Architecture Planning and Preservation Rudolph M. Schindler
by
Judith Sheine
  • LAST MODIFIED: 26 February 2020
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780190922467-0011

Introduction

R. M. Schindler (b. 1887–d. 1953) was born in Vienna, Austria, and received architecture degrees from the Vienna Polytechnic University (Technische Hochschule) in 1911 and the Academy of Fine Arts (Akademie der bildenden Kunste) in 1913. While influenced by the Viennese architects Otto Wagner and Adolf Loos, Schindler was exposed to the work of the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright through his Wasmuth portfolio and was inspired to go to the United States in March 1914, shortly before the outbreak of World War I. In the United States, he found work in February 1918 with Wright, who sent him to Southern California in December 1920 to work on a project for his client, Aline Barnsdall. Schindler began his independent practice there, designing and building his own house and studio in 1921–1922. He had intended to return to Vienna, however, due to the difficult postwar economic conditions in Europe, he settled for the rest of his life in Southern California, with its mild climate, promising economic future, and openness to experimentation. Throughout his career Schindler wrote articles on architectural theory, designed over 500 projects—more than 150 of which were built, almost entirely in Southern California—and acted as his own contractor on the vast majority of his commissions. He has been identified as the first modern architect in Southern California, introducing innovative ideas and construction techniques, along with his contemporary and fellow Viennese architect Richard Neutra, who came to Southern California at Schindler’s invitation in January 1925. Schindler distinguished his own individual approach to architecture from that of the so-called International Style, proclaiming that architecture should be about “space” rather than focusing on any particular style or material. Throughout his career, Schindler experimented with a wide variety of materials and building techniques, resulting in buildings that, while they looked very different, retained their focus on a consistent set of spatial principles along with specificity to their site, climate, and client. In part due to his unorthodox approach to modern architecture, while his early projects were published with some frequency, the later works were published increasingly less and Schindler did not receive the large commissions for which he had hoped. After his death, with the postmodern reevaluation of the direction of architecture starting in the mid-1960s, Schindler’s work began to receive renewed critical attention, with books and exhibits devoted to his career, and recognition continues to grow in the present day.

General Overviews

The first published presentation of Schindler’s overall career is found in McCoy 1987 (originally published in 1960). Esther McCoy worked for Schindler in the 1940s during World War II, and, after publishing several articles on the architect’s work, she included him as the final entry in her publication on then largely better-known California architects. Her text has served as an introduction to Schindler’s work for many architects and critics in both the United States and Europe, many of whom then came to Southern California and saw the work in person. These visitors included Hans Hollein, who persuaded Schindler’s son Mark to find an academic home for his father’s papers; the historian David Gebhard, newly arrived at the University of California, Santa Barbara accepted them and, after authoring several articles and curating an exhibit of Schindler’s work, published Gebhard 1997 (originally published in 1971), the first monograph on the architect. The first book to closely examine the theoretical underpinnings of Schindler’s work is authored by Austrian architect August Sarnitz (Sarnitz 1988). The book is based on Sarnitz’s dissertation and includes essays, Schindler’s own writings, and other materials that illustrate the architect’s theories and works. Sheine 1998 provides a text more closely designed for architects, with a theoretical and historical overview, along with formal spatial analysis of a number of the architect’s works. Elizabeth Smith’s chapter in Smith 2001, in the publication accompanying the 2001 exhibition of Schindler’s work first held at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, is a good general overview of the architect’s background and career. The most comprehensive treatment of Schindler’s work is Sheine 2001. This text, while particularly focused on issues of interest to architects, is accessible to the general reader and covers all aspects of Schindler’s career. A concise overview is provided in Sheine 2009. A more personal overview was written in 1939 by Schindler’s close friend Ellen Janson, who authored an admiring biography of the architect, unpublished in his lifetime, but included in Janson 2005.

  • Gebhard, David. Schindler. San Francisco: William Stout, 1997.

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    Originally published in 1971. Gebhard makes use of the materials in the R. M. Schindler papers (see also R. M. Schindler Papers, cited under References) and the book includes an introduction by historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock, two key articles by Schindler (see also Schindler 2001 and Schindler 1934, both cited under Writings by Schindler), a chronological list of major buildings and projects, and bibliographies of writings by Schindler and writings on Schindler. Much discussion of Schindler’s work in terms of architectural styles, written early in the postmodern era.

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    • Janson, Ellen. “Biographical Notes on R.M. Schindler Architect.” In Schindler by MAK. Edited by Peter Noever, 106–113. Munich: Prestel, 2005.

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      Ellen Janson, the client for Schindler’s Janson House (1948–1949), wrote this appreciative essay in 1939; it closely follows ideas expressed in Schindler’s own writings. Schindler included it in a self-published “book” that he distributed in the late 1940s that also included a number of his writings along with lists of his works and publications of his works.

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      • McCoy, Esther. Five California Architects. Los Angeles: Hennessey + Ingalls, 1987.

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        Originally published in 1960. The first overview of Schindler’s career is in the last chapter (pp. 148–193), following ones on Bernard Maybeck, Irving Gill, and Charles Greene and Henry Greene (chapter written by Randell L. Makinson), prominent architects of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Written with intimate knowledge of Schindler’s design process and working office. Well-illustrated volume with black-and-white drawings and photographs.

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        • Sarnitz, August. R. M. Schindler, Architect. New York: Rizzoli International, 1988.

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          Originally published in German in 1986. Scholarly examination of Schindler’s theoretical writings with some detail on sixty individual buildings and projects. It includes publications of Schindler’s theoretical writings (along with a chronology), selected letters, a catalogue of buildings and projects (which includes publications on each entry), a chronological biography and bibliography of his writings, and a selected bibliography of publications on Schindler’s work as well as an essay on architectural photography by Julius Shulman, the well-known photographer of Southern California modern architecture.

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          • Sheine, Judith. R. M. Schindler: Works and Projects. Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Gustavo Gili, 1998.

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            Published in English and Spanish. Edition in English and Chinese published in 2005. One of the monographs on 20th-century architects in a paperback series from Gustavo Gili useful for architects and architecture students. Consistent with the series, it includes an overview of Schindler’s career, images of more than eighty buildings and projects with short descriptions, illustrated by drawings and photographs in black and white, a chronological biography, a list of works and projects, a list of writings by Schindler, and a selected bibliography.

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            • Sheine, Judith. R. M. Schindler. London: Phaidon, 2001.

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              The most comprehensive study of Schindler’s theoretical ideas, practice, and buildings and projects, accessible to the general reader although of particular relevance to architects due to its focus on design principles, formal spatial organization, and professional practice. It is illustrated with drawings and archival photographs as well as new ones, a number published in color, taken by photographer Grant Mudford. It includes a list of works and projects and a selected bibliography.

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              • Sheine, Judith. The Oxford Companion to Architecture. Edited by Patrick Goode, 809–810. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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                Entry on Schindler gives a compact overview.

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                • Smith, Elizabeth. “R. M. Schindler: An Architecture of Invention and Intuition.” In The Architecture of R. M. Schindler. Edited by Stephanie Emerson, 12–85. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, 2001.

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                  Amply illustrated overview of Schindler’s career written for the publication accompanying the exhibition “The Architecture of R. M. Schindler,” organized by Elizabeth Smith and Michael Darling and held at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, the National Building Museum, Washington, DC, and the Austrian Museum of Applied Arts (MAK), Vienna, in 2001 (see also Emerson 2001, cited under Exhibition Publications).

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                  • Steele, James. R. M. Schindler. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag 2005.

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                    Originally published in 1999. Extensively illustrated book in English, German, and French, widely available and affordable. Accessible text contains a number of inaccuracies; new photography, while providing fresh images, does not distinguish between original Schindler designs and later alterations and additions.

