Classics The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger Map)
by
Silke Diederich
  • LAST MODIFIED: 24 May 2018
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0310

Introduction

The Peutinger Map, part of the UNESCO Memory of the World Register, is a case sui generis in the history of cartography. This parchment scroll, today stored in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek as Codex Vindobonensis 324, was drawn around 1200 CE as a replica of a late antique original. It is unique in several respects: In the first place, it is the only large-size world map passed down from antiquity. Puzzling, too, are its whimsical dimensions: The eleven surviving segments (the first one/s is/are missing) are together about 6.80 meters long, but have a height of only 33–34 centimeters, so that the ancient world from Spain to India is represented on it with extreme distortions. Here we can grasp the elusive and otherwise very poorly recorded antique tradition of not-to-scale maps. Originating from outside the highly elitist schools of mathematical geography it allows a rare glimpse into the geographical knowledge of a larger non-specialist audience among Rome’s elites. Other prominent, and at the same time tantalizing, features are the road net, drawn in a garish red, and the vignettes of various size and shapes, which mark some of the cities and road stations. Due to its singularity, the Peutinger Map, known by the abbreviation TP, has been the subject of a lively discussion for 250 years, fueled lately by the spatial turn with its attention to forms and concepts of space within their cultural backgrounds. Controversial issues are most notably: date of origin and stages of development, design, purpose, correctness and functionality, mistakes in copying and medieval modifications, relations to other maps and to written geographical sources.

Editions and Commentaries

Groundbreaking full editions are von Scheyb’s editio princeps of 1753, consisting, naturally, in a drawn copy. It has been reworked and improved in Miller 1887 (reprinted in Prontera 2003, cited under General Overviews), who also tried to reconstruct the missing left part of the TP. The first available full photographic reproduction has been issued in Weber 1976. Modern researchers will consult this edition and the most recent one, Rathmann 2016 (cited under State of Research and Bibliography), which was executed after a thorough restoration of the original map. Extremely valuable tools for research as well are the Online Editions of the TP, especially Talbert 2010 (cited under General Overviews) and Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Editions of lesser quality and usefulness, as they present just copies of Miller’s drawn version, are contained in Levi and Levi 1967 (cited under Vignettes, in a practical single-piece-format) and Bosio 1983 (cited under Design). For a thorough description of the early print editions see Miller 1887. For humanist and early modern editions of the TP see Fate of the Map during the Middle Ages, Humanism, and beyond and La Tabula Peutingeriana (cited under State of Research and Bibliography). An extensive discussion of the editions and commentaries issued since 1753 can be found in the appendix of Talbert 2004 (cited under Design), and, more prolific, in the first section of Talbert 2010. Short selective commentaries for a first orientation are presented in the companion volume of Weber 1976 and in the margins of Rathmann 2016–2017. The prolific overall toponym commentary in Desjardin 1869–1874 is incomplete, covering only Germany, Gaul, and Italy. Miller 1916 comments not on the TP in itself, but on the Roman road system and its stations in general and is, like Desjardin, partly outdated.

  • Desjardins, Ernest. 1869–1874. La table de Peutinger d’après l’original conservé a Vienne précédée d’une introduction historique et critique. Paris: Hachette.

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    Prolific commentary for the German, Gaulish, and Italian sections of the TP containing an extensive collection of literary and archaeological sources and testimonies as known at the end of the 19th century, including map drawings for illustration.

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    • Miller, Konrad. 1887. Die Weltkarte des Castorius genannt die Peutingersche Tafel. Ravensburg, Germany: Maier.

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      Includes introduction by O. Maier and the 1888 map. Engraving of the map in color, about two-thirds of the original size, folded and in one piece, containing major corrections on von Scheyb’s edition. Introduction and map largely obsolete, namely for attributing the TP to Castorius and normalizing toponym transcriptions, but still deserving for its diligent paleographic analysis. Several reprints.

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      • Miller, Konrad. 1916. Itineraria Romana: Römische Reisewege an der Hand der Tabula Peutingeriana. Stuttgart: Strecker und Schröder.

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        It tries to reconstruct the Roman road net and its stations, using the TP and Roman itineraries as the basic sources. Partly erroneous and outdated, but, used with due caution, still helpful as a reservoir of source material for researchers. Criticized by Kubitschek 1917 (see General Overviews). Review by P. W. Haider: Anzeiger für die Altertumswissenschaft 45.3–4 (1992): 300. Reprint: Rome: L’Erma, 1963; Bregenz: Eigenverlag G. Husslein, 1988.

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        • Rathmann, Michael. 2016–2017. Tabula Peutingeriana. Die einzige Weltkarte aus der Antike. Eingeleitet und kommentiert von Michael Rathmann. Zabern, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt.

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          Latest edition. High-quality photographic reproduction, each right page contains one-third of a segment, the left page black-and-white reproduction with selected annotations; diagrams on the bottom left showing the position of the TP-segment on a modern map. With an excellent state-of-art introduction for non-specialists, students, and scholars alike.

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          • von Scheyb, Franz Christoph. 1753. Tabula Peutingeriana C. Peutingeriana tabula itineraria quae in augusta bibliotheca Vindobonensi nunc servantur adcurate exscripta. Vienna: Trattner.

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            First full edition (engraving), with a general introduction. Reprinted, e.g., with some corrections, by Konrad Mannert in 1824 (commissioned by the Bavarian Academy). Contains mistakes in toponym transcriptions, but, used with great care, it might be helpful in places, where the map is today damaged beyond recognition.

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            • Weber, Ekkehard. 1976. Tabula Peutingeriana: Codex Vindobonensis 324, mit Kommentarband. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt.

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              First edition with quality color photos of the eleven segments in original size, with a black-and-white photograph on the opposite page, containing transcriptions of selected toponyms, maintaining Miller’s five subdivisions of each segment for better localization. Companion volume with fine introduction, description of the segments, and toponym indexes.

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              General Overviews

              The first read both for non-specialists and specialists will be Rathmann 2016 (cited under State of Research and Bibliography), the most up-to-date overview introduction, and a pleasant read (cited under Editions and Commentaries). It is from Rathmann 2014 and Talbert 2010 that all beginners and researchers will most efficiently take their starting point. For important milestones, building on each other to enhance our understanding of this curious riddle that is the TP, see first the sources under Editions and Commentaries, and then, chronological order; Gross 1913 (cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution); Kubitschek 1917; Kubitschek 1919 (cited under State of Research and Bibliography); Levi and Levi 1967 (cited under Vignettes); Bosio 1983 (with emphasis on aesthetic aspects, cited under Design); Arnaud 1988 and Weber 1989 (both cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution); Talbert 2010, Weber 2012 (reinforcing and developing his former argumentation, cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution), and finally the revolutionary and stimulating Rathmann 2014.

              • Kubitschek, Wilhelm. 1917. Rezension zu Miller und Gross. Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen 179:1–117.

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                Critically revising Miller 1887 (cited under Editions and Commentaries) and Gross 1913 (cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution), Kubitschek proposes a dating hypothesis of his own.

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                • Prontera, Francesco, ed. 2003. Tabula Peutingeriana. Le antiche vie del mondo. Florence: Olschki.

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                  With a reprint of Miller’s 1887 drawn copy in downscaled size as a foldout insert, it hardly figures as an edition, but is worth reading for the foreword by Carmi and a set of well-illustrated essays by renowned experts: Magini (route net), Prontera (cartographic-historical background), Gautier Dalché (see Fate of the Map during the Middle Ages, Humanism, and beyond).

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                  • Rathmann, Michael. 2014. Tabula Peutingeriana: Bekannte Thesen und neue Forschungsansätze. In Antike Naturwissenschaft und ihre Rezeption. Vol. 24. Edited by J. Althoff, S. Föllinger, and G. Wöhrle, 81–123. Trier, Germany: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.

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                    Important work for scholars. Challenging the mainstream dating of the TP, it traces the prototype back to the time of the chorographic “tradition of Eratosthenes,” concluding from anachronisms several stages of genesis up to a final redaction in Late Antiquity. Refutes the theory of the TP being a road map.

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                    • Talbert, Richard J. A. 2010. Rome’s world. The Peutinger Map reconsidered. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511686863Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Groundbreaking and original work with stimulating hypotheses, interpreting the TP as an imperial representative object designed during the Tetrarchy (before 300 CE) without practical purpose, adorning the apsis of a throne room, or, alternatively, as a sophisticated play among a geographically educated elite audience. Paperback edition 2014.

