetics), is the most approachable of all of these works.

                                • Rancière, Jacques. The Flesh of Words: The Politics of Writing. Translated by Charlotte Mandell. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.

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                                  A very difficult text containing some incisive essays on the politics of poetry (Wordsworth, Mandelstam, and Rimbaud), a wonderful essay on Balzac, others on Proust and Deleuze’s Bartleby, and a poignant reflection on the Althusserian classroom, which can usefully be read alongside the angrier Rancière 2011 (cited under Primary Texts: Politics). Published in French as La chair des mots: Politiques de l’écriture (Paris: Galilée, 1998).

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                                  • Rancière, Jacques. Mallarmé: The Politics of the Siren. Translated by Steve Corcoran. London: Continuum, 2011a.

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                                    A short text on one of the most infamously hermetic of French poets, which argues persuasively that his work was also profoundly informed by, and expressive of, a concern for the shared social and political realm. Published in French as Mallarmé: La politique de la sirène (Paris: Hachette, 1996).

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                                    • Rancière, Jacques. Mute Speech: Literature, Critical Theory, and Politics. Translated by James Swenson. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011b.

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                                      James Swenson’s translation is excellent, but this is a difficult book in which Rancière grapples with some of the contradictions intrinsic to literature as a historically specific regime of writing. Published in French as La Parole muette: Essai sur les contradictions de la littérature (Paris: Hachette, 1998).

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                                      • Rancière, Jacques. The Politics of Literature. Translated by Julie Rose. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2011c.

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                                        A collection of essays exploring the political meanings of literature as a historically specific regime of writing through readings of Flaubert, Mallarmé, and Brecht, as well as one on the practice of literary biography. The final chapter takes issue with the use made of Mallarmé by Alain Badiou. “The Putting to Death of Emma Bovary” (pp. 49–71) is particularly impressive. Published in French as Politique de la littérature (Paris: Galilée, 2007).

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                                        • Rancière, Jacques. Aisthesis: Scenes from the Aesthetic Regime of Art. Translated by Zakir Paul. London: Verso, 2013.

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                                          Rancière’s most substantial work to date on aesthetics contains chapters on Stendhal, Stéphane Mallarmé, Walt Whitman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and James Agee among others. Published in French as Aisthesis: Scènes du régime esthétique de l’art (Paris: Galilée, 2011).

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                                          • Rancière, Jacques. Le fil perdu: Essais sur la fiction moderne. Paris: La Fabrique, 2014.

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                                            The prologue gives the clearest sense so far of the clearly political bearing of Rancière’s aesthetics by suggesting that mainstream political discourse relies on conventions of the neo-Aristotelian representational regime when it purports to say what is “possible” or “impossible” in the political sphere. With a brilliant essay on Flaubert revisiting Barthes’s “reality effect,” as well as essays on Woolf, Conrad, Keats, Baudelaire, and Büchner, this contains some of Rancière’s most readable work on literature.

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                                            Art and Aesthetics

                                            Rancière’s work on art and aesthetics develops out of his interest in the historically specific regime of literature, which came into existence just as the idea of democracy swept across Europe at the end of the 18th century (see the section on Literature). Literature, in this sense, forms part of one of the three “regimes of art”—the aesthetic regime—on which Rancière elaborates in Rancière 2009a. The other two are the ethical regime (in which the work was more about civic festivals or projects) and the representational regime (in which the artwork is subject to a set of neo-Aristotelian principles that condensed and codified certain norms and expectations of artworks, their characters, structure, style, authors, and audiences). Those representational norms were informed by the assumption that the work of art would be written for and consumed by an audience consisting of a social elite whose primary concern was with governing other people. In the aesthetic regime—which is approximately historicized as coming into being at the end of the 18th century but which does not simply replace the representational regime—the ruins of the representational regime endure. The three regimes of art are delineated in Rancière 2009a and provide the overarching conceptual framework for Rancière 2007, Rancière 2009b, Rancière 2009c and Rancière 2013b. Exploration of the interplay between politics and aesthetics is something Rancière is particularly known for these days, and Rancière 2013a provides an accessible overview of the “hinge concept” connecting both domains, the idea of the division, distribution, or sharing out of the Kantian “sensible” (le partage du sensible). Rancière recently commented that this concept has had some merit, he thought, to the extent that it has worked to loosen the suffocating alternative—that art is either simply what the market dictates or simply what competent institutions happen to declare it to be (see Rancière 2012a, cited under Interviews and Occasional Writings, p. 305).

                                            • Rancière, Jacques. The Future of the Image. Translated by Gregory Elliott. London: Verso, 2007.

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                                              Contains an essay now widely thought to be one of the most significant analyses of Jean-Luc Godard’s video project Histoire(s) du cinéma (completed in 1998), although note that the French la phrase-image is probably better rendered in English as the “phrase-image” (instead of “sentence-image”). A very readable essay prefigures Rancière 2013b in looking for aesthetic commonalities between the work of AEG industrial designer Peter Behrens and the work of symbolist poet Stéphane Mallarmé. Published in French as Le destin des images (Paris: La Fabrique, 2003).

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                                              • Rancière, Jacques. Aesthetics and Its Discontents. Translated by Steven Corcoran. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2009a.