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                    References

                    A comprehensive set of records from Schindler’s practice is in the Architecture and Design Collection (ADC) at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The collection was founded as the Architectural Drawing Collection in 1963 by David Gebhard, with the R. M. Schindler Papers one of the earliest acquisitions, given to the university by Mark and Mary Schindler, Schindler’s son and daughter-in-law. The ADC is an invaluable resource for scholars, students, architects, and owners of buildings designed by Schindler. The drawings are reproduced in Gebhard 1993. This four-volume set contains the complete drawings in the R. M. Schindler papers.

                    • R. M. Schindler Papers. Architecture & Design Collection, Art, Design & Architecture Museum, University of California Santa Barbara. Online Archive of California, 1963.

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                      The collection contains a nearly complete set of records from Schindler’s practice, including drawings, photographs, correspondence, writings, project files, and journal clippings. A full list of the contents of the R. M. Schindler Papers can be found in the Online Archive of California. These materials can be made available to the public by appointment.

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                      • Gebhard, David. The Architectural Drawings of R. M. Schindler. New York: Garland, 1993.

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                        The drawings are organized alphabetically by project title in four volumes; as the vast majority of Schindler’s architectural work is residential, the projects are generally listed under the client’s name. Given the technology at the time, the reproductions are a little fuzzy, so if specific detail is needed, the originals or current reproductions are necessary, but the work is very useful for identifying which drawings are most relevant for a particular project.

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                        Writings by Schindler

                        Schindler wrote essays on architecture and architectural theory throughout his career. The writings are generally short and direct, stating what Schindler thought should be the focus of architecture and how Schindler himself designed and built his own modern architecture. Starting while he was still a student in Vienna in 1912, he wrote “Modern Architecture – A Program” (Schindler 2001). While unpublished during his lifetime, the essay has since been published many times, beginning in Gebhard 1967 (cited under Exhibition Publications), in Schindler’s own translation of the original German text into English c. 1932. Harry Francis Mallgrave made his own translation from the original German, published in March and Sheine 1995 (cited under Exhibition Publications), which differs somewhat from Schindler’s own translation. However, Schindler made a self-published “book” in the 1940s that contained what he considered to be his most important writings and included his own c. 1932 translation, which has since been widely used. In it, Schindler states his ideas about what should guide architectural design in the 20th century. This essay was followed by a number of published articles on a variety of aspects of design theory, most of which connect design approaches and techniques, fitting for an architect who served as the contractor for the vast majority of his commissions. A guest author in his client Dr. Philip Lovell’s column in the Los Angeles Times, he wrote “Care of the Body” (Schindler 1926) in which he lays out principles for designing a house for healthy living. Schindler solidified his doctrine of the primacy of space in architectural design in “Space Architecture” (Schindler 1934). In “Furniture and the Modern House: A Theory of Interior Design” (Schindler 1935), the architect discusses the principles that should guide the design of modern furniture for the modern house. In “Architect-Postwar-Post Everybody” (Schindler 1944), Schindler states his concern that architects are yielding their leadership position in the building industries, and he ventures into the proper design of automobiles in “Postwar Automobiles” (Schindler 1947a). A number of articles more directly address design and construction. “Prefabrication Vocabulary” (Schindler 1943) sets out concise rules for constructing efficient and individual buildings with prefabricated subunits. Schindler describes the proportional system he used in his designs in “Reference Frames in Space” (Schindler 1946), and how the system propitiates ease of construction. In “The Schindler Frame” (Schindler 1947b), Schindler describes the adjustments he made to the standard construction system for residential architecture in Southern California in order to make his “space architecture,” and in “Visual Techniques” (Schindler 1995), unpublished during his lifetime, he gives instructions for achieving the appropriate architectural effects for “space architecture.” It should be noted that all of these writings, along with a number of others, are included in Sarnitz 1988 (cited under General Overviews).

                        • Schindler, R. M. “Modern Architecture: A Program.” In R. M. Schindler. Edited by Judith Sheine, 81–82. London: Phaidon, 2001.

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                          Although influenced by the ideas of Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos, and Frank Lloyd Wright, Schindler takes a radical step past them in rejecting materials and construction techniques as a source for form, proposing space as the new medium for architectural design. Schindler’s c. 1932 translation, reproduced in this edition, may have been influenced by his desire to differentiate his work from the emerging International Style. (See also Sheine 2001, cited under General Overviews).

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                          • Schindler, R. M. “Care of the Body.” Los Angeles Times Sunday Magazine, 14 March–2 May 1926.

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                            Schindler designed the Lovell Beach house (1925–1926) for Dr. Philip Lovell, a prominent naturopath, and his family; it acted as a demonstration of Lovell’s ideas about healthy living. Here, after an introduction by Lovell, Schindler addresses in a series of weekly guest columns specific design and technical issues such as ventilation, plumbing, heating, lighting, and furnishings, necessary for the modern healthy house.

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                            • Schindler, R. M. “Space Architecture.” Dune Forum (February 1934): 44–46.

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                              Schindler further elaborates on his theory of the primacy of space in architectural design. He recognizes Frank Lloyd Wright as an accomplished space architect and sharply criticizes Le Corbusier and the International Stylists for idealizing the engineer and holding up the machine as a model for architecture. Schindler argues passionately for an architecture that allows for human expression.

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                              • Schindler, R. M. “Furniture and the Modern House: A Theory of Interior Design.” Architect and Engineer 123 (December 1935): 22–25.

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                                See also Architect and Engineer 124 (March 1936): 24–28. A combination of theory and practical direction for designing furniture for space architecture. Some of the writing ventures into social theory, where Schindler is less convincing, while some is more practical, addressing how to make flexible furniture designs that can serve a variety of occupant needs. He includes a discussion of his “Schindler units,” reconfigurable furniture modules that combine to make chairs, sofas, and tables that he designed for a number of his works in the 1930s.

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                                • Schindler, R. M. “Prefabrication Vocabulary.” California Arts and Architecture 60 (June 1943): 32–33.

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                                  Directions for building architecture listed in numbered sections. Similar to Frank Lloyd Wright, Schindler argues for the use of small units that can be premanufactured and assembled in the field in a large variety of ways versus prefabrication of whole buildings or significant sections of them. Unsurprisingly, Schindler points out that his own “panel-post” system fulfills all the requirements of his outline, a system that called for structural posts connected by interchangeable wall panels made of a variety of materials.

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                                  • Schindler, R. M. “Architect – Postwar – Post Everybody.” Pencil Points 25 (October 1944): 16–18.

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                                    See also Pencil Points (November 1944): 12–14. In this essay Schindler expresses his concern that, despite their ostensible leadership on a building team, architects are paid less than their consultants and contractors. He urges architects to take control of the construction process in house design, as he did in his career, and warns that otherwise large construction and manufacturing firms are likely to take control of the industry. This is an argument that has retained its currency to this day.

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                                    • Schindler, R. M. “Reference Frames in Space.” Architect and Engineer 165 (April 1946): 42–43.

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                                      See also pp. 10, 40. In this article, Schindler describes the three-dimensional system of proportion he had been using since early in his career. The system is based on a 4’-0” module, subdivided into one-third modules of 16” each. He justified this system by its relationship to human proportions and to common construction dimensions. Schindler demonstrated its usefulness by applying it as a grid on his construction documents. (see also March, “Proportion is an Alive and Expressive Tool” in March and Sheine 1995, cited under Exhibition Publications).

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                                      • Schindler, R. M. “Postwar Automobiles.” Architect and Engineer 168 (February 1947a): 12–14.

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                                        In this perhaps unintentionally entertaining article, Schindler criticizes the current designs of American automobiles for their lack of efficiency and slavishness to a streamlined style. He describes what a really well-designed car might look like, which would, of course, be perfect for the architect-builder, such as Schindler himself.

