Classics Neo-Latin Literature
by
Victoria Moul
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 October 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0176

Introduction

Neo-Latin literature is a vast field, covering Latin texts written in an intentionally classical style in both verse and prose across at least four centuries and the whole of Europe, as well as parts of Asia and the New World, by countless authors and in an enormous variety of genres. Given the limitations of space, this article focuses on the most productive period of neo-Latin literature, beginning in Italy around 1300 and continuing until about 1800, although works that include discussion of literature produced after this period are noted. Only a small proportion of individual texts and authors have yet received modern editions, and, of these, only a tiny handful exist in the sort of editions with commentary and translation that scholars and students of classical literature take for granted. Much important work remains entirely unedited, available only in the original early modern editions or digital facsimiles of those editions, or even in manuscript. In this context, digital resources, databases, anthologies, and reference works are of particular importance. The breadth of the field makes this guide necessarily highly selective; it is concentrated on English-language sources where available, but the strength of neo-Latin studies elsewhere in Europe means that much important scholarship has appeared only in other languages. Given the sheer range of texts and authors that may be described as neo-Latin literature, it is not possible to devote sections to specific authors, although exemplary studies of particular authors are included under other section headings where appropriate, and the sections on Anthologies and Text Collections and Journals and Series indicate where translations of texts are included. Many neo-Latin literary genres and themes—even among the most productive—still lack a scholarly overview or authoritative general reference work. Scholars working in the field must often be creative in their use of the scholarly literature: for this reason, some very specialized monographs and essay collections are included when they offer particularly accessible or clearly thought-out methodologies that invite application elsewhere.

General Overviews

The works in this section offer a general orientation in the range of texts, genres, and authors that might be considered neo-Latin literature as well as to the current state of scholarship in the field. For now, IJsewijn 1990 and IJsewijn and Sacré 1998 remain the only recent general guides to the field. To avoid repetition, those volumes are described in detail only here, but they could appear under almost every heading of this article: They should serve as the starting point for any research project, although the discussion in many chapters is necessarily brief. Helander 2001 and van Hal 2007 give an indication of the range of current approaches to neo-Latin studies in general; van Tieghem 1944, Ludwig 1997, and Hofmann 2000 focus on neo-Latin literature in particular. Several major handbooks and companions to neo-Latin, both literature and writing more generally, are forthcoming: Readers should be aware that this is a rapidly developing field, particularly in English-language scholarship.

  • Helander, Hans. 2001. Neo-Latin studies: Significance and prospects. Symbolae Osloenses 76:1–102.

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    Text of a debate on the state and future of the discipline, with an initial survey by Hans Helander (pp. 1–44), followed by shorter responses from a wide range of leading scholars in the field, who stress various alternative approaches to the field; concluding remarks by Helander again. Also included is a still useful bibliography. Main article and bibliography in English; responses in English, German, and Italian.

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    • Hofmann, Heinz. 2000. Neulateinische Literatur: Aufgaben und Perspektiven. Neulateinisches Jahrbuch 2:57–97.

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      Very scholarly survey of the field, with extremely extensive bibliography in the footnotes. Particularly rich on literary genres.

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      • IJsewijn, Jozef. 1990. Companion to neo-Latin studies: Part I: History and diffusion of neo-Latin literature. 2d ed. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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        Two sections: the first, much shorter, provides an overview of “classical, medieval, and neo-Latin”; the second, the bulk of the volume, is titled “Neo-Latin Literature: Its History and Diffusion.” Arranged geographically, extending even to Australia and a handful of Asian countries.

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        • IJsewijn, Jozef, and Dirk Sacré. 1998. Companion to neo-Latin studies: Part II: Literary, linguistic, philological and editorial questions. 2d ed. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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          Consists of three major sections, on “literary genres” (including technical prose and even newspapers and inscriptions), “language, style, prosody, and metrics” and “texts and editions.” The treatment of literary prose is particularly impressive and wide-ranging. Without question the starting point for any investigation of a given genre.

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          • Ludwig, Walther. 1997. Die neuzeitliche lateinische Literatur seit der Renaissance. In Einleitung in die lateinische Philologie. Edited by Fritz Graf, 323–356. Stuttgart: Teubner.

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            Fairly brief but valuable overview of both neo-Latin literature and the scholarship in the field. Arranged in orderly subsections both chronologically and by genre. Some consideration of literature written after 1800, which is beyond the scope of this article. Useful bibliography in the final pages. In German.

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            • van Hal, Toon. 2007. Towards meta-neo-Latin studies? Impetus to debate on the field of neo-Latin studies and its methodology. Humanistica Lovaniensia 56:349–365.

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              Stimulating article proposing greater theoretical and methodological rigor and self-consciousness in neo-Latin studies. Develops, in particular, a parallel with the historiography of linguistics.

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              • van Tieghem, Paul. 1944. La littérature latine de la Renaissance: Étude d’histoire littéraire européenne. Bibliothèque d’humanisme et renaissance 4:177–418.

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                Classic and still valuable survey. In French.

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                Anthologies and Text Collections

                Anthologies and text collections are of particular importance in the study of neo-Latin literature, a field in which many texts and authors remain only partially edited, if at all. Poetry—especially shorter poetry—is much better served by these volumes and by online resources than prose and longer verse. For Italian poets of the 15th century, and for some longer verse forms, Arnaldi, et al. 1964 is unmatched. Perosa and Sparrow 1979 and Laurens and Belavoine 1975 are both arranged by country. McFarlane 1980 arranges by genre and offers English translations. Unfortunately, most of these works are out of print and hard to find, and they are often expensive even on the second-hand market. Laurens 2004 is the only readily available paperback edition. The Philological Museum is the largest online anthology. Thill, et al. 1999 is a fine starting point for the wealth of Jesuit verse it contains. More specialized anthologies are listed elsewhere under relevant subsections. Readers should also be aware of the importance of early modern anthologies (such as the series of Delitiae), which were popular and widely disseminated.

                • Arnaldi, Francesco, Lucia Gualdo Rosa, and Liliana Monti Sabia. 1964. Poeti latini del quattrocento. Milan: Ricciardi.

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                  Monumental selection of fourteen Quattrocento poets, edited with Italian translation and substantial introduction. The size and focus of the volume allows for some longer extracts than are found elsewhere, especially useful for hexameter verse. Elegy also very well represented.

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                  • Laurens, Pierre. 2004. Anthologie de la poésie lyrique latine de la Renaissance. Paris: Gallimard.

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                    The only readily available paperback edition of neo-Latin verse. A markedly interesting and wide-ranging selection of lyric poetry (broadly understood). Sensitive and accessible introduction, chronological tables, guide to meter, and brief notes, all in French. Text presented in parallel Latin and French translation.

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                    • Laurens, Pierre, and Claudie Balavoine. 1975. Musae reduces: Anthologie de la poésie latine dans l’Europe de la Renaissance. 2 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                      Extracts from sixty poets from nine countries, with a parallel French translation and much additional biographical and bibliographical information on each author and country. Includes some 17th-century authors.

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                      • McFarlane, I. D. 1980. Renaissance Latin poetry. Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press.

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                        A smaller collection than most of the others, but useful for its arrangement by genre. With parallel English translation, brief introductions, and some notes.

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                        • Perosa, Alessandro, and John Sparrow. 1979. Renaissance Latin verse: An anthology. London: Duckworth.

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                          Arranged by country and author, with brief introductions to each author and (minimal) footnotes as well as a short overall introduction. Strong representation of Italian poets in particular. Total of eighty-five poets, but extends only to Buchanan in the mid-16th century. No translations.

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                          • Philological Museum.

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                            Edited by Dana F. Sutton and Martin Wiggins. Large collection of British Latin texts. Many entries offer full text, translation, introduction, and brief notes. Prose, verse, and drama all represented. Contains many texts not available elsewhere, including material transcribed from manuscript. Occasional errors of transcription and translation.

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                            • Thill, Andrée, Giles Banderier, and Marc Fumaroli. 1999. La lyre Jésuite: Anthologie de poèmes latins, 1620–1730. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz.

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                              Very informative and well-presented anthology of verse drawn from thirteen Jesuits poets (Petau, Hugo, Sarbiewski, Hosschius, Balde, Vavasseur, Sautel, Rapin, Commire, Vanière, Urban VIII, Jean-Baptiste de Santeul, and Claude de Santeul), several not easily accessible elsewhere. Good index and notes, especially strong on classical allusion. In French with Latin parallel text.

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                              Reference and Bibliography

                              The field of neo-Latin studies as a whole (including but not limited to literature) now has its own authoritative encyclopedia, Ford, et al. 2014. The annual Instrumentum Bibliographicum Neolatinum published by Humanistica Lovaniensia is the place to start for the most recent bibliography of scholarship. Of online resources, the Leuven Neo-Latin Bibliography offers a guide to lexicography and grammatical and stylistic matters as well as texts and scholarship; The Philological Museum maintains a vast bibliography of online texts. No authoritative print dictionary for neo-Latin usage as a whole is available, but Hoven 2006 (for prose) and Ramminger’s online Neulateinische Wortliste (for both prose and verse) are both invaluable. Kristeller 1963–1993, now also available online, remains an essential guide to manuscript holdings of humanist texts.

                              • Ford, Philip, Jan Bloemendal, and Charles Fantazzi. 2014. Brill’s encyclopedia of the Neo-Latin world. 2 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                Online edition forthcoming. The first encyclopedia of the field, covers neo-Latinity as a whole, including but not limited to literature.

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                                • Hoven, René. 2006. Lexique de la prose latine de la Renaissance. English translation by Coen Maes, revised by Karin Renard-Jadoul. 2d ed. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                  Dictionary of nonclassical Latin vocabulary—both words and meanings. Considerably expanded in the second edition. Around 11,000 entries.

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                                  • Humanistica Lovaniensia. Instrumentum Bibliographicum Neolatinum.

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                                    This publication contains an Instrumentum lexicographicum neolatinum and the annual systematically ordered bibliography of neo-Latin studies (Instrumentum bibliographicum neolatinum, from Volume 25 [1976] onward), accompanied by critical notes. The journal is fully indexed (mss. and personal names). The Instrumentum bibliographicum neolatinum is available in digital form from the website.

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                                    • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. 1963–1993. Iter Italicum: A finding list of uncatalogued or incompletely catalogued humanistic manuscripts of the Renaissance in Italian and other libraries. 6 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                      Invaluable guide to unpublished humanist manuscripts in libraries in Italy and elsewhere. Volumes 1 and 2 cover Italy, with further supplements in Volumes 5 and 6. Volumes 3–5 for other countries, with supplements in Volume 6. Now available online by subscription.

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                                      • Leuven Neo-Latin Bibliography.

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                                        Enormously valuable resource, with sections on lexicography, grammatical and stylistic aids, and biographical tools as well as texts and scholarship.

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                                        • Philological Museum.

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                                          Edited by Dana F. Sutton and Martin Wiggins. Vast bibliography of online neo-Latin texts, by far the largest on the web, currently containing more than 45,000 records. Regularly updated.

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                                          • Ramminger, Johann. Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700.

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                                            Invaluable and continually evolving online list of neo-Latin words. Focused on new or rare words, or on terms of particular cultural or theoretical significance. In October 2013 it contained nearly 18,500 words drawn from 2,578 authors and 7,055 works.

