Related Articles about

Forthcoming Articles

 

Social Work Comparative Social Work
by
Steven M. Shardlow, Juha Hämäläinen
  • LAST REVIEWED: 06 May 2015
  • LAST MODIFIED: 10 March 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389678-0193

Introduction

Taken in an international context, social work is characterized by diversity of country-specific traditions, policies, and practices. Despite this global diversity, the investigation and analysis of social work through comparative research is underdeveloped theoretically and methodologically. In social work the term “comparative research” has generally been used to refer to cross-national studies that involve two or more nation-states. Although, logically, the term “comparative research” could also apply to other forms of comparison, for example, comparison: across different historical epochs, of different perspectives on social work—professionals and public, and of different regions. While there are a large number of articles in journals and anthologies that introduce different aspects of social work and social work education in individual countries, there are a relatively modest number of available publications that have been based on systematic comparisons of two or more countries and that are grounded in empirical study. The authors wish to acknowledge that they are both resident in Europe, one in England, the other in Finland. If that has engendered some bias in the selection of material that has been included, we offer our apologies to the reader. In our defense, this topic is of global reach and spans the full domain of social work—it is not possible to know or be able to access it all. Notwithstanding this reservation we hope that the reader will find this bibliography useful as a starting point from which to explore the nature of comparative social work.

General Overviews

International associations of social work, notably, the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) and the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW), have promoted transnational interactions between social workers and social work academics and have also published varied materials about social work in different countries. Many of these publications are available on their websites IFSW and IASSW AIETS, respectively. Of particular interest is the definition of social work, which is available on the websites and is intended to provide a definition of social work that can be understood and is meaningful in all countries. These long-established organizations (IASSW was founded in 1928; IFSW in 1932) have connections with a number of international organizations. Thus, for example, IFSW has “special consultative status” with the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). This special status has provided opportunities for the organization to press the interests of social work at a global level. Apart from the work of such bodies, members of the academic community have published works that have sought to collate and classify fragmented information about social work around the globe in a more or less systematic way. Most of these publications consist of several juxtaposed country-specific descriptions that illustrate selected aspects of social work in individual countries. These comparisons have explored both the conditions in which social work takes place and the characteristics of the philosophies, policies, and practices that underpin social work. For example, Anttonen, et al. 2003 compares the systems of social care in different welfare regimes, without commenting on the qualities of social work practice, while Bettman, et al. 2013 concentrates on providing a description of diverse social work practices in various country-specific contexts. Stein and Munro 2008 discusses methodological difficulties associated with comparative social work research. Healy and Thomas 2007 offers an overview of comparative social work by conducting a review of a journal that publishes material about international issues (International Social Work). Some publications focus particularly on questions about how social work is shaped and challenged through globalization and articulate the importance of developing an internationalized approach to social work; one of the earliest books of this type is by Lyons 1999. More recently, Cox and Pawar 2006 investigates the history and the current situation of international social work and social development. See also Hugman 2010.

  • Anttonen, Anneli, John Baldock, and Jorma Sipilä, eds. 2003. The young, the old and the state: Social care systems in five industrial nations. Globalization and Welfare 4. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This anthology consists of articles that discuss the systems for social care services in Finland, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States from a comparative point of view by drawing upon theories about welfare regimes.

    Find this resource:

    • Bettman, Joanna, Caren Frost, and Gloria Jacques, eds. 2013. International social work practice: Case studies from a global context. London: Routledge.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      This anthology introduced the notion of divergence and similarity in forms and practices of social work around the globe through a series of case studies on the following topics: child welfare, intimate partner violence, family conflict and communication, elder care, substance abuse trauma.

      Find this resource:

      • Cox, David, and Manohar Pawar. 2006. International social work: Issues, strategies and programs. Thousand Oaks, CA; SAGE.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This many-sided overview of social work explores global social and ecological challenges through an exploration of educational and institutional factors that have influenced the development of international social work.

        Find this resource:

        • Healy, Lynne, M., and Rebecca L. Thomas. 2007. International Social Work: A retrospective in the 50th year. International Social Work 50:581–596.

          DOI: 10.1177/0020872807079916Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This article presents a history of International Social Work since the journal was founded, a period of fifty years. The articles fall into one of six categories: international social work, global issues, local or regional manifestations of global issues, cross-national comparative studies, country-specific analyses, and articles on more general social work topics.

          Find this resource:

          • Hugman, Richard. 2010. Understanding international social work: A critical analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            This book provides an analysis of international social work; included in the chapters are case studies that are centered on practice issues, which have been grounded in various national locations.

            Find this resource:

            • Lyons, Karen. 1999. International social work: Themes and perspectives. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              This is an introductory book that provides an overview of the fundamentals of international social work. There is discussion of the need for the development of both policy and practice as a response to globalization.

              Find this resource:

              • Stein, Mike, and Emily M. Munro, eds. 2008. Young people’s transitions from care to adulthood: International research and practice. London: Jessica Kingsley.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                This anthology illustrates the epistemological and methodological challenges of comparative research of social work by focusing on the transition of young people in care to adulthood. The approach taken is to compare policies in sixteen selected countries from different parts of the world.

                Find this resource:

                Textbooks

                Making a distinction between a textbook and a general overview is not always an easy task. In the field of comparative social work there are a few books that might be considered general textbooks that provide students with a sequential path through the knowledge of the core elements of this particular domain. In the United Kingdom, there is a specific series of books, “Learning Matters,” which have been designed for social work students at the undergraduate level. In this series, a book has been published on international social work. Textbooks are also available that deal with a particular aspect of comparison; notable among this category are Lawrence, et al. 2009, Introducing International Social Work, an introductory textbook that provides a broad overview of international social work, and Healy 2008, International Social Work: Professional Action in an Interdependent World. There is a slightly more advanced textbook, Hantrais 2008, International Comparative Research, which provides an overview of comparative research.

                • Hantrais, Linda. 2008. International comparative research. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This book provides a clear and detailed account of the theory, methods, and practice of doing comparative research. Although not specific to social work, there is much that is applicable to comparative research in social work. There is a companion website that contains much detailed supplementary information about resources.

                  Find this resource:

                  • Healy, Lynne M. 2008. International social work: Professional action in an interdependent world. 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    In this book, social work is presented as a global profession, which although practiced in very different contexts is nonetheless a profession that has an international character.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Lawrence, Sue, Karen Lyons, Graeme Simpson, and Nathalie Huegler, eds. 2009. Introducing international social work. Exeter, UK: Learning Matters.

                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      This edited collection is designed to provide an introduction, at the undergraduate level, to the concept of “international social work.” The book contains chapters on international aspects of social work with different groups of people: children and families, older people, people with mental ill health, and disabled people. There are also some broadly based conceptual chapters.