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                      State of Research and Bibliography

                      The older state of research is summarized and evaluated in Kubitschek 1919 and Gisinger 1938 (cited under Sources). For a short overview on scholarship since 1916, view Talbert 2010 (see General Overviews). The most important theories are discussed by Rathmann 2011–2012 and, most recently, Rathmann 2016. A bibliography for the editions and reference works published until 2013 is La Tabula Peutingeriana.

                      • García Sánchez, Enrique. La Tabula Peutingeriana: historia y bibliografía.

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                        Bibliography of the editions and studies until 2013, arranged by subject matters.

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                        • Kubitschek, Wilhelm. 1919. Karten. In Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft X.2. Edited by Georg Wissowa and Wilhelm Kroll, col. 2022–2149. Stuttgart: Metzler.

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                          Seminal work, determining the position of the TP within the history of ancient cartography and itineraries. Partly outdated, but important for its summary of Kubitschek’s own groundbreaking works and a review of the state of research. Supplemented by Gisinger 1938 (see Sources).

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                          • Rathmann, Michael. 2011–2012. Neue Perspektiven zur Tabula Peutingeriana. Geographia Antiqua 20/21:83–102.

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                            Very important fresh and original analysis of the TP, interpreted as “chorographic” map in the sense of Claudius Ptolemaios with a summary of the most important research theories.

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                            • Rathmann, Michael. 2016. Die Tabula Peutingeriana. Stand der Forschung und neue Impulse. In Vir Doctus Anatolicus: Studies in memory of Sencer Sahin. Edited by B. Takmer, E. N. Akdogu Arca, and N. Gökalp Özdil, 714–735. Istanbul: Ege Yayinlari.

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                              Additions to Rathmann 2011–2012.

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                              Online Editions

                              Beside the print editions there are high resolution interactive web-presentations of the TP in open access, which are very useful for researchers, but also offer a fine first impression for everyone interested in ancient maps. Recommendable are especially Talbert 2010 and the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. The website Tabula-Peutingeriana offers some valuable tools and indices, especially a paleographic aid list for deciphering the medieval writing. All these sites are hosted in English.

                              Fate of the Map during the Middle Ages, Humanism, and beyond

                              The history of the TP in medieval times is quite obscure. Nevertheless, notable traces of the existence of congeneric maps do exist, which yield information relevant for the TP’s history and genesis, examined and evaluated by Gautier Dalché 2003 and Gautier Dalché 2004. A rather vague hint for an exemplar in medieval Trier is reported by Gross 1999. Rubat Borel 2012 supposes an ancient map similar to the TP in the hands of Petrarca and Boccaccio. Our surviving copy of the TP, however, is commonly deemed to be drawn in the monastery of Reichenau (SW-Germany), according, e.g., to Lieb 1974, but doubted by Steinmann 2010. It was rediscovered (and probably stolen) by the humanist Conrad Celtis in 1509, who named it Itinerarium Antonini Pii, falsely believing that it was originally designed as an illustration for this itinerary. Celtis entrusted it to his friend Konrad Peutinger for publication. But this edition was aborted in an early stage, and the TP fell into oblivion, until Markus Welser, a distant relative of Peutinger’s, launched in collaboration with Jan Moretus an edition titled Tabula itineraria ex illustri Peutingerorum bibliotheca in 1598 (see Piérard 1971). In 1717, Ignaz Desiderius von Peutinger sold the map to Prince Eugen of Savoy, after whose demise in 1737 it came into the possession of the Wiener Hofbibliothek. The map has suffered severely from improper storage. Today the eleven segments, freshly restored, are kept between mats of acid-free paper in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek in Vienna (see Online Editions). For short outlines of the fate of the TP since the Renaissance see each of the titles listed in General Overviews as well as Weber 1976, Volume 1 (cited under Editions and Commentaries). For further information see Gautier Dalché 2003 and Gautier Dalché 2004 and Weber 2016 (cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution), who interprets relevant quotes from the TP-related humanist correspondence.

                              • Gautier Dalché, Patrick. 2003. The medieval and Renaissance transmission of the Tabula Peutingeriana. Translated by W. L. North. In Tabula Peutingeriana. Le Antiche Vie Del Mondo. Edited by Francesco Prontera, 43–52. Florence: Leo S. Olschki.

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                                Translation from “La trasmissione medievale e rinascimentale della Tabula Peutingeriana.” Pivotal study evaluating a neglected testimony copied by the humanist Pellegrino Prisciani (d. 1518) from a map in Padua obviously closely related with the TP and written partly in Greek (!) letters, see also Gautier Dalché 2004.

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                                • Gautier Dalché, Patrick. 2004. Du nouveau sur la transmission et la découverte de la «Tabula Peutingeriana»: la «Cosmographia vetustissima» de Pellegrino Prisciani († 1518). Geographia Antiqua 13:71–86.

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                                  Further information on Prisciani’s copy of the Cosmographia antiquissima described by Gautier Dalché 2003, and its impact for understanding the history of the TP, which might have had a Greek predecessor.

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                                  • Gross, Guido. 1999. Verschollen, entdeckt, verschollen. Befand sich ein verlorener Teil der Tabula Peutingeriana in Trier? In Kurtrierisches Jahrbuch 39:89–96.

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                                    It mentions an old notice from an 1835 issue of the Trier’sche Zeitung, in which a certain professor Wyttenbach mentions a part (containing Spain) of the missing left TP segment he found glued as a fly leaf in a now-lost incunabulum at the Trier city library.

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                                    • Lieb, Hans. 1974. Zur Herkunft der Tabula Peutingeriana. In Die Abtei Reichenau. Neue Beiträge zur Geschichte und Kultur des Inselklosters. Edited by H. Maurer, 31–33. Sigmaringen, Germany: Thorbecke.

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                                      Research on a map, which was either the prototype of the TP, or a copy from a common source, probably safeguarded in the Reichenau monastery during the 9th and 11th century.

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                                      • Piérard, Christiane. 1971. Un exemplaire de la Tabula itineraria ou Tabula Peutingeriana, édition Moretus 1598, conservé à Mons. Quaerendo 1.3: 201–206.

                                        DOI: 10.1163/157006971X00176Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        About the fate of some copies of the first partial edition of 1598 CE in Belgium.

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                                        • Rubat Borel, Francesco. 2012. La «Tabula Peutingeriana», Boccaccio e due etnici antichi delle Alpi occidentali. Historika: Studi di storia Greca e Romana 2:79–85.

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                                          From the presence of the ethnic names «Naburni» and «Nantuani» both on the TP and in Boccaccio’s «De fluminibus» the author draws the conclusion that the latter used an ancient map, which had common features with the TP, and which was lent to him by Petrarca (with English summary).

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                                          • Steinmann, Martin. 2010. Paleography. In Rome’s world. The Peutinger Map reconsidered. Edited by Richard J. A. Talbert, 76–85. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                            Edited in association with Tom Elliott, assisted by Nora Harris, Gannon Hubbard, David O’Brien, and Grahan Sheperd. Careful and thorough analysis of paleographic issues and the medieval copyist’s methods of copying. Skeptical against the widespread hypothesis of the Reichenau as place of provenance, localizing it rather more generally in Alsace or South Germany.

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                                            Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution

                                            All of the General Overviews, as well as the forewords of the Editions and Commentaries, deal with the crucial question of when the TP was drawn. For the latest literature surveys see Weber 2016 and Rathmann 2016 (cited under State of Research and Bibliography). Due to the TP’s numerous anachronisms the dating is controversial. The hypothesis of Miller 1887 (cited under Editions and Commentaries) that the (fictive) Castorius mentioned in the medieval Cosmographia Ravennatis was the redactor has been duly rejected. Gross 1913 supposed Hadrian’s age as the earliest possible limit. The currently most relevant approaches are: Brodersen 2003 (cited under Perception of Space in Antiquity / Mental Map), which dates it back ultimately to the 1st century CE, with additions of later users; Talbert 2010 (see General Overviews) dates it into the era of the tetrarchy (about 300 CE); Arnaud 1988 earns the merit of suggesting a multistage evolution, on which Weber 1989 and Weber 2012 build, presuming the Agrippa Map (see Sources) as the ultimate prototype, with additions in the Antonine area, further revisions in the 4th century, and a final reduction in 435 under Theodosius II (the latter date already suggested by von Scheyb 1753, cited under Editions and Commentaries, and by Weber 1989). Rathmann 2011–2012 (cited under State of Research and Bibliography), Rathmann 2013, Rathmann 2014 (cited General Overviews), Rathmann 2016 (cited under State of Research and Bibliography), Rathmann 2016 (cited under Sources) traces it back even further by seizing a hitherto neglected suggestion of Gisinger 1938 (cited under Sources), who backtracks its first origins to Hellenistic times, perhaps to Eratosthenes’ milieu (3rd to 2nd century BCE). Skeptical about this theory is Podosinov 2016. That the scarce Christian elements are later additions is almost undisputed; for analyses see Weber 2007 and Schuol 2016 (cited under Studies on Single Areas on the Peutinger Map). Only Albu 2014 imagines the TP as a Carolingian product, as the author does in her earlier works (see Purpose and Function), refuted by Weber 2012.