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                                                Offers a clear theoretical presentation of the “regimes of art” (ethical, representational, and aesthetic); problematizes the idea of “critical art”; takes issue with Lyotard’s reading of Kant on the sublime; and in the final chapter (“The Ethical Turn of Aesthetics and Politics”) attacks the depoliticizing effects of the “ethical turn” in art and politics and presents a brilliant illustrative comparative analysis of Lars von Trier’s Dogville and Clint Eastwood’s Mystic River (both released in 2002). Published in French as Malaise dans l’esthétique (Paris: Galilée, 2004).

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                                                • Rancière, Jacques. The Aesthetic Unconscious. Translated by Debra Keates and James Swenson. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2009b.

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                                                  Argues that Freud anchored psychoanalytic theory in an already existing “configuration of unconscious thought” (p. 4) developed primarily in the field of aesthetics. One of Rancière’s few substantive engagements with psychoanalysis. Published in French as L’inconscient esthétique (Paris: Galilée, 2001).

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                                                  • Rancière, Jacques. The Emancipated Spectator. Translated by Gregory Elliot. London: Verso, 2009c.

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                                                    In effect extends to nonliterary art the literary-theoretical idea, advanced by Sartre among others, of the freedom of the reader to fashion meaning in response to the written signs of the text and argues that spectators in the aesthetic regime of art are “emancipated” in the sense that they freely exercise their “power of associating and dissociating” (p. 17). The first essay is a brilliant reworking of Rancière 1991 (cited under Primary Texts: Politics). Published in French as Le spectateur émancipé (Paris: La Fabrique, 2008).

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                                                    • Rancière, Jacques. Dissensus: On Politics and Aesthetics. Edited and translated by Steven Corcoran. London: Continuum, 2009d.

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                                                      This useful collection of essays, edited and translated by Steven Corcoran, is a good introduction to Rancière’s political and aesthetic work. Note that the titular term “dissensus” was coined by Rancière in English as a translation of the French la mésentente; the French and the English terms highlight the aesthetic dimensions of political disagreement differently. (See Rancière 2012a, cited under Interviews and Occasional Writings, p. 151)

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                                                      • Rancière, Jacques. The Politics of Aesthetics. Edited by Gabriel Rockhill, with afterword by Slavoj Žižek. London: Bloomsbury, 2013a.

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                                                        Excellent concise introduction, edited by Gabriel Rockhill, to Rancière’s influential concept of le partage du sensible, the division, distribution, or sharing out of the Kantian sensible and its implications for the interrelation of politics and aesthetics. Published in French as Le partage du sensible: Esthétique et politique (Paris: La Fabrique, 2000).

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                                                        • Rancière, Jacques. Aisthesis: Scenes from the Aesthetic Regime of Art. Translated by Zakir Paul. London: Verso, 2013b.

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                                                          In its title and structure bearing an obvious and also subtle relationship to Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis (1946), this work’s fourteen chapters or “scenes” move chronologically from 1764 to 1941. The last chapter, on James Agee and Walker Evans, gives the clearest sense of the political consequences of Rancière’s analysis. Published in French as Aisthesis: Scènes du régime esthétique de l’art (Paris: Galilée, 2011).

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                                                          Film

                                                          Much of Rancière’s writing on film—although it is undoubtedly informed by and, in turn, has unquestionably nourished his philosophical work on the aesthetic regime of art (see Art and Aesthetics)—reads less as “film theory” or “film criticism” of an expert academic kind and more, as Sudeep Dasgupta has noted, “a cinephile’s poetic engagement with the history of cinema” (Dasgupta 2009, cited under Critical and Secondary Works: Film and Film Theory, p. 203). Even the most overtly theoretical of his film books, Rancière 2006, is at the same time a roll call of some of his favorite directors and works. Cinephilia—which can be thought of as a precursor, alternative, or rival to the discipline of film studies—is explicitly thematized in the prologue to Rancière 2014, in which Rancière also reflects autobiographically on the importance of cinema and cinephilia to him from his early adult years (see also Critical and Secondary Works: Film and Film Theory). Very much in the vein of classic European cinephilia is Rancière 2013, an extended meditation on the work of Hungarian film director Béla Tarr, known for his long takes, whose career straddles the fall of Soviet communism and whose longest film, the black-and-white Sátántangó (1994), runs over seven hours. So it is perhaps unsurprising that time and its passing should be central to Rancière’s meditation on this particular director’s work. Rancière asserts in the preface to Rancière 2013 that the “time after” communism revealed in Tarr’s work is not the uniform and morose time of those who no longer believe in anything, but rather the time of pure material events. Rancière 2006, originally published in French in 2001, is premised on the idea that—notwithstanding the manifesto texts of cinematic purists such as Jean Epstein who saw in cinema the potential for a pure aesthetic writing in light that would dispense altogether with the plotted narrative of the neo-Aristotelian representational artwork—narrativity remains unavoidable in film just as, conversely, moments of aesthetic suspensiveness are shown to occur in the most plot-driven of filmic works, for example, the westerns of Anthony Mann. According to Rancière, Epstein’s aesthetic ideal of cinema can itself be considered a “frustrated fable” (une fable contrariée), in a move that recalls Rancière’s reading of the Annales School historians’ story of their own scientificity (Rancière 1994, cited under Primary Texts: History and Historiography). It is also in Rancière 2006 that the continuation of the representational regime alongside the aesthetic regime and their interplay can be most readily grasped.