                      Find this resource:

                      Collected Works

                      There are a number of collected works that describe different aspects of social work around the world. The International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) sponsored the production of a trilogy of edited books with Ngoh-Tiong Tan as the lead editor of each book. These three books, Tan and Envall 2000, Tan and Dodds 2002, and Tan and Rowlands 2004, emerged out of work at the turn of the millennium by the IFSW to update the definition of social work. The underlying purpose of these books is to provide case examples of different forms of social work practice from different parts of the world. Other collections have been based around a particular theme; for example, Berg 2002 and Hämäläinen, et al. 2012 are based on children and family social work while Dominelli and Bernard 2003 is focused on student exchanges. Gray and Webb 2010 collects an extensive number of key publications that are useful in the field of international social work. The ECSPRESS-Network has published several anthologies dealing with the diversity of social work tradition and practices particularly in Europe. The anthology Seibel, et al. 2011 consists of articles especially about professionalization of social work in the midst of the European diversity.

                      • Berg, Wolfgang, ed. 2002. Comparative studies in social policy and social work. Aachen, Germany: Shaker Verlag.

                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        This collection is derived from a masters program at the University of Meesburg in Germany; each of the chapters compares one aspect of social work and or social policy in two European countries. The emphasis across all of the chapters is upon children, young people, and families.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Dominelli, Lena, and Wanda Thomas Bernard, eds. 2003. Broadening horizons: International exchanges in social work. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          This collection includes discussion of theoretical and practical issues that arose from student mobility and exchanges as part of social work education programs. The objective of these programs was to enable students to make comparisons, through academic study or in some cases professional practice. A number of accounts of such experiences have been included.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Gray, Mel, and Stephen A. Webb, eds. 2010. International social work. Vol. 1–4. Los Angeles: SAGE.

                            DOI: 10.4135/9781446262214Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            This extensive four-volume set contains a number of classic and seminal, previously published, materials combined with some new items. The contents of each volume are as follows: volume 1: welfare theory and approaches and perspectives on the development of welfare; volume 2: social work practice perspectives; volume 3: social work research mapping the social work research agenda, volume 4: future challenges.

                            Find this resource:

                            • Hämäläinen, Juha, Brian Littlechild, Oldřich Chytil, Miriam Sramana, and Emmanuel Jovelin, eds. 2012. Evolution of child protection and child welfare policies in selected European countries. ERIS Monographs 2. Ostrava, Czech Republic: Albert.

                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              This anthology provides a many-sided overview on child welfare traditions, policies, and practices in Europe.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Seibel, Friedrich, Günter J. Friesenhahn, Walter Lorenz, and Oldřich Chytil, eds. 2011. European developments and the social professions: Community, education, research, professionalization. ECSPRESS-Edition, 7. Boscovice, Czech Republic: Verlag Albert.

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                This is written in four languages. It is an anthology that consists of articles dealing with the professionalization of social work together with pieces of information about social work research, education, and practice in selected European countries.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Tan, Ngoh-Tiong, and Imelda Dodds, eds. 2002. Social work around the world II. Berne, Switzerland: International Federation of Social Workers.

                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  This is the second book to be published in a series of three books that contain a large number of chapters about social work practice in different countries. The chapters of this book are organized around the following themes: social work practice—focus and issues; contextualizing social work practice; and globalization, social development, and social work education.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • Tan, Ngoh-Tiong, and Elis Envall, eds. 2000. Social work around the world. Berne, Switzerland: International Federation of Social Workers.

                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    This is the first to be published in a series of three books, each of which contain a large number of chapters about social work in different countries. The chapters of this book are organized by accounts of social work practice in geographical regions (Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe and North America).

                                    Find this resource:

                                    • Tan, Ngoh-Tiong, and Allison Rowlands, eds. 2004. Social work around the world III. Berne, Switzerland: International Federation of Social Workers.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      This is the third book to be published in a series of three books that contain a large number of chapters about social work in different countries. The chapters of this book are organized around the themes of “globalization.” Particular chapters address globalization in Africa, China, Romania, and Vietnam; in addition there are chapters on welfare, welfare regimes, the environment, and the practice of social work in a globalized world.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      Reference Works

                                      A number of different types of reference works have been published that are useful in comparative social work. One of the major problems in comparative social work arises from the lack of concept equivalence to refer to ideas and constructs within the domain of social work across different languages. At the most fundamental level it is not clear that the term “social work” conveys the same meaning in different linguistic and national contexts—it may refer to a range of types of activity, some of which will be common, some of which will be unique to a particular context. There are some dictionaries that provide translation of key social work terms, for example, between Chinese/English and German/French/English. There are also directories or lists of schools of social work; this was first published by the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) in 1995. There was a second iteration in 2000 and a third in 2010. This publication can be useful as a source of information about how to contact schools of social work, although some of the details will, inevitably, have changed since publication. Barretta-Herman 2005 analyzes some of this material, in particular that derived from a global survey in 2000 conducted by IASSW to identify some of the key trends evident in social work education. Some social work concepts are widely understood around the world but may be expressed through the medium of the local or regional language. There are several examples of dictionaries that provide a direct translation between two or more languages. For example, Berger and Kühne 1996 is a dictionary that specifies the equivalent terms in three European languages, while Cheng, et al. 2001 offers the same for Chinese and English. Direct word equivalents should be used with caution, as behind the direct translation of terms may lie significant conceptual differences. Bibliographies can also be found, such as Satka and Skehill 2011, which provides a listing of key publications about the development of child welfare across Europe.

                                      • Barretta-Herman, A. 2005. A reanalysis of the IASSW World Census 2000. International Social Work 48.6: 794–808.

                                        DOI: 10.1177/0020872805057089Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        The International Association of Schools of Social Work conducted a census of social work programs in 2000, which gave details of the distribution of social work programs and also an indication of what is taught.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Berger, Paul-André, and Klaus Kühne. 1996. Schweizer wöterbuch fürden sozialbereich/Lexique Suisse du domaine social. Köniz, Germany: Edition Soziothek.

                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          This is Swiss publication that gives details of equivalent social work terms in German, French, and English.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Cheng, C. H., B. K. Chun, P. Y. Ho, and H. M. Hui. 2001. A glossary of social work (with Chinese translation as used in Hong Kong and Mainland). Hong Kong: Department of Applied Social Sciences of the Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ.

                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            This publication includes both traditional and simplified Chinese characters and provides their equivalents in English.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Satka, Mirja, and Caroline Skehill. 2011. European history of child welfare and child protection. Oxford Bibliographies, Social Work.

                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              This bibliography consists of publications that concern the development of child welfare and child protection in selected European countries.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              Journals

                                              There are a large number of social work journals; exactly how many is difficult to estimate. (In 2011 Thomson Reuters abstracted from 41 social work journals. There are many more social work journals besides those selected by this premium listing.) Some of these journals have a country name as part of their name, for example the Australian, British, China, Indian Journals of Social Work. The inclusion of a country name may imply that the content is restricted to social work about one country, for example The China Journal of Social Work or it may signify the place of publication, for example The British Journal of Social Work. Some journals include abstracts in languages other than English, designed to encourage readership outside the Anglophone world. The identification of particular journals that may contain articles about comparative social work is somewhat problematic, as such articles may be included in almost any social work journal. There is one journal that carries the title Journal of Comparative Social Work, which is an online journal that is published twice per year. In cognate fields such as psychology and social policy, there are journals that are devoted to comparative issues and which contain some proportion of material pertinent to social work. One such example is International Journal of Social Welfare—this journal contains material relevant for social work located, as it is, at the conceptual boundary between social work and social policy. There are other journals in the policy field that contain some material relevant to comparative social work, Journals such as the Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy, and the Journal of European Social Policy, which as the name suggests is oriented toward studies of European countries. Turning to the material about comparative social work within the broader range of journals, it is not possible to comment about the nature and scope of articles published, as it is so diverse. There are a number of journals where the preponderance of articles about comparative social work is likely to be high relative to other journals; these include International Social Work, which has published material about social work in a large number of countries and the European Journal of Social Work, where the content is focused on social work in various European countries. Similarly, Social Work in Europe, now no longer published, provided an opportunity for publication of both comparative and single European country studies. However, this should not be taken to indicate that comparative articles can only be found in these journals.