                                            • Albu, Emily. 2014. The Medieval Peutinger Map: Imperial Roman revival in a German empire. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781107444997Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Outsider opinion, but stimulating further discussion, by dating the production of the TP into medieval times, placing it into the contexts of the Crusades, German-Roman imperial ambitions, and their competition with the papacy. Elaboration of Albu’s earlier works (listed under Purpose and Function).

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                                              • Arnaud, Pascal. 1988. L’origine, la date de rédaction et la diffusion de l’archétype de la Table de Peutinger. Bulletin de la Sociéte Nationale des Antiquaires de France 1:302–321.

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                                                Important and groundbreaking work, notably for acknowledging multiple stages in the genesis of the TP, rather than confining it to one single date, based on a careful historical analysis of selected toponyms and other relevant features.

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                                                • Elliott, Thomas. 2008. Constructing a digital edition for the Peutinger map. In Cartography in antiquity and the Middle Ages. Edited by Richard J. A. Talbert and Richard W. Unger, 99–110. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                  DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004166639.i-300.15Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Discussion of various aspects of the Peutinger map, namely of a digital edition (see Talbert 2010, cited under Online Editions), dating the original to the 4th or 5th century, but supposing that its maker had access to a large store of now-lost historical material dating as far back as the 1st century CE.

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                                                  • Gross, Hans. 1913. Zur Entstehungs-Geschichte der Tabula Peutingeriana. Bonn, Germany: Ludwig.

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                                                    First thorough comparison between the TP and the Geographus Ravennas, resulting in a stemma, with a historical analysis of the roads, place names, and design in comparison with Roman itineraries. It dates the TP into Hadrian’s age at the earliest, the Agrippa Map being its major source.

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                                                    • Podosinov, Alexander V. 2016. To the question on the time of the origin of Tabula Peutingeriana. Vestnik Drevnej Istorii 4:938–955.

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                                                      It is skeptical toward the hypothesis of Rathmann 2013 concerning the Hellenistic origin of the first prototype of the map, and prefers to date it into Agrippa’s time after an examination of the toponyms on the eastern Europe part of the TP. Russian, with an English abstract.

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                                                      • Rathmann, Michael. 2013. The Tabula Peutingeriana in the mirror of ancient cartography: Aspects of a reappraisal. In Die Vermessung der Oikumene. Edited by K. Geus and M. Rathmann, 203–222. TOPOI Berlin Studies of the Ancient World 14. Berlin: de Gruyter.

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                                                        Important for backtracking the first prototype of the TP into Eratosthenes’ times because of its Hellenistic elements, similarities with the Artemidoros Papyrus (see Relations to Other Maps), and the Greek entries on the Prisciani Map noticed by Gautier Dalché 2003 (cited under Fate of the Map during the Middle Ages, Humanism, and beyond).

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                                                        • Weber, Ekkehard. 1989. Zur Datierung der Tabula Peutingeriana. In Labor omnibus unus. Gerold Walser zum 70. Geburtstag dargebracht von Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern. Edited by Heinz E. Herzig and Regula Frei-Stolba, 113–117. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

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                                                          It dates the map into the fifteenth consulate of Theodosius II (435 CE), referring a poem transmitted by Dicuil (Geographi Latini Minores 19–20 Riese), which praises the edition of a world map, to the final late antique redaction of the TP.

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                                                          • Weber, Ekkehard. 2007. Die Spuren des frühen Christentums in der Tabula Peutingeriana. In Akten des XIV. Internationalen Kongresses für christliche Archäologie. Wien 19. – 26.9.1999. Frühes Christentum zwischen Rom und Konstantinopel. Edited by R. Harreither, P. Pergola, R. Pillinger, and A. Pulz, 775–782. Vienna: Verlag der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

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                                                            Important analysis of the late antique and medieval Christian additions in the TP.

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                                                            • Weber, Ekkehard. 2012. Ein neues Buch und das Datierungsproblem der Tabula Peutingeriana. Tyche 27:209–216.

                                                              DOI: 10.15661/tyche.2012.027.10Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              Convincing rebuttal against Albu 2008 (cited under Purpose and Function) and Albu 2014 dating hypothesis of the TP as a Carolingian product.

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                                                              • Weber, Ekkehard. 2016. Die Datierungen des antiken Originals der Tabula Peutingeriana. Orbis Terrarum 14:229–258.

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                                                                After a thorough discussion of dating hypotheses since 1500, Weber presents his own suggestion, involving hitherto little noticed examples from art history and modifies his former dating hypothesis by following Rathmann 2013 and Gisinger 1938 (see Sources) in retracing the TP to Eratosthenes’ times. With an interpretation of relevant humanist letters and dedications.

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                                                                Sources

                                                                Closely connected with the dating problem is the question of which sources the mapmaker used. Beginners will read Rathmann 2016–2017 (Editions and Commentaries) for a first insight. The issue is also discussed in the works listed under General Overviews, Editions and Commentaries, and State of Research and Bibliography. The titles listed below are mainly for researchers. The prevalent opinion supposes the so-called Agrippa Map to be the ultimate source of the TP. This now-lost map of the Roman Empire had been commissioned by Augustus’s general Vipsanius Agrippa and was displayed in a portico in Rome after his death according to his will. (There are doubts about its being a map by Brodersen 1995 and Brodersen 2003 [both cited under Perception of Space in Antiquity / Mental Map], who surmises rather an itinerary list or text). This Agrippa Map hypothesis is based mainly on resemblances of the TP with Plinius the Elder and Pomponius Mela, who are likely to have used Agrippa. This theory was championed, e.g., by Gross 1913 (cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution), Kubitschek 1919 (cited under State of Research and Bibliography), Wartena 1927 (cautiously), Bosio 1983 (cited under Design), Weber 1989 (cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution), and Weber 2005. It is being challenged by Rathmann (also see General Overviews, State of Research and Bibliography, Editions and Commentaries, Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution, and Relations to Other Maps), who reinforces the plea of Gisinger 1938 for an early Hellenistic prototype, which might have also been the source for the Agrippa Map, a theory, which has followed also lately by Weber 2016 (cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution). Further clues for a Greek source have been pointed out by Gautier Dalché 2003 (cited under Fate of the Map during the Middle Ages, Humanism, and beyond). According to Rathmann, the Hellenistic prototype has been modified and complemented later in several stages of copying, incorporating additional sources. Rathmann 2016 enhances this approach by taking into account the perishable materiality of the papyrus the map was drawn on, which necessitated the production of fresh copies to replace the decaying ones about every fifty years. Salway 2004 and Talbert 2005 (cited under Design), too, observe heterogeneous sources, which account for the numerous chronological and other inconsistencies on the TP. Salway 2005 (see Purpose and Function), nevertheless, ascribes the overall design to the late antique editor himself. Finkelstein 1979, more specifically, focuses on the sources for the representation of the Holy Land in the TP, one of them being Ptolemy.

                                                                • Finkelstein, Israel. 1979. The Holy Land in the Tabula Peutingeriana: A historical geographical approach. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 111:27–34.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1179/peq.1979.111.1.27Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Investigation into the inaccuracies in and the sources for this part of the map, which must have been introduced into the TP by the 2nd century CE at the latest.

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                                                                  • Gisinger, Friedrich. 1938. Peutingeriana. In Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft XIX.2 Edited by Wilhelm Kroll and Georg Wissowa, 1405–1412. Stuttgart: Metzler.