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                                        • Schindler, R. M. “The Schindler Frame.” Architectural Record 101 (May 1947b): 143–146.

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                                          While Schindler wanted to build with reinforced concrete, despite his experiments in the 1920s with reducing its costs, during the Great Depression in the 1930s he had to use the standard light wood frame covered in stucco to make his designs affordable. Here he describes the alterations he made to this system to realize his space architecture, also noting the essential features of space architecture (see also Sheine, “Construction and the Schindler Frame,” in March and Sheine 1995, cited under Exhibition Publications).

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                                          • Schindler, R. M. “Visual Techniques.” In R. M. Schindler: Composition and Construction. Edited by Lionel March and Judith Sheine, 64–67. London: Academy Editions, 1995.

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                                            This essay, written in 1952, near the end of Schindler’s career, summarizes the specific methods he used to achieve the character and qualities of his space architecture. It addresses such issues as color, texture, light, translucency, and reflectors and his theories about them, which were demonstrated in his own designs.

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                                            Exhibition Publications

                                            After historian David Gebhard accepted the collection of Schindler’s drawings, files, and correspondence for the Architecture and Design Collection at the University of California, Santa Barbara (see also R. M. Schindler Papers, cited under References), he organized several exhibits using these materials, accompanied by catalogues. The first of these was a solo exhibition, Gebhard 1967. This was followed by an exhibit and publication co-curated with Harriette von Breton in 1968 (Gebhard 1968), which celebrated 100 years of California architecture in which representative works by Schindler were included. Gebhard and Von Breton 1975 is a third exhibit and publication that included Schindler that focused on architecture in Los Angeles in the 1930s. Several exhibitions focusing exclusively on Schindler’s work followed. Stefanos Polyzoides and Gebhard collaborated with the Ministry of Public Works and Urbanism in Spain on an exhibit and catalogue of works from the R. M. Schindler Papers that, along with orthographic drawings and photographs, showcased many of the architect’s color renderings and some graphic designs (Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Urbanismo (MOPU) 1984). In 1984–1985 Manfred Kovatsch organized an exhibit of selected Schindler projects with a catalogue (Kovatsch 1985) notable for including new scaled models of the projects. For Schindler’s centennial in 1987, Lionel March initiated a year-long celebration of the architect’s work, the Schindlerfest, that included exhibitions, seminars, and a colloquium at the University of California, Los Angeles, resulting in a publication, March and Sheine 1995. Along with articles by a number of scholars, this book included early 3D computer reconstructions of an unbuilt Schindler design and new analytic drawings as well as considerable color reproductions of drawings by Schindler. Gebhard organized an exhibit on furniture that Schindler had designed, held in 1996–1997, featuring many original pieces. Due to Gebhard’s early death in 1996, the catalogue was completed by Marla Berns (Berns 1997), with essays by a variety of scholars covering the pieces included in the exhibit. The Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles held a large exhibition covering Schindler’s entire career in 2001, with an accompanying, very well-illustrated catalogue (Emerson 2001), with essays by several scholars (see also Smith 2001, cited under General Overviews and Sweeney 2001, cited under Life at the Schindler House). Another, smaller, furniture exhibit was held at the Reform Gallery in 2007. This exhibit was for an auction of furniture commissioned by a Schindler client and was accompanied by a beautifully produced color catalogue (Boyd, et al. 2008).

                                            • Berns, Marla, ed. The Furniture of R. M. Schindler. Santa Barbara: University Art Museum, University of California, 1997.

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                                              This catalogue of an exhibition held at the University Art Museum at the University of California, Santa Barbara, 1996–1997, contains photographs and drawings of furniture Schindler designed, along with photographs of the exhibit installation that included furniture pieces, photographs, and drawings from 1916 to 1952. An introductory essay by David and Patricia Gebhard lays out Schindler’s approach to furniture design, along with several articles Schindler wrote on the subject (see also Writings by Schindler). Short essays on selected projects are provided by eleven additional scholars.

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                                              • Boyd, Michael, Julie Cloutier, and Lis Evans, eds. R. M. Schindler: The Gingold Commissions. San Francisco: William Stout, 2008.

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                                                The catalogue of an exhibition of furniture pieces for auction held at the Reform Gallery in Los Angeles in 2006 is notable for its color photography of pieces that Basia Gingold commissioned from Schindler for her home and offices (1943–1945) and of furniture Schindler designed for the Sachs apartments in 1926, pieces owned by Gingold. It includes very short essays by Thomas S. Hines, Reform Gallery owner Gerard O’Brien, Michael Boyd, and Mark Lee.

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                                                • Emerson, Stephanie, ed. The Architecture of R. M. Schindler. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 2001.

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                                                  Extensively illustrated catalogue accompanying the exhibition of the same name held first at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, followed by the National Building Museum in Washington, DC, and the Austrian Museum of Applied Arts (MAK), Vienna, in 2001. Includes essays by Elizabeth Smith (see also Smith 2001, cited under General Overviews), Robert Sweeney (see also Sweeney 2001, cited under Life at the Schindler House), and several others, along with a list of Schindler’s buildings and projects and a selected bibliography.

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                                                  • Gebhard, David. R. M. Schindler – Architect: An Exhibition of the Architecture of R. M. Schindler, 1887–1952. Santa Barbara: University of California, 1967.

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                                                    Exhibition held at the Art Gallery of the University of California, Santa Barbara (30 March–30 April 1967), and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (Fall 1967). Includes an introduction by Esther McCoy, focused on Schindler’s relationship with Frank Lloyd Wright, an essay by David Gebhard, “R. M. Schindler and the Modern Movement, 1910–53,” a chronological list of buildings and projects, a list of Schindler’s writings, the first publication of Schindler’s 1912 manifesto (see Schindler 2001, cited under Writings by Schindler), and orthographic drawings, renderings, and black-and-white photographs.

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                                                    • Gebhard, David. Architecture in California, 1868–1968: An Exhibition Organized by David Gebhard and Harriette von Breton to Celebrate the Centennial of the University of California. Santa Barbara: University of California Press, 1968.

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                                                      Exhibition organized by David Gebhard and Harriette von Breton to celebrate the centennial of the University of California, held at the Art Gallery of the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1968. An essay by Gebhard notes that Schindler and his fellow Austrian architect Richard Neutra were the major figures introducing modern architecture to California. Five works by Schindler are included: Lowes House (1923), Lovell Beach House (1925–1926), McAlmon House (1935), Van Dekker House (1940), and Tischler House (1949–1950).

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                                                      • Gebhard, David, and Harriette von Breton. L.A. in the Thirties, 1931–1941. Layton, UT: Peregrine Smith, 1975.

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                                                        Exhibition organized by David Gebhard and Harriette von Breton, held at the Art Galleries of the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1975. Schindler’s work is discussed in several sections in the context of the development of styles of architectural work in Los Angeles in the 1930s.

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                                                        • Kovatsch, Manfred, ed. Rudolf M. Schindler: Architekt, 1887–1953. Augsburg, Germany: Hofmann, 1985.

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                                                          Catalogue from 1985–1986 exhibition. In German. Features introductory essay by Kovatsch and entries on twenty-nine works and projects, illustrated with drawings and photographs, both historical and contemporary, and newly constructed scaled models of eleven built works and three projects. Also includes a section on interiors and furniture, with photographs of reproductions of furniture Schindler designed for the Wolfe House (1928–1929), several of Schindler’s writings (see also Sarnitz 1988, cited under General Overviews and Writings by Schindler), and a list of built works.

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                                                          • March, Lionel, and Judith Sheine, eds. R. M. Schindler: Composition and Construction. London: Academy Editions, 1995.