                                                          • Rancière, Jacques. Film Fables. Translated by Emiliano Battista. Oxford: Berg, 2006.

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                                                            Chapters on Eisenstein, Murnau, Fritz Lang, Anthony Mann, Nicholas Ray, Rossellini, Godard (two chapters) and Marker. The English translation is unnecessarily opaque in places. Published in French as La fable cinématographique (Paris: Seuil, 2001).

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                                                            • Rancière, Jacques. “Sentence, Image, History.” In The Future of the Image. Translated by Gregory Elliott. By Jacques Rancière, 33–67. London: Verso, 2007.

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                                                              An essay widely considered to be one of the most significant analyses of Jean-Luc Godard’s Histoire(s) du cinéma (1998).

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                                                              • Rancière, Jacques. Béla Tarr, the Time After. Translated by Erik Beranek. Minneapolis: Univocal, 2013.

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                                                                A short essay full of insight into, and quiet love for, the work of this Hungarian director, as well as, obliquely, a reflection on what has become of the idea of communism after the collapse of its Soviet form. Focused mainly on the films Sátántangó (1994) and Werckmeister Harmonies (2000). Published in French as Béla Tarr, le temps d’après (Paris: Capricci, 2011).

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                                                                • Rancière, Jacques. The Intervals of Cinema. Translated by John Howe. London: Verso, 2014.

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                                                                  Opening with a reflection on Parisian cinephilia of the 1950s and 1960s, this book’s French title (Les écarts du cinéma) recalls cinema historian Antoine de Baecque’s characterization of cinephilia as une culture de l’écart (a culture of the wayward, even of the misdemeanor). For discussion of these and other resonances of the French version, see Conley 2013 (cited under Critical and Secondary Works: Film and Film Theory). Discussion of Hitchcock, Vertov, Bresson, Minnelli, Rossellini, Straub and Huillet, Godard, Tariq Teguia, and Pedro Costa. Published in French as Les écarts du cinéma (Paris: La Fabrique, 2011).

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                                                                  Interviews and Occasional Writings

                                                                  Since the mid- to late 1970s, Rancière has given many interviews, as the many pages of Rancière 2009 attests. These should not simply be understood as the vulgarization of intellectual work, which has been undertaken elsewhere; rather, the encounters (of which these interview texts are traces) seem to play a crucial role for Rancière in the re-elaboration and consolidation of his own thinking. This also means, however, that readers should be wary of taking positions articulated even very forcefully in these interviews as an accurate reflection of Rancière’s settled view on the matters under discussion; this applies especially to Rancière 2009. Rancière 2012a offers a remarkably substantial, and at times touchingly personal, insight into Rancière’s life and work, coming as close as any of his work to an “intellectual autobiography,” albeit one that takes the mediated form of a series of interviews. Rancière 2012b makes available in English some key essays mainly from the late 1970s on the role of the radical public intellectual and offers a searing critique of the media-savvy generation of self-styled “New Philosophers” (les nouveaux philosophes), who broke very publicly with Marxism in the 1970s, including most prominently Bernard-Henri Lévy and André Glucksmann. Rancière 2010 and Rancière 2014 are both collections of short articles, which appeared in newspapers and journals, mainly treating current affairs, culture, and intellectual history.

                                                                  • Rancière, Jacques. Et tant pis pour les gens fatigués: Entretiens. Paris: Éd. Amsterdam, 2009.

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                                                                    Almost 700 pages, this collection of selected interviews from 1976 to 2009 offers an insight into the development of Rancière’s thinking during this period. However, as with any work in progress, it is important to bear in mind that many of the positions advanced with great certitude in these exchanges were subsequently qualified, corrected, or supplemented in re-elaborations elsewhere.

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                                                                    • Rancière, Jacques. Chronicles of Consensual Times. Translated by Steven Corcoran. London: Continuum, 2010.

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                                                                      A collection of short articles on current affairs and culture written by invitation of the Brazilian daily newspaper, Folha de São Paulo, 1996–2005. Published in French as Chroniques des temps consensuels (Paris: Seuil, 2005).

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                                                                      • Rancière, Jacques. La méthode de l’égalité: Entretien avec Laurent Jeanpierre et Dork Zabunyan. Paris: Bayard, 2012a.

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                                                                        An extraordinarily rich and revealing set of extended interviews with Rancière adding new dimensions to many of his most celebrated concepts and positions. A mediated autobiography by interview. Publication of an English translation is scheduled by Polity in 2016.

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                                                                        • Rancière, Jacques. Staging the People. Vol. 2, The Intellectual and His People. Translated by David Fernbach. London: Verso, 2012b.

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                                                                          Essays from the journal Les Révoltes Logiques (see also Primary Texts: History and Historiography) focusing on the figure of the radical public intellectual, the dispute with the nouveaux philosophes, and their “discovery” of totalitarianism. First published in that journal in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

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                                                                          • Rancière, Jacques. Moments politiques. Translated by Mary Foster. London: Seven Stories, 2014.

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                                                                            A collection of thirty short essays and interviews on subjects ranging from immigration law to the Second Gulf War, the historiography of Mai’68, and the idea of dissent; also includes reflections on the work of other leading French intellectuals including Michel Foucault, Guy Debord, and Roland Barthes. Published in French as Moments politiques: Interventions 1977–2009 (Paris: La Fabrique, 2009).