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                                                                    Pioneering for not only examining parallels with the Agrippa Map but also detecting traces of Greek origin, especially from Eratosthenes.

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                                                                    • Rathmann, Michael. 2016. The Tabula Peutingeriana and antique cartography. In Brill’s companion to ancient geography: The inhabited world in Greek and Roman tradition. Edited by S. Bianchetti, M. R. Cataudella, and H. -J. Gehrke, 337–362. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.

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                                                                      Expands his groundbreaking approach of placing the TP in a chorographical tradition of not-to-scale maps, its ultimate prototype dating back to Eratosthenes’ times, only internal labelings actualized during numerous copy stages. Theory elaborated further in Rathmann 2016–2017 (see Editions and Commentaries).

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                                                                      • Salway, Benet. 2004. Sea and river travel in the Roman itinerary literature. In Space in the Roman world: Its perception and presentation. Edited by Richard J. A. Talbert and Kai Brodersen, 43–96. Antike Kultur und Geschichte 5. Münster, Germany: Lit-Verlag.

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                                                                        It demonstrates that the rather poorly done maritime routes on the TP stem back to a source related to the Itinerarium Antonini, several doublets, which are due to careless compilation, leading to suppose that the editor tried to unite several heterogeneous sources.

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                                                                        • Wartena, J. R. 1927. Inleiding of een uitgave der Tabula Peutingeriana. Ph.D. diss., University of Leiden, The Netherlands.

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                                                                          It examines the relations between TP and Agrippa Map by comparing place names and routes of the TP with the late antique itineraries, tentatively hypothesizing that the TP derives from the same archetype as the Hereford Map and other early medieval maps may be indirectly related to the Agrippa Map.

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                                                                          • Weber, Ekkehart. 2005. Pomponius Mela und die Tabula Peutingeriana. In Die Geschichte der Antike aktuell: Methoden, Ergebnisse und Rezeption: Akten des 9. Gesamtösterreichischen Althistorikertages 2002 und der V. Internationalen Table Ronde zur Geschichte der Alpen-Adria-Region in der Antike (Klagenfurt, 14.11. - 17.11.2002). Edited by Karl Strobel and Renate Lafer, 231–240. Klagenfurt, Austria: Hermagoras.

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                                                                            Important article, which points out some striking similarities between the TP and Pomponius Mela, e.g., the divisions of the three continents, the outlines of the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, and Asia, which he, arguably, refers back to Agrippa’s map and commentary as a common source.

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                                                                            Relations to Other Maps

                                                                            Important information for determining the position and role of the TP in premodern map history can be deduced from comparisons with other maps. The TP is placed within the scope of an overall cartographical-historical overview in Lago 1993 and Rathmann 2013a and Rathmann 2013b. Researchers might also be interested in Fischer 1939 (Relations to Itineraries and Other Literal Geographical Sources) for map history from the Principate to Late Antiquity, especially concerning the depiction of Palestine. Similarities with particular other ancient maps, especially with the Artemodorus Papyrus, have been examined by Brodersen 2001 and Brodersen 2004, Talbert 2005 (cited under Design) and, skeptically, Valerio 2012. A comparison with the Roman city plan has been drawn by Talbert 2012, with alleged Roman itineraria picta by Levi and Levi 1981 (see Design). Affinities with the medieval Hereford Map are spotted by Wartena 1927 (cited under Sources). Salway 2005 (cited under Purpose and Function), however, denies any precedent of the TP in Roman cartographical tradition, as well as any impact from it on medieval maps.

                                                                            • Brodersen, Kai. 2001. Neue Entdeckungen zu antiken Karten. Gymnasium 108:137–148.

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                                                                              It interprets the rudimentary map of Iberia drawn by a skillful artist on the Artemidorus Papyrus (1st century CE) as a simplified route diagram comparable to the TP, inferring that this kind of representation was quite common in antiquity.

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                                                                              • Brodersen, Kai. 2004. Mapping (in) the ancient world. Journal of Roman Studies 94:183–190.

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                                                                                After a critical research report on the history of geography it states similitudes between the Artemidoros Papyrus, the Dura Shield, and the TP.

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                                                                                • Fischer, Hans. 1939. Geschichte der Kartographie von Palästina. Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 62:169–189.

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                                                                                  It compares maps and itineraries for Palestine, such as the Agrippa Map, Marinos of Tyros, Ptolemy, the Itinerarium Antonini, the Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum, Eusebius of Caesarea, Hieronymus, the TP, the Peregrinatio Aetheriae, and the Madaba mosaic.

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                                                                                  • Lago, Luciano. 1993. Cartografia e conoscenza nel mondo antico. In Lingue tecniche del greco e del latino: Atti del 1. Seminario internazionale sulla letteratura scientifica e tecnica greca e latina/Associazione internazionale lessicografica sulla letteratura scientifica e tecnica greca e latina. Edited by Sergio Sconocchia and Lucio Toneatto, with collaboration of Daria Crismani and Piero Tassinari, 23–42. Trieste, Italy: Università degli studi di Trieste.

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                                                                                    Historical overview of ancient maps from Anaximander to the TP.

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                                                                                    • Rathmann, Michael. 2013a. Kartographie in der Antike. Überlieferte Fakten, bekannte Fragen, neue Perspektiven. In Geographische Kenntnisse und ihre konkreten Ausformungen. Edited by Dieter Boschung, Thierry Greub, and Jürgen Hammerstaedt, 11–49. Morphomata 5. Munich: Fink.

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                                                                                      It traces major lines of development from late archaic maps, via a 4th century BCE separation between an elitist mathematical cartography of to-scale-maps, and a more popular “chorographic” tradition of not-to-scale visualizations of geographic space, the latter of which the Artemidoros Papyrus and the TP belong to.

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                                                                                      • Rathmann, Michael. 2013b. Die Tabula Peutingeriana und die antike Kartographie. In Weltwissen vor Kolumbus. Edited by Justus Cobet, 92–120. Periplus. Jahrbuch für Außereuropäische Geschichte 23. Münster, Germany: Lit-Verlag.

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                                                                                        Addition to Rathmann 2013a: The TP, being a “chorographic” map, was probably accompanied by a geographical text and not supposed to be used as an itinerary, which explains its heavily distorted dimensions. Its basic design represents the state of geographical knowledge in the 3rd century BCE.

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                                                                                        • Talbert, Richard J. A. 2012. Urbs Roma to Orbis Romanus: Roman mapping on the grand scale. In Ancient perspectives: Maps and their place in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece & Rome. Edited by Richard J. A. Talbert, 163–191. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226789408.003.0007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          It notes Alexandrian features on TP, and underlines the lack of military entries in spite of its Roman character, its many details bearing to a similar cumulative effect like on the marble plan of Rome: to represent the Roman world as a peaceful, well-ordered, and civilized space in about 300 CE.

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                                                                                          • Valerio, Vladimiro. 2012. Sulla rappresentazione cartografica del così detto papiro di Artemidoro. Revue d’Histoire des Textes 7:371–384.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1484/J.RHT.5.101199Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Skeptical about resemblances between the Artemidoros Papyrus and the TP (as well as other ancient map-like representations) and even about the authenticity of the former.

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                                                                                            Relations to Itineraries and Other Literal Geographical Sources

                                                                                            In order to assess the place of the TP in ancient geographical history it is also important to detect its relations to written itineraries and geographical textbooks. Rathmann 2016 (cited under Sources) even argues plausibly that the TP, like most antique maps, was originally accompanied by a text. But this approach, still in his infancy as it is, has more relevance for specialists than for students. The relations to itineraries, mainly to the late antique Itinerarium Antonini and the medieval Geographia Ravennatis, have been examined in detail by Gross 1913 (cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution), Kubitschek 1917 (cited under General Overviews) and Kubitschek 1919 (cited under State of Research and Bibliography), and Wartena 1927 (cited under Sources), all of them with the target to determine possible now-lost common sources (also see Sources). Callu 2006 sees a connection between the TP and the school map of Autun (Gaul) described by the orator Eumenius in a panegyric of 297 CE. Crawford and Richmond 1949 evaluate the TP as a clue for the existence of an ancient route map of Britain.

                                                                                            • Callu, Jean-Pierre. 2006. Transferts de peuples soumis, déplacement d’itinérants: deux notes d’antiquité tardive. In Historiae diversitas: Festschrift für Vladimir Iliescu zum 80. Geburtstag am 8. August 2006 von seinen Schülern, Freunden und Kollegen dargebracht. Edited by Vasile Lica in collaboration with Decebal Nedu, 111–128. Galaţi, Romania: Academica Verl.