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                                                            Originally published in 1993, this volume is the first widely available book with extensive color images of the architect’s work. Contents include historical and spatial analyses, reprints of key articles by Schindler (see also Writings by Schindler), including a new translation of Schindler’s manifesto by Harry Francis Mallgrave written in 1912 (see Schindler 2001, cited under Writings by Schindler); portfolios of Schindler works; and essays by the editors that focus on issues of composition and construction as well as articles by seven other authors.

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                                                            • Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Urbanismo (MOPU). R. M. Schindler, Arquitecto. Madrid: Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Urbanismo (MOPU), 1984.

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                                                              In Spanish. This catalogue of an exhibition held at the Sala de Exposiciones del MOPU in Madrid in 1984 contains photographs, color renderings, several essays, a chronology, a bibliography, and four articles by Schindler (see also Writings by Schindler). An insert, “Estudio documental y analisis de las viviendas de R. M. Schindler entre los anos 1921 y 1950” (1983), includes analytic drawings of five works previously published in Architecture + Urbanism 75:11 (see also Koulermos and Polyzoides 1975, cited under Multiple Works), and of twenty-three additional designs.

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                                                              Journals

                                                              Journals on an individual architect’s work are frequently a venue for new photography, as are the three journals cited here on Schindler. Along with Sheine 1998 (cited under General Overviews), Gustavo Gili Editorial published an issue of its new journal, 2G, devoted to Schindler, with new photography by Grant Mudford of ten houses, along with several essays (Sheine 1998). The Japanese journal Kenchiku Bunka dedicated an issue to the architect’s work (Tomishige 1999), with new photography by Philippe Ruault of thirteen works, along with a number of essays, drawings, and existing photographs. Global Architecture produced a large format issue on two of Schindler’s works: the Schindler House (1921–1922) and the How House (1925) with text by Lionel March and new photography by Yukio Futagawa (Futagawa 1999).

                                                              • Futagawa, Yukio, ed. GA 77: Rudolph M. Schindler; R. M. Schindler House, Hollywood, California, 1921–22; James E. How House, Los Angeles, California, 1925. Tokyo: A. D. A. Edita, 1999.

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                                                                Stunning color and black-and-white photographs by Yukio Futagawa are featured in this large format publication, accompanied by text by Lionel March in English and Japanese; the volume is well researched and informative (see also March 1999 [cited under Kings Road or Schindler House: Articles and Chapters] and March 1999 [cited under How House]).

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                                                                • Sheine, Judith, ed. R. M. Schindler: 10 Houses. 2G #7. Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Gustavo Gili, 1998.

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                                                                  Includes new photography by Grant Mudford of ten houses spanning Schindler’s career, accompanied by texts by Sheine and new analytic drawings. Introductory essay by Sheine includes both historical content and spatial analysis. Essays by architects Enric Miralles and Michael Rotondi offer appreciations of Schindler’s work. Of particular note is Margaret Crawford’s insightful essay that explores the reasons for the slow recognition of Schindler’s work and the historical forces that changed the direction of modern architecture and Schindler’s place in that architecture.

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                                                                  • Tomishige, Takaaki, ed. “R. M. Schindler.” Kenchiku Bunka 9 54.635 (September 1999): 17–148.

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                                                                    Introduction to the work of Schindler for a Japanese audience, with very limited text in English. New photography by Philippe Ruault of thirteen works (in which it is not always clear what has been altered from the original) is accompanied by text by David Leclerc, along with drawings. Short essays by Leclerc (in English), Hajime Yatsuka, Takeshi Goto, Lionel March, and Kengo Kuma are included along with an interview with photographer Julius Shulman, illustrated with his photographs.

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                                                                    Guides

                                                                    Along with giving locations and current conditions for buildings designed by Schindler, the guidebooks that either solely focus on his work or feature a significant amount of it have descriptions of each entry that often contain historical information, establishing the context and significance of the work as well as noting distinguishing features. David Gebhard and Robert Winter first published A Guide to Architecture in Southern California in 1965, and, as significant contemporary buildings proliferated, they published several editions of their guide to the more restricted geographic area of Los Angeles (Gebhard and Winter 2003), all of which include listings for many Schindler buildings. Building on this work, Charles Moore headed a group of three authors writing a guide to Los Angeles (Moore, et al. 1998), which includes a number of buildings designed by Schindler. Domus published a guide to Schindler’s works in Italian (Spinelli 1993), attached at the end of an article on the Kings Road House (see also Visconti and Lang 1993, cited under Kings Road or Schindler House: Articles and Chapters). After the Republic of Austria signed a cooperation agreement in 1994 with the Friends of the Schindler House, the nonprofit organization that owns the Schindler House, the Museum of Applied Arts (MAK), Vienna, has operated a branch at Schindler’s Kings Road House and studio; the MAK published two guides to buildings designed by Schindler: Noever 1995 and Noever 2005. Both volumes contain photos, texts, and maps as well as additional essays.

                                                                    • Gebhard, David, and Robert Winter. An Architectural Guidebook to Los Angeles. Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs Smith, 2003.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T052020Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

                                                                      This guide, written by two eminent architectural historians and published in multiple editions, has been used by generations of architects and architecture aficionados to navigate the architectural landscape of Los Angeles. A general introduction and one for each geographically arranged section put the works in their historical and neighborhood context. The short building descriptions are lively and the maps are useful for planning visits (pre-Google). Schindler is very well represented.

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                                                                      • Moore, Charles, Peter Becker, and Regula Campbell. The City Observed: Los Angeles; A Guide to Its Architecture and Landscapes. Santa Monica, CA: Hennessey + Ingalls, 1998.

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                                                                        Originally published in 1984. This guide is dedicated to Gebhard and Winter. It similarly groups the entries in geographic sections, but it takes a less objective approach to its mission. The descriptions of buildings are long, lively, and full of opinion. Although entries on Schindler are fewer than in Gebhard and Winter 2003, this is compensated for by long discussions of, in particular, the Kings Road House and Lovell Beach House.

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                                                                        • Noever, Peter, ed. MAK Center for Art and Architecture: R. M. Schindler. Munich: Prestel, 1995.

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                                                                          This publication contains several essays, including one by Robert Sweeney about the social milieu at the Schindler House (see also Sweeney 1995, cited under Life at the Schindler House). The guide itself was written by David Leclerc and includes twenty-nine Schindler buildings illustrated with drawings and photographs as well as a “complete list of Schindler buildings in the Los Angeles area” (it leaves out a few buildings) and a map. Many of the new color photographs by Gerald Zugmann are, unfortunately, printed as mirror images.

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                                                                          • Noever, Peter, ed. Schindler by MAK. Munich: Prestel, 2005.

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                                                                            This newer publication includes a detailed timeline of activities at the Schindler House on Kings Road from 1921 to 1994 by Robert Sweeney (see also Sweeney 2005, cited under Life at the Schindler House). The guide is again by David Leclerc, updated to note which buildings included in the last edition were, unfortunately, no longer standing; four additional buildings are included for a total of thirty. The entries are illustrated exclusively with photographs, including new ones by Grant Mudford. Suggested driving tours are included with maps.

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                                                                            • Spinelli, Luigi, ed. “Schindler E Los Angeles.” Domus 746 (1993).

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                                                                              This guide (following p. 84) includes twenty buildings, each with a short text, drawings, and archival black-and-white photographs, along with helpful site plans identifying each work on its block. Includes a short introduction by Werner Lang.

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                                                                              Kings Road or Schindler House

                                                                              Schindler held in special regard the house and studio that he designed and built for himself on Kings Road in 1921–1922, in what is now West Hollywood. He referred to it frequently in his writings, citing it as the seminal example of his approach to space architecture in Southern California. It has also served as the focus of a significant number of publications.

                                                                              Books

                                                                              Several books take on the subject of the Schindler house as their sole topic. Kathryn Smith, who lived in the Schindler house for a period after Schindler’s death, authored two books on the house, Smith 1987 and Smith 2001; in the latter the house was given significant photographic documentation. The most recent book devoted to the house is Sweeney and Sheine 2012, which includes essays and new photography.