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                                            Collections of Essays

                                            The series Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia have produced several volumes of collected essays, of which Sacré and Tournoy 2000 and Sacré and Papy 2009 are particularly significant: both are dauntingly miscellaneous, but each offers a sense of the range of work undertaken on neo-Latin literature and includes contributions by a large proportion of senior European scholars in the field. Godman and Murray 1990 is on a much smaller scale, but it provides a particularly accessible and high-quality introduction to the field, especially for English-speaking students. Haskell and Ruys 2010 and Enenkel, et al. 2012 are both unusually coherent and theoretically ambitious essay collections.

                                            • Enenkel, Karl, Marc Laureys, and Christoph Pieper, eds. 2012. Discourses of power: Ideology and politics in neo-Latin literature. Noctes Neolatinae: Neo-Latin Texts and Studies 17. Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms.

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                                              Ambitious collection of essays on the relationship of neo-Latin literature to contemporary politics and ideology. Largely concerned with prose rather than poetic writings (although includes a chapter on centos). A brief thematic bibliography (pp. xxix–xxxv) offers a stimulating starting point. Introduction in German. Contributions in English and German.

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                                              • Godman, Peter, and Oswyn Murray, eds. 1990. Latin poetry and the classical tradition: Essays in medieval and Renaissance literature. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                Fairly slim volume—just eleven essays—but of unusually high and consistent quality. Highlights include chapters by Walther Ludwig on the Catullan style, G. W. Pigman III on neo-Latin imitation, and Jozef IJsewijn on the Coryciana.

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                                                • Haskell, Yasmin, and Juanita Feros Ruys, eds. 2010. Latin and alterity in the early modern period. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 30. Tempe: Arizona Univ. Press.

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                                                  Very interesting collection of essays, arranged around various concepts of “otherness” or “alterity,” e.g., the “otherness” of vernacular languages in relationship to neo-Latin and Latin writing of or about groups or places outside mainstream European literary culture, such as women, Native Americans, and the literary culture of the Americas.

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                                                  • Sacré, Dirk, and Jan Papy, eds. 2009. Syntagmatia: Essays on neo-Latin literature in honour of Monique Mund-Dopchie and Gilbert Tournoy. Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia 26. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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                                                    Very large and miscellaneous collection of essays in English, Italian, German, and French on an enormous range of literary and scholarly texts, with contributions from the majority of senior scholars of neo-Latin literature active at the time of production.

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                                                    • Sacré, Dirk, and Gilbert Tournoy, eds. 2000. Myricae: Essays on neo-Latin literature in memory of Jozef IJsewijn. Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia 16. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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                                                      Large and very miscellaneous collection on a wide range of authors and genres, both prose and poetry, including a complete bibliography of Jozef IJsewijn’s work. Contributions mostly in English, but some in French and Italian.

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                                                      Journals and Series

                                                      A wide range of journals in history and literature, both classical and early modern, publish occasional articles on neo-Latin literary topics—the range of these journals is too large, and their neo-Latin interests too occasional, to list them here. By contrast, only two journals in regular production are devoted wholly or largely to neo-Latin studies: Humanistica Lovaniensia and its younger sibling Neulateinisches Jahrbuch, as well as the Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia, which publishes conference proceedings and occasional editions. The regular publication of various Acta Conventus Neo-Latini, published papers from the triennial meetings of the International Association of Neo-Latin Studies, though not strictly speaking a journal of its own, is the other most significant resource in the field. Recent years have seen an encouraging increase in the publication of edited neo-Latin texts in useful editions, although several series have been short-lived. The most successful and prolific is the I Tatti Renaissance Library, dedicated to works of the Italian Renaissance.

                                                      • Acta Conventus Neo-Latini. 1973–.

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                                                        The Acta of the triennial meetings of the International Association for Neo-Latin Studies are published periodically, under titles indicating the location of the meeting. A full list can be found on the association’s website. The contents typically concentrate mainly on literary works, with some historical and methodological material.

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                                                        • Humanistica Lovaniensia. 1928–.

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                                                          Publishes articles on neo-Latin topics in Latin, English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish, as well as critical editions of neo-Latin texts with translations and commentaries. Contains the Instrumentum lexicographicum neolatinum and the annual bibliography of neo-Latin studies (Instrumentum bibliographicum neolatinum, from Volume 25 [1976] onward, available online). Fully indexed.

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                                                          • I Tatti Renaissance Library. 1961–.

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                                                            Attractively produced series of Latin texts with introduction, parallel English translation, and some notes. Confined to works of the Italian Renaissance, but generically wide ranging. Currently running to sixty volumes. Strong on historiography, philosophy, prose essays, and dialogues as well as poetry; a smaller representation of letters and drama.

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                                                            • Neulateinisches Jahrbuch. 1999–.

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                                                              It offers longer articles and shorter gleanings on neo-Latin texts and topics followed by reviews, reports, and proposals of scholarly projects as well as announcements of other initiatives in the area of neo-Latin philology. Largely in German and English.

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                                                              • Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia. 1978–.

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                                                                Series linked to Humanistica Lovaniensia: Journal of Neo-Latin Studies and contains proceedings of conferences, exhibition catalogues, and critical text editions, all in the field of neo-Latin studies.

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                                                                Editing

                                                                The great majority of neo-Latin literature remains unedited, or only partially so. Deitz 1998 (updated by Deitz 2005) is usefully detailed and concrete. The essays in Rummel 1996 offer a sense of the different approaches suitable for various kinds of Renaissance texts. Rabbie 1996 is particularly widely cited by recent editors.

                                                                • Deitz, Luc. 1998. Editing sixteenth-century Latin prose texts: A case-study and a few general observations. In Editing texts, Texte Edieren. Edited by G. Most, 141–164. Aporemata: Kritische Studien zur Philologiegeschichte 2. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

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                                                                  Useful article offering a set of guidelines for editors, with specific examples and concrete detail rather than general suggestions. The article predates, however, the enormous rise of online editions and the challenges and opportunities they present.

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                                                                  • Deitz, Luc. 2005. The tools of the trade: A few remarks on editing Renaissance Latin texts. Humanistica Lovaniensia 54:345–358.

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                                                                    Briefer and less detailed than the previous article, but taking into account the advances in technology.

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                                                                    • Rabbie, Edwin. 1996. Editing neo-Latin texts. Editio 10:25–48.

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                                                                      Useful and widely cited guide that is unfortunately particularly hard to access.

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                                                                      • Rummel, Erika. 1996. Editing texts from the age of Erasmus: Papers given at the Thirtieth Annual Conference on Editorial Problems, University of Toronto, 4–5 November 1994. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                        Chapters on a variety of the challenges of a range of very different sorts of text, including ecclesiastical registers, Thomas More’s defenses, and the works of William Tyndale as well as Erasmus.

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                                                                        Cultural and Educational Context

                                                                        The role of Latin in education—across history but with a focus upon the Renaissance—is the subject of Waquet 2001. For further perspectives on Renaissance education in general, and the role of Latin literature within it, see Grafton and Jardine 1986. Kallendorf 2002 is a useful edited collection of Italian humanist educational treatises. Ong 1959 is a classic article on the sociocultural significance of Latin language study. Many histories of Latinity and classical education are available for individual countries: Baldwin 1944–1950, a magisterial survey of English education in the age of Shakespeare, is still cited regularly; Chartier, et al. 1976 surveys French education in the 16th and 17th centuries; Black 2007 offers a wealth of detail on Renaissance Italian education.

                                                                        • Baldwin, Thomas W. 1944–1950. William Shakspere’s small Latine and less Greeke. 2 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press.

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                                                                          Still an indispensable reference work on English education in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.

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                                                                          • Black, Robert. 2007. Humanism and education in medieval and Renaissance Italy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                            Particularly detailed account of the role of Latin authors in medieval and Renaissance Italian schools (chapter 4) and the techniques with which these authors were read (chapter 5). Includes useful lists of the manuscripts of school authors in Florentine libraries and the authorities (Appendixes 4, 5, and 6). Enormous wealth of detail.

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                                                                            • Chartier, Roger, Dominique Julia, and Maria-Madeleine Compère, eds. 1976. L’éducation en France du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Société d’Édition d’Enseignement Supérieur.

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                                                                              Important though dense survey of early modern French education. Brief table of contents is at the back of the book, but the lack of an index is a major problem. Includes a chapter on the education of girls.

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                                                                              • Grafton, Anthony, and Lisa Jardine. 1986. From humanism to humanities: Education and liberal arts in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                Controversial account of humanist education comparing it unfavorably to scholasticism. Stresses the role of memorization. Markedly skeptical about the supposed link between virtue and the imitation of classical texts. Offers a rich sampling of the primary evidence for pedagogical practice, with a focus upon textbooks and student notes rather than humanist educational treatises (on which see Kallendorf 2002).

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                                                                                • Kallendorf, Craig, ed. 2002. Humanist educational treatises. The I Tatti Renaissance Library 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                  The four treatises included are: Pier Paolo Vergerio, “The Character and Studies Befitting a Free-Born Youth”; Leonardo Bruni, “The Study of Literature”; Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, “The Education of Boys”; Battista Guarino, “A Program of Teaching and Learning.” Elegant and accessible translations, with short notes and introduction.

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                                                                                  • Ong, Walter J. 1959. Latin language study as a Renaissance puberty rite. Studies in Philology 56:103–124.

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                                                                                    Classic article on the sociocultural significance of Latin language study in the Renaissance. Still often cited.

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                                                                                    • Waquet, Françoise. 2001. Latin, or the empire of a sign: From the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries. Translated by John Howe. London: Verso.

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                                                                                      Very influential history of the uses of Latin, with a focus upon educational contexts and the Early Modern period, but extending to the 20th century. Original publication: Latin ou l’empire d’un signe (Paris: Albin Michel, 1998).

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                                                                                      Regional Literatures in Neo-Latin

                                                                                      This section is necessarily extremely selective. Readers should appreciate that for countries which produced the greatest quantity of neo-Latin literature, especially France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the German-speaking countries, many of the entries throughout this article are directly relevant. For all national literatures, the bibliographies provided in IJsewijn 1990 (cited under General Overviews) remain extremely useful. For that reason, the suggestions below focus (though not exclusively) upon publications that have appeared after that date.

                                                                                      Italy

                                                                                      Italian neo-Latin literature, especially that of the 14th and 15th centuries, is by far the best served by existing scholarship, in terms of both reliable modern editions (for example, those of the I Tatti Renaissance Library) and secondary literature: Many anthologies and surveys of neo-Latin literature are focused upon the Italian tradition. The suggestions in this section are necessarily therefore extremely partial. Feo 1986 places the Latin literature of the age in the context of Italian literary history as a whole. Buck 1987 is strong on the earlier period of Italian neo-Latin. IJsewijn 1995 is unusual in its focus on Latin literature in 17th-century Italy. Caruso and Laird 2009 is particularly strong on the interactions among Latin, Greek, and Italian as well as on poetry.

                                                                                      • Buck, August, ed. 1987. Die italienische Literatur im Zeitalter Dantes und am Übergang vom Mittelalter zur Renaissance. Heidelberg, Germany: Carl Winter.

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                                                                                        Useful on the earliest period. In German.

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                                                                                        • Caruso, Carlo, and Andrew Laird, eds. 2009. Italy and the classical tradition: Language, thought and poetry, 1300–1600. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                          Three sections: the first on the related uses of Latin, Greek, and Italian in the given period; the second on the influence of Hellenism upon the Latin humanists; the third (and largest) on the Latin poets of the period, including essays on Petrarch, Dante, Capilupi, and Vitalis.

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                                                                                          • Feo, M. 1986. Tradizione latina. In Letteratura italiana. Vol. 5, Le questioni. Edited by A. Asor Rosa, 311–378. Turin, Italy: Einaudi.