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                                                                            Critical and Secondary Works

                                                                            Although Rancière had been publishing since the mid-1960s, critical interest in his work only really took off in the early 1990s and has continued to grow since then, particularly in English-speaking universities and art schools. His conception of radical equality and his critique of ordinary politics together offered a clear alternative to global capitalist consensus in the aftermath of the fall of the Berlin Wall. His work drew the attention of readers who welcomed it as a promising mutation of the French Marxist tradition better suited to challenging the new global status quo. Interest in Rancière’s work coincided with the waning of post-structuralism’s dominance over departments of literature and the humanities and with a resurgence of interest in the human subject. It remains to be seen whether the absence of a directly economic dimension from Rancière’s work will limit its appeal as critical-left scholars in the humanities and social sciences increasingly turn their attention to “neoliberalism.” One striking feature of the secondary material in English is that the term “dissensus” is very often used—even in titles and subtitles of books—as a near-synonym for Rancière’s general approach to art and politics. This is not the case in secondary material in French; the term appears infrequently, and when it does, it refers to English-language criticism. This Latinate term, “dissensus,” was coined by Rancière as an English translation of his particular use of the French word la mésentente (“disagreement,” the word used in the French title, Disagreement), which suggests, far more readily than the English translation, the perceptual dimension to political conflict that is very prominent in Rancière’s account of politics.

                                                                            General Overviews

                                                                            The very existence of introductory and overview works on Rancière is thought to be paradoxical by some of his scholarly readers, who tend to assume that any critical writing on Rancière must remain faithful to the injunction by the maverick pedagogue Joseph Jacotot (see Rancière 1991, cited under Primary Texts: Politics) to eschew the explanatory mode. Compared with other theorists of similar stature and influence, there are fewer works on Rancière in this general category than may be expected, no doubt partly on account of this somewhat misguided sentiment but also because the scope of Rancière’s project in its entirety is now so wide. A number of good introductions to Rancière’s political writings are available, but which do not also cover his aesthetics, including May 2008 and Hewlett 2007 (cited under Critical and Secondary Works: Politics). The two most reliable critical introductions to Rancière’s work as a whole are Tanke 2011 and Davis 2010. Robson 2005, a special issue, and Deranty 2010, a collection of essays, are both sufficiently broad in scope and lucid in approach to be read in lieu of a dedicated general overview by a single author. The coverage in the latter four works was comprehensive when they were published, but Rancière’s substantial recent work, Aisthesis (Rancière 2013, cited under Primary Texts: Literature, originally published in 2011), postdates their publication.

                                                                            • Davis, Oliver. Jacques Rancière. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2010.

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                                                                              Introduces and discusses Rancière’s major work from the mid-1960s, with chapters on pedagogy, politics, history and historiography, literature, and aesthetics. Also available in German with a postscript taking account of Aisthesis (Jacques Rancière: Eine Einführung. Mit einer Ergänzung anlässlich der deutschen Übersetzung: Die neueren Schriften (bis 2013). Translated by Brita Pohl. Vienna: Turia + Kant, 2014).

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                                                                              • Deranty, Jean-Philippe, ed. Jacques Rancière: Key Concepts. Durham, UK: Acumen, 2010.

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                                                                                Accessible explanatory and critical essays by Deranty, Yves Citton, Giuseppina Mecchia, Samuel Chambers, Todd May, Bruno Bosteels, Davide Panagia, Philip Watts, Alison Ross, Toni Ross, and Hassan Melehy in four parts: “Philosophy,” “Politics,” “Poetics,” and “Aesthetics.”

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                                                                                • Robson, Mark, ed. Special Issue: Jacques Rancière: Aesthetics, Politics, Philosophy. Paragraph 28.1 (March 2005).

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                                                                                  Critical essays by Robson, Peter Hallward, Jeremy Valentine, Andrew Gibson, and Adrian Rifkin and an essay by Rancière. Not intended to be an introductory text but nevertheless very readable and informative.

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                                                                                  • Tanke, Joseph. Jacques Rancière: An Introduction. London: Continuum, 2011.

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                                                                                    Invaluable comprehensive and systematic introduction with much to say about Rancière’s contribution to an understanding of the social and political function of art.

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                                                                                    Collections of Essays

                                                                                    Although Rancière has been publishing since the mid-1960s, in the English-speaking world his work was overshadowed for many years by the prominence that post-structuralism accorded to the work of the French theorists Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, and Roland Barthes, in particular. Intellectual historian François Cusset has shown how this post-structuralist canon of “French Theory” was elaborated in literature departments of the North American university system for very specific institutional purposes (see Cusset, French Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008). As post-structuralism loosened its hold over the Anglo-American academy in the early 1990s and as the fall of Soviet-style communism left many on the left struggling to make sense of a new world in which capitalism appeared to have triumphed, Rancière’s singular emphasis on equality and, in particular, his critique of right-wing triumphalism in declaring the “end of history” and the “end of ideology” finally and deservedly found its audience. It has been suggested, very schematically, that there have been four successive and sometimes overlapping waves of readers of Rancière in English: historians (as early as the late 1970s), scholars of cultural studies (starting in the 1980s and 1990s and continuing into the early 21st century), students of politics (as well as students of literature who read for political content, context, or implications, from the early 1990s on) and finally artists, aestheticians, and the art world (from around 2000). Most of these collections of essays contain an eclectic mix of critical voices from several or all of these different kinds of readers, and most are addressed to a range of different disciplinary audiences (for example, Bowman and Stamp 2011, Deranty 2010 (cited under General Overviews), Deranty and Ross 2012, Davis 2013, Rockhill and Watts 2009, and Game and Wald Lasowski 2009), whereas others are addressed to readers of one particular disciplinary configuration (for example, Hinderliter, et al. 2009).