                                                                              • Smith, Kathryn. R. M. Schindler House, 1921–22. West Hollywood, CA: Friends of the Schindler House, 1987.

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                                                                                This small book was published in commemoration of Schindler’s centennial and has a foreword by Robert Sweeney. It includes an introduction to Schindler’s background and his time with Frank Lloyd Wright, a detailed description of the design and construction of the house, and a brief history of the house until 1987, along with drawings and black-and-white photographs. Smith makes a case for the importance of the house in modern architecture.

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                                                                                • Smith, Kathryn. Schindler House. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001.

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                                                                                  Expands on Smith 1987. It covers Schindler’s background, his work with Wright, and the design and construction of the house on Kings Road. Smith makes a strong case for the Schindler house as the first modern house built anywhere. Amply illustrated with black-and-white drawings and historical photographs, and with a portfolio of new color photographs by Grant Mudford.

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                                                                                  • Sweeney, Robert, and Sheine, Judith. Schindler, Kings Road and Southern California Modernism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

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                                                                                    The essay by Sweeney takes Schindler from Vienna to Chicago and his work with Frank Lloyd Wright and on to Southern California, with a detailed discussion of the design and construction of the Schindler House. Sheine situates the house within Schindler’s career and traces its influence on the development of modern architecture in Southern California. With new color photography by Tim Sakamoto, an introduction by Mark Mack, two letters from Schindler to Esther McCoy, and a selected bibliography.

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                                                                                    Articles and Chapters

                                                                                    While articles on several of Schindler’s works in the 1920s were published in the architectural press, notably on the Lovell Beach House (1925–1926), Pueblo Ribera Court (1923–1925), and How House (1925), an article on the radically designed Kings Road House was not published until 1932 (Schindler 1932), which Schindler wrote himself in the journal T-Square. After visiting the Kings Road House, Reyner Banham recognized it as a remarkably original design as early as 1966, writing about it several times, including Banham 1975. Domus published an article on the Kings Road house, Visconti and Lang 1993, that emphasizes what was revealed in the recent restoration. Smith 1995 emphasizes space and structure, and the garden is the focus of Smith 2002. The Kings Road House is also featured in several publications from Global Architecture, Sweeney 1989 and March 1999 (see also Futagawa 1999, cited under Journals). It has also been given its own webpage (University of California, Santa Barbara).

                                                                                    • Banham, Reyner. “Schindler/Chase [sic] House, Los Angeles.” In Age of the Masters: A Personal View of Modern Architecture. Edited by Reyner Banham, 158–159. New York: Harper & Row, 1975.

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                                                                                      Originally published in 1962, with entries added in the 1975 edition. Banham writes a paean to Schindler’s originality as demonstrated in the Kings Road House and makes a clear distinction between Schindler’s work and that of the International Style architects, as seen, in particular, in the work of Richard Neutra in Southern California (see also Banham 1975, cited under Schindler and Neutra).

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                                                                                      • March, Lionel. “Residence RMS and Residence for Mr. and Mrs. E. How.” In GA 77: Rudolph M. Schindler; R. M. Schindler House, Hollywood, California, 1921–22; James E. How House, Los Angeles, California, 1925. Edited and photographed by Yukio Futagawa. Tokyo: A. D. A. Edita, 1999.

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                                                                                        Essay on the R. M. Schindler House, Hollywood, California, 1921–1922, and the James E. How House, Los Angeles, California, 1925. March makes an intriguing argument that the Schindler House could well have influenced designs in Europe by Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius (1923–1925) via Richard Neutra, who was in Berlin in 1922.

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                                                                                        • Schindler, R. M. “A Cooperative Dwelling.” T-Square 2 (1932): 20–21.

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                                                                                          Schindler’s written descriptions of his buildings were typically broken into categories, as they are here: “Program,” “Location,” “Layout,” “Structural System,” “Architectural Scheme,” and “Materials.” In “Program and Layout,” Schindler describes the house, designed for two couples, with its indoor and outdoor spaces, none of which are conventional living, dining, or sleeping rooms. In “Structural System” he describes his “Slabtilt” system in which reinforced concrete walls are tilted up into place. Under “Architectural Scheme,” he addresses the combination of structural and spatial themes.

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                                                                                          • Smith, Kathryn. “The Schindler House.” In R. M. Schindler: Composition and Construction. Edited by Lionel March and Judith Sheine, 114–123. London: Academy Editions, 1995.

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                                                                                            Essay on Kings Road House emphasizes its originality, particularly with respect to structure and space. Article is accompanied by color reproductions of drawings in the R. M. Schindler papers, Architecture & Design Collection. Art, Design & Architecture Museum; University of California Santa Barbara, and color photographs by Grant Mudford. (See also March and Sheine 1995, cited under Exhibition Publications.)

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                                                                                            • Smith, Kathryn. “First Modernist Garden.” In Private Landscapes: Modern Gardens in Southern California. Edited by Marie Botnick and Pamela Burton, 16–21. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002.

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                                                                                              As Smith previously made the case for the Schindler House as the first modern house (Smith 1995), in this short chapter, she asserts that its integral landscape is the first modern garden.

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                                                                                              • Sweeney, Robert. “R. M. Schindler House.” In GA Houses 26. Edited by Wayne N. T. Fujii, 6–28. Tokyo: A. D. A. Edita, 1989.

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                                                                                                Sweeney argues that Schindler’s radical experiment was nonetheless well resolved in terms of program, structure, and plan, perhaps more so than any other design by the architect. He also discusses the recent restoration of the building to its original condition. Illustrated with new color photography by Wayne Fujii.

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                                                                                                • University of California, Santa Barbara. Collection: Rudolf M. Schindler (1887–1953): Kings Road House. R. M. Schindler Papers, Architecture & Design Collection. Art, Design & Architecture Museum, University of California, Santa Barbara.

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                                                                                                  This collection of images is one of six currently available online on the University of California, Santa Barbara, Architecture & Design Collection website. (See also R. M. Schindler Papers, cited under References.)

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                                                                                                  • Visconti, Marco, and Werner Lang. “R. M. Schindler: Kings Road House, West Hollywood, 1921–22.” Domus 746 (1993): 78–84.

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                                                                                                    In Italian and English. Visconti contributed a piece on the design and construction of the Kings Road House, with Lang writing about the recent restoration. Drawings and photographs by Julius Shulman, in black and white and color, illustrate the article. It includes a one-page description by Bascha Batorska of how she came to make a 1982 film on Schindler and Neutra, “Two Viennese Architects,” and a guide to twenty Schindler buildings (see also Spinelli 1993, cited under Guides.)

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                                                                                                    Life at the Schindler House

                                                                                                    The Schindler House became a center of radical artistic social life in Southern California, with residents and visitors who were writers, poets, dancers, and musicians as well as architects. Robert Sweeney has described this social history in several essays, in two publications by the Museum of Applied Arts (MAK), Vienna, which operates programs at the Schindler House (Sweeney 1995, Sweeney 2005), and in the catalogue for the exhibit on Schindler’s work at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (Sweeney 2001).

                                                                                                    • Sweeney, Robert. “His House, Her House, Their House.” In MAK Center for Art and Architecture: R. M. Schindler. Edited by Peter Noever, 37–50. Munich: Prestel, 1995.

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                                                                                                      In this essay, Sweeney introduces the idea of Pauline Glibling Schindler, Schindler’s wife, as the leading force behind the social ideals exemplified by the house and its associated lifestyle (see also Noever 1995, cited under Guides).

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                                                                                                      • Sweeney, Robert. “Life at Kings Road: As It Was, 1920–1940.” In The Architecture of R. M. Schindler. Edited by Stephanie Emerson, 86–115. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 2001.