                                              • European Journal of Social Work.

                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Published by Taylor and Francis. This peer- reviewed journal was first published in 1998 and in 2012 had an impact factor of 0.5. The scope of the journal, according to the website, is to provide “a forum for the social professions in all parts of Europe and beyond.”

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • International Journal of Social Welfare.

                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  This peer-reviewed journal was first published in 1992. For the first seven years of its publication, the journal had the title The Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare. The interdisciplinary approach and comparative perspective adopted by the journal’s editors has promoted the examination of the most pressing social welfare issues of the day by researchers from the various branches of the applied social sciences. The journal frequently carries articles from Asia, Latin America, Israel and the Middle East, and Nordic countries in Europe.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • International Social Work.

                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Published by SAGE, the official journal of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW), the International Council on Social Welfare (ICSW), and the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW). The journal contains articles about social work from many countries around the globe, some of these compare social work in two or more countries.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • Journal of European Social Policy.

                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      Published by SAGE. This peer- reviewed journal was first published in 1999. The scope of the journal, according to the website, is to publish “articles on all aspects of social policy in Europe.”

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy.

                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        Published by Taylor and Francis. This peer- reviewed journal was first published in 1984; it does not currently have an impact factor. The journal has changed names several times, adopting the current title in 2013. From 2006–2012 the title was known as the Journal of Comparative Social Welfare, from 1995–2005 the title was known as New Global Development, and from 1984–1994 it was known as the Journal of International and Comparative Social Welfare. The scope of the journal, according to the website, is to provide an opportunity to publish “articles on all dimensions of comparative and international social policy.”

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Social Work in Europe. 1994–2003.

                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          This non-peer-reviewed journal was published by Russell House between 1994 and 2003; there is no current website or impact for the journal. However, articles can be found in full text version by searching Social Care Online. In 2004, the journal merged with the European Journal of Social Work. This journal contained shorter articles than many journals and these often with a strong practice focus.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          History

                                                          There are apparently no available studies of the history of comparative research of social work and very few studies in which the diversity of social work has been analyzed through systematic historical comparison. From the very beginnings in the 19th century, modern social work has been a field of wide international collaboration. The early pioneers of social work in different countries collaborated and were influenced by each other. In the early development of governmental social activities, experiences were shared and adapted between countries. These interactions are reported in many historical studies of social work. The first international social work organizations were established at the turn of the 20th century, for example, the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) and the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW). These early international interactions between nongovernmental organizations laid the foundations for collaboration by governments. Early pioneers had aspirations to construct national public welfare infrastructures. However, the international exchange of ideas cannot always be assumed to be benign in effect. Some scholars have warned about the biased cultural hegemony of Western values in international social work. On the basis of a literature review, Brydon 2012 demonstrates that the proponents of international social work have to deal with the tension between the dominance of Western values and encouragement for the development of diversity that comprises a multiplicity of cultural orientations. Askeland and Payne 2006 (cited under Social Work Education) has confirmed the need to consider the burden of colonialism and emphasize the importance of avoiding cultural and lingual oppression in international social work. Cattin, et al. 2002 and Hering and Waaldijk 2003 provide a window into the history of international social work by displaying portraits that comprise the international activities of significant pioneers of social work from different countries. Kniephoff-Knebel and Seibel 2009 paints a picture of the early international cooperation activities in developing professional social work between World Wars I and II. An early pioneer of social work, in Germany, Salomon conducted in 1937 a comparative survey of the state of social work education in selected countries (Salomon 1937). This is a prominent milestone, which forms part of the history of comparative social work research. See also Healy 2008, Hering and Waaldijk 2006, and Schilde and Schulte 2005.

                                                          • Brydon, Kerry. 2012. Promoting diversity or confirming hegemony? In search of new insights for social work. International Social Work 55:155–167.

                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0020872811425807Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            This article illustrates how the origins of social work are deeply rooted in Western values and philosophies and how modern social work has been shaped by these factors.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Cattin, Didier, Monique Eckmann, and Micheline Kretschmer. 2002. Historical portraits of important European leaders on social work: Marguerite Wagner-Beck, directrice de l’Ecole d’études sociale de Genève, (1922–1947): Une présence discrète dans un monde mouvementé. European Journal of Social Work 5:199–229.

                                                              DOI: 10.1080/714890048Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              Concentrating on the life’s work of Marguerite Wagner-Beck, the director of the School of Social Work of Genève, 1922–1947, this French-language article describes the early developments of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW).

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Healy, Lynne M. 2008. The history of the development of social work. In International social work: Professional action in an interdependent world. Edited by Lynne M. Healy, 135–163. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                This chapter offers an overview of the history of social work in general by using selected countries as examples, Denmark, Germany, Jamaica, and Iran.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Hering, Sabine, and Berteke Waaldijk, eds. 2003. History of social work in Europe: Female pioneers and their influence on the development of international social organizations. Opladen, Germany: Leske + Budrich.

                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Lectures delivered at a conference for social work in Mainz, Germany, 2001. In this collection the origins and history of social work are portrayed particularly through female but also some male pioneers in selected countries. Portraits of the pioneers are presented and within these attention is paid to the role of these pioneers in early international collaboration.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Hering, Sabine, and Berteke Waaldijk, eds. 2006. Guardians of the poor—Custodians of the public: Welfare history in Eastern Europe 1900–1960. Opladen, Germany, and Farmington Hills, MI: Barbara Budrich.

                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    This edited book contains accounts of the development of social work in a number of Eastern European countries. The book contains the same material in English and German.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Kniephoff-Knebel, Anette, and Friedrich W. Seibel. 2009. Establishing international cooperation in social work education: The first decade of the International Committee of Schools for Social Work (ICSSW). International Social Work 51:790–812.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0020872808095251Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      This article is focused on the early formalization of international cooperation in social work education, especially the foundation and early workings of the International Committee of Schools of Social Work (ICSSW).

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Salomon, Alice. 1937. Education for social work. A sociological interpretation based on an international survey. Zurich, Switzerland: Verlag für Recht und Gesellschaft.