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                                                                                              Supposing a connection between the map of Augustudunum described in Eumenius’s panegyric of 297 CE, Callu concludes that the TP of 435 CE, might not have been a completely new invention, but only added the route net, which was drawn from written itineraries. With an English review.

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                                                                                              • Crawford, O. G. S., and Ian Archibald Richmond. 1949. The British Section of the Ravenna Cosmography. Archaeologia 93:1–50.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S0261340900009528Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                It hypothesizes, as a conclusion drawn from a comparison between the Itinerarium Antonini and the TP, that the Cosmographia Ravennatis was based on a route guide of Great Britain in form of a map.

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                                                                                                Historical Background(s)

                                                                                                It goes without saying that the assessment of the historical background of the TP is closely linked with the question of Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution. Talbert in his influential works (see General Overviews and Design) sets the map into the environment of the tetrarchy (293–c. 313 CE), Weber 1984 and later works (also see Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution and Sources) places it in Theodosian times and its predecessor in the Augustan era. Outsider Albu (see Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution and Purpose and Function) speculates about a Carolingian imperial setting. All these works are suited for students and beginners, too. More specialized studies for researchers only are: Benedetti-Martig 1993, who states connections between the depiction of the Agri Decumati (Germany) in the TP and the respective political program of emperor Julian, and Cañizar Palacios 2010–2011, who compares the actual importance of certain imperial residence cities in the 4th century with their representation on the TP.

                                                                                                • Benedetti-Martig, Isabella. 1993. I Romani ed il territorio degli Agri Decumati nella tarda antichità: osservazioni sull’imperatore Giuliano e sulla Tabula Peutingeriana. Historia. Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte = Revue d’Histoire Ancienne 42:352–361.

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                                                                                                  It sets the representation of the Agri Decumati (Germany) on the TP into the context of emperor Julian’s 361 CE politics concerning this region.

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                                                                                                  • Cañizar Palacios, José Luis. 2010–2011. Algunos apuntes sobre la «Tabula Peutingeriana» y el «Codex Theodosianus» en el contexto histórico de mediados del siglo IV d.C. Faventia: Revista de Filologia clàssica 32–33:113–126.

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                                                                                                    It notes the striking discrepancies between the high relevance of the urban centers Mediolanum, Augusta Treverorum, and Ravenna in the 4th century according to the Codex Theodosianus, and their scanty graphic representations on the TP.

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                                                                                                    • Weber, Ekkehard. 1984. Die Tabula Peutingeriana. Antike Welt: Zeitschrift für Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte 15:2–8.

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                                                                                                      It suggests that the TP is a 1:10 miniature of the Agrippa Map, whose attachment to the wall of a portico accounts for its long-stretched format as well as for its Roman patriotic concept, which fits well into the Augustan era. Contains many photographs from the TP with explanations.

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                                                                                                      Purpose and Function

                                                                                                      The most established theory, founded on the conspicuous route net drawn in red, is that the TP was designed as a itinerarium pictum, a route map for private travelers, military purposes, or the cursus publicus (the imperial courier service). This hypothesis has been widely accepted since the edition von Scheyb 1753 edition, followed, e.g., by Miller 1887 and Miller 1916 (all cited under Editions and Commentaries), and it is still being maintained by Bosio 1983 (cited under Design, arguing against the cursus publicus theory), Dilke 1987, Levi and Levi 1967 (cited under Vignettes). Doubts, however, were already felt by Weber 1984 (cited under Historical Background(s)), and strengthened by the further investigations of Fellmeth, et al. 2003–2007 (see Correctness and Reliability), Wittaker 2002 (see Perception of Space in Antiquity / Mental Map), Talbert 2004 (see Design), Weber 2012, Rathmann 2014 and Rathmann 2016 (see Sources), who detected serious gaps and flaws, e.g., in routing, mileage, and specification of measurements, which speak strongly against it usability as a traveler’s map. Nevertheless, Brodersen 1995 and Brodersen 2003 (both cited under Perception of Space in Antiquity / Mental Map) has tried to modernize the itinerarium hypothesis by comparing the TP road network with modern Underground and bus route diagrams, disproved by Talbert 2004 (cited under Design). Talbert 2004 (cited under Design), Talbert 2010, and Talbert 2012 (cited Relations to Other Maps), denies any practical use and proposes a representational function, probably for decoration in the apsis of a throne room, perhaps in Diocletian’s palace in Split. This comprehension of the TP as a representational display object has, with variations, gained followers: Albu 2005, debatably, tributes it to Carolingian imperial representation, Weber 2016 (cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution), more realistically, to the times of Theodosius II, Rathmann 2014 and Rathmann 2016 (cited under Sources) prefers to place it into a senatorial environment, what Talbert 2010 (cited under General Overviews) and Talbert 2012 (cited under Relations to Other Maps) had considered as an alternative, pondering whether the TP might have been a sophisticated joke among geographically educated elite members. Salway 2005, too, concedes an ideological and symbolic impact to the TP, but without excluding an additional practical purpose as a road map or as a private travelling souvenir. Perhaps, in the course of its many stages of genesis, the TP has fulfilled several of these purposes, what might have resulted in many of its blatant inconsistencies.

                                                                                                      • Albu, Emily. 2005. Imperial geography and the medieval Peutinger Map. Imago Mundi 57:136‒148.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/03085690500094909Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        It argues against the established road map theory and speculates that the now-lost original of the TP was an imperial Carolingian display map, assuming that 9th-century scribes had the expertise and resources necessary for creating such a map by drawing on Roman itinerary lists.

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                                                                                                        • Albu, Emily. 2008. Rethinking the Peutinger Map. In Cartography in antiquity and the Middle Ages: Fresh perspectives, new methods. Edited by Richard J. A. Talbert and Richard W. Unger, 111–119. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004166639.i-300.16Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          It reinforces Albu 2005 and offers an overview of Roman and medieval world maps.

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                                                                                                          • Dilke, Oswald Ashton Wentworth. 1985. Greek and Roman maps. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                            Pages 112–120 and 193–195 about the TP, reckoned as a non-military private travelling map, comparable with modern Underground diagrams, its long-stretched format resulting from the papyrus scroll format of its 1st century CE prototype, which was revised in the 2nd/3rd century, final redaction before 362 or under Theodosius II. Reprint 1998.

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                                                                                                            • Dilke, Oswald A. W. 1987. Itineraries and geographical maps in the early and late Roman Empire. In The history of cartography. Vol. 1, Cartography in prehistoric, ancient and medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward, 234–257. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                              It takes the TP for an itinerarium pictum designed for non-military purposes, judging it as a product of decay drawn between 335 and 366, with a precursor in the 1st century CE.

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                                                                                                              • Rathmann, Michael. 2014. Orientierungshilfen für antike Reisende in Bild und Wort. In Mobilität in den Kulturen der antiken Mittelmeerwelt. Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Historischen Geographie des Altertums 11, 2011. Edited by Eckart Olshausen and Vera Sauer, 411–423. Geographica Historica 31. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                Important study that refutes the hypothesis of the TP’s function as an itinerary.

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                                                                                                                • Salway, Benet. 2001. Travel, «itineraria» and «tabellaria». In Travel and geography in the Roman Empire. Edited by Colin E. P. Adams and Ray Laurence, 22–109. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                  Important article that views the TP in the light of late antique itinerary collections.

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                                                                                                                  • Salway, Benet. 2005. The nature and genesis of the Peutinger Map. Imago Mundi 57:119–135.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/03085690500094867Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    It contends that inserting itinerary data into an ecumene map was an innovation of the TP redactor, not necessarily commissioned by the state, its probably ornamental and ideological-symbolical function not excluding practical use as a travelling map, or maybe a keepsake of journey memories, the vignettes marking significant sojourns.