                                                                                    • Bowman, Paul, and Richard Stamp. Reading Rancière: Critical Dissensus. London: Continuum, 2011.

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                                                                                      Essays by Jacques Rancière, Samuel Chambers, Rey Chow and Julian Rohrhuber, Jodi Dean, Ben Highmore, Suhail Malik and Andrea Phillips, Oliver Marchart, Linsey McGoey, Martin McQuillan, Mark Robson, Alex Thomson, and Alberto Toscano, as well as an important interview with Rancière entitled “Against and Ebbing Tide” (pp. 238–251). The editors’ introduction is refreshingly polemical.

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                                                                                      • Cornu, Laurence, and Patrice Vermeren, eds. La philosophie déplacée: Autour de Jacques Rancière. Lyon, France: Horlieu, 2006.

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                                                                                        Proceedings of the 2005 Cérisy Colloquium on Jacques Rancière. Contains the text of numerous incisive conference papers by many past and present collaborators and interlocutors of Rancière’s, some of which reflect on the entirety of his intellectual project. The contribution by Alain Badiou is translated in Rockhill and Watts 2009.

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                                                                                        • Davis, Oliver, ed. Rancière Now: Current Perspectives on Jacques Rancière. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2013.

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                                                                                          An eclectic collection of essays by Jackie Clarke, Jeremy F. Lane, Geneviève Fraisse, Carolyn Steedman, Caroline Pelletier and Tim Jarvis, Sabine Prokhoris, Joseph Tanke, Tom Conley, Oliver Davis, and Bill Marshall; also contains an exchange written for this volume between Jean-Luc Nancy and Jacques Rancière on le partage du sensible and a new interview with Jacques Rancière on Aisthesis (pp. 187–210).

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                                                                                          • Deranty, Jean-Philippe, and Alison Ross, eds. Jacques Rancière and the Contemporary Scene: The Philosophy of Radical Equality. London: Continuum, 2012.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/UPO9781844654727Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Wide-ranging and significant collection containing substantial essays by J. M. Bernstein, Jean-Philippe Deranty, Todd May, Dmitri Nikulin, Paul Patton, Caroline Pelletier, Jacques Rancière, Emmanuel Renault, Alison Ross, Andrew Schaap, and Lisa Trahair.

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                                                                                            • Game, Jérôme, and Aliocha Wald Lasowski, eds. Jacques Rancière et la politique de l’esthétique. Paris: Archives Contemporaines, 2009.

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                                                                                              Essays by Jérôme Game, Aliocha Wald Lasowski, Véronique Bergen, Dimitra Panopoulos, Gabriel Rockhill, Elie During, Alexandre Costanzo, Tom Conley, Jean-Louis Déotte, Patrick Vauday, Dork Zabunyan, and Jacques Rancière. During’s problematization by way of the idea of accent (in spoken language) of the Aristotelian opposition between meaning-bearing political speech and mere animal noise, which Ranière absorbs into his own politics, is especially significant. Unfortunately, this volume is unlikely ever to appear in English translation.

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                                                                                              • Hinderliter, Beth, William Kaizen, Vered Maimon, Jaleh Mansoor, and Seth McCormick, eds. Communities of Sense: Rethinking Aesthetics and Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1215/9780822390978Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                Essays mostly by art historians arising from a 2003 conference at Columbia University on aesthetics and politics but already a bit dated because, during the six-year interval between the conference and the publication of this collection, Rancière’s own work on aesthetics had advanced very significantly and has continued to do so rapidly thereafter. Excellent essays by Emily Apter on “Thinking Red: Ethical Militance and the Group Subject” (pp. 294–316) and Rachel Haidu on a Thomas Hirschhorn’s extraordinary Musée Précaire Albinet (pp. 215–237).

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                                                                                                • Rockhill, Gabriel, and Philip Watts, eds. Jacques Rancière: History, Politics, Aesthetics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1215/9780822390930Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Indispensable essays by Kristin Ross, Alain Badiou, Peter Hallward, Jean-Luc Nancy, Gabriel Rockhill, and James Swenson. Also contains contributions by Eric Méchoulan, Giuseppina Mecchia, Etienne Balibar, Todd May, Yves Citton, Bruno Bosteels, Solange Guénoun, Tom Conley, Raji Vallury, and Andrew Parker.

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                                                                                                  History and Historiography

                                                                                                  If Rancière’s critical historiography and archival work have been very pointedly ignored by much of the French historical establishment, fortunately the same cannot be said of historians elsewhere. As early as the 1970s, Rancière was giving accounts of his work in the archives of the French labor movement to the radical social historians of the History Workshop movement in the United Kingdom. Steedman 2013 presents a witty, probing, and deeply contextualized account of some of these exchanges, as well as a reflection on how historians misread Rancière’s work, notably the text recently republished in English under the title Proletarian Nights (Rancière 2012, cited under Primary Texts: History and Historiography). Ross 2009 offers a trenchant analysis of the political implications of Rancière’s historiographical critique in The Names of History, and Ross 2002 demonstrates the analytical power of Rancière’s historiographical and other writing in one of the most persuasive accounts of Mai’68 which focuses on the “The Events” as resistance to policing of various different kinds and situates them within a persuasive narrative of France’s decolonization. Dasgupta 2009 offers a comparative theoretical reflection on time in Derrida’s and Rancière’s conceptions of politics.