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                                                                                            One (albeit substantial) section in a large multivolume reference work on Italian literature. Accordingly places Italian neo-Latin literature within the context of Italian literary history more generally. In Italian throughout.

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                                                                                            • I Tatti Renaissance Library.

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                                                                                              Sixty volumes of professionally edited and attractively presented Italian Renaissance texts of all genres, with parallel English translation. Each volume has an introduction, notes, bibliography, and index.

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                                                                                              • IJsewijn, Jozef. 1995. Latin literature in 17th-century Rome. Eranos 93:78–99.

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                                                                                                Interesting study of later Latin writing in Italy.

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                                                                                                France

                                                                                                A large proportion of scholarship on French neo-Latin literature has focused upon Ronsard, the Pléiade, and the inheritors of that tradition. Bizer 1995 is a strong example. Ford 2013 includes material on this circle but ranges beyond it. Chamard 1946 demonstrates the importance of existing neo-Latin as well as classical models for writers of this tradition (also a strength of Bizer 1995). Braun 2007 provides a fascinating glimpse of a quite different genre: the enormous volume of neo-Latin epic produced in France in the period. Castor and Cave 1984 is particularly wide-ranging, covering prose as well as poetry.

                                                                                                • Bizer, Marc. 1995. La poésie au miroir: Imitation et conscience de soi dans la poésie latine de la Pléiade. Paris: Champion.

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                                                                                                  Introductory discussion of contemporary ideas about imitation makes telling use of contemporary treatises. Followed by individual chapters on du Bellay (Latin elegies), Belleau (translations and imitations of Anacreon), and Baïf. No chapter on Ronsard himself, but discussion of his work and influence is important throughout. Strong on intertextual dialogue between neo-Latin poets.

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                                                                                                  • Braun, Ludwig. 2007. Ancilla Calliopeae: Ein Repertorium der neulateinschen Epik Frankreichs, 1500–1700. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004162426.i-742Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Fascinating survey of around eighty-five neo-Latin epics, of very varied lengths, composed in France in the 16th and 17th centuries, including epics on biblical, hagiographical, and historical themes. Useful information on the influence of Virgil and, in the latter period, also of Tasso. In German.

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                                                                                                    • Castor, Grahame, and Terence Cave, eds. 1984. Neo-Latin and the vernacular in Renaissance France. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                                                      Wide-ranging collection including pieces on Guillaume Budé, Rabelais, Nicolas Bourbon, Florens Wilson, Salmon Macrin, du Bellay, Jean Dorat, Léger du Chesne, Muret, Erasmus, and Montaigne. In French and English. Particularly interesting material on translation between Latin and French and on the interpenetration of Latin and French literature of the period.

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                                                                                                      • Chamard, Henri, ed. 1946. Les baisers de Jean Second imités par Pierre de Ronsard et ses disciples, 1500–1600. Monaco: Éditions du Rocher.

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                                                                                                        Collection of the translations and imitations of Secundus produced by Ronsard and his followers in 16th-century France. Particularly valuable primary material for thinking about intertextuality within neo-Latin poetry.

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                                                                                                        • Ford, Philip. 2013. The judgment of Palaemon: The contest between neo-Latin and vernacular poetry in Renaissance France. Medieval and Renaissance Authors and Texts 9. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/9789004245402Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Chapters both on individual authors (du Bellay, Ronsard) and on types of poetry (neo-Catullan poetry, epitaphs, and tombeaux, the imitation of Martial). The introduction is enlightening on the linguistic situation for French in the 16th century and includes very interesting tables of data on French versus English publications in the period.

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                                                                                                          Germany, Austria, and Switzerland

                                                                                                          German authors were particularly productive in the later period of neo-Latin literature. Kühlmann, et al. 1997 is an interesting anthology of 16th-century poets. Schäfer 1976 discusses many of them as imitators of Horace. Schnur 1966 offers samples of a wider range of poets, including authors from the Netherlands and Hungary. Ellinger 1929–1933 remains the starting point for a history of German neo-Latin literature. Korenjak, et al. 2012 offers a detailed history of the Latin of the Tyrol.

                                                                                                          • Ellinger, Georg. 1929–1933. Geschichte der neulateinischen Literatur Deutschlands. Berlin: De Gruyter.

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                                                                                                            Foundational history of German neo-Latin literature. In German.

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                                                                                                            • Korenjak, Martin, Florian Schaffenrath, Lav Subaric, and Karlheinz Töchterle. 2012. Tyrolis Latina: Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur in Tirol. 2 vols. Vienna: Böhlau.

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                                                                                                              Vol. 1, Von den Anfängen bis zur Gründung der Universität Innsbruck. Vol. 2, Von der Gründung der Universität Innsbruck bis heute. Detailed history of the Latin literature of the Tyrol down to the present day. Takes a broad view of literature, which includes scientific, philosophical, and technical works. In German.

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                                                                                                              • Kühlmann, Wilhelm, Robert Seidel, and Hermann Wiegand, eds. and trans. 1997. Humanistische Lyrik des 16. Jahrhunderts: Lateinisch und deutsch. Bibliothek deutscher Klassiker 146/Bibliothek der frühen Neuzeit 5. Frankfurt: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag.

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                                                                                                                Latin texts with parallel translation in German prose. Brief notes at the back. Quite varied selections from the work of twenty important German Latin poets of the 16th century, including several who are well represented elsewhere (Celtis, Hessus, Secundus, Melissus) and others whose work is harder to find (Micyllus, Lemnius, Stigelius).

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                                                                                                                • Schäfer, Eckart. 1976. Deutscher Horaz: Conrad Celtis, Georg Fabricius, Paul Melissus, Jakob Balde: die Nachwirkung des Horaz in der neulateinischen Dichtung Deutschlands. Wiesbaden, Germany: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                  Excellent study of the German neo-Latin imitations of Horace.

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                                                                                                                  • Schnur, Harry C., ed. 1966. Lateinische Gedichte deutscher Humanisten: Lateinisch und deutsch: Ausgewählt, übersetzt und erläutert. Stuttgart: Reclam.

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                                                                                                                    Selections from fifty-two poets from Germany, the Netherlands, and Hungary (Pannonius) of the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries; with German translation.

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                                                                                                                    Spain and Portugal

                                                                                                                    In English-language scholarship, Taylor and Coroleu’s three volumes of essays (Taylor and Coroleu 1999, Taylor and Coroleu 2006, and Taylor and Coroleu 2008) offer a fine overview of various aspects of neo-Latin literature in Spain. For the place of neo-Latin poetry in the Spanish Golden Age, see also Coroleu 2002 (in English), Alcina 2000, Verrua 1906 (in Spanish, digital reprints now available), and Alma Rovira 1979. Barea 2013 is an up-to-date guide to the neo-Latin drama of Spain, Portugal, and Latin America.

                                                                                                                    • Alcina, Joan Francesc. 2000. Poesía neolatina y literatura española en los siglos XVI y XVII. In Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Abulensis: Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Neo-Latin Studies, Ávila, 4–9 August 1997. Edited by Rhoda Schnur, 9–28. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.

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                                                                                                                      On Latin poetry and its relationship to vernacular literature.

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                                                                                                                      • Alma Rovira, J. 1979. Tendances et caractéristiques de la poésie hispano-latine de la Renaissance. In L’humanisme dans les lettres espagnoles: XIXe colloque, Tours, 5–7 juillet 1976. Edited by Augustin Redondo, 132–149. Paris: J. Vrin.

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                                                                                                                        Overview of neo-Latin poetry of Renaissance Spain, stressing the links with Italian Latin culture of the period, the educational establishment, and the existing genres and forms of humanist Latin verse. In French.

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                                                                                                                        • Barea, Joaquín Pascual. 2013. Neo-Latin drama in Spain, Portugal and Latin America. In Neo-Latin drama in early modern Europe. Edited by Jan Bloemendal and Howard Norland, 545–631. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                          Focused and extremely up-to-date volume.

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                                                                                                                          • Coroleu, Alejandro. 2002. Neo-Latin poetry and Golden-Age poetics. In Essays on Spanish poetry of the Golden Age: Papers of a colloquium held at University College, Cork. Edited by Stephen Boyd and Jo Richardson, 11–19. Manchester, UK: Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies, Univ. of Manchester.

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                                                                                                                            Accessible brief introduction to the topic; ideal starting point for students.

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                                                                                                                            • Taylor, Barry, and Alejandro Coroleu, eds. 1999. Latin and vernacular in Renaissance Spain. Cañada Blanch Monographs 3. Manchester, UK: Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies, Univ. of Manchester.

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                                                                                                                              Overview both of the (much-neglected) Latin writing of the period and also of the interactions among Latin, Castilian, and Catalan in the writing and publishing of a wide range of texts between around 1475 and 1600. Discusses technical and pedagogical publications as well as literary material.

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                                                                                                                              • Taylor, Barry, and Alejandro Coroleu, eds. 2006. Latin and vernacular in Renaissance Iberia, II: Translations and adaptations. Cañada Blanch Monographs 8. Manchester, UK: Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies, Univ. of Manchester.

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                                                                                                                                Similar remit to Taylor and Coroleu 1999, but with some contribution from scholars of Portuguese literature and with a particular focus on translations and adaptations—of both classical and post-classical material. Contributions in English and Spanish.

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                                                                                                                                • Taylor, Barry, and Alejandro Coroleu, eds. 2008. Latin and vernacular in Renaissance Iberia, III: Ovid from the Middle Ages to the baroque. Manchester, UK: Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies, Univ. of Manchester.

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                                                                                                                                  In this volume the remit is further widened to include a chapter on the reception of Ovid in New Spain. Other pieces consider Renaissance Ovidian scholarship as well as literary works indebted to Ovid in both Latin and the vernacular.

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                                                                                                                                  • Verrua, Pietro. 1906. Cultori della poesia latina in Ispagna durante il regno di Ferdinando Il Cattolico. Adria, Italy: Tipografia Vidale.

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                                                                                                                                    Now much more easily available due to the various print-on-demand services. In Italian.

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                                                                                                                                    Britain and Ireland

                                                                                                                                    Neo-Latin literature emerged fairly late in the British Isles and flourished particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries. Binns 1990 remains the authoritative starting point on this period. Bradner 1940 extends to the early 20th century, while Money 1998, though focused on one 18th-century poet, gives a rich sense of the neo-Latin literary milieu of that period. Binns 1974 and Houghton and Manuwald 2012 assemble rewarding essays on British neo-Latin poets, mostly of the Early Modern period (though Binns 1974 includes some later authors). Norland 2013 offers a thorough survey of British Latin drama. Harris and Sidwell 2009 is a fine collection of pieces on Irish neo-Latin, distinguished in particular for the range of genres discussed.

                                                                                                                                    • Binns, J. W., ed. 1974. The Latin poetry of English poets. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

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                                                                                                                                      Unassuming but rewarding short collection of essays. Contributions on the Latin verse of Campion, Herbert, Milton, Crashaw, Bourne, and Landor. J. W. Binn on Campion and W. Hilton Kelliher on Herbert are particularly strong.

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                                                                                                                                      • Binns, J. W. 1990. Intellectual culture in Elizabethan and Jacobean England: The Latin writings of the age. ARCA Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers and Monographs 24. Leeds, UK: Francis Cairns.

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                                                                                                                                        First overview of Latin writing in England in the 16th and 17th centuries, with a focus upon poetry (seven chapters). Additional chapters on drama, literary and technical prose, paratextual material, Latin translations, and Ciceronianism. An invaluable resource for those working on English texts.

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                                                                                                                                        • Bradner, Leicester. 1940. Musae Anglicanae: A history of Anglo-Latin poetry, 1500–1925. New York: Modern Language Association.