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                                                                                                                    Correctness and Reliability

                                                                                                                    If the TP was indeed supposed to be a travelling map, the question arises, how reliable was it. A thorough overall evaluation is still missing (Fellmeth, et al. 2003–2007, nevertheless, denies its overall usefulness as a merchants’ map in general). Several investigations into single sections of the maps led to various results, depending on the region examined. For Italy, Baldacci assesses a concept of Sardinia that is typical for Late Antiquity, Ruta 1988 finds many errors for Molise, but Bosio 1973 confirms a basically correct depiction of Venetia in the original map, and so does Bost 1998 for Aquitania, Degrassi 1939 for Istria, Pikoulas 1984 for Cape Malea (cited under The Road Net). Braun 2016 states the unreliability of the oriental parts on segment XI. Verhagen 2014 proposes general methodological deliberations, tested on the case example of the Lower Rhine area. For further relevant works see The Road Net.

                                                                                                                    • Baldacci, Osvaldo. La Sardegna nella Tabula Peutingeriana. Studi Sardi 14–15:142–148.

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                                                                                                                      It states that the depiction of Sardinia on the TP, however summarily, mirrors the concept of this island common in Late Antiquity.

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                                                                                                                      • Bosio, Luciano. 1973. La Venetia orientale nella descrizione della Tabula Peutingeriana. Aquileia Nostra 44:37–84.

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                                                                                                                        It assesses the general correctness of the representation of the region between the rivers Livenza and Timavo and blames the lacking of certain data on later copyist, not on the redactor of the TP himself.

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                                                                                                                        • Bost, Jean-Pierre. 1998. Les routes d’Aquitaine dans les itinéraires antiques. In Geographica historica. Communications présentées à un séminaire qui s’est tenu à l’Université de Bordeaux III en 1994–1995. Edited by Pascal Arnaud and Patrick Counillon, 225–238. Bordeaux, France: Ausonius.

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                                                                                                                          It appraises the by and large correctness of the TP regarding Aquitania.

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                                                                                                                          • Braun, Christiane. 2016. Untersuchungen zum XI. Segment der Tabula Peutingeriana anhand der Route Persepolis - Ekbatana - Hecantopolis - Propasta – Antiochia. Orbis Terrarum 14:12–32.

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                                                                                                                            Careful and astute examination that observes that, due to faulty mileages and the lack of too many data, the TP is not usable as a road map for the route under scrutiny.

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                                                                                                                            • Degrassi, Nevio. 1939. La rappresentazione dell’Istria nella Tabula Peutingeriana. Bollettino Del Museo Dell’impero Romano 10:65–68.

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                                                                                                                              Study that blames all faults in the description of Istria on the medieval copyist’s carelessness.

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                                                                                                                              • Fellmeth, Ulrich, Frank Stini, Mignon Geisinger, Annika Niedenhoff, and Tomislav Rus. 2003–2007. Die «Tabula Peutingeriana»: eine Karte für Händler und Transporteure? Orbis Terrarum 9:17–40.

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                                                                                                                                An interesting—although not fully reliable—analysis of the route connections on the TP, assessing that it was not useful for merchants, last but not least due to the flawed or even lacking indications of rivers as transport routes.

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                                                                                                                                • Ruta, Raffaele. 1988. Contributo alla ricostruzione della viabilità antica del Molise. Rilettura critica della ‘Tabula Peutingeriana.’ Athenaeum 66:598–604.

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                                                                                                                                  Detects numerous faults and misleading distortions in the examined part of the TP.

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                                                                                                                                  • Verhagen, Jan G. M. 2014. Using distances to identify Roman places in «Itineraria»: A case study on the Lower Rhine «Limes». Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt: Urgeschichte, Römerzeit, Frühmittelalter 44:543–562.

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                                                                                                                                    It suggests a method for the identification of Roman places, using the Lower Rhine as a test case, by comparing the travel distances mentioned in Roman sources with the physical distances between the identified locations. With German and French summary.

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                                                                                                                                    The Road Net

                                                                                                                                    Closely related with the issues of Purpose and Function and Correctness and Reliability is the assessment of the road net, which so prominently figures on the TP, by comparing the map entries with the result of modern archaeological research and with other sources. Groundbreaking, but now outdated in many details, was Miller 1916 (cited under Editions and Commentaries). Some of the more recent studies on single regions acknowledge the correctness of the road net entries for the examined section, so Fodorean 2015 for Pannonia, Pikoulas 1984 for Cape Malea, and Rizzo 2009 for the roads between Panormus and Drepanum. See also Studies on Single Areas on the Peutinger Map. Caution: Unfortunately, some works, although surprisingly often quoted in popular accounts, including several Wikipedia articles, are not quite reliable. Based on rather dubious methods, Bauer 2007 alleges the correctness of the road entries between Iller and Salzach, and Freutsmiedl 2005 of Raetia and Noricum.

                                                                                                                                    • Bauer, Hans. 2007. Die römischen Fernstraßen zwischen Iller und Salzach nach dem Itinerarium Antonini und der Tabula Peutingeriana. Neue Forschungsergebnisse zu den Routenführungen. Munich: Herbert Utz Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                      A quite popular work, often cited in Wikipedia articles, but methodically highly disputable. It tries to reconstruct Roman roads of South Bavaria from the TP and the Itinerarium Antonini, independent from any archaeological data.

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                                                                                                                                      • Fodorean, Florin. 2015. Pannonia in the Peutinger Map. In Der obere Donauraum 50 v. bis 50 n. Chr. Edited by Peter Scherrer, Ute Lohner-Urban, and Johanna Kraschitzer, 115–129. Berlin: Frank und Timme.

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                                                                                                                                        It examines the routes of Pannonia on segment IV and V, appraising the TP not as an actual map but as an itinerarium pictum.

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                                                                                                                                        • Freutsmiedl, Johannes. 2005. Römische Straßen der Tabula Peutingeriana in Noricum und Raetien. Büchenbach, Germany: Dr. Faustus.

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                                                                                                                                          A speculation developed by a road construction engineer—and untrained hobby historian—that the TP is a survey map of incredible exactitude, which necessitates a historical re-evaluation of the Roman road net in Noricum and Raetia.

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                                                                                                                                          • Pikoulas, Gianis A. 1984. The Tabula Peutingeriana and the peninsula of Malea. Horos: Ena Archaiognostiko Periodiko 2:175–188.

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                                                                                                                                            It confirms the correctness of the TP entry of the road from Asopos to Boiai by comparing the archaeological data.

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                                                                                                                                            • Rizzo, Francesco Paolo. 2009. «Item ad Yccaris maritima Drepanis usque»: problemi geo-metrici e topografici. In Palaia Philia: Studi di topografia antica in onore di Giovanni Uggeri. Edited by Cesare Marangio and Giovanni Laudizi, 531–536. Galatina, Italy: Mario Congedo Editore.

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                                                                                                                                              An attempt to evaluate the information given on the TP and in the Itinerarium Antonini about the mileages and distances of the road net between Panormus and Drepanum.

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                                                                                                                                              Design

                                                                                                                                              The TP’s extremely elongate format of about 6.80 meters length to only 33 centimeters height leads inevitably to extreme distortions, videlicet at the expense of the less settled areas of the ecumene. So Italy, e.g., is disproportionally large and has been tilted to fit into the narrow framework, but the Mediterranean Sea below is condensed to a narrow strip. But other regions, for example Asia Minor, have suffered less deformation. The overall design of the TP was delineated by Gross 1913 (cited under Dating the Peutinger Map: Genesis and Evolution). Weber 1976 (cited Editions and Commentaries) gives a short description of each of the eleven segments. The seminal work Bosio 1983 analyzes the methods of composition deployed by the mapmaker, but also suggests hypotheses regarding source (Agrippa), date (4th century CE), purpose (itinerary), and exhibition place (colonnade). Talbert 2004, an even more important article, attempts to comprehend the map editor’s drawing operations in view of the extreme flatness of the TP, and analyzes hitherto overlooked pictorial symbols and their role in marking out the framework for the route network, stating that the purpose of the map was to show Roman pride, reflecting a sophisticated 4th-century intellectual taste. Barrière 1943 notes the principle of economy that prevails in infixing the lines of rivers and mountain ranges. In recent years, the TP has been increasingly appreciated as a representational display object (also see Purpose and Function), which led to a fresh look on its aesthetic and artistic values. Talbert 2004 and Talbert 2005 (see also Talbert 2007, cited under Reconstructions of the Missing Left Part) pays attention to aesthetic criteria like symmetry, axes between important centers like Rome and Carthage, the striving for an even distribution of toponyms, and the ornamental function of rivers. The art tradition from which this whimsical design might stem is controversial, too. According to Salway 2005 (cited under Purpose and Function), it is an innovation by the designer of the archetype, whereas Levi and Levi 1981 see it as a part of a rather widespread tradition of ancient cartography, and Talbert 2005 states an affinity to the Marble Plan of Rome. Arnaud 2014 focuses on the entries marking the edges of the inhabited world on ancient and medieval maps, analyzing their aesthetic as well as their semantic functions, and their traditions. See also Vignettes.

