In This Article Cicero

  • Introduction
  • General Overview
  • Bibliographies
  • Cicero’s Speeches: Rhetoric and Argument
  • Cicero’s Speeches and Roman Elite Culture
  • Cicero and Other Orators
  • Cicero and Roman Rhetoric
  • Cicero and the Intellectual Life of the Late Republic
  • Cicero and Politics
  • Cicero and Philosophy
  • Cicero, the Letter-Writer

Classics Cicero
Catherine Steel, Caroline Bishop
  • LAST REVIEWED: 29 June 2012
  • LAST MODIFIED: 14 December 2009
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0012


Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE) was a prominent lawyer and politician, active at Rome during the final decades of oligarchic rule and in the period of Caesar’s dictatorship. He was assassinated in November of 43 BCE by followers of Mark Antony because of his opposition to Antony after Caesar’s death. His position as a politician makes him an important figure in the history of the late Republic. He reached the consulship in 63 BCE, during which year he uncovered and suppressed an attempted coup led by Catiline. His role in executing five of the conspirators without trial led some years later to his exile, and after his return from exile he struggled to reestablish his political authority in a Rome increasingly dominated by the struggle between Pompey and Caesar. He spent the period of Caesar’s dictatorship largely in retirement, but emerged as a major figure in the chaos after Caesar’s assassination. Just as important, or perhaps even more so, he was a prolific writer in an enormous variety of genres. He disseminated versions of many of his forensic and political speeches, as well as works of political theory and philosophy that were enormously influential in later periods; and collections of his letters to his close friend Atticus, his brother Quintus, and a wide range of other figures survive, as well as some poetry.

General Overview

Cicero is one of the few figures from Classical antiquity whose biography can be written, owing to the quantity and nature of the evidence that survives, and biographies dominate among general works that focus on Cicero. Most of those listed below concentrate on politics; Rawson 1983 is particularly good on Cicero’s intellectual interests. Douglas 1968 remains an excellent and concise introduction to Cicero the writer. There is an exhaustive treatment of the chronology of Cicero’s career and works in Marinone 2004.

  • Douglas, A. E. 1968. Cicero. New Surveys in the Classics 2. Oxford: Clarendon.

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    Succinct introduction to Cicero’s writings, with the exception of his poetry.

  • Fuhrmann, Manfred. 1992. Cicero and the Roman Republic. Translated by W. E. Yuill. Oxford: Blackwell.

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    A concise political biography.

  • Lintott, Andrew. 2008. Cicero as evidence: A historian’s companion. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Analysis of the value of Cicero’s writings for the historian of Rome.

  • Marinone, Nino. 2004. Cronologia ciceroniana. 2d ed. Bologna, Italy: Patron Editore.

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    Invaluable guide to the chronology of Cicero’s life and works.

  • Mitchell, Thomas N. 1979. Cicero: The ascending years. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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    Extremely full and detailed biography, covering Cicero’s life and career up to his consulship.

  • Mitchell, Thomas N. 1991. Cicero: The senior statesman. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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    The second volume of Mitchell’s biography, covering the period from 63 BCE to Cicero’s death.

  • Rawson, Elizabeth D. 1983. Cicero: A portrait. Bristol, UK: Bristol Classical Press.

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    Readable biography emphasizing his intellectual interests.

  • Stockton, D. L. 1971. Cicero: A political biography. London: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Rather narrowly focused on politics at Rome, but reliable and readable.

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