                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        In this first international survey of social work education, more than a hundred social work education programs were compared.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Schilde, Kurt, and Dagmar Schulte, eds. 2005. Need and care—glimpses into the beginnings of eastern Europe’s professional welfare. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Barbara Budrich.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          This book is one of the results of the “Network for Historical Studies on Gender and Social Work in Europe”; the book provides biographical sketches of some of the major early pioneers of social work in eastern Europe in conjunction with chapters on the politics of various social movements.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          Fields of Comparison (Client Groups)

                                                                          There are a number of ways in which the available literature about comparative social work could be presented. Here emphasis has been given to material that addresses different client groups. The rationale for this presentation is grounded in the existence of particular organizational structures and specialties in professional practice. It would also have been possible to adopt a thematic approach to the organization of the literature, considering, for example, themes such as: “feminist social work,” “migration/refugees,” and “poverty—services to ameliorate poverty.” Some such of these fields may lack much by way of comparative social work research. This would not be true of all. There has been a long-standing debate over the respective virtue of generalist or specialist social work practice; a generalist might work with a broad spectrum of clients, whereas the specialist would focus on a particular type of problem or a particular category of client. In a large number of countries social work is constructed by organizations that work with a particular category of client, and social workers define their professional identity with reference to the organization that employs them and thereby the groups that they are accustomed to working with. It is not surprising, therefore, that a number of comparative research studies compare the approach to the provision of social work for particular groups across national boundaries. It is not possible to present examples of the full range of groups with whom social workers are engaged. Some exemplars have been presented here.

                                                                          Children and Families

                                                                          Traditionally, social work with children and families has been a core element of practice in almost all countries. Hence, there has been a more substantial interest, evident in the extent of the literature, in comparing systems and practices of social work with children and families across different countries than in any other field of social work. In this body of work attention has been paid not only to direct practice in social work with clients but also more broadly to child, youth, and family policies more generally. One notable example of this broad policy and practice approach can be found in the United States. Where, since 1975, Sheila B. Kamerman has developed an influential and substantial cross-national body of work, in which she has studied a range of areas in respect to children and families, including child care, child rights, and poverty—frequently in collaboration with Alfred J Khan. A recent example of this work explores the development of child welfare across a large number of countries (see Kamerman, et al. 2010). A dominant characteristic of the cross-national literature about children and families, particularly in the field of child protection, has been the emphasis on legal and juridical issues. In some publications particular philosophies of child welfare are illustrated; for example, Forsberg and Kröger 2009 explores the Nordic tradition. Some publications are focused more on comparisons of systems and policies between individual countries, for example, Harder and Pringle 1997, Freymond and Cameron 2006, and Gilbert, et al. 2011. Courtney and Iwaniec 2009 provides an overview of residential care for children in several countries from different continents. The handbook of children’s rights, Franklin 2002, offers a comprehensive overview of the nature and development of children’s rights including a worldwide comparative perspective. Frost 2005 offers a perspective on child welfare issues in both economically developed and developing countries.

                                                                          • Courtney, Mark E., and Dorota Iwaniec, eds. 2009. Residential care of children: Comparative perspectives. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309188.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            This anthology offers a picture of main characteristics of the residential care of children around the world. The individual chapters are focused on country-specific descriptions.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Forsberg, Hannele, and Teppo Kröger, eds. 2009. Social work and child welfare politics: Through Nordic lenses. Bristol, UK: Polity.

                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              The characteristics of child welfare in the Scandinavian countries, which are grounded on the Nordic model of child welfare policy, are explored from different perspectives in several articles written by scholars from different Scandinavian countries.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Franklin, Bob, ed. 2002. The new handbook of children’s rights: Comparative policy and practice. London: Routledge.

                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                This handbook is about children’s rights. It is a relevant reading for social work scholars and practitioners who are interested in child welfare policies in international context.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Freymond, Nancy, and Gary Cameron, eds. 2006. Towards positive systems of child and family welfare: International comparisons of child protection, family service, and community caring systems. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  This compilation offers an overview of the nature and philosophical underpinnings of international comparisons of child and family welfare systems, including examinations of country-specific characteristics of child and family welfare in the United States, Canada, England, France, Sweden, and New Zealand.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Frost, Nick, ed. 2005. Child welfare: Major themes in health and social welfare. London: Routledge.

                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    This collection provides a broadly based picture of child welfare programs in very different societies both in economically developed and developing countries. Attention is paid both to social and health issues in child welfare.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Gilbert, Neil, Nigel Parton, and Marit Skivenes, eds. 2011. Child protection systems: International trends and orientations. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199793358.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      This anthology, consisting of country-specific analyses and summarizing comparative considerations, provides an overview of the similarities and differences found in child protection policies and systems across ten countries. Attention has been given to the changing character of regulations and organizational conditions of child protection and how these have been connected to the trends of de- and re-organization of welfare structures in individual countries.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Harder, Margit, and Keith Pringle, eds. 1997. Protecting children in Europe: Towards a new millennium. Aalborg, Denmark: Aalborg Univ. Press.

                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        This collection provides an overview of judicial policy, organizational systems, and prospects for the effective provision of child protection in selected European countries. Country-specific characteristics are examined in individual articles that are descriptive without making analytical comparisons.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Kamerman, Sheila, Shelley Phipps, and Asher Ben-Arieh, eds. 2010. From child welfare to child well-being. New York: Springer.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-3377-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          A large, comprehensive, and wide-ranging work comprising some twenty-three chapters, which explore differences across a large number of countries in respect to welfare issues such as childhood poverty, income support, and rights.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          Older People

                                                                                          Social work with older people is a discrete area of social work in theory and practice. This field has been conceptually linked with gerontology in general and health care in particular, through use of the term “gerontological social work,” in works such as Hokenstad and Kendall 1988 and Berkman 2006. An important conceptual domain for social work with older people is “social gerontology,” which has become a relatively well-established branch of studies that incorporates research and theory building. This domain also has also included a comparative investigation into care systems, which had been developed as early as the 1960s. In day-to-day practice, in many countries, much social work with older people engages widely with health issues and takes place in health-care organizations. Due to this element of social work with older people, country-specific models of elderly care predominate, as Blackman, et al. 2001 shows. From a comparative point of view, there are many country-specific analyses about care for elders and social work with older people but very few international comparisons. In this literature, attention has been paid to the emerging tendencies within individual care systems and the development of policies about older people at the national level. Holloway 2009 explores the nature and function of social work with respect to aging populations in general and in dying in old age in particular in selected countries. The Observatory for Sociopolitical Developments in Europe, a Germany-based organization, has produced a large number of materials, mostly working papers and conference reports, in which the structures and policies of services that provide care for older people have been systematically compared at the European level, for example, the conference document Angermann 2011. Melin Emilsson 2009 provides an example of a comparative study that has developed components that create a synchronic picture of long-term eldercare by describing, analyzing, and comparing different country-specific approaches to the delivery of care for older people.

                                                                                          • Angermann, Angette. 2011. Eldercare services in Europe—Home care, family support and domestic services for older people.

                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            This publication, available only as a PDF file, is based on an international conference focusing on the topic. Available online. Published in Germany.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • Berkman, Barbara, ed. 2006. Handbook of social work in health and aging. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173727.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              A versatile and multifaceted account of gerontological social work, which includes considerations of the diversity of care systems and policies.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              • Blackman, Tim, Sally Brodhurst, and Janet Convery, eds. 2001. Social care and social exclusion: A comparative study of older people’s care in Europe. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1057/9781403914071Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                Models of elderly care are introduced and compared across six European countries; attention is paid to how these models are connected with the welfare ideologies, policies, and systems of the countries in which they are located.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Hokenstad, Merl C., and Katherine Kendall. 1988. Gerontological social work: International perspectives. New York: Haworth.