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                                                                                                        Detailed social and cultural history with an emphasis on the central role Pauline Gibling Schindler played, drawing on material from Gibling Schindler’s correspondence (see also Emerson 2001, cited under Exhibition Publications).

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                                                                                                        • Sweeney, Robert. “The Spirit of Schindler’s Kings Road House: Timeline, 1921–1994.” In Schindler by MAK. Edited by Peter Noever, 8–29. Munich: Prestel, 2005.

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                                                                                                          Very detailed timeline from the 1920s through the 1990s, covering the design, construction, alterations, and restoration of the house, and the social and cultural events over this period (see also Noever 2005, cited under Guides).

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                                                                                                          Lovell Beach House

                                                                                                          This house received the most attention of any of Schindler’s houses after the Kings Road House. Long admired for its purported similarity to International Style or De Stijl characteristics, it stands out from Schindler’s work in its frank expression of its concrete frames, and it has been the subject of a variety of interpretations. Its closeness to modern European contemporary works is admired in Polyzoides 1979 and Polyzoides 1981. In Sarnitz 1986 a close examination of possible European roots is made, along with an analysis of the composition of the house.

                                                                                                          • Polyzoides, Stefanos. “Schindler, Lovell, and the Newport Beach House: Los Angeles, 1921–1926.” In Oppositions 18. Edited by Peter Eisenman, 60–73. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1979.

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                                                                                                            Discussion of Schindler, Dr. Philip Lovell, and Richard Neutra. Reproduces the essays Schindler wrote in Dr. Lovell’s column for the Los Angeles Times, “Care of the Body,” in 1926 (see Schindler 1926, cited under Writings by Schindler).

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                                                                                                            • Polyzoides, Stefanos. “The Lovell Beach House c. 1926: R. M. Schindler.” Architectural Design 51.8–9 (1981): 58–61.

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                                                                                                              Argues for the Lovell Beach House as Schindler’s most accomplished and significant work.

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                                                                                                              • Sarnitz, August. “Proportion and Beauty: The Lovell Beach House by R. M. Schindler.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 45.4 (December 1986): 374–385.

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                                                                                                                Provides an argument for the originality of the Lovell Beach House, as opposed to its derivation from contemporary European sources, and suggests that addressing the house stylistically is not a useful way to evaluate it.

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                                                                                                                How House

                                                                                                                Schindler’s How House, built in 1925, is the only Schindler work other than the Kings Road House to have a book devoted to it (Steele 1996). Lionel March, who lived in the How House for almost twenty years, published several articles on the house (March 1995 and March 1999).

                                                                                                                • March, Lionel. “Dr. How’s Magical Musical Box.” In R. M. Schindler: Composition and Construction. Edited by Lionel March and Judith Sheine, 124–145. London: Academy Editions, 1995.

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                                                                                                                  March, who wrote extensively about architecture and proportion, analyzes the geometry and composition of this early work, demonstrating that its compositional principles invert classical ones (see also March and Sheine 1995, cited under Exhibition Publications).

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                                                                                                                  • March, Lionel. “Residence RMS and Residence for Mr. and Mrs. E. How.” GA 77: Rudolph M. Schindler; R. M. Schindler House, Hollywood, California, 1921–22; James E. How House, Los Angeles, California, 1925. Edited and photographed by Yukio Futagawa. Tokyo: A. D. A. Edita, 1999.

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                                                                                                                    Essay on the R. M. Schindler House, Hollywood, California, 1921–1922, and the James E. How House, Los Angeles, California, 1925. Detailed discussion of the clients, Dr. How and Mrs. How, and Schindler’s design process (see also Futagawa 1999, cited under Journals).

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                                                                                                                    • Steele, James. How House: R. M. Schindler. London: Academy Editions, 1996.

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                                                                                                                      Discussion of the How House argues that it is “the best” house that Schindler designed. Makes use of drawings and computer models generated by students under Lionel March’s supervision. Includes part of March’s article “Dr. How’s Magical Music Box” originally published in March and Sheine 1995 (cited under Exhibition Publications), along with two articles by Schindler, “The Schindler Frame” and “Visual Techniques” (see also Schindler 1946 and Schindler 1995, both cited under Writings by Schindler), and selected correspondence between Schindler and the Hows.

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                                                                                                                      Wolfe House

                                                                                                                      The Wolfe House received significant publication shortly after it was built (see Sarnitz 1988, cited under General Overviews) and several articles were published more recently. Domus published an essay on it (Gebhard 1987) to celebrate Schindler’s centennial and another was published in L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui (Leclerc 1996), both amply illustrated.

                                                                                                                      • Gebhard, David. “R. M. Schindler: Wolfe House, Santa Catalina Island.” Domus 689 (1987): 56–65.

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                                                                                                                        In Italian and English. Gebhard gives a detailed description of Schindler’s clients and the design of the house. Archival drawings and photographs are accompanied by new color photographs by Marvin Rand. Unusually, the house is shown in its context on Catalina Island in both archival and new photos.

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                                                                                                                        • Leclerc, David. “La Maison Wolfe.” L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui 307 (1996): 57–71.

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                                                                                                                          Shows the Wolfe house in its dilapidated, but still very original state, shortly before it was, sadly, demolished.

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                                                                                                                          TP Martin House

                                                                                                                          In 1915 Schindler took a trip from Chicago to see the western United States and visited Santa Fe and Taos, New Mexico, where he was much taken with the adobe buildings. He took photographs and sketched and designed an unbuilt house for Dr. T. P. Martin in Taos in 1915. The trip and the design are discussed in Gebhard 1965 and, building on the earlier article, in Narath 2008.

                                                                                                                          • Gebhard, David. “R. M. Schindler in New Mexico—1915.” New Mexico Architecture 7.1 (1965): 15–21.

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                                                                                                                            Discusses Schindler’s trip to Santa Fe and Taos, New Mexico, in 1915 and his project of the same year for a house in Taos for Dr. T. P. Martin. While the symmetry and expression of mass were not retained in later Schindler designs, Gebhard notes how the transformation of the adobe work Schindler saw in New Mexico can be seen in, for example, the Kings Road House and Pueblo Ribera Court.

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                                                                                                                            • Narath, Albert. “Modernism in Mud: R. M. Schindler, the Taos Pueblo and a ‘Country Home in ‘Adobe Construction.’” Journal of Architecture 13.4 (2008): 407–426.

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                                                                                                                              The author discusses the interest in the Southwest in the early 20th century among American architects and Schindler’s interpretation of the forms he saw there as an American form of premodernism. Narath notes how Schindler’s design for the T. P. Martin House incorporates a connection to the landscape and the creation of space forms, linking the design to major themes in Schindler’s later works.

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                                                                                                                              Publications Focused on Other Schindler Works

                                                                                                                              Although the Kings Road or Schindler House has received the most attention of any Schindler design, and several works have been the subject of multiple publications, other works and projects have been the focus of studies, either individually or in groups.

                                                                                                                              Single Works

                                                                                                                              A number of other publications focus on single works or projects by Schindler. These include Polyzoides 1989 on the Levin House (1924–1934), and two articles on his apartment complexes: Sheine 1997 on the Sachs apartments or Manola Court (1926–1940) and Sherwood 2001 on Pueblo Ribera Court (1923–1925). The design for the unbuilt Braxton-Shore House is discussed in Park and March 2003. Park also focuses on analysis of two other projects by Schindler. Park 1996 is on one of Schindler’s early projects, a 1920 competition entry for a library, and Park 2004 discusses the Schindler Shelters, a project for low-cost housing, a topic that Schindler addressed several times.