                                                                                                  • Dasgupta, Sudeep. “Conjunctive Times, Disjointed Time: Philosophy between Enigma and Disagreement.” Parallax 15.3 (2009): 3–19.

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                                                                                                    Stages an encounter between Rancière and Derrida on time and politics. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                    • Ross, Kristin. May’68 and Its Afterlives. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2002.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226728001.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Puts Rancière’s critical historiography to very productive use in an extraordinarily lucid account of “The Events” of Mai’68 which also stands as a searing critique of the conservative sociologism of many of the leading historical accounts.

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                                                                                                      • Ross, Kristin. “Historicizing Untimeliness.” In Jacques Rancière: History, Politics, Aesthetics. Edited by Gabriel Rockhill and Philip Watts, 15–29. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1215/9780822390930Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Brilliant analysis of the political implications of Rancière’s historiographical writing—in particular, The Names of History (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994)—and his suggestion that the fear of “anachronism” serves to police the legitimacy of historical discourse. Also considers, in the same vein, the politics of radical equality advanced in The Ignorant Schoolmaster.

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                                                                                                        • Steedman, Carolyn. “Reading Rancière.” In Rancière Now: Current Perspectives on Jacques Rancière. Edited by Oliver Davis, 69–84. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2013.

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                                                                                                          A very engaging account of how historians have read and misread Rancière, with an autobiographical perspective on Rancière’s involvement with the History Workshop movement in the 1970s and some very probing closing questions about Rancière’s Jacotot from one of the UK’s preeminent social historians.

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                                                                                                          Politics

                                                                                                          The references in this section are but a sample of the many books and articles devoted to or touching upon Rancière’s contribution to, or critique of, politics. The most accessible and explanatory of these are Hewlett 2007 and May 2008. Hewlett 2007 examines Rancière’s political thought alongside that of two of his interlocutors and fellow-travelers in the French Marxist tradition—Alain Badiou and Etienne Balibar—although of these three, it is fair to say that Rancière has perhaps journeyed the furthest from the source, as Hewlett notes with some dissatisfaction. May 2008 offers a very helpful distinction between radical equality as Rancière conceives of it—which is “active” and “declarative”—and distributive approaches to the question of equality within the Anglo-American philosophical tradition. Hallward 2005 presents a rather different perspective on equality in Rancière, focused on the question of who is authorized to think and speak. Hallward 2009 is a decisive contribution to the study of Rancière’s politics, pointing to the centrality of theatre and dramaturgy in his dispute with Plato as with the thinkers otherwise as varied as Marx, Sartre, and Bourdieu whom he claims share Plato’s hierarchical and excluding view of who may speak about politics. There is undoubtedly more still to be said about the theatricality of political subjectivation as Rancière describes it. For an in-depth analysis of Rancière’s critique of the work of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, see Nordmann 2006 and also the refutation of that analysis in Lane 2013. Chambers and O’Rourke 2009 is a special issue that stages an encounter between Rancière’s work and queer theory and politics. Chambers 2012 presents a more extreme version of the thesis advanced in that special issue but which remains very partial and discursive in its presentation of queer theory and politics.

                                                                                                          • Chambers, Samuel. The Lessons of Rancière. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199927210.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Aligns Rancière’s account of politics with queer theory in a provocative development of a thesis first articulated by Andrew Parker and expanded on by Chambers in Chambers and O’Rourke 2009. Overstates the parallel and misleads insofar as the very particular, highly sublimated, form of post-structuralist criticism developed primarily in the early work of Judith Butler is presented as coextensive with queer theory.

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                                                                                                            • Chambers, Samuel, and Michael O’Rourke, eds. Special Issue: Jacques Rancière on the Shores of Queer Theory. borderlands 8.2 (2009).

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                                                                                                              Articles by Todd May, Samuel Chambers, Chas. Phillips, Oliver Davis, Sudeep Dasgupta, Nina Power, Hector Kollias, Patricia MacCormack, Richard Stamp, Paul Bowman, Roger Cook, Daniel Williford, and Adrian Rifkin.

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                                                                                                              • Hallward, Peter. “Jacques Rancière and the Subversion of Mastery.” In Special Issue: Jacques Rancière: Aesthetics, Politics, Philosophy. Edited by Mark Robson. Paragraph 28.1 (2005): 26–45.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.3366/para.2005.28.1.26Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Useful overview of Rancière’s politics focused on the question of who is authorized to speak about politics and culture.

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                                                                                                                • Hallward, Peter. “Staging Equality: Rancière’s Theatocracy and the Limits of Anarchic Equality.” In Jacques Rancière: History, Politics, Aesthetics. Edited by Gabriel Rockhill and Philip Watts, 140–157. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1215/9780822390930Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Decisive contribution to an understanding of Rancière’s political thought focused on the theatricality of political subjectivation.