                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Essential aspects of social care and social work with older people are considered by experts from several countries through an exploration of country-specific characteristics of national systems of care for older people.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Holloway, Margaret. 2009. Dying old in the 21st century. International Social Work 52:713–725.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0020872809342640Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    This article provides a discussion of the role of social work in light of the increasing number of older people of the population. Particular attention is paid to Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    • Melin Emilsson, Ulla. 2009. “Health care, social care or both?” A qualitative explorative study of different focuses in long-term care of older people in France, Portugal, and Sweden. European Journal of Social Work 12:419–434.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/13691450902981467Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      In this article, some fundamental aspects in the variation in provision of care of older people with dementia have been identified through an analysis of three different countries (France, Portugal, and Sweden); the different emphasis given to the provision of long-term eldercare in these countries is elaborated.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      People with Disabilities

                                                                                                      The constructs of “normalization” and social role valorization theory associated with the work of Wolfensberger have been fundamental to the understanding of the social construction of disability. This understanding has contributed to the recognition of the importance of the development of a social work practice that challenges social norms about the kind of life that people with disability can expect to enjoy. Tøssebro, et al. 2012 conducts a systematic review that examines the evidence about how people with an intellectual disability have been treated in a comparative study of Nordic countries. Also in the field of intellectual disability, and published in English, Kozma, et al. 2009 is a systematic review of outcomes for people with intellectual disability living in different types of residential environments. Whilst this is not a comparative study in the sense of being primarily focused on the experience in different countries, it does allow the reader to extract specific country information. At the opposite end of the spectrum of knowledge construction, Race 2007 offers a personal and family-based biographical account of the different ways in which welfare systems treat people with intellectual disability. More conventionally, Chou, et al. 2008 compares Taiwanese outcomes for adults with those found in Western countries.

                                                                                                      • Chou, Y. C., L. C. Lin, C. Y. Pu, W. P. Lee, and S. C. Chang. 2008. Outcomes and costs of residential services for adults with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan: A comparative evaluation. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 21.2: 114–125.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-3148.2007.00373.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        The findings are based on interviews with 248 Taiwanese participants with intellectual disabilities. The findings derived from Taiwanese participants’ were consistent with findings in published literature derived from studies conducted in Western societies.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        • Kozma, A., J. Mansell, and J. Beadle-Brown. 2009. Outcomes in different residential settings for people with intellectual disability: A systematic review. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 114.3: 193–222.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1352/1944-7558-114.3.193Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          This study comprised research published in sixty-eight articles, published in English, in the ten-year period from 1997 to 2007. These articles were reviewed to compare residential arrangements for adults with intellectual disability; most articles indicated that community-based services were superior to other forms of living arrangements, evidencing that the value of de-institutionalization was a common finding across nations.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          • Race, David. 2007. Intellectual disability: Social approaches. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw-Hill Education.

                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Race took a biographical approach to explore intellectual disability though a comparative study of services for people with intellectual disabilities in seven countries: England, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the United States. The book is based on conversations with academics and policymakers about how his son Adam, who had an intellectual disability, would have been treated in the respective countries.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Tøssebro, Jan, Inge S. Bonfils, Antti Teittinen, Magnus Tideman, Rannveig Traustadóttir, and Hannu T. Vesala. 2012. Normalization fifty years beyond—current trends in the Nordic countries. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities 9.2: 134–146.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-1130.2012.00340Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              The authors report on the impact of changes, in particular deinstitutionalization and decentralization in the Nordic countries, in the provision for people with intellectual disability, based on research reviews in the five Nordic countries. They found that diverging trends coexist, with some improvements and some setbacks.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              Mental Illness

                                                                                                              Central to the treatment and management of people with mental ill-health are questions about the extent to which individuals are helped while living in the community or are to be removed to hospitals (or other forms of care) either voluntarily or against their will. The diverse approaches adopted by states to this issue are not solely based upon intervention effectiveness. The extent to which individuals remain with the community has become an issue that is both political as well as professional. This was exemplified by the “Psichiatria Democratica” movement in Italy during the 1970s, which led to major reform and the development of more community-based interventions for people with mental ill-health. This movement has been a world beacon for enlightened approaches to the treatment and management of mental ill-health. A number of published materials have explored these developments, for example, Goodwin 1997. A number of materials have been published that have examined different policy approaches to mental health, including the works Fawcett 2007 and Metteri, et al. 2004, This field is particularly amenable to international policy comparisons. Rates of incidence of mental illness, different frequencies of diagnoses, various intervention strategies, and evidence of outcome appear to be more susceptible to measurement and therefore comparison than is the case in other fields of social work intervention. The strength of inter-professional work in this field and the involvement of the medical profession go some way to explain the particular character of comparative studies. These types of study are not the only ones that have been conducted in this field. Reviews of literature can be found; for example Tew, et al. 2012 reviews evidence about the outcomes for those with mental health problems. See also Shah 2012.

                                                                                                              • Fawcett, B. 2007. Consistencies and inconsistencies: Mental health, compulsory treatment and community capacity building in England, Wales and Australia. British Journal of Social Work 37.6: 1027–1042.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bcl090Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                A comparison of approaches to policy and practice in respect to mental health in two countries, England and Australia.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Goodwin, S. 1997. Comparative mental health policy: From institutional to community care. London: SAGE.

                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  An account of the tension between the drive for provision of intervention in the community and factors that incline toward intervention through institutional care.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  • Metteri, A., T. Kroger, A. Pohjola, and P.-L. Rauhala, eds. 2004. Social work approaches in health and mental health from around the globe. London: Routledge.

                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    As the title suggests, a series of case studies from different countries about how social workers have provided mental health interventions.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    • Shah, S. A. 2012. Ethical standards for transnational mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS): Do no harm, preventing cross-cultural errors and inviting pushback. Clinical Social Work Journal 40.4: 438–449.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/s10615-011-0348-zSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      An important area for mental health research has been to identify the extent to which the presentation of mental illness is culturally bound. This article provides examples, drawn from around the globe, of errors that have been made about the provision of care, where those errors are due to inappropriate interventions.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Tew, J., S. Ramon, M. Slade, V. Bird, J. Melton, and C. Le Boutillier. 2012. Social factors and recovery from mental health difficulties: A review of the evidence. British Journal of Social Work 42.3: 443–460.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bcr076Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        This article comprises a review of international literature about recovery and mental health. Three key areas are identified: “empowerment and control over one’s life; connectedness (including both inter-personal relationships and social inclusion); and rebuilding positive identities (often within the context of stigma and discrimination)” (p. 443).

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        Constructs in Social Work

                                                                                                                        Social work is a professional subsystem of modern society that is connected with other functional subsystems such as policymaking, welfare, law, economy, and education. Correspondingly, social work as a functional system consists of interconnected elements that contribute to the construction of the discipline, such as theories, research activities, social work education, legislative definitions, and organizations of practice. In addition to these elements, the construction of social work has been significantly influenced by the welfare system in which it is located. There has been considerable variation in the way that social work is constructed, across time and place, through the influence of different traditions, policies, and practices of social work. Social work may be linked with, or seen as part of other occupational groups, for example, “social care” professionals. A term that is sometimes used in such contexts is “social professions”; this includes social work and other professions engaged in the business of the provision of help to people in the social sphere. This term “social professions” is most usually encountered in German and central European thinking.