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                                                                                                                                          Dated but still extremely useful. Covers the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries as well as the Early Modern period.

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                                                                                                                                          • Harris, Jason, and Keith C. Sidwell, eds. 2009. Making Ireland Roman: Irish neo-Latin writers and the republic of letters. Cork, Ireland: Cork Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                            Varied collection including pieces on historiography, political epic, the Latin writer Richard Stanihurst (discussed in two chapters), rhetoric, invective verse, and the Latin literature of Catholic exile.

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                                                                                                                                            • Houghton, L. B. T., and Gesine Manuwald, eds. 2012. Neo-Latin Poetry in the British Isles. London: Bristol Classical Press.

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                                                                                                                                              Rich collection of articles on neo-Latin poetry in England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, from the 16th to the 18th centuries. Authors discussed include the Latin poetry of Leland, Campion, Milton, Cowley (two pieces), Johnson, and Buchanan (two pieces) as well as authors who are less well known.

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                                                                                                                                              • Money, D. K. 1998. The English Horace: Anthony Alsop and the tradition of British Latin verse. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                Readable monograph on a single author of the 17th and 18th centuries, with edited texts, translations, and brief notes in the second half of the volume. Useful context on English Latin poetry of the 17th and 18th centuries in general.

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                                                                                                                                                • Norland, Howard B. 2013. Neo-Latin drama in Britain. In Neo-Latin drama in early modern Europe. Edited by Jan Bloemendal and Howard Norland, 471–544. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                  The most up-to-date resource on the topic, a full survey.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Reid, Steven. 2013. “Quasi sybillae folia dispersa”: The anatomy of the Delitiae Poetarum Scotorum. In Fresche Fontanis: Studies in the culture of medieval and early modern Scotland. Edited by Janet Hadley-Williams and J. Derrick McClure, 397–414. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars.

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                                                                                                                                                    Excellent introduction to the political, religious, and social implications and interest of a particularly influential anthology of Scottish verse during the Early Modern period.

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                                                                                                                                                    The Low Countries

                                                                                                                                                    A region generally referred to as “Belgium” or “Belgia” in humanist texts, this area includes the modern-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of northern France. A great deal of neo-Latin literature was produced in this region in the 16th and 17th centuries, including the works of Erasmus, Vives, and Lipsius. IJsewijn 1975 provides an excellent introduction to the cultural context of these authors. Ellinger 1969 focuses upon lyric poetry. The Heinsius Collection is a convenient online resource for neo-Latin poetry. More specifically, Tournoy 1994 discusses neo-Latin satire and Bloemendal 2013 neo-Latin drama of the region.

                                                                                                                                                    • Bloemendal, Jan. 2013. Neo-Latin drama in the Low Countries. In Neo-Latin drama in early modern Europe. Edited by Jan Bloemendal and Howard B. Norland, 293–364. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1163/9789004257467_006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Most up-to-date essay on the topic.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Ellinger, Georg. 1969. Geschichte der neulateinischen Literatur Deutschlands im sechzehnten Jahrhundert. Vol. 3.1, Geschichte der neulateinishcen Lyrik in den Niederlanden vom Anfange des 15. bis zum Anfange des 17. Jahrhunderts. Edited by Georg Ellinger. Berlin: De Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                        Originally published in 1933. Authoritative German survey that is now available as print-on-demand from De Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Heinsius Collection. Edited by A. J. E. Harmsen. Univ. of Leiden.

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                                                                                                                                                          Collection of Dutch neo-Latin poetry; forty-six authors with full text.

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                                                                                                                                                          • IJsewijn, Jozef. 1975. The coming of humanism to the Low Countries. In Itinerarium Italicum: The profile of the Italian Renaissance in the mirror of its European transformations: Dedicated to Paul Oskar Kristeller on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Edited by Heiko A. Oberman and Thomas A. Brady, 193–301. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                            Despite the title, the chapter surveys humanist writings in the region from the beginning until the mid-17th century. Particularly concise and effective presentation of the religious and political context. Also published as “Humanism in the Low Countries,” in Albert Rabil Jr., Renaissance Humanism: Foundations, Forms and Legacy, Vol. 2 (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1988), pp. 156–215.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Tournoy, G. 1994. The beginnings of neo-Latin satire in the Low Countries. In La satire humaniste: Actes du colloque international tenu des 31 mars, 1er et 2 avril 1993. Edited by Rudolf de Smet, 95–109. Travaux de l’Institut interuniversitaire pour l’Étude de la Renaissance et de l’Humanisme 11. Brussels: Peeters.

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                                                                                                                                                              Traces the development of Latin verse satire, in imitation of Juvenal, Persius, and Horace.

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                                                                                                                                                              Scandinavia

                                                                                                                                                              For a general sense of Scandinavian neo-Latin literature, Jensen 1995 is indispensable, organized both by country and by various topics (authors, genres, and themes). Helander 2004 is based on only a single century of Swedish literature, but the detailed organization of the volume invites comparison with other bodies of work. The Database of Nordic Neolatin Literature offers a convenient online taste of the texts in question.

                                                                                                                                                              • Database of Nordic Neolatin Literature. Univ. of Bergen.

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                                                                                                                                                                Includes works about as well as from the Nordic countries. Not updated in the last few years but still functioning.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Helander, Hans. 2004. Neo-Latin literature in Sweden in the period 1620–1720: Stylistics, vocabulary and characteristic ideas. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Studia Latina Upsaliensia 29. Uppsala, Sweden: Univ. of Uppsala Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                  An extremely thorough overview. Concerned only with Swedish literature, but the rigorous structure and detailed discussion offers food for thought and ideas for categories and questions to anyone working on neo-Latin literature of this period. Sections on “Introduction,” “Stylistics (Antithesis, Hyperbole, Hypercharacterization, Catalogues),” “Vocabulary,” and (much the largest) “Characteristic Ideas.”

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Jensen, Minna Skafte. 1995. A history of Nordic neo-Latin literature. Odense University Studies in Scandinavian Languages and Literatures 32. Odense, Denmark: Odense Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A useful survey arranged by country (Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Sweden, Finland), followed by “select topics” (a mixture of authors, genres, and themes).

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                                                                                                                                                                    Eastern and Central Europe

                                                                                                                                                                    Historically, Polish neo-Latin has received particular attention. Corpus antiquissimorum poetarum Poloniae Latinorum usque ad Joannem Cochanovium assembles a large number of texts of Polish neo-Latin poets. Segel 1989 offers case studies of various Polish Latin authors (mostly, but not only, of a literary kind). Urbanski 2006 is rewarding and much more wide-ranging than the title would suggest. Beyond Poland, Führmann offers an introduction to humanism in eastern Europe more widely. Jurić 1968–1982 lists Latin writers of the former Yugoslavia. The exciting CroALa database includes collections of Croatian neo-Latin authors. Bloemendal 2013 discusses neo-Latin drama across central and eastern Europe.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Bloemendal, Jan. 2013. Central and eastern European countries. In Neo-Latin drama in early modern Europe. Edited by Jan Bloemendal and Howard Norland, 633–656. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1163/9789004257467_011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      The best starting point in English on this topic.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • CroALa: Croatiae auctores Latini: Collection electronica. Edited by Neven Jovanovic, et al. Univ. of Zagreb.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of approximately 150 Croatian authors.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Corpus antiquissimorum poetarum Poloniae Latinorum usque ad Joannem Cochanovium. 1887–. Cracow, Poland: Polska Akademia Umięjetności.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Edited texts of major Polish neo-Latin poets.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Führmann, M. 1993. Von Humanismus und von der humanistischen Bildung in Osteuropa. Gymnasium 100:75–96.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Covers Croatia, Hungary, and the Czech Republic.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Glomski, Jacqueline. 2007. Patronage and humanist literature in the age of the Jagiellons: Court and career in the writings of Rudolf Agricola Junior, Valentin Eck, and Leonard Cox. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Gives a sense of the intellectual milieu in which humanists operated in central and eastern Europe in the early 16th century, focused upon the court at Cracow but approaches the topic from a particularly literary angle. The study is marked by strong close reading and careful attention to the deployment and manipulation of literary conventions in both poetry and prose.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Jurić, Šime. 1968–1982. Iugoslaviae scriptores Latini recentioris aetatis. Zagreb, Yugoslavia: Institutum Historicum Academiae Scientiarum et Artium Slavorum Meridionalium.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Bibliography that includes records for short or partial Latin pieces (e.g., prefaces, epistles) as well as entire works. From the late medieval period to the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Segel, Harold B. 1989. Renaissance culture in Poland: The rise of humanism, 1470–1543. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Series of engaging case studies of Latin humanist writers in Poland. Focuses upon literary production but not confined to literature; includes a chapter on the scientist Copernicus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Urbanski, Piotr. 2006. Pietas humanistica: Neo-Latin religious poetry in Poland in European context. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Very specialized remit belies a surprisingly wide-ranging collection; offers a revealing sense of the tonal and generic range of religious verse, including school prayers, epigrams, drama, Marian poetry, odes, parodiae of Horace Odes 4.3, and even a chapter on the reception of Sarbiewski in England.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    New World

                                                                                                                                                                                    Recent years have seen a marked increase in interest in the neo-Latin writings produced both about and by the peoples of the New World. Kaiser 1984 is a rewarding anthology of neo-Latin verse written by inhabitants of America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Hofmann 1993 is a very substantial survey of surviving “Columbus” poems. Laird is a pioneer in this field in English-language scholarship: Laird 2006 is his most substantial study of Mexican neo-Latin; Laird 2010 is a close study of the adoption and adaption of Virgil in particular. Haskell and Ruys 2010 includes several chapters on the Latin writings of the Americas.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Haskell, Yasmin, and Juanita Feros Ruys, eds. 2010. Latin and alterity in the early modern Period. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 30. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Very interesting collection of essays, many of which engage with Waquet 2001 (cited under Cultural and Educational Context) and extend the geographical and theoretical boundaries of her work. Essays discuss the “otherness” or “alterity” of various topics in relationship to neo-Latinity, including vernacular languages, medieval Latin, and women’s writing. Particular focus upon Latin writings of, and on, the New World.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hofmann, Heinz. 1993. Adveniat tandem Typhis qui detegat orbes: Columbus in Neo-Latin epic poetry, 15th–18th centuries. In The classical tradition and the Americas. Edited by Wolfgang Haase and Meyer Reinhold, 420–656. Berlin: De Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Major contribution with detailed descriptions of Latin Columbus poems of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries by Gambara, Stella, Placcius, Carrara, and Mickl; includes briefer summaries of relevant passages in three other works.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kaiser, Leo M. 1984. Early American Latin verse, 1625–1825: An anthology. Chicago: Bolchazy-Carducci.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Interesting collection of early American Latin verse by more than fifty poets (including several anonymous pieces), most represented by only one or two poems. Brief biographical outline of each poet and (very) brief notes at the back. No translations. Still in print and readily available.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Laird, Andrew. 2006. The epic of America: An introduction to Rafael Landívar and the “Rusticatio Mexicana.” London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            First section of the book places Landívar’s achievement in context with a discussion of the appropriation of the classics in Mexican Latin writing more generally. The detailed study of the Rusticatio Mexicana offers an exemplary guide to the interpretation of Latin poetry from the region and to neo-Latin didactic verse in general.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Laird, Andrew. 2010. The Aeneid from the Aztecs to the dark virgin: Virgil, native tradition, and Latin poetry in colonial Mexico from Sahagún’s Memoriales (1563) to Villerías Guadalupe (1724). In A companion to Vergil’s Aeneid and its tradition. Edited by J. Farrell and Michael C. J. Putnam, 217–233. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1002/9781444318050Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Fascinating albeit dense account of the appropriation of Virgil in colonial Mexico. Particularly interesting on the flexible “re-creation” of the meaning of Virgil’s poetry in a non-European context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Neo-Latin Literary Genres