                                                                                                                                              • Arnaud, Pascal. 2014. Mapping the edges of the Earth: Approaches and cartographical problems. In The periphery of the classical world in ancient geography and cartography. Edited by Alexander V. Podosinov, 31‒57. Colloquia Antiqua 12. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters.

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                                                                                                                                                It explains the inscriptions that mark the periphery of the known world in the TP and other maps and their place in map tradition up to medieval times. An important study for understanding the mapmaker’s aesthetic taste as well as his worldview.

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                                                                                                                                                • Barrière, P. 1943. Lignes de terre et lignes d’eau d’après la Table de Peutinger. Revue des études anciennes 45.1–2: 91–105.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.3406/rea.1943.3250Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  It analyzes and interprets the lines of rivers and mountains on the TP, detecting the rules of economy prevailing in its design.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Bosio, Luciano. 1983. La Tabula Peutingeriana. Una descrizione pittorica del mondo antico. Rimini, Italy: Maggioli.

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                                                                                                                                                    Groundbreaking work for beginners and experts, which investigates the mapmaker’s methods of composition (using physical elements, as waterbodies and mountain ranges, for starting points). Theories about source, date, purpose, and exhibition place. With color photographs and an annexed downscale copy of Miller’s TP drawing (see Editions and Commentaries).

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                                                                                                                                                    • Levi, Annalina C., and Mario A. Levi. 1981. Map projection and the Peutinger Table. In Coins, culture and history in the ancient world: Numismatic and other studies in honor of Bluma L. Trell. Edited by Lionel Casson and Martin Price, 139–148. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                      It examines the factors that contributed to the distortions, such as certain notions common in ancient geography, and it investigates the purpose of the TP, which is interpreted as an itinerarium pictum like the Madaba map and the shield of Dura.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Talbert, Richard J. A. 2004. Cartography and taste in Peutinger’s Roman map. In Space in the Roman world: Its perception and presentation. Edited by Richard Talbert and Kai Brodersen, 113–141. Münster, Germany: LIT Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                        Important article that analyzes drawing operations and overlooked pictorial symbols and their function in establishing the framework for the route network, developed from top to bottom, left to right, in many places too faulty to be of practical use. With an appendix about TP editions since 1753.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Talbert, Richard J. A. 2005. Rome’s marble plan and Peutinger’s map: Continuity in cartographic design. In Eine ganz normale Inschrift“… und Ähnliches zum Geburtstag von E. Weber. Edited by Franziska Beutler and Wolfgang Hameter, 627–633. Vienna: Eigenverlag der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Archäologie.

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                                                                                                                                                          It states similarities between the TP and the Marble Plan of Rome, which point to a common tradition: the distortions, the deft coalescence of an astute selection from several sources, and the carelessness concerning anachronisms.

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                                                                                                                                                          Vignettes

                                                                                                                                                          A choice of cities and route stations on the TP are ornamented with vignettes of various size and design, the interpretation of which is still under discussion. The main topics are: their meaning, the dating, and the art-historical traditions. The most important standard work, and the starting point for all further research, is still Levi and Levi 1967. Weber 1985, which is based on Levi and Levi 1967, contemplates the vignettes in the tradition of illustrations of Roman manor houses. As for dating, Amiotti 2005 ascribes the vignette for Antioch to Hadrianic times, Descœudres 2005 that of Ostia to the reign of Claudius. Concerning special vignette types, Allen 2003 interprets the meaning of the blue spa symbols, followed by Talbert 2005 (cited under Design); Bonora Mazzoli 2002 focuses on cult centers noted ad templum, and Seidel 2010 on beacons, among which she numbers the tower symbol of Constantinople. For further papers on vignettes see García Sánchez’s La Tabula Peutingeriana (cited under State of Research and Bibliography), p. 8.

                                                                                                                                                          • Allen, Tana Joy. 2003. Roman healing spas in Italy: The Peutinger Map revisited. Athenaeum 91:403–416.

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                                                                                                                                                            It states that the spa symbols on the TP denote health spas, which were active in different epochs, show the composite tradition of the map.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Amiotti, Gabriella. 2005. La «Tabula Peutingeriana» di Adriano. Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Lettere 139:103–114.

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                                                                                                                                                              It examines the Antiochia vignette and dates it to the reign of Hadrian. Italian with an English summary.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Bonora Mazzoli, Giovanna. 2002. L’ edificio «a tempio» nella «Tabula Peutingeriana»: indagine interpretativa. In Λόγιος ἀνήρ: studi di antichità in memoria di Mario Attilio Levi. Edited by Pier Giuseppe Michelotto, 39–51. Milan: Cisalpino.

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                                                                                                                                                                It affirms that the images bearing the inscription ad templum on the TP usually indicate a cult center, which serves at the same time as an important landmark for travelers.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Descœudres, Jean-Paul. 2005. La vignette d’Ostie dans la «Tabula Peutingeriana». Bulletin du Musée de Genève 53:77–84.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Inspecting the depictions of Rome and Ostia on the TP it suggests that the latter resembles the harbor constructed by Claudius rather than that by Trajan, and concludes that this vignette must have been drawn before 100 CE.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Levi, Annalina C., and Mario A. Levi. 1967. Itineraria picta, contributo allo studio della Tabula Peutingeriana. Rome: L’Erma.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Standard work on the vignettes, although not undisputed, from the point of view of history and especially art history. The vignettes are interpreted as markers for the quality of the lodging accommodations provided at the road stations.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Seidel, Yvonne. 2010. Leuchttürme in der Tabula Peutingeriana. In Standortbestimmung. Akten des 12. Österreichischen Archäologentages vom 28. 2. bis 1. 3. 2008 in Wien. Edited by Marion Meyer and Verena Gassner, 321–326. Vienna: Phoibos Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the small number of beacon symbols (Chysopolis and Ostia), which the TP, though not a sea map, contains, and interprets the tower symbol at Constantinople, usually explained as Constantine’s Column, as a beacon, too.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Weber, Ekkehard. 1985. Ein Kleinfund aus Carnuntum und die Tabula Peutingeriana. In Pro arte antiqua. Festschrift für Hedwig Kenner 2. Edited by Christine Schwanzar, et al., 351–355. Vienna: Koska.

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                                                                                                                                                                        It infers, by comparing TP vignettes with an archaeological find from Carnutum (an ornament showing an elaborate thermal bath structure) that the vignette types on the TP derive from a tradition of representing Roman country houses and their attached buildings.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Perception of Space in Antiquity / Mental Map

                                                                                                                                                                        In the 1980s, fueled by the “topological turn,” the question arose of how developed map consciousness in antiquity really had been, and how widely maps circulated, especially in the Roman world. The unquestioned assumptions of most of the earlier scholars were now questioned. These scholars, anachronistically, took it for granted that the ancients used maps more or less as do modern people. Determining the form and extent of “map consciousness” in antiquity is, of course, crucial for assessing correctly the meaning and purpose of the TP. On the other hand, the TP itself, being such a singular historical source, can enlighten our understanding of space perception in antiquity significantly. One of the main controversies is whether topographical orientation in antiquity was normally restricted to the one-dimensional “hodolodic” concept of itineraries and periploi (i.e., ship routes), following a travel route leg by leg, or whether there was already something like a two-dimensional bird’s-eye concept of mapping established in the minds of non-specialists. Deeper research has already been postulated by Harley and Woodward 1987, who, nevertheless, still overestimated the pervasiveness of map use in the ancient world, as Dilke 1987 (cited under Purpose and Function) largely did in his contributions to Harley and Woodward 1987. Pioneering was Janni 1984 which earns the merit for challenging assumptions of a wide diffusion of maps in antiquity, albeit championing a somewhat naive evolutionist theory of scientific progress, which leads the author to deny too rigorously any true map consciousness to Greeks as well as Romans. Janni’s approach has been followed by Wittaker 2002 and Waldmann 2013, and was elaborated greatly by Brodersen 1995 in his standard work, which covers Roman map history from the beginnings until the late Roman Empire. Although both works deal but desultorily with the TP, the theoretical and historical framework they set it in is very important to take notice of. Brodersen 2003 himself applies his general hypothesis more specifically to the TP.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Brodersen, Kai. 1995. Terra cognita. Studien zur römischen Raumerfassung. Spudasmata 59. Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Provocative work that, built on Janni 1984, scrutinizes the sources for Roman space perception involving modern mental map research. Radically denying a more than rudimentary “map consciousness” in Rome, it assesses the TP not as a map, but as a graphic itinerary comparable to Underground diagrams (Second revised edition Brodersen 2003).