                                                                                                                        Methods of Social Work

                                                                                                                        Social work has been and continues to be a very wide field of professional activities. The comparative literature about social work has illustrated both the diversity and similarities in the ways in which social work is approached in different countries. The impact of international forces, globalization, on the nature of social work has attracted attention in recent years. For example the relocation of manufacturing jobs from West to East has had a profound impact on many nations both economically and socially. The social consequences of these transitions rebound in local communities, and thereby have become a concern for the social worker. Payne and Askeland 2008 explores some of the key impacts of globalization on social work. These themes are explored in relation to emerging areas of professional practice, such as child trafficking. Such emerging social problems, the product of the forces of globalization, pose problems for traditional methods employed by social workers The importance of cultural sensitivity in international exchanges about social work, as opportunities for international engagement increase, has been emphasized in several overviews of comparative social work, such as in the compilation Gray, et al. 2010. One of the methods used across the profession of social worker to address these issues has been to focus on the adequacy of the preparation of practitioners to deal with difference and diversity. A particular concern has been about race and migration; Hoffman, et al. 2001 considers how practitioners are enabled to address racism and the methods they might use. The forces of globalization challenge the profession to develop new methods of working. One way to examine the methods that form a part of the social work compendium has been to review the methods of practice taught to social work students, not that we should assume that these will automatically be employed in day-to-day practice. The edited collection Marynowicz-Hetka, et al. 1999 exemplifies a tradition of comparative examination of the profession of social work, its identity, constructs, and methods of practice used in different contexts. See also Bettman, et al. 2013 and Lyons, et al. 2006.

                                                                                                                        • Bettman, Joanna, Caren Frost, and Gloria Jacques, eds. 2013. International social work practice: Case studies from a global context. London: Routledge.

                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Different approaches to the practice to social work are examined and explored comparatively through a number of case studies that have been drawn from various areas of social work practice.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • Gray, Mel, John Coates, and Michael Yellow Bird, eds. 2010. Indigenous social work around the world: Towards culturally relevant education and practice. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            This anthology includes material about how professional social work practice and education have been shaped by indigenization and examines how social work can better deal with cross-cultural issues within and between countries.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            • Hoffman, Dimiter Martin, Elisabeth Furch, and Meinrad Winge, eds. 2001. Grenzen: Kontakt und konflikt in der kulturbegegnung; Borders: Training for intercultural and antiracist competence in social professions. St. Pölten, Austria: Sozaktiv.

                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              This book reports on the “VINENNET” (a network of institutions across central and northern Europe), through which participants explored how to teach cultural competence and antiracist practice—the focus is a little broader than social work and encompasses other social professions. The majority of the book is published in German and part in English.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Lyons, Karen, Kathleen Manion, and Mary Carlsen. 2006. International perspectives on social work: Global conditions and local practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Divided into two parts, theoretical frameworks and the effects of globalization. The authors of this book have explored issues for social work that derive from forces such as migration, child exploitation, pandemics, and military conflict.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • Marynowicz-Hetka, Ewa, Antonin Wagner, and Jacek Piekarski, eds. 1999. European dimensions in the training and practice of the social professions. Katowice, Poland: Úlàsk.

                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  This book provides an exploration of theory and concepts used in professional training, in particular the historical development of research and the professionalization of social professions with some case examples derived from particular countries. This is a mixed language book: the majority of chapters are in English, with some in French and German.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  • Payne, Malcolm, and Gurid Aga Askeland. 2008. Globalization and international social work: Postmodern change and challenge. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    The authors have provided a conceptual exploration of “globalization” and examined a number of sub-themes, including the nature of social work knowledge, the impact of technology, and the identity of social work in agencies and universities.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    Social Work Education

                                                                                                                                    In many publications, in which the traditions and practices of social work are compared across nation-states, attention has been given to educational matters. The characteristics of social work, as practiced in a nation state, relate to the nature, content, and structures of professional education. The particular nature and position of the profession of social work in any individual country are reflected through study programs. Together with research, conceptual development, and theory construction, the system of social work education has played an important role in the development of social work as a discipline, whether conceived of as a profession or an occupational field. Watts, et al. 1995 is a comprehensive account of social work education around the globe. The most comprehensive introduction to the various systems of social work education in Europe is Hamburger, et al. 2004. This consists of forty-eight country-specific articles in four volumes, which are the result of a research project conducted by the Department of Education at the University of Mainz, Germany. The contextual nature of social work and the need for cultural sensitivity in social work education in the midst of the Western domination are highlighted in Canada 1987, Askeland and Payne 2006, Razack 2009, and Lyngstad 2013. Mwansa 2011 offers a comprehensive view on the colonial origins, ambiguous position, and uncertain future of social work education in Africa. Resnik 1980 deals with the historical relationship of social work in Latin America and the United States, and Law and Gu 2008 offers an introduction to the history and characteristics of social work education in mainland China.

                                                                                                                                    • Askeland, Gurid Aga, and Malcolm Payne. 2006. Social work education’s cultural hegemony. International Social Work 49:731–743.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0020872806069079Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Dealing with the challenge posed by universal and dominant cultures in the era of globalization, this article advises of the need to “avoid cultural hegemony and correct pressures towards” (p. 742) the recreation of colonialism albeit through well intentioned practices.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • Canada, Edward R. 1987. Religious content in social work education: A comparative approach. Journal of Social Work Education 25:36–45.

                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        This article provides a good example about how to apply an approach based on a neighborhood discipline, in this case from comparative religious studies, for use in comparative work education.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        • Hamburger, Franz, Sandra Hirschler, Günter Sander, and Manfred Wöbke, eds. 2004. Ausbildung für soziale berufe in Europa. Vol. 1. Frankfurt: ISS-Eigenverlag.

                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          This is the first of a four-volume set. The four volumes cover forty-eight European nation-states. The systems of education for social professions are introduced relative to their historical backgrounds, quantitative and qualitative matters, education policies, and outlooks in each country. Articles are written either in English or German. This volume contains articles about the education of social professionals in Island, Ireland Estonia, Lithuania, Great Britain, Germany, Austria, Serbia, Turkey, and Portugal.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          • Law, Agnes Coon-chui, and Jiang Xia Gu. 2008. Social work education in mainland China: Development and issues. Asian Social Policy and Social Work Review 2:1–12.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-1411.2008.00006.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            A compact and informative introduction to historical development and main characteristics of social work education in mainland China, which includes an examination of political backgrounds as well as infrastructure.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Lyngstad, Rolv. 2013. Contextual social work and internationalizing social work education: Two sides of the same story. Journal of Social Work 13.4: 400–418.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/1468017311435202Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Through an analysis of some expert interviews about how the terms “international,” “comparative” and “contextual” relate to each other within the field of social work, attention is paid to the importance of international and comparative perspectives in social work education.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • Mwansa, Lengwe-Katembula. 2011. Social work education in Africa: Whence and whither? Social Work Education: The International Journal 30:4–16.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/02615471003753148Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                The colonial nature of social work and social work education in Africa is discussed critically. Attention is paid to the opportunities, prerequisites, and restrictions of the transformation from frameworks based on Western philosophies toward Afro-centric ones.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                • Razack, Narda. 2009. Decolonizing the pedagogy and practice of international social work. International Social Work 52:9–21.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0020872808097748Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  This article discusses the history of social work based on Western values and paves the way for decolonization.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • Resnik, Rosa Perla. 1980. Social work education in Latin America and the United States: A look to the future. Journal of Education for Social Work 16:104–111.