                                                                                                                                                                                              Most neo-Latin literary genres are fairly closely related, at least in theory, to one or more important classical models, though some, such as Latin verse translations of the psalms into Horatian forms, put classical forms to new uses, and others, such as Latin Pindarics, do not exist in classical literature. Several forms, including epigrams and the writing of letters and letter collections, have classical precedents but assume a greater literary importance in the cultural context of the Renaissance. Several neo-Latin literary genres, including neo-Latin drama and prose fiction, are the subject of major current research projects and forthcoming publications: Scholars and students should be aware that research is developing quickly in this field.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Epic and Didactic Poetry

                                                                                                                                                                                              No single major history of neo-Latin epic is available and few editions of these works are available. Hofmann 2001 offers an overview of the tradition as a whole. The list of French neo-Latin epics of the 16th and 17th centuries in Braun 2007 gives a sense of the range of the genre. Laird 2006 introduces the epic tradition of the New World. Schaffenrath 2011 and Hardie 2013 offer examples of productive close reading of one or two texts within the context of an informed knowledge of the genre. For didactic verse, Roellenbleck 1975 is a guide to the didactic poems of the Italian Renaissance; Panizza focuses upon philosophical and scientific topics—both survey vernacular as well as Latin works. Haskell and Hardie 1999 offers both a concise orientation (in the introduction) and a stimulating collection of essays.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Braun, Ludwig. 2007. Ancilla Calliopeae: Ein Repertorium der neulateinschen Epik Frankreichs, 1500–1700. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004162426.i-742Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Survey of material produced in France only but offers an extremely useful snapshot of the wide range of themes receiving epic treatment at the time and the dominant intertextual models (principally Virgil and, interestingly, Tasso). In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hardie, Philip. 2013. Shepherds’ songs: Generic variation in Renaissance Latin epic. In Generic interfaces in Latin literature: Encounters, interactions and transformations. Edited by Theodore D. Papanghelis, Stephen J. Harrison, and Stavros Frangoulidis, 193–204. Berlin: De Gruyter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1515/9783110303698Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Discusses Sannazaro and Cowley’s Davideis (Horatian translation of Psalm 114). Interesting application of the kind of observations long made about Milton’s Paradise Lost to neo-Latin epic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Haskell, Yasmin, and Philip Hardie, eds. 1999. Poets and teachers: Latin didactic poetry and the didactic authority of the Latin poet from the Renaissance to the present: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium of the Cambridge Society for Neo-Latin Studies, Clare College, Cambridge, 9–11 September, 1996. Bari, Italy: Levante.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Judicious and accessible survey of the scholarship in the introduction to the volume. The first half of the book is concerned with Latin didactic poetry and poetics from the 15th to the 18th centuries; the second half discusses the educational function and authority of neo-Latin poetry more widely.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hofmann, Heinz. 2001. Von Africa über Bethlehem nach America: Das Epos in der neulateinischen Literatur. In Von Göttern und Menschen erzählen: Formkonstanzen und Funktionswandel vormoderner Epik. Potsdamer Altertumswissenschaftliche Beitrage 4. Edited by Jörg Rüpke, 130–182. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Concise introduction to the genre. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Laird, Andrew. 2006. The epic of America: An introduction to Rafael Landívar and the “Rusticatio Mexicana.” London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        The place to start on the epic tradition of the New World.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Panizza, L., ed. 1991. Special Issue: Philosophical and Scientific Poetry in the Renaissance. Renaissance Studies 5.3.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Discusses works from Italy, France, and England, both Latin and vernacular.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Roellenbleck, G. 1975. Das epische Lehrgedicht Italiens im funfzehnten und sechzehnten Jahrhundert: Ein Beitrag zur Literaturgeschichte des Humanismus und der Renaissance. Münchener romanistische Arbeiten 43. Munich: Fink.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Surveys both Latin and vernacular authors of didactic verse during the Italian Renaissance. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Schaffenrath, Florian. 2011. Die Gleichnisse in Jan van Foreests Aeneissupplement im Kontext der neulateinischen Epik. Humanistica Lovaniensia 60:265–277.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Close study of the similes in a single work but suggestive for anyone thinking about this particular characteristic feature of epic style.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pastoral

                                                                                                                                                                                                              On neo-Latin pastoral poetry, Grant 1965 remains foundational. Nichols 1969 explores the relationship between the theory of pastoral verse and its Renaissance practice. Krautter 1983 explores the initial revival of the form in 14th-century Italy. Ford and Taylor 2006 is devoted to neo-Latin pastoral, with chapters on a wide range of authors and variants on the genre.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ford, Philip, and Andrew Taylor, eds. 2006. Special Issue: Neo-Latin and the Pastoral. Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 33.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wide-ranging collection, though strongest on the Italian neo-Latin pastoralists and English neo-Latin. Essays on Pontano, Mantuan (two pieces), Alciato, de Thou, Milton, Renaissance theory of pastoral, Biblical elements, pastoral comedy, Latin pastoral in English university publications, and the reception of Sannazaro in the age of Dryden and Pope.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Grant, William L. 1965. Neo-Latin literature and the pastoral. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Assembles the conclusions of a series of earlier articles. Some detailed discussion of texts but quotations largely in English translation, so little close attention to matters of Latinity. Texts considered range from Dante (1319) to a pastoral poem in praise of Napoleon (1800) and from most of western Europe, though with a focus on Italian material.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Krautter, Konrad. 1983. Die Renaissance der Bukolik in der Lateinischen Literatur des XIV. Jahrhunderts: Von Dante bis Petrarca. Munich: Fink.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study of the earliest revival of pastoral (or “bucolic”) as a form in the Latin literature of Italy in the 14th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nichols, F. J. 1969. The development of neo-Latin theory of the pastoral in the sixteenth century. Humanistica Lovaniensia 18:95–114.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Elegant account of the relationship between the literary theory of pastoral of 16th-century critics and the practice of the genre in (mostly) earlier Italian poets.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Epigram

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Epigrams, a fairly marginal genre in classical Latin, were an extremely popular neo-Latin verse form. The most complete history and general account of the neo-Latin genre is found in Laurens 1989. On various aspects and types of neo-Latin epigrams, Hutton 1935 and Hutton 1946 remain essential reading on the Latin adaption of Greek epigram in Renaissance Italy and France. For Jesuit epigrams, see Raspa 1983. Cummings 2007 offers a model for the interpretation of illustrated epigrams. Binns 1990 discusses various types of, and uses for, the epigram. Two recent essay collections, de Beer, et al. 2009 and Cardini and Coppini 2009, include valuable studies of both generic theory and specific authors. Schnur and Kössling 1984 offers a selection of texts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Binns, J. W. 1990. Intellectual culture in Elizabethan and Jacobean England: The Latin writings of the age. Leeds, UK: Francis Cairns.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chapters 4, 5, and 10 survey the various types and uses of epigram in England in the Early modern period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cardini, Roberto, and Donatella Coppini, eds. 2009. Il rinnovamento umanistico della poesia: L’epigramma e l’elegia. Florence: Edizioni Pagliai Polistampa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Divided, as the title suggests, between chapters on the humanist revival of epigram and of elegy. In Italian, and concerned with Italian Renaissance poets. Includes chapters on the epigram tradition of both Martial and Catullus and on Greek as well as Latin models.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Cummings, Robert. 2007. Alciato’s illustrated epigrams. Emblematica 15:193–228.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Compelling study of one particularly influential (and much reprinted) collection of illustrated epigrams.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • de Beer, Susanna, K. A. E. Enenkel, and David Rijser. 2009. The neo-Latin epigram: A learned and witty genre. Supplementa Lovaniensia 25. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Indispensable volume, combining overviews of the formal characteristics of Renaissance epigram with close studies of representative authors. In English apart from a single contribution in Italian.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hutton, James. 1935. The Greek anthology in Italy to the year 1800. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Still essential reading on the transformation of the Greek anthology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hutton, James. 1946. The Greek anthology in France and in the Latin writers of the Netherlands to the year 1800. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplements Hutton 1935.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Laurens, Pierre. 1989. L’abeille dans l’ambre: Célébration de l’épigramme de l’époque alexandrine à la fin de la Renaissance. Collection d’études anciennes 59. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fullest and most rewarding history of the genre and of its Renaissance revival, with a particular focus upon the relationship between Petrarchan verse and neo-Latin epigram. In French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Raspa, A. 1983. The emotive image: Jesuit poetics in the English Renaissance. Fort Worth: Texas Christian Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ambitious attempt to situate certain English poets—Heywood, Southwell, Alabaster, Donne, Crashaw, and Eldred Revett—within the context of Jesuit poetic theories, including Jesuit theories of the spiritual point and purchase of the epigram form.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schnur, Harry, and Rainer Kössling, eds. 1984. Galle und Honig: Humanistenepigramme: Lateinische und deutsch. Leipzig: Reclam.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Useful (though brief) anthology of Latin texts with German prose translations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Elegy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Several recent articles have done much to enhance our understanding of the typical techniques and range of neo-Latin elegiac verse, with a particular focus on love elegy. Parker 2012 is particularly lively and engaging. Houghton 2013 is especially concise and elegant. Older but useful for orientation is Ludwig 1976. Three important essay collections have appeared in recent years: Chappuis Sandoz 2011, Cardini and Coppini 2009, and Catanzaro and Santucci 1999. Among rich recent work on individual poets, Pieper 2008 (on Landino’s Xandra) has the most wide-ranging relevance for students of elegy in general. Readers wishing to a get a flavor of Latin love elegy in the Renaissance and Early Modern period should consult the works listed under Anthologies and Text Collections (see descriptions for further guidance).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cardini, R., and D. Coppini, eds. 2009. Il rinnovamento umanistico della poesia: L’epigramma e l’elegia. Florence: Edizioni Polistampa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Divided, as the title suggests, between chapters on the humanist revival of epigram and of elegy. In Italian, and concerned with Italian Renaissance poets. Includes consideration of the scholarly as well as poetic reception of Catullus, Propertius, Tibullus, and Ovid.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Catanzaro, Giuseppe, and Francesco Santucci, eds. 1999. La poesia umanistica in distici elegiac: Atti del convegno internazionale, Assisi, 15–17 maggio 1998. Assisi, Italy: Accademia Properziana del Subasio.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wider-ranging collection than the average: dominated by articles on Italian Renaissance elegists but includes pieces on authors who are less familiar and on topics such as the Croatian poet Cervinus and funeral elegy in Spain in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Chappuis Sandoz, L., ed. 2011. Au-delà de l’élégie d’amour: Métamorphoses et renouvellements d’un genre latin dans l’Antiquité et à la Renaissance. Lectures de la Renaissance latine 2. Paris: Classiques Garnier.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Only the final section (of three) devoted to neo-Latin elegy, but valuable in particular for its consideration of Latin love elegy as a whole—Augustan, late antique, and neo-Latin examples. The four chapters devoted to neo-Latin elegy treat Pontano, Campano, Petrus Gravina, and Fabricius Montanus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Houghton, L. B. T. 2013. Renaissance Latin love elegy. In The Cambridge companion to Latin love elegy. Edited by Thea S. Thorsen, 290–305. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CCO9781139028288Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Excellent counterpart to Parker 2012, as Houghton arranges his material thematically (“Recreation,” “Contamination,” “Succession”) rather than chronologically. Also valuable for its emphasis upon anthologies of the Early Modern period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ludwig, W. 1976. Petrus Lotichius Secundus and the Roman elegists: Prolegomena to a study of neo-Latin elegy. In Classical influences on European culture, A.D. 1500–1700: Proceedings of an international conference held at King’s College, Cambridge, April 1974. Edited by R. R. Bolgar, 171–190. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Introductory survey that remains very useful and which is often cited.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Parker, Holt N. 2012. Renaissance Latin elegy. In A companion to Roman love elegy. Edited by Barbara K. Gold, 476–488. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Brisk, lively, and readable introduction to the genre arranged chronologically. Rapid but incisive overview of a large number of important Italian authors. Good on Secundus, Lotichius, de Bèze, and du Bellay.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pieper, C. 2008. Elegos redolere Vergiliosque sapere: Cristoforo Landinos “Xandra” zwischen Liebe und Gesellschaft. Noctes Neolatinae, Neo-Latin Texts and Studies 8. Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Although focused on Landino’s important elegiac collection Xandra (which has not previously received such sustained attention), Pieper’s careful contextualizing includes an entire chapter devoted to Landino’s elegiac predecessors, with subchapters on Giovanni Marrassio, Antonio Beccadelli, Enea Silvio Piccolomini, and Petrarch.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lyric