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                                                                                                                  • Hewlett, Nick. Badiou, Balibar, Rancière: Rethinking Emancipation. London: Continuum, 2007.

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                                                                                                                    Sets Rancière’s politics of self-emancipatory subjectivation alongside the work of two other prominent philosophers of the French Marxist tradition.

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                                                                                                                    • Lane, Jeremy F. “Rancière’s Anti-Platonism: Equality, the ‘Orphan Letter’ and the Problematic of the Social Sciences.” In Rancière Now: Current Perspectives on Jacques Rancière. Edited by Oliver Davis, 28–46. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2013.

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                                                                                                                      Rigorous analysis of Rancière’s argument with Pierre Bourdieu that rejects the arguments advanced by both Nordmann 2006 and Alberto Toscano in Bowman and Stamp 2011 (cited under Collections of Essays).

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                                                                                                                      • May, Todd. The Political Thought of Jacques Rancière: Creating Equality. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748635320.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Influential study that helpfully draws a clear distinction between Rancière’s radical account of “declarative” or “active” equality and thinking about equality by Anglo-American philosophers working within the distributive paradigm.

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                                                                                                                        • Nordmann, Charlotte. Bourdieu, Rancière: La politique entre sociologie et philosophie. Paris: Éd. Amsterdam, 2006.

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                                                                                                                          Focused analysis of Rancière’s critique of Bourdieu’s sociology, essentially concluding that he goes too far, a claim convincingly rejected in Lane 2013.

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                                                                                                                          Selected Special Issues on Literature and Aesthetics

                                                                                                                          Because Rancière’s work is generally valued precisely because of its capacity to pass between the political and the aesthetic, there is a certain contrariness to separating the politics from the aesthetics. Moreover, many of the contributions to the collections of essays (see Collections of Essays) are concerned with art, literature, and aesthetics. Items listed in this section are concerned primarily or exclusively with literature and aesthetics. Méchoulan 2004 and Tanke 2011 are special issues devoted primarily to Rancière’s aesthetics. Tanke 2011 and Bewes 2014 present more up-to-date readings of Rancière’s engagement with literature, and many of the articles in Bewes 2014 use Rancière’s work as a framework for critical readings of the work of a range of novelists.

                                                                                                                          Film and Film Theory

                                                                                                                          Rancière is a cinephile philosopher whose knowledge of film is extraordinarily wide-ranging. Bernstein 2012 gives the most analytically satisfying account as of the early 21st century of the connection between film as an art form and democracy, one often asserted and still more often implied in Rancière’s own writing yet never quite fully explained and justified. Conley 2009 and Dasgupta 2009 present informative overviews of some of Rancière’s work on film, although both predate the publication in the original French edition of Rancière’s The Intervals of Cinema (Paris: La Fabrique, 2011) so are necessarily incomplete in their coverage. Conley 2013 is focused on that text in its relation to Aisthesis (Rancière 2013, cited under Primary Texts: Literature, originally published in French in 2011). In Davis 2011, Rancière expands on his discussion of cinephilia in the prologue to Intervals and revisits his celebrated analysis of the “phrase-image” in Godard’s Histoire(s) du cinéma. Baumbach 2010 discusses Rancière’s contribution to documentary cinema. Bowman 2013 is the first and only edited volume devoted specifically to Rancière and film, whereas Rifkin 2009 treats this conjunction more on the oblique and in passing, but to very good effect. See also Primary Texts: Film.

                                                                                                                          • Baumbach, Nico. “Jacques Rancière and the Fictional Capacity of Documentary.” In Special Issue: The French Philosophy of Cinema. New Review of Film and Television Studies 8.1 (2010): 57–72.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/17400300903529356Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Analyzes Rancière’s conception of documentary cinema and explains clearly the very precise sense in which Rancière describes documentary cinema as “fiction.” Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                            • Bernstein, J. M. “Movies as the Great Democratic Art Form in the Modern World (Notes on Rancière).” In Jacques Rancière and the Contemporary Scene: The Philosophy of Radical Equality. Edited by Jean-Philippe Deranty and Alison Ross, 15–42. London: Continuum, 2012.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/UPO9781844654727Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Sets out with still-unparalleled clarity the precise philosophical relationship between film and democracy asserted and implied in Rancière’s writings. A systematic reconstruction of this crucial pairing.

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                                                                                                                              • Bowman, Paul, ed. Rancière and Film. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                The first, and still the only, such collection of essays on Rancière and film by Paul Bowman, Nico Baumbach, Rey Chow, Abraham Geil, Bram Ieven, Mónica López Lerma, Patricia MacCormack, Mark Robson, Richard Stamp, and James Steintrager; with a postface by Jacques Rancière.

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                                                                                                                                • Conley, Tom. “Fabulation and Contradiction: Jacques Rancière on Cinema.” In European Film Theory. Edited by Temenuga Trifonova, 137–150. New York: Routledge, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                  A very helpful overview of some of Rancière’s work on film.

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                                                                                                                                  • Conley, Tom. “Savouring the Surface.” In Rancière Now: Current Perspectives on Jacques Rancière. Edited by Oliver Davis, 143–154. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                    Focused on The Intervals of Cinema in relation to Aisthesis, this is a particularly helpful introduction to the place of cinema in Rancière’s aesthetics.