                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    The relationship between social work education in the United States and Latin America is discussed from a historical perspective and an exploration of possible futures.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Watts, Thomas D., Doreen Elliott, and Nazneen S. Mayadas, eds. 1995. International handbook on social work education. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      A comprehensive view of characteristics of social work education in several countries worldwide is presented. In addition to the country-specific considerations, the last article, written by Lynne M. Healy, deals with comparative and international aspects.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      Welfare Systems

                                                                                                                                                      As much of social work, in economically developed societies, is an essential part of social welfare systems, comparative research about social work is frequently connected with social policy. Hence, studies of comparative social policy that focus on the nature, similarities, and differences of the welfare models of individual countries may include discussion of social work. Similarly, in many studies of comparative social work attention is paid to the welfare systems in which social work takes place. This may be in part because there has been a stronger conceptualization of comparative study in social policy than in social work. Nonetheless, it is important to note that the form of welfare found in a particular country provides the necessary preconditions for the construction of social work policy and practice. The prevailing economic climate and organizational structures for welfare provide the opportunity for the development of a particular form of nationally based social work while simultaneously imposing restrictions on the form and practice of social work. Some of the publications about comparative social policy that provide information about different welfare systems and which are useful for an understanding of comparative social work are Alber and Gilbert 2009, Kennett 2006, and Liebfried and Mau 2007. Some classical works in the field of comparative social policy, for example, Titmuss 1974 and Esping-Andersen 1990, offer inspiring theoretical classifications of welfare state philosophies, but they make little direct comment about the comparative practice of social work. In some publications, welfare systems are considered especially from the perspective of social work, for example Littlechild, et al. 2005 and Dahme and Wohlfahrt 2012. Waaldijk 2011 discusses tension between oppression and emancipation as part of the welfare system, which has implications for the practice of social work.

                                                                                                                                                      • Alber, Jens, and Neil Gilbert, eds. 2009. United in diversity? Comparing social models in Europe and America. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195376630.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        European and American approaches to social systems and structures are compared by focusing on key features of social, economic, and political life, such as employment, equality, educational opportunity, integration of immigrants, democratic functioning, political participation, rights to welfare, and public spending. Both similarities and differences in respect to social models have been documented.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        • Dahme, Heinz-Jürgen, and Norbert Wohlfahrt, eds. 2012. Produktionsbedingungen sozialer arbeit in Europa. Analysen und länderberichte. Baltmannsweiler, Germany: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren.

                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          This anthology, written in German, provides an account of the diversity of welfare systems to be found in Europe; social work policies and practices are analyzed.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. 1990. Three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Gaining theoretical benefit from the works of Richard M. Titmuss, three major types of welfare state—residual, corporate, and universal—are introduced from comparative points of view through exploration of historical backgrounds, political starting points, and economical structure.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            • Kennett, Patricia, ed. 2006. A handbook of comparative social policy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              The comparative study of social policy is undertaken from different perspectives that address both theoretical coordination and current trends. Attention is given to the tendency for welfare systems to be orientated more frequently toward integrated and international processes and structures rather than a concentration on the characteristics of country-specific systems.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              • Liebfried, Stephan, and Steffen Mau, eds. 2007. Welfare states: Construction, deconstruction, reconstruction. 3 vols. Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar.

                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                This collection comprised selected articles from many significant theorists and researchers in the field of comparative social policy. The work provides an all-around introduction to the theoretical and empirical basis of comparative social policy and is offered in three volumes.

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                • Littlechild, Brian, Peter Erath, and Jan Keller, eds. 2005. De- and reconstruction in European social work. Materials for Comparative Social Work Science and Intercultural/International Social Work 5. Eichstätt, Germany: ISIS.

                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  In several country-specific articles the tendencies to re-shape individual welfare systems due to new or different economical and political reasons have been analyzed. Particular emphasis has been given to the consequences for social work of these economic and social forces.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  • Titmuss, Richard M. 1974. Social policy: An introduction. Edited by Brian Abel-Smith and Kay Titmuss. London: Allen and Unwin.

                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    This classic text about the theory of social policy has laid theoretical foundations for comparative social policy by introducing three contrasting models of social policy: the Residual Welfare Model, the Industrial Achievements-Performance Model, and the Institutional Redistributive Model. Subsequent classifications, by later theorists including Esping-Andersen, have built upon Titmuss’s conceptual framework.

                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                    • Waaldijk, Berteke. 2011. Social work between oppression and emancipation: Histories of discomfort and inspiration in Europe. Social Work and Society International Online Journal 9.2.

                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      This article provides an overview of major themes identified in the history of European social work through an exploration of connections between the development of social work with social and political conditions in individual countries.

                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                      Theoretical and Methodological Reflections

                                                                                                                                                                      The term “international social work” is used to refer to different kinds of cross-country cooperation particularly in the academic domain of social work. This term has become synonymous for debate and study of the international nature of social work as a discipline, profession, and field of research in the midst of diverse national traditions, policies, and practices. Nevertheless, the discussion captured by the concept embedded in this term has not produced very significant epistemological and methodological innovation in respect to the development of comparative research of social work. However, there have been some important reflections that contribute to development of the study of comparative research of social work. In general, there are common methodological challenges and the same and similar research methods and designs as in other fields of comparative research such as comparative social policy, comparative education, comparative linguistics, and cross-cultural sociology. But there are also special methodological questions connected with the nature of social work as a particular social and professional system.

                                                                                                                                                                      Methods of Comparison

                                                                                                                                                                      The terms “international social work” and “comparative social work” are not well defined in the literature. Despite the possibility of many potential modes of comparison (for example, historical, regional, rural/urban, and so on), the term “comparative social work” has come to imply cross-national comparisons. There is no developed social work method of comparison that is specific to the discipline. A number of studies juxtapose a descriptive account of similar dimensions of social work practice in a number of countries; see, for example, Strand Hutchinson, et al. 2001 (Australia, Canada, Norway, Russia, and the United States). With the lack of a specific social work comparative methodology, attention has often turned to cognate disciplines. Frequent use has been made of the comparative framework development in Esping-Andersen 1990, which proposes a comparative approach to the study of welfare systems. This has been deployed in a somewhat cumbersome manner to compare social work across different nation-states—cumbersome because it is designed to compare welfare systems rather than social work per se. Other pertinent materials for social work comparative research are books that deal with comparative research methods across the social sciences. Notable is the edited book Hantrais and Mangen 1996, which contains a number of case examples drawn from different studies; for example, one chapter concerns a comparative approach to the study of the “welfare mix” in respect to frail elders. Comparative research is replete with methodological complexity; for example, commonly held understandings of key concepts may vary across national or linguistic boundaries, with the consequent difficulties for comparative research. Soydan and Stål 1994 is among the first to draw attention to the possibilities of addressing some of these difficulties by using the “vignette method.” Shardlow and Wallis 2003 maps the nature and type of comparative studies about European social work completed to that date. It comments upon the frequency of use of particular types of methodological approaches. Theorizing about the methodology of comparative research has not attracted a great deal of attention in the literature. There are some examples of methodological development; for example, Tripodi and Potocky-Tripodi 2007 develops and employs a three-level taxonomy. From a different perspective, Harris 2007 explores the contribution of feminist perspective to the process of conducting comparative, qualitative research in the context of child-care policy in California and Australia. In a recent development, specific to social work, Hämäläinen 2013 proposes an approach to the development of comparative methods that draws upon the distinction between “diachronic and synchronic” approaches in linguistics.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. 1990. The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        A comparative framework that used platonic ideal types of welfare systems to construct a method of comparing different welfare regimes; three broad types were identified (liberal, corporatist-statist, and social democratic).