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      For selections of texts, consult Anthologies. On Horatian lyric, Maddison 1960 is dated but still useful; for German Horatian poets, see Schäfer 1976. Revard 2001 discusses Pindaric odes and the overlap between Pindaric imitation and hymns. The appendix to Marmier 1962 gives a sense of the range of Horatian works produced in the period. Campbell 1960 offers a guide to French galliambic verse. Gaertner 1956 considers the tradition of psalm translations and paraphrases, and Green 2000 relates that tradition to that of Horatian imitation in the particular case of Buchanan. Gaisser 1993 remains the place to start for short lyrics in the Catullan tradition.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Campbell, D. A. 1960. Galliambic poems of the 15th and 16th centuries: Sources of the Bacchic odes of the Pléiade school. Bibliothèque d’humanisme et renaissance 22:490–510.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fine article on the adaption of Catullus 63 (on Attis and Cybele) for neo-Latin Bacchic odes, beginning with Marullus in the late 15th century and ending in the early 17th century. Prints full Latin text of all the poems discussed, though without translations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gaertner, Joannes A. 1956. Latin verse translations of the psalms, 1500–1620. Harvard Theological Review 49:271–305.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/S0017816000028303Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Widely cited paper that identifies more than one hundred authors who translated or paraphrased the psalms into Latin verse in classical meters. Remains an essential starting point for an important genre of the period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gaisser, Julia Haig. 1993. Catullus and his Renaissance readers. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Magisterial study of the Renaissance reception of Catullus. Distinguished by its appreciation of the significance of scholarly as well as literary modes of reception and interpretation. Very influential account of the role of Martial as a mediating influence in the Renaissance reception of Catullus and of the importance of Pontano in establishing the “Catullan” style in neo-Latin verse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Green, Roger P. H. 2000. Davidic psalm and Horatian ode: Five poems of George Buchanan. Renaissance Studies 14:91–111.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-4658.2000.tb00373.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Detailed analysis of the use of Horatian phrases, motifs, and structure in the psalm translations of the Scottish humanist George Buchanan (b. 1508–d. 1582). Discusses translations of psalms 23, 49, 72, 82, and 125.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ludwig, Walter. 1993. Horazrezeption in der Renaissance oder die Renaissance des Horaz. In Horace: L’oeuvre et les imitations: Un siècle d’interprétation. Edited by Walter Ludwig, 305–380. Geneva, Switzerland: Fondation Hardt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Important article followed by discussion. Includes a selection on neo-Latin poems in praise of Horace.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Maddison, Carol. 1960. Apollo and the nine: A history of the ode. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Covers both the neo-Latin and the vernacular tradition. Detailed discussion of neo-Latin lyric is confined largely to the Italian poets of the 15th and 16th centuries; some brief (and largely disparaging) comments on later neo-Latin authors elsewhere. Condensed in style, but sensitive readings of many poems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Marmier, Jean. 1962. Horace en France, au dix-septième siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Includes an extremely useful appendix of Horatian works published in 17th-century France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Revard, Stella P. 2001. Pindar and the Renaissance hymn ode, 1450–1700. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Covers both the neo-Latin and the vernacular tradition of Pindaric imitation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schäfer, Eckart. 1976. Deutscher Horaz: Conrad Celtis, Georg Fabricius, Paul Melissus, Jacob Balde: Die Nachwirkung des Horaz in der neulateinischen Dichtung Deutschlands. Wiesbaden, Germany: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Remains essential starting point for the German Horatian poets.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Verse Satire and Verse Epistles

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ramos 2002 offers a good overview of the neo-Latin verse satire, although in Spanish. For a briefer introduction in English, see IJsewijn 1976. Subgenres and national trends in neo-Latin satire have both attracted attention: good examples of both include Kivistö 2009 on medical imagery in satire and Tournoy 1998 on the genre in the Low Countries. On particular satirists, Freyburger and Lefèvre 2005 is a strong recent collection on Balde’s appropriation of Roman satire. No published overview that considers neo-Latin verse letters as a whole is available at present, although letters in verse were widely composed (and, indeed, sent) throughout the Renaissance and Early Modern period. Dörrie 1968 surveys the important subgenre of heroic epistles; Eickmeyer 2012 discusses Jesuit versions of that form, and Paleit 2008 offers an interesting study of a particular poet, Mark Alexander Boyd.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dörrie, Heinrich. 1968. Der heroische Brief: Bestandsaufnahme, Geschichte, Kritik einer humanistisch-barocken Literaturgattung. Berlin: De Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Overview of the subgenre of the neo-Latin “heroic” verse epistle, in imitation of Ovid’s Heroides. In German but not confined to the discussion of German texts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Eickmeyer, Jost. 2012. Der jesuitische Heroidenbrief: Zur Christianisierung und Kontextualisierung einer antiken Gattung in der frühen Neuzeit. Frühe Neuzeit 162. Berlin: de Gruyter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1515/9783110260649Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thorough and theoretically sophisticated study. Emphasis upon German neo-Latin writers. Very useful final section prints texts themselves. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Freyburger, Gérard, and Eckard Lefèvre, eds. 2005. Balde und die römische Satire: Balde et la satire romaine. NeoLatina 8. Tübingen, Germany: Narr.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Extremely thorough collection with essays both on Balde’s relationship to Roman satire in general and on particular works and topics. Most up-to-date volume on an author whose satire has attracted a good deal of scholarship. Mostly German, some French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • IJsewijn, Jozef. 1976. Neo-Latin satire: Sermo and satyra menippea. In Classical influences on European culture, A.D. 1500–1700: Proceedings of an international conference held at King’s College, Cambridge, April 1974. Edited by R. R. Bolgar, 41–55. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Traces the development in neo-Latin satire of both the classical verse satire tradition (in imitation of Horace, Juvenal, and Persius) and that of Menippean satire, which mixes prose and verse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kivistö, Sari. 2009. Medical analogy in Latin satire. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1057/9780230244870Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not only a survey of the use of medical imagery within particular neo-Latin satirists, but also of the importance of the “medical analogy”—of satire as a curative force and the satirist as a moral doctor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Paleit, E. 2008. Sexual and political liberty and neo-Latin poetics: The Heroides of Mark Alexander Boyd. Renaissance Studies 22.3: 351–367.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-4658.2008.00510.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Interesting study of the two collections of Heroides by Boyd, a Scottish poet writing in France in the late 16th century. Useful counterpoint to Eickmeyer 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ramos, Marco A. C. 2002. La sátira Latina. Madrid: Sintesis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Treatment of the genre as a whole, with a thorough overview of neo-Latin satire on pp. 157–229. In Spanish.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tournoy, Gilbert. 1998. Neo-Latin satire in the Low Countries from an Italian perspective. In Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Bariensis: Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Neo-Latin Studies, Bari, 29 August to 3 September 1994. Edited by Juan F. Alcina and Rhoda Schnur, 71–95. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A more complete survey of neo-Latin satire of the region than the title suggests, the paper builds on (and summarizes) an earlier piece by Tournoy on the beginnings of the genre. Sensible guide both to the typical preoccupations of the genre and to the difficulties of its interpretation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Drama