                                                                                                                              • Park, Jin-Ho, and Lionel March. “Space Architecture: Schindler’s 1930 Braxton-Shore Project.” arq: Architectural Research Quarterly 7.1 (2003): 51–62.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S1359135503001982Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

                                                                                                                                Provides a spatial analysis of the project. Includes photographs of a new model, drawings, and analytic diagrams of the Braxton-Shore project, of which Schindler produced an intriguing color perspective.

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                                                                                                                                • Park, Jin-Ho. “Schindler, Symmetry and the Free Public Library, 1920.” Architectural Research Quarterly 2.2 (1996): 72–83.

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                                                                                                                                  One of a number of articles written by Park that examine, in detail, geometric patterns in Schindler’s works and projects.

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                                                                                                                                  • Park, Jin-Ho. “An Integral Approach to Design Strategies and Construction Systems: R. M. Schindler’s “Schindler Shelters.” Journal of Architectural Education 58.2 (2004): 29–38.

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                                                                                                                                    A discussion of Schindler’s designs for affordable housing with prefabricated unit components allowing for flexible designs. Includes photographs of models, along with analytic drawings.

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                                                                                                                                    • Polyzoides, Stefanos. “Levin/Carey House: Los Angeles, California, 1924–34; 1983 de Bretteville and Polyzoides.” In GA Houses 26. Edited by Wayne N. T. Fujii, 28–37. Tokyo: A. D. A. Edita, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                      Discussion of early Schindler work, with restoration in 1983 by the author’s architectural practice (which included some alterations to the kitchen and service areas of the house). Features new photographs by Wayne Fujii.

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                                                                                                                                      • Sheine, Judith. “Residential Masterpieces: R. M. Schindler; Manola Court, 1811–1815 Edgecliff [sic] Drive, Los Angeles, 1923–40.” In GA Houses 53. Edited and photographed by Yukio Futagawa, 32–41. Tokyo: A. D. A. Edita, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                        Discussion of the three phases of the apartment complex, which included new construction and a significant renovation of some existing structures. With new photography by Yukio Futagawa.

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                                                                                                                                        • Sherwood, Roger. “El Pueblo Ribera Court: La Jolla, California, 1923.” In Modern Housing Prototypes. By Roger Sherwood, 31–37. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                          Originally published in 1978. Analysis of Pueblo Ribera Court in the context of detached and semidetached housing. Includes original drawings and photographs and a new axonometric drawing.

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                                                                                                                                          Multiple Works

                                                                                                                                          Different approaches are taken to groups of works by Schindler. Herman Herzberger discusses Schindler’s Lovell Beach House and the Sachs apartments in Herzberger 1967. In Koulermos and Polyzoides 1975 five houses are documented in new drawings. Construction details are analyzed in ten works and projects in Ford 1990. Todisco 2002 is largely focused on the Kings Road House but also includes Pueblo Ribera Court. In Coll-Barreu 2004, Schindler’s Kings Road and Tischler Houses are discussed as two of five significant examples of Los Angeles modern residential architecture.

                                                                                                                                          • Coll-Barreu, Juan. Construcción de los paisajes inventados: Los Ángeles doméstico, 1900–1960. Madrid: Fundación Caja de Arquitectos, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                            In Spanish. This book was developed from the author’s doctoral thesis (1999) at the Universidad de Navarra, Spain. It discusses Los Angeles modern residential architecture through the vehicle of five houses, two of which are by Schindler: Kings Road (1921–1922) and Tischler (1949–1950). Greene and Greene’s Gamble House (1908) Gregory Ain’s Orans House (1941), and Richard Neutra’s Perkins House (1955) fill out the group.

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                                                                                                                                            • Ford, Edward. The Details of Modern Architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                              Discusses and illustrates construction details for nine Schindler works and his 1933 Schindler Shelters project, which used gunite over steel channels to make a variety of different configurations of units (see pp. 289–309).

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                                                                                                                                              • Herzberger, Herman. “Dedicato a Schindler: Some Notes on Two Works by Schindler.” Domus 465 (1967): 2–7.

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                                                                                                                                                In Italian and English. Herzberger found Schindler’s work unexpectedly impressive and sought to communicate his thoughts on the work with a discussion and illustration of the Lovell Beach House (1925–1926) and the Sachs apartments (1926–1940).

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                                                                                                                                                • Koulermos, Panos, and Stefanos Polyzoides. “Five Houses by R. M. Schindler.” Architecture and Urbanism 59 (1975): 61–126.

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                                                                                                                                                  In Japanese and English. Documentation of five houses, Wolfe (1929), Elliot (1930), Oliver (1933), Buck (1934), and McAlmon (1935), with new drawings. This article provoked a letter from Esther McCoy disputing some aspects of the text and a letter in response to it from the authors.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Todisco, Giuseppe. Rudolph Michael Schindler. Florence: Alinea Editrice, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                    In Italian. Although largely focused on the Kings Road House in some detail, it also discusses Pueblo Ribera Court and Schindler’s influence on the Case Study House Program sponsored by Arts & Architecture (1945–1962).

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                                                                                                                                                    Schindler and Neutra

                                                                                                                                                    The relationship between R. M. Schindler and Richard Neutra is complex. While both were educated in Vienna, worked for Frank Lloyd Wright, emigrated to Southern California early in the 20th century, and were credited with introducing modern architecture to the region, their architectural approaches and personal styles were very different. The most complete treatment of their history and relationship was written by Esther McCoy (McCoy 1979). Reyner Banham makes the case for Schindler’s originality versus Neutra’s importation of the European International Style in Banham 1975. While McCoy worked for Schindler and has, perhaps, a biased view of the rivalry, Neutra’s side is represented by Thomas Hines in Hines 1982. A somewhat balanced view is presented in Koenig 1970, in which both the work and careers of the two architects are described and compared. A recent study of the differences in their theoretical approaches is offered in Cronan 2017. And, while focused on Neutra and his own VDL Research House, a glimpse of the shared experience of the architects in the Kings Road House can be seen in Sakamoto 2007, a DVD.

                                                                                                                                                    • Banham, Reyner. “Schindler/Chase [sic] House, Los Angeles.” In Age of the Masters: A Personal View of Modern Architecture. Edited by Reyner Banham, 158–159. New York: Harper & Row, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                      Banham compares Schindler’s Kings Road House to Neutra’s Lovell Health House (1929–1930) and, while praising Neutra’s skill, lauds Schindler’s originality (see also Banham 1975, cited under Kings Road or Schindler House: Articles and Chapters).

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                                                                                                                                                      • Cronan, Todd. “Between Culture and Biology: Schindler and Neutra at the Limits of Architecture.” In Émigré Cultures in Design and Architecture. Edited by Alison J. Clarke and Elana Shapira, 203–220. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017.

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                                                                                                                                                        As the title suggests, this article examines the cultural basis for Schindler’s approach to architecture, as expressed in his writings and lectures, as compared to a focus on a “scientific” approach propounded by Neutra.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Hines, Thomas. Richard Neutra and the Search for Modern Architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                          In particular, the dispute between Schindler and Neutra about the exhibition of their joint entry to the League of Nations competition in 1926, in which Schindler’s name was left off, and the reasons for the Lovell Health House commission going to Neutra after Schindler had completed the Lovell Beach House are discussed, essentially from Neutra’s point of view.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Koenig, Giovanni Klaus. “Dal Danubio Blu al viale del Tramonto: Rudolf Michael Schindler e Richard Josef Neutra.” Casabella 34 (1970): 29–36.

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                                                                                                                                                            See also Casabella 35 (1971): 36–42. Offers an overview of the paths Schindler and Neutra took from Vienna to Los Angeles and a summary of their career arcs. Despite confusing the Braxton Beach House project with the Wolfe House, giving the location of the Lovell Beach House, which is in Newport Beach, as Palm Beach, and dismissing Schindler’s career from the mid-1940s on, the essay gives some insight into the similarities and differences in the work of the two architects.