                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                        • Hämäläinen, Juha. 2013. Comparative research in social work: Methodological considerations using the “diachronic–synchronic” distinction in linguistics. European Journal of Social Work 17.2: 1–14.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/13691457.2013.777333Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          A pair of methodological concepts derived from linguistics, (“diachronic” and “synchronic”), which have been frequently used in comparative research in the humanities and social sciences, have been applied to the field of comparative research in social work. It is argued that this methodological approach could advance the theory of comparative social work.

                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                          • Hantrais, Linda, and Steen Mangen, eds. 1996. Cross-national research methods in the social sciences. London: Pinter.

                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            This book includes several examples of cross-national research, which provide models that are applicable to social work. Of particular significance is the chapter by Haluk Soydan that discusses the use of vignettes as a methodological approach.

                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                            • Harris, Nonie. 2007. Comparative, feminist, and qualitative: An uncommon perspective on cross-national social policy research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 6.1: 27–35.

                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              This article provides a methodological reflection on a comparative, feminist, qualitative research process based on cross-national doctoral research undertaken on child-care policy in California and Australia.

                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                              • Shardlow, Steven M., and John Wallis. 2003. Mapping comparative empirical studies of European social work. British Journal of Social Work 33.7: 921–941.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/33.7.921Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                The authors of this bibliographic study attempted to identify the number of empirical studies about comparative research in social work that had been published during a given period; the types of methods used in the identified studies are described.

                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                • Soydan, H., and R. Stål. 1994. How to use the vignette technique in cross-cultural social work research. Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare 3.2: 75–80.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.1994.tb00060.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  The authors introduce the “vignette method” and its application to comparative research.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Strand Hutchinson, Gunn, Lisbet Lund, Rolv Lyngstad, and Siv Oltedal, eds. 2001. Social work in five countries. Bodø, Norway: Univ. of Nordland.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Each chapter is devoted to a single country study. A common structure has been adopted for each chapter; this includes sections on: the profession of social work, educational policy, and social policy and the welfare system. The book contains a separate chapter about each of the following countries: Australia, Canada, Norway, Russia, and the United States.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tripodi, Tony, and Miriam Potocky-Tripodi. 2007. International social work research: Issues and prospects. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      This book provides an overview on international social work research by distinguishing three basic types of international social work research—supranational, intra-national, and transnational—and offers many examples of each of these types from the world over.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                      Designing and Conceptualizing Comparative Research

                                                                                                                                                                                      Defining international social work as research from two or more countries has been used to construct comparative discussion that explores social work in those countries. With the intention of examining the nature and extent of international social work research, Jung and Tripodi 2007 states that more attention should be devoted to international social work research due to globalization and increased internationalism. Meeuwisse and Swärd 2007 discusses the ways in which effective comparisons can be made and comments on the limitations of these approaches. The authors discuss the use of the “vignette method” for practice-oriented comparisons. Having recognized the benefits from this approach, van Lanen 2008 outlines a research design for a cross-national study that is based on the idea of the “vignette method.” Hackett, et al. 2003 offers an example of a well-controlled comparative study that has been based on quantitative data derived from a questionnaire for students. Kantowich 2005 considers the nature of comparative methodology in comparative research of social work education from the point of view of development of cross-national cooperation in education for social work. Haug 2005 calls for reconstruction of the concept of international social work on the basis of creative dialogue between different traditions instead of sticking to the Western “scientific” and “professional” knowledge base. Opposite to this, Mohan 2008 emphasizes the importance of a scientific orientation connected with a comparative analytic approach in theorizing and practicing international social work. Borrmann, et al. 2007 stresses the importance of an interest in becoming familiar with local cultures and life conditions to the international study of social work. Nagy and Falk 2000 argues that international social work is necessary for the survival of the profession, on the grounds that the profession depends upon and needs knowledge and influences gained from other societies to refresh and rejuvenate the conceptual thinking that underpins the profession.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Borrmann, Stefan, Michael Klassen, and Christian Spatscheck, eds. 2007. International social work: Social problems, cultural issues and social work education. Opladen, Germany: Verlag Barbara Budrich.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        This anthology deals with the nature of international social work through the adoption of a skeptical approach toward knowledge export from a country to another without firm consideration of cultural differences and divergence in social conditions.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hackett, Simon, Marjo Kuronen, Aila-Leena Matthies, and Barbara Kresal. 2003. The motivation, professional development and identity of social work students in four European countries. European Journal of Social Work 6:163–178.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/1369145032000144421Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          This article illustrates the different kinds of methodological challenges present in a conventional comparative study due to diverse cultural contexts.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Haug, Erika. 2005. Critical reflections on the emerging discourse of international social work. International Social Work 48:126–135.

                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0020872805050204Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            This article consists of criticism of the tradition of international social work based on dominance of Western understanding of social work.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jung, Sun Young, and Tony Tripodi. 2007. Brief note: Trends in international social work research. International Social Work 50:691–698.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0020872807079933Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Based on analysis of seven selected social work journals that were published between 1995 and 2004, this article indicates that transnational comparative research decreased in international social work journals during this period and that an international perspective can be incorporated increasingly into domestic research by reviewing the literature from and discussing the research findings for two or more countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kantowich, Ewa. 2005. Dilemmas in comparative research of education for social work in Europe. European Journal of Social Work 8:297–309.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/13691450500210798Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Classifying cross-national analysis of social work education in three main categories—historical, theoretical, and formal-practical—the author of this article discusses the conceptual diversity of systems, policies, and practices of social work education challenging development of methodology for comparative research.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                • van Lanen, Martijn T. A. 2008. Peeping at peers: A cross-national study of professionalism in social work. European Journal of Social Work 11:469–473.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/13691450802517056Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  This article provides an example of the importance of methodological innovations for development of comparative social work by introducing a design of a comparative study being inspired by innovative practice of the “vignette method.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Meeuwisse, Anna, and Hans Swärd. 2007. Cross-national comparisons of social work—a question of initial assumptions and levels of analysis. European Journal of Social Work 10:481–496.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/13691450701356929Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In this article three levels of comparative analysis of social work are identified and discussed: models of social