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Several recent publications have much improved the resources for the study of neo-Latin drama. Bloemendal and Norland 2013 is now the best starting point. Other useful and up-to-date collections include Bloemendal and Ford 2008 and Ford and Taylor 2013. Bradner 1957 remains foundational. Grund 2005 is a rare example of a modern scholarly edition. Valentin 1978 remains the only attempt to survey the full scale of one subset of neo-Latin dramatic production.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bloemendal, Jan, and Philip Ford. 2008. Neo-Latin drama: Forms, functions, receptions. Noctes Neolatinae, Neo-Latin Texts and Studies 9. Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collection of essays with an interesting focus upon the evidence for the contemporary reception and appreciation of neo-Latin drama. In English, French, and German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bloemendal, Jan, and Howard B. Norland, eds. 2013. Neo-Latin drama and theatre in early modern Europe. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Now the authoritative starting point for all work on neo-Latin drama; unique among existing publications in its treatment of neo-Latin drama from across Europe, including Jesuit drama.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bradner, L. 1957. The Latin drama of the Renaissance, 1340–1650. Studies in the Renaissance 4:31–70.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Essential introduction. Does not include mss evidence; nothing from after 1650 (although Jesuit drama produced the majority of its plays in the 18th century). Includes a list of original neo-Latin plays printed before 1650 (pp. 55–70).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ford, Philip, and Andrew Taylor, eds. 2013. The early modern cultures of neo-Latin drama. Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia 32. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection of essays, largely on specific neo-Latin dramatists. Includes some consideration of the influence of the Greek tradition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Grund, Gary R., ed. 2005. Humanist comedies. I Tatti Renaissance Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fine edition with Latin text, English translation, notes, and introduction. Five Latin comedies of the 15th century in Italy: Vergerio’s Paulus, Alberti’s Philodexeos fabula, Pisani’s Philogenia et Ephiphebus, Piccolomini’s Chrysis, and Medio’s Epirota.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Valentin, Jean-Marie. 1978. Le théâtre des Jésuites dans les pays de langue allemande: Répertoire chronologique des pieces représentées et des documents conservés, 1555–1773. 2 vols. Bern, Switzerland: Lang.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Only existing attempt to indicate the full scale of all productions, but only for German-speaking countries (though this the single largest body of Jesuit drama).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Epistolary Writing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Martín Baños 2005 is the most complete survey of the theoretical aspects of this important Renaissance genre. Clough 1976, Fumaroli 1978, Henderson 1983, and Henderson 1993 offer various perspectives on the genre, its function, and specific prominent authors. Worstbrock 1983; Gerlo 1985; and van Houdt, et al. 2002 are collections of essays on letter writing. For the important subgenre of dedicatory letters and letters of recommendation, see Glomski 2007; Bossuyt, et al. 2008; and Waquet 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bossuyt, Ignace, Nele Gabriëls, D. Sacré, and Denny Verbeke, eds. 2008. “Cui dono lepidum novum libellum?” Dedicating Latin works and motets in the sixteenth century. Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia 23. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Considers dedicatory letters among other paratextual devices, both theoretically and via specific case studies across a range of genres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clough, Cecil. 1976. The cult of antiquity: Letters and letter collections. In Cultural aspects of the Italian Renaissance: Essays in honour of Paul Oskar Kristeller. Edited by Cecil Clough, 33–67. Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Important article on the self-conscious artistry of humanist letter writers after Petrarch.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fumaroli, Marc. 1978. Genèse de l’épistolographie classique: Rhétorique humaniste de la lettre, de Pétrarque à Juste Lipse. Revue d’histoire littéraire de la France 78:886–905.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Widely cited article focusing on the application of classical rhetorical principles to humanist epistolography. In French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gerlo, A., ed. 1985. La correspondance d’Erasme et l’épistolographie humaniste. Travaux de l’Institut interuniversitaire pour l’Étude de la Renaissance et de l’Humanisme 8. Brussels: Éditions de l’Université de Bruxelles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Valuable collection of essays on various humanist letter writers of the 15th and 16th centuries, though mostly adopting a historical and biographical rather than primarily literary approach to the material. In French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Glomski, Jacqueline. 2007. Patronage and humanist literature in the age of the Jagiellons: Court and career in the writings of Rudolf Agricola Junior, Valentin Eck, and Leonard Cox. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Employs a wide range of literary sources, both prose and poetry, in its analysis of the relationship between the itinerant scholar-poets and their patrons in early-16th-century Cracow. Particularly detailed consideration of the role of dedicatory letters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Henderson, Judith Rice. 1983. Defining the genre of the letter: Juan Luis Vives’ De Conscribendis Epistolis. Renaissance and Reformation/Renaissance et Réforme 7 (o.s. 19): 89–105.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Focuses on the epistolographical theory and its classical inheritance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Henderson, Judith Rice. 1993. On reading the rhetoric of the Renaissance letter. In Renaissance-Rhetorik/Renaissance rhetoric. Edited by Heinrich F. Plett, 143–162. Berlin: De Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Accessible English article, though volume mostly in German. See also her chapter in van Houdt, et al. 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Martín Baños, Pedro. 2005. El arte epistolar en el Renacimiento europeo, 1400–1600. Bilbao, Spain: Universidad de Deusto.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Most complete survey of the genre, with a particularly useful bibliography that offers guidance both to the secondary literature and to the existing editions of primary texts. In Spanish.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • van Houdt, T., J. Papy, G. Tournoy, and C. Matheeussen, eds. 2002. Self-presentation and social identification: The rhetoric and pragmatics of letter writing in early modern times. Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia 18. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rich collection of essays on the epistolography of the Early Modern period, both Latin and vernacular. Concerned mostly though not exclusively with prose rather than verse letters. Particularly interesting final section on the epistolographical construction of literary fame and scientific reputation. Largely in English; one contribution in French and one in Italian.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Waquet, Françoise. 2010. Éléments pour une histoire de la lettre de recommandation, XVIIe siècle. In Respublica academica: Rituels universitaires et genres du savoir, XVIIe–XXIe siècle. Edited by Françoise Waquet, 125–154. Paris: Presse Universitaire Paris-Sorbonne.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Summary of the key features of an important subgenre, the letter of recommendation. In French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Worstbrock, Franz J., ed. 1983. Der Brief im Zeitalter der Renaissance. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: Kommission für Humanismusforschung 9. Weinheim, Germany: Acta humaniora.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Includes several essays offering close readings of individual letters and letter collections, with attention to literary style and the relationship of epistolographic theory and practice in the period. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Historiography

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          As with most neo-Latin literary genres, the story begins in Italy. Fubini 2003 explores those Italian humanist beginnings. Landfester 1972 and Grafton 2007 survey humanist and early modern theories of historiography. The collected essays in Helmrath, et al. 2002 trace the development of the genre from Italy to the rest of Europe. The later developments of the genre are discussed in Muhlack 1991. Two other valuable collections of essays are di Stefano 1992 and Rau and Studt 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • di Stefano, Anita. ed. 1992. La storiografia umanistica: Convegno internazionale di studi, Messina, 22–25 ottobre 1987. 3 vols. Messina, Italy: Sicania.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Originally conference proceedings, Volumes 1.1 and 1.2 consist of essays on humanist historiography, principally Italian, and concerned largely with 15th-century authors. In Italian apart from one essay on French humanist historiography, 1400–1560 (in French) and a final essay on Aventinus (in German). Volume 2 prints facsimiles of four hard-to-find editions of humanist historiography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fubini, Riccardo. 2003. Storiografia dell’umanesimo in Italia da Leonardo Bruni ad Annio da Viterbo. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In Italian.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Grafton, Anthony. 2007. What was History? The art of history in early modern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Particularly accessible introduction to Renaissance historiography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Helmrath, J., U. Muhlack, and G. Walther, eds. 2002. Diffusion des Humanismus: Studien zur nationalen Geschichtsschreibung europäischer Humanisten. Göttingen, Germany: Wallstein.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Collection of papers concerned with the dissemination of methods and styles of historiography from Italy to the rest of Europe. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Landfester, Rüdiger. 1972. Historia magistra vitae: Untersuchungen zur humanistischen Geschichtstheorie des 14. bis 16. Jahrhunderts. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Influential study of Renaissance historiography with an emphasis on its status as a literary genre. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Muhlack, U. 1991. Geschichtswissenschaft im Humanismus und in der Aufklärung. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Overview of historiography between humanism and the Enlightenment. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Rau, Susanne, and Birgit Studt, eds. 2010. Geschichte schreiben. Ein Quellen- und Studienhandbuch zur Historiografie, ca. 1350–1750. Berlin: Akademie.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rich collection of relevant sources, commentary essays and useful bibliographies. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dialogue

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The I Tatti Renaissance Library series has published several volumes of neo-Latin dialogues (see details below); the increased availability of accessible editions may lead to further scholarship in due course. For the time being, Tateo 1993 and Marsh 1980 give overviews of 15th-century Italian dialogue and Cox 1992 of 16th-century texts. Geerts, et al. 2001 and Heitsch and Vallée 2004 assemble essays on a range of individual texts and authors. Smarr 2005 and Cox 2013 explore the role of women as authors and characters in Renaissance dialogue.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cox, Virginia. 1992. The Renaissance dialogue: Literary dialogue in its social and political contexts, Castiglione to Galileo. Cambridge. UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Develops a useful distinction between “documentary” dialogues (modeled in particular on Cicero) and “fictional” dialogues (modeled principally upon Lucian) and also identifies and traces a shift toward increasingly monological and didactic forms of dialogue in the latter half of the 16th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Cox, Virginia. 2013. The female voice in Italian Renaissance dialogue. Modern Language Notes 128.1: 53–78.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1353/mln.2013.0006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Explores the role of women as characters in Italian humanist dialogue.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Geerts, W., A. Paternoster, and F. Pignatti, eds. 2001. Il sapere delle parole: Studi sul dialogo latino e italiano del Rinascimento: Giornate di studio, Anversa, 21–22 febbraio 1997. Rome: Bulzoni.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Renaissance Latin dialogue in Italy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Heitsch, Dorothea, and Jean-François Vallée, eds. 2004. Printed voices: The Renaissance culture of dialogue. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection of essays on the Renaissance dialogue from Petrarch to Hobbes. Considers Latin as well as vernacular examples, including an essay on the use of dialogues for language learning and the relationship of the dialogue genre to the supposed emergence of subjectivity in the Renaissance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • I Tatti Renaissance Library.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This series has published several importance neo-Latin dialogues, in fine editions with facing translation and brief notes. See, in particular, editions of Bembo (2005), Brandolini (2009), Giraldi (2011), Pontano (2012), Giovio (2013), and Fileflo (2013).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Marsh, David. 1980. The Quattrocento dialogue: Classical tradition and humanist innovation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674180550Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Investigation of the characteristic form, function, and stylistic features of the 15th-century Ciceronian humanist dialogue in Italy. Chapters on Bruni, Poggio, Valla, Alberti, and Pontano.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Smarr, Janet L. 2005. Joining the conversation: Dialogues by Renaissance women. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In contrast to Cox 2013, explores dialogues by women (rather than featuring them as characters). Strong on the relationship between dialogues and other genres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tateo, Francesco. 1993. Tradizione e realtà nell’umanesimo italiano. Reprint. Bari, Italy: Dedalo Libri.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Part 2 discusses the dialogues of 15th-century Italian humanists. In Italian. Originally published in 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Prose Fiction and Satire

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Neo-Latin prose satire was written in both the Lucianic and Menippean traditions. On the history of Lucian in the early Renaissance period, see Marsh 1998. On humanist Menippean satire, see Blanchard 1995 on intellectual satire, de Smet 1996 on dream visions in particular, and Kivistö 2009 on paradoxography and medical satire. IJsewijn 1999 focuses on the satirical novel, Kytzler 1982 on fiction in imitation of More’s Utopia. For the neo-Latin novel as a whole, the place to start is now Tilg and Walser 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Blanchard, W. Scott. 1995. Scholars’ Bedlam: Menippean Satire in the Renaissance. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Important study of Menippean satire as an intellectual form, in both Latin and vernacular. Considers both prose and verse (e.g. mock epic) examples of the form.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • de Smet, Ingrid A. R. 1996. Menippean satire and the republic of letters, 1581–1655. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Particularly influential for its discussion of dream visions in prose satire.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • IJsewijn, Jozef. 1999. The neo-Latin satirical novel in the 17th c. Neulateinisches Jahrbuch 1:129–140.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Brief but useful article on this particular subgenre.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kivistö, Sari. 2009. Medical analogy in Latin satire. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Particularly strong on paradoxography and mock encomia. Discusses both verse and prose satire. Very valuable for its attention to humanist anthologies of satirical texts. Of considerable general use for anyone working on neo-Latin satire, despite the focus on medical analogy in particular.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kytzler, B. 1982. Zur neulateinischen Utopie. In Utopieforschung: Interdisziplinäre Studien zur neuzeitlichen Utopie. Vol. 2. Edited by Wilhelm Vosskamp, 197–209. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Brief guide to neo-Latin fiction in the tradition of More’s Utopia. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Marsh, David. 1998. Lucian and the Latins: Humor and humanism in the early Renaissance. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On the Lucianic tradition in the earlier period (up to the 1520s) with chapters on important motifs of the genre, including the dialogue of the dead, dialogues in heaven, the paradoxical encomium, and the fantastic voyage.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tilg, Stefan, and Isabella Walser, eds. 2013. Der neulateinische Roman als Medium seiner Zeit: The neo-Latin novel in its time. NeoLatina. Tübingen, Germany: Narr.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Very important collection. Particularly strong on the works of Barclay and Holberg, but also essays on neo-Latin fiction from Bruni to the 20th century. In German and English with one essay in French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oratory, Rhetoric, and Prose Style