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                                                                                                                                    • Dasgupta, Sudeep. “Jacques Rancière.” In Film, Theory and Philosophy: The Key Thinkers. Edited by Felicity Colman, 339–348. London: Acumen, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                      Invaluable overview of and reflection on Rancière’s work on film in the context of his wider investigation of the aesthetic regime of art.

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                                                                                                                                      • Davis, Oliver. “Re-visions: Remarks on the Love of Cinema; An Interview with Jacques Rancière by Oliver Davis.” The Journal of Visual Culture 10.3 (December 2011): 294–304.

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                                                                                                                                        Transcript of an interview conducted at the Amsterdam EYE Film Institute in 2010. Best read in conjunction with Rancière’s discussion of cinephilia in the prologue to Intervals of Cinema.

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                                                                                                                                        • Rifkin, Adrian. “JR Cinéphile, or the Philosopher Who Loved Things.” Parallax 15.3 (2009): 81–87.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/13534640902982777Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          This reflective article by one of Rancière’s most astute interlocutors shows what can be gained by treating the “Rancière and Film Theory” conjunction on the oblique.

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                                                                                                                                          Education and Pedagogy

                                                                                                                                          Most of these works engage mainly with Rancière’s reflections in The Ignorant Schoolmaster (Rancière 1991, cited under Primary Texts: Politics) on the method of emancipatory “universal teaching” advanced by the pedagogue Joseph Jacotot (1770–1840). Vergnioux 2005 is a special issue by mainly French educationalists entirely given over to discussion of that one text. Bingham and Biesta 2010, Lewis 2014, Pelletier 2012, and Simons and Masschelein 2011 are all works by educationalists who use Rancière’s thinking to reflect critically on dominant current thinking on education. Bowman 2009 and Stamp 2013 are somewhat more playful, and indeed engaging, discussions of Rancière on pedagogy in relation to the films of Bruce Lee and Slumdog Millionaire (2009), respectively.

                                                                                                                                          • Bingham, Charles, and Gert Biesta. Jacques Rancière: Education, Truth, Emancipation. London: Continuum, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                            The authors use Rancière’s reflections on Jacotot’s radical pedagogy as a springboard for their own account of the relationship among the three terms of the subtitle. Contains a new essay by Rancière entitled “On Ignorant Schoolmasters” (pp. 1–24), based on a conference paper delivered at the State University of Rio de Janeiro in June 2002.

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                                                                                                                                            • Bowman, Paul. “Aberrant Pedagogies: JR, QT and Bruce Lee.” In Special Issue: Jacques Rancière on the Shores of Queer Theory. Edited by Samuel Chambers and Michael O’Rourke. borderlands 8.2 (2009).

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                                                                                                                                              Engaging discussion of Bruce Lee as an iconoclastic anti-institutional pedagogue alongside Rancière’s Jacotot in Rancière 1991 (cited under Primary Texts: Politics)

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                                                                                                                                              • Lewis, Tyson. The Aesthetics of Education: Theatre, Curiosity, and Politics in the Work of Jacques Rancière and Paulo Freire. New York: Bloomsbury, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                Considers the idea of teaching as art performance by way of a juxtaposition of Rancière’s work on Jacotot in Rancière 1991 (cited under Primary Texts: Politics) and that of pioneering Brazilian educationalist Paulo Freire.

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                                                                                                                                                • Pelletier, Caroline. “No Time or Place for Universal Teaching: The Ignorant Schoolmaster and Contemporary Work on Pedagogy.” In Jacques Rancière and the Contemporary Scene: The Philosophy of Radical Equality. Edited by Jean-Philippe Deranty and Alison Ross, 99–115. London: Continuum, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                  Carefully measures the chasm between Rancière’s uncompromising critical vision in The Ignorant Schoolmaster and current educational thinking and practice in the United Kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Simons, Maarten, and Jan Masschelein. Rancière, Public Education and the Taming of Democracy. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                    Seeks to present elements of Rancière’s thought on democracy and education to a readership of educationalists. With chapters by Simons and Masschelein, Goele Cornelissen, and Gert Biesta.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Smith, Jason, and Annette Weisser, eds. Everything Is in Everything: Jacques Rancière between Intellectual Emancipation and Aesthetic Education. Symposium hosted by the Graduate Studies in Art program at Art Center College of Design, March 11–12, 2011. Pasadena, CA: Art Center Graduate Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                      Based on papers delivered at a conference in 2011, this rather unusual volume contains numerous suggestive reflections primarily by artists and aestheticians that relate Rancière’s aesthetic to his reflections on education and pedagogy.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Stamp, Richard. “Of Slumdogs and Schoolmasters: Jacotot, Rancière and Mitra on Self-Organized Learning.” In Special Issue: Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory. Edited by Paul Bowman. Educational Philosophy and Theory 45.6 (2013): 647–662.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/00131857.2012.723888Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Engaging and substantial comparative discussion of Sugata Mitra’s experiments in self-organized learning and Rancière’s reflections on Jacotot’s project.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Vergnioux, Alain, ed. Special Issue: The Ignorant Schoolmaster. Le Télémaque 27 (2005).

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                                                                                                                                                          Articles in French (with abstracts in English at the end of the volume) by educationalists Alain Vergnioux, Stéphane Douailler, Mauricio Langon, Graciela Frigerio, Jorge Larrosa, Lilian Do Valle, Alejandro Cerletti, Jan Masschelein, Didier Moreau, and Zouaoui Beghoura.

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