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                                                                                                                                                            • McCoy, Esther. Vienna to Los Angeles: Two Journeys. Santa Monica, CA: Arts + Architecture, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                              A revealing study of the relationship between the architects R. M. Schindler and Richard Neutra, with their mutual origins in Vienna, followed by living and working together in Schindler’s Kings Road House (1925–1930). Letters between the two architects and between Schindler and Louis Sullivan are included, along with a foreword by the architect Harwell Hamilton Harris. McCoy gives an account of how the Lovell Health House commission went to Neutra after Schindler completed the Lovell Beach House.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Sakamoto, Timothy, dir. VDL Research House: Richard Neutra’s Studio and Residence. DVD. Culver City, CA: IN-D Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                This DVD has a short discussion of the relationship between Schindler and Neutra, but it is also of interest because it includes “home movie” footage of the Neutras at the Kings Road House, made while they lived there from 1925 to 1930.

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                                                                                                                                                                Schindler in the Context of Southern California Architecture

                                                                                                                                                                Schindler, along with his fellow Austrian architect Richard Neutra, is often credited with bringing modern architecture to Southern California, and he also served as an important connecting link in bringing other European architects there. Thus, his place is expected in writings on 20th-century architecture in the region, along with discussions of how his own unique type of modern architecture carved a special identity for itself. Reyner Banham discovered Schindler on a trip to Los Angeles in 1966 and made him part of his discussion of the city from his European perspective in Banham 1971. Dominique Rouillard in Rouillard 1999 focuses on a specific Southern California type of architecture, namely houses built on hillsides, a type that is seen in many of Schindler’s works. Natalie Shivers situates Schindler and his work within a group of artists, architects, and photographers in early-20th-century Los Angeles in Shivers 2003. Thomas Hines takes on the whole landscape of Los Angeles modern architecture in the first two-thirds of the 20th century in Hines 2010, in which Schindler merits two chapters.

                                                                                                                                                                • Banham, Reyner. Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies. New York: Harper & Row, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Banham credits Schindler with bringing Neutra to Los Angeles and spearheading a group of European émigré architects who brought modern architecture to the region. Banham admires, in particular, Schindler’s Kings Road House and discusses his use of stucco-covered volumes in the work starting in the late 1920s and posits its influence on future modern work in Los Angeles.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Hines, Thomas. Architecture of the Sun: Los Angeles Modernism, 1900–1970. New York: Rizzoli International, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This large book on modern architecture in Los Angeles is strong on historical context and personal histories and connections; it gives a history rather than an analysis of the architecture, favoring photographs over orthographic drawings (plans and sections). This may account, in part, for Hines’s view of Schindler’s work, which is less enthusiastic than those of many other authors, as the work is complex and challenging to understand without those analytical tools.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Rouillard, Dominique. Building the Slope: California Hillside Houses, 1920–1960. Santa Monica, CA: Hennessey + Ingalls, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Originally published in French in 1984. This close examination and analysis of spatial approaches to building houses on hillsides covers architects who practiced in Los Angeles from Frank Lloyd Wright up until the 1970s, but Schindler’s houses are featured far and above those of any other architect. Although Schindler’s designs can be found throughout the book, in particular in chapter 6 Rouillard addresses two ways of designing on a hillside, building on Schindler’s own descriptions of his design approach.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Shivers, Natalie. “Architecture: A New Creative Medium.” In LA’s Early Moderns. Edited by Victoria Dailey, Natalie Shivers, and Michael Dawson, 117–216. Los Angeles: Balcony, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                        This book is divided into three sections, on art, architecture, and photography, and Shivers takes on architecture. In her chapter “Leaders of the New Movement” (pp. 140–161), after a discussion of the background leading up to modern architecture in Los Angeles, she addresses the work, ideas, and practices of Schindler and Richard Neutra as the leaders of the movement, as well as their cultural milieu.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Commentary and Criticism

                                                                                                                                                                        Schindler’s reputation varied widely both over his lifetime and after. Henry-Russell Hitchcock, in reviewing modern architecture on the West Coast, dismisses his work in Hitchcock 1940. After Esther McCoy’s Five California Architects was published in 1960 (McCoy 1987, cited under General Overviews), European architects and critics began to take notice of Schindler’s work. Hans Hollein argues for Schindler’s significance in the history of 20th-century architecture in Hollein 1961. Most persuasively, Reyner Banham asserts Schindler’s originality in Banham 1967. After David Gebhard’s Schindler came out in 1971 (Gebhard 1997, cited under General Overviews), some commentary shifted to a postmodern point of view with a discussion of Schindler’s work as a combination of “high and low art,” as in O’Neill 1973.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Banham, Reyner. “Rudolph Schindler: Pioneering without Tears.” Architectural Design 37 pp. 578–579. London, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Banham makes a powerful argument for Schindler’s invention of modern architecture in Southern California, one that was independent of the European developments in the 1920s.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Hitchcock, Henry-Russell. “An Eastern Critic Looks at Western Architecture.” California Arts and Architecture 57 (1940): 21–23.

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                                                                                                                                                                            See also p. 40. Although Hitchcock devotes a paragraph to Schindler in this discussion of what he thought was worthy of attention on the West Coast, he essentially dismisses Schindler’s work as influenced too much by its West Coast psychological milieu.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Hollein, Hans. “R. M. Schindler: Ein Weiner Architekt in Kalifornien.” Der Aufbau 16.3 (1961): 102–108.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Hollein argues that Schindler’s work, despite its confinement to Southern California, has international significance. As an Austrian architect, he has a special interest in Schindler, but he makes the case for Schindler’s work being of general importance due to the architect’s having broken new ground throughout his career.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • O’Neill, Dan. “The High and the Low Art of Rudolph Schindler.” Architectural Review 153.914 (1973): 242–246.

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                                                                                                                                                                                As the title suggests, O’Neill takes on David Gebhard’s discussion of Schindler’s work as a combination of “high and low art,” as stated in Gebhard 1997 (cited under General Overviews. O’Neill asserts that Schindler was not a great or important architect, but he still finds qualities to admire in his work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Artistic Responses to Schindler

                                                                                                                                                                                Artists and architects have been inspired by Schindler’s work and have produced photographs, films, and designs in response to it. Photographs by Gerald Zugmann have been used to illustrate Schindler’s buildings, but he also published a set of photographs as art (Zugmann 1996). Filmmaker Heinz Emigholz’s film, Emigholz 2007, of forty Schindler houses is not a documentary but a personal interpretation of the architect’s oeuvre. Noever 2003 shows the results of a competition among an invited group of architects who were asked to design a next-door neighbor to the Schindler house, in opposition to one proposed by a developer.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Emigholz, Heinz, dir. Schindler Häuser/ Houses. Berlin: Heinz Emigholz Filmproduktion, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  This ninety-nine-minute film includes still footage of forty of Schindler’s built houses in Los Angeles. The soundtrack is a variant on ambient noise, allowing viewers to gaze at the works as presented by Emigholz and develop their own thoughts on Schindler’s architecture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Noever, Peter, ed. Architectural Resistance: Contemporary Architects Face Schindler Today. Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This publication presented the work of a competition conceived by Peter Noever, the director of the Museum of Applied Arts, Vienna (MAK), with entries exhibited at the MAK Center for Art and Architecture at the Schindler House. Twenty well-known architecture firms were invited to submit designs for the lot to the south of the Schindler House, as alternatives to the condominium project proposed by a local developer. The publication includes several short essays on the theme of architecture as protest.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Zugmann, Gerald. Schindler. Santa Monica, CA: Form Zero, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Of the twenty-one plates, eleven are of the Schindler House, with the others of works by the architect over the course of his career. The plates are in black and white, rather than color, and generally appear under a grey sky, rather than the blue we have come to expect in Los Angeles. With short essays by Peter Noever and William Mohline.

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