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Only a very small number of Renaissance Latin speeches and declamations have received modern scholarly editions, and those that do exist are often published in journals or essay collections. Mack 1996 and Monfasani 1988 are good introductions. Van der Poel 1987 is a wide-ranging study of humanist declamatio (in Dutch but with an English summary). For funeral oratory, see Saulnier 1948 and McManamon 1989. On the oratorical practice of the papal court, see O’Malley 1979. Van der Poel 2007 tackles incisively the question of the “classicism” of humanist rhetoric. For access to the key texts debating the question of Ciceronian style, see Dellaneva and Duvick 2007. Tunberg 1997 is an excellent example of a detailed analysis of Latin prose style in the period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dellaneva, J., ed., and B. Duvick, trans. 2007. Ciceronian controversies. I Tatti Renaissance Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fine edition of relevant correspondence on the question of Ciceronian style. Latin text with parallel translation and brief notes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mack, P. 1996. Humanistic rhetoric and dialectic. In The Cambridge companion to Renaissance humanism. Edited by Jill Kraye, 82–99. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CCOL0521430380Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Very readable and easily accessible introduction to the topic, via discussion of seven important teachers of rhetoric from the late 14th century (Antonio Loschi) to the late 16th (Peter Ramus).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • McManamon, John M. 1989. Funeral oratory and the cultural ideals of Italian humanism. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Late 14th century to mid-16th century; uses a corpus of approximately five hundred funeral orations. Though not itself a study of the funeral oration per se, it offers an analysis of Italian humanism centered on rhetoric.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Monfasani, J. 1988. Humanism and rhetoric. In Renaissance humanism: Foundations, forms, and legacy. Vol. 3, Humanism and the disciplines. Edited by Albert Rabil Jr., 171–270. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Landmark study of the assimilation of the classical rhetorical tradition in early humanism. Much cited.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • O’Malley, John W. 1979. Praise and blame in Renaissance Rome: Rhetoric, doctrine, and reform in the sacred orators of the papal court, c.1450–1521. Duke Monographs in Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Explores the role of epideictic oratory, and its humanist rediscovery, in the specific context of the papal court at Rome, but with implications for the style and function of Renaissance oratory more generally.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Saulnier, Verdun L. 1948. L’oraison funèbre au XVIe siècle. Bibliothèque d’humanisme et renaissance 10:124–157.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Key article on the emergence of the classicizing funeral sermon, focusing on sermons in commemoration of Henri IV. In French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Tunberg, Terence O. 1997. Ciceronian Latin: Longolius and others. Humanistica Lovaniensia 46:13–61.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Detailed account of the “Ciceronianism” (and departures from Ciceronian style) of a single Ciceronian author, Christophorus Longolius (b. 1488–d. 1522); a rare example of detailed analysis of the components of the prose style of a neo-Latinist. Rich pickings for anyone attempting to analyze neo-Latin prose style in detail.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • van der Poel, Marc. 1987. De “declamation” bij de humanisten: Bijdrage tot de studie van de functies van de rhetorica in de Renaissance. Nieuwkoop, The Netherlands: Hes & De Graaf.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Focuses in particular on the role of declamation in education. In Dutch but with an English summary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • van der Poel, Marc. 2007. Humanist rhetoric in the Renaissance: Classical mastery? In Latinitas Perennis. Vol. 1, The continuity of Latin literature. Edited by Wim Verbaal, Yanick Maes, and Jan Papy, 119–140. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Discussion of the limits of applicability of classical and poetic categories to the Latin writings of the Renaissance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Female Participation and Representation in Neo-Latin Writing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scholarly interest in neo-Latin writing by women has focused in particular on the women writers of the 15th century in Italy: Several authors, including Cassandra Fedele and Laura Cereta, figure in several of the works listed below. King and Rabil 1983 offers a selection of translated prose texts, mostly letters and orations, while Cheney and Hosington 2000 is a rare example of a dedicated critical edition. King and Rabil’s series, The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe, prints mostly translations only, but it is a useful and still expanding resource. Churchill, et al. 2002 looks beyond Italy to include a handful of examples from elsewhere in Europe. Stevenson 2005 offers the fullest survey of Europe as a whole, including northern and central Europe and the New World, but it is focused on only poetry. Smarr 2005 and Cox 2013 consider dialogues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cheney, Donald, and Brenda Hosington. 2000. Elizabeth Jane Weston: Collected writings. Toronto: Toronto Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fine edition of Weston’s poetry, in Latin with parallel English translation and notes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Churchill, Laurie J., Phyllis R. Brown, and Jane E. Jeffrey, eds. 2002. Women writing in Latin: from Roman antiquity to early modern Europe. Vol. 3, Early modern women writing Latin. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Volume 3 on the Early Modern period. Twelve European women authors from the period, seven of them Italian. Each has an introduction and a sample of text with translation, followed by a bibliography. The quality of texts, translations, and introductions is variable, but the collection is still a useful introductory text, perhaps especially for teaching purposes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Cox, Virginia. 2013. The female voice in Italian Renaissance dialogue. Modern Language Notes 128:53–78.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1353/mln.2013.0006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Important article on the depiction of women as speakers in dialogues written by men.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • King, Margaret, and Albert Rabil Jr., eds. and trans. 1983. Her immaculate hand: Selected works by and about the women humanists of quattrocento Italy. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies. New York: State Univ. of New York at Binghamton.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Varied collection of texts, including letters and orations. Short general introduction and brief introductions offering largely historical context to each text.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • King, Margaret, and Albert Rabil Jr., eds. 2012. The other voice in early modern Europe. Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Large series of carefully edited and introduced texts, largely by women, now taken over by the Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Victoria University and Iter: Gateway to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In English translation and mostly without original text (a few poetic exceptions).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Smarr, Janet L. 2005. Joining the conversation: Dialogues by Renaissance women. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Detailed discussion of French and Italian dialogues by women. Particularly good on the relationship between dialogue and epistolary writing (chapter 4). Useful appendix listing the dialogues discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Stevenson, Jane. 2005. Women Latin poets: Language, gender, & authority from antiquity to the eighteenth century. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198185024.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      On Latin poetry written by women from Sulpicia onward. Section 3 is concerned with Renaissance authors of the 15th and 16th centuries. Section 4 deals with “early modern” authors of the 16th to 18th centuries. Chapters on authors from Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, northern and central Europe, and England and the New World.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Classical Imitation and Intertextuality

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Many books and articles, not to mention the introductions and notes to editions of individual works, explore the relationship between neo-Latin and classical literature. Neo-Latin literature is marked by its dense intertextual relationship, sometimes to the point of saturation, with the works of classical Greek and Latin writers (not to mention other neo-Latin texts). Among a large field, the selected works offer a range of approaches. Pigman 1990 is a brief and very readable introduction to the topic, making elegant use of Petrarch and Vida’s own thoughts on imitation. McFarlane 1976 explores the relationship between classical imitation and the use of commonplace books. Kallendorf 2007 demonstrates the extent to which imitation involves interpretation. Gaisser 1993 is another magisterial study of the influence of a single author (Catullus), with an authoritative survey of scholarship as well as literary imitation. Miller 2003 explores a relatively unfamiliar subset of neo-Latin Ovidian poems—imitations of the Fasti. Auhagen, et al. 2000 brings together a series of pieces on a single imitative relationship (between Horace and Conrad Celtis). See also under the headings for individual genres.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Auhagen, Ulrike, Eckard Lefèvre, and Eckart Schäfer, eds. 2000. Horaz und Celtis. Neolatin 1. Tübingen, Germany: Narr.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of essays on Celtis’s imitative relationship with Horace. Concerned mostly with the intertextual conversation between specific poems or groups of poems but also includes a section of three more general essays on the relationship between the two. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gaisser, Julia Haig. 1993. Catullus and his Renaissance readers. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Magisterial study of a single author, his Renaissance reception and imitation, including contemporary scholarly editions and commentaries as well as poetic imitation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kallendorf, Craig. 2007. The other Virgil: “Pessimistic” readings of the Aeneid in early modern culture. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199212361.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fine example both of nuanced reception history and of an effective integration of neo-Latin material with readings of vernacular works. Exceptionally thorough explanation of the intellectual and cultural context in which imitations of Virgil arose.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • McFarlane, I. D. 1976. Reflections on Ravisius Textor’s Specimen Epithetorum. In Classical influences on European culture, A.D. 1500–1700: Proceedings of an international conference held at King’s College, Cambridge, April 1974. Edited by R. R. Bolgar, 81–90. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Despite the dauntingly specific title, a useful article on the relationship of early modern imitation to the use of phrase-books and commonplace books.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miller, J. F. 2003. Ovid’s Fasti and the neo-Latin Christian calendar poem. International Journal of the Classical Tradition 10:173–186.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1007/s12138-003-0007-zSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Focused in particular on Lodovico Lazzarelli’s Christian calendar poem but places it in the context of the neo-Latin genre more widely.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pigman, G. W., III. 1990. Neo-Latin imitation of the Latin classics. In Latin poetry and the classical tradition: Essays in medieval and Renaissance literature. Edited by Peter Godman and Oswyn Murray, 199–210. Oxford: Clarendon,.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Very readable short account of the problems of identifying and interpreting imitation and allusion in neo-Latin literature, with examples from Petrarch and Vida. Useful double focus upon both neo-Latin imitative practice and the reflections of neo-Latin writers themselves upon imitation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Neo-Latin and the Vernacular

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Burke 2004 is a good introduction to the topic of linguistic interaction and language communities. Taylor and Coroleu 1999 (for Spain) and Castor and Cave 1984 (for France) include essays on the interaction between Latin and vernacular in national contexts; Ford 2013 also focuses on France. Guthmüller 1998 and Thurn 2012 consider Europe as a whole. Tournoy and Tunberg 1996 offers a guide to the specific linguistic and stylistic features that might suggest vernacular influence on neo-Latin writing. Amherdt 2009 is a detailed analysis of bilingual “code-switching” in a particular author (Jean du Bellay).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Amherdt, David. 2009. Le bilinguisme français-latin dans la correspondance de Jean du Bellay. Humanistica Lovaniensia 58:53–79.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Detailed discussion of the various aspects of bilingual “code-switching” in the letters of Jean du Bellay. The carefully organized subheadings under which the various types of mixed use are categorized offer a useful scheme for similar investigations into other authors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Burke, Peter. 2004. Languages and communities in early modern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511617362Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Only one chapter on Latin but offers overall an elegant and concise overview of the interaction between various language communities, with useful further references in the footnotes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Castor, Grahame, and Terence Cave, eds. 1984. Neo-Latin and the vernacular in Renaissance France. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fourteen essays on a wide range of texts and authors, including Montaigne, Rabelais, and Jean Dorat. Essays in both French and English.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ford, Philip. 2013. The judgment of Palaemon: The contest between Neo-Latin and vernacular poetry in Renaissance France. Medieval and Renaissance Authors and Texts 9. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/9789004245402Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Both scholarly and highly readable; particularly interesting introduction with relevant statistical information.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Guthmüller, Bodo, ed. 1998. Latein und Nationalsprachen in der Renaissance. Wolfenbütteler Abhandlungen zur Renaissanceforschung 17. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Substantial collection of essays on the relationship of Latin to the vernacular across Europe, including eastern Europe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Taylor, Barry, and Alejandro Coroleu, eds. 1999. Latin and vernacular in Renaissance Spain. Cañada Blanch Monographs, 3. Manchester, UK: Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies, Univ. of Manchester.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Discusses the linguistic choices involved in writing in Latin, Castilian, or Catalan between 1475 and 1600. Includes chapters concerned with technical and pedagogical material as well as literary texts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Thurn, Nikolaus. 2012. Neulatein und Volkssprachen: Beispiele für die Rezeption neusprachlicher Literatur durch die lateinische Dichtung Europas im 15.–16. Jahrhundert. Humanistische Bibliothek, 61.1, Aufl. 2012. Paderborn, Germany: Wilhelm Fink.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Very interesting study of the influence of vernacular poetry upon the neo-Latin poetry of the 15th and 16th centuries, with a much wider geographical range than most similar studies. Most detailed discussions of Italian and German literature but includes material from Spain, France, Hungary, and England. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Tournoy, Gilbert, and Terence O. Tunberg. 1996. On the margins of Latinity? Neo-Latin and the vernacular languages. Humanistica Lovaniensia 45:134–175.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detailed, learned, but admirably readable account of certain features of neo-Latin and their possible relationship to vernacular language. With sections on general syntax, prepositions, adjectives, nouns, verbs, temporal conjunctions, and interrogatives.

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