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Brodersen, Kai. 2003. Die Tabula Peutingeriana: Gehalt und Gestalt einer ‚alten Karte‘und ihrer antiken Vorlagen. In Geschichtsdeutung auf alten Karten: Archäologie und Geschichte. Edited by Dagmar Unverhau, 289–297. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz.

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                                                                                                                                                                            It elaborates the results of Brodersen 1995 in view of the TP, which he assesses as a useful road map in spite of its distortions and lack of scale, similar to modern Underground and city railway diagrams, comparable with the Artemidoros map and the Dura shield.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Harley, J. B., and Woodward, David, eds. 1987. The history of cartography, I: Cartography in prehistoric, ancient, medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Important standard volume, the concept of which was groundbreaking for taking into account iconology, postmodern culture, and space theories for map history, and for acknowledging cartography as a pivotal key for understanding ancient societies and cultures. The contribution of Dilke 1987 (cited under Purpose and Function) deals inter alia with the TP.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Janni, Pietro. 1984. La mappa e il periplo. Cartografia antica e spazio odologico. Università di Macerata, Pubblicazioni della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia 19. Rome: Gorgio Bretschneider.

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                                                                                                                                                                                It mentions the TP, which it considers as an itinerarium pictum, only summarily as one of many sources, but is seminal for evaluating interdisciplinary space perception theories and challenging older unproved assumptions about map use in Greek and Roman antiquity, although often too radically. It inspired Brodersen 1995 and Brodersen 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Waldmann, Mauricio. 2013. Todos os caminhos levam a Roma: a Cartografia dos césares, Tábua Peutinger e os limites do espaço. Geografia (Universidade Estadual de Londrina) 22:59–77.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Citing almost exclusively Portuguese and anglophone literature and integrating space theories only on a simple level, it sets the TP into the same cultural framework as the Agrippa Map and sees it as an intermediary between the geometrical maps of premodern cultures and modern route diagrams. With English summary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wittaker, C. R. 2002. Mental maps: Seeing like a Roman. In Thinking like a lawyer: Essays on legal history and general history for John Crook on his eightieth birthday. Edited by J. A. Crook and Paul McKechnie, 81–112. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/9789047401384_008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Footing on Janni 1984, it is not focused on the TP, but allows to see it in the broader compass of Roman space perception in general, dominated by the itinerary tradition (although the TP is not interpreted as an itinerary itself), characterized by distortions of distances and lack of borders.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Studies on Single Areas on the Peutinger Map

                                                                                                                                                                                    Cited here is just a small sample from a wide range of works, confined to those studies, that treat somewhat larger regions on the TP. Not included here are the numerous researches that use the TP mainly as a source in order to verify archaeological finds. For more titles see La Tabula Peutingeriana (cited under State of Research and Bibliography), pp. 8–13. See also Correctness and Reliability. Manfredi 1986 examines the representation of Europe, Pazarli 2009 the Mediterranean islands, Bosio 1974 Istria, Uggeri 1969 Sicilia, Külzer 2016 Chersonesos and western Asia Minor, Spanu 2009 Cilicia, Podosinov and Tsetskhladze 2012 the Black Sea region, Schuol 2016 Mesopotamia and India. Moreover, for Etruria see Prontera 2003 (cited under General Overviews), for the Holy Land see Finkelstein 1979 (cited under Sources).

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bosio, Luciano. 1974. L’Istria nella descrizione della Tabula Peutingeriana. Atti e memorie della Società istriana di archeologia e storia patria 22:17–95.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      It compares the road net and the geographical elements in the depiction of Istria, which Bosio finds remarkably well represented on the TP.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Külzer, Andreas. 2016. Zwischen Europa und Asien: Zur Darstellung der thrakischen Chersones und des westlichen Kleinasien auf der Tabula Peutingeriana. Orbis Terrarum 14:49–69.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        It discusses the representation of the late Roman and early Byzantine provinces Eurōpē, Hellēspontos, Bithynia, Asia, Lydia, and Phrygia Pakatianē, comparing it with historical and geographical realities. Critical survey of the TP’s influence on the presentations of the road network of these regions in several modern scientific manuals and geographic websites.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Manfredi, Valerio. 1986. L’Europa nella Tabula Peutingeriana. Contributi dell’Istituto di Storia Antica dell’Università Cattolica 12:192–198.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Short description of the depiction of Europe as far as still existent on the map, appreciating the TP as an important historical document between the ancient and the new world.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Pazarli, Maria. 2009. Mediterranean islands in Tabula Peutingeriana. e-Perimetron 4:101–116.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Examination of the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Djerba, Crete, and Cyprus on the TP, analyzing their road networks in comparison to their modern cartographic counterparts, stating coincidences and differences between “peutingerian” and “actual” road distances, and the relative sizes of the islands, using modern digital image technologies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Podosinov, A. V., and G. R. Tsetskhladze. 2012. Bithynia, Paphlagonia and Pontus on the Tabula Peutingeriana. BAR International Series 2432:203–206.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Analysis and discussion of the TP representation of the Black Sea territory, which is found to reflect the geographical, ethnographic, and political situation of the 1st century CE. With Turkish summary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Schuol, Monika. 2016. Indien und die großen Flüsse auf der Tabula Peutingeriana. Orbis Terrarum 14:92–154.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Thorough and careful survey on the Euphrates-Tigris river system linked to the Indian subcontinent by the Ganges, seeing the eastern segments of the Peutinger Map in the wider context of a Christian cartographic redesign, identifying Ganges, Euphrates, and Tigris as a reflection of the Rivers of Paradise. With English summary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Spanu, Marcello. 2009. La Cilicia nella «Tabula Peutingeriana». In Παλαια Φιλία: Studi di topografia antica in onore di Giovanni Uggeri. Edited by Giovanni Laudizi and Cesare Marangio, 635–652. Galatina, Italy: Mario Congedo Editore.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  It states the remarkably inaccurate representation of Cilicia and its roads on the TP.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Uggeri, Giovanni. 1969. La Sicilia nella Tabula Peutingeriana. Vichiana: Rassegna Di Studi Filologici E Storici 6:127–171.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    It evaluates the representation of Sicily on the TP as a document of the devastated state of the Mediterranean coast and its roads in Late Antiquity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reconstructions of the Missing Left Part

                                                                                                                                                                                                    The left part of the TP, containing most of Britain, Spain, and West Africa, was already missing on the prototype of the copy around 1200. This lack has been indicated by the medieval copyist by drawing a black vertical line at the left margin of the first recorded segment. The mutilated place names along this rim have obviously been randomly complemented by him. Already Miller 1887 (see Editions and Commentaries) ventured to reconstruct this missing part, which he reckoned to consist in one segment only (doubted, e.g., by Talbert 2007 and Rathmann 2016–2017, cited under Editions and Commentaries), using the Roman itineraries as sources. Alternatives for Miller’s reconstruction are suggested by Ferrar 2005 and Talbert 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ferrar, M. J. 2005. The Venerable Bede and the Tabula Peutingeriana. Cartographic Journal: Journal of the British Cartographic Society 42:157–167.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1179/000870405X61450Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      It proposes an alternative to Miller’s reconstruction of the lost left part of the TP, relying on the Venerable Bede’s concept of Britannia. For specialists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Talbert, Richard J. A. 2007. Konrad Miller, Roman cartography, and the lost western end of the Peutinger Map. In Historische Geographie der Alten Welt. Grundlagen, Erträge, Perspektiven. Festgabe für Eckart Olshausen aus Anlass seiner Emeritierung. Edited by U. Fellmet, P. Guyot, and H. Sonnabend, 353–366. Spudasmata 114. Hildesheim, Germany, and New York: Olms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Critical reconsideration of Miller’s 1887 reconstruction of the missing left parchment of the TP, claiming that more than the one segment assumed by Miller was lost. With illustrations of the reconstructed sheet and other pieces of the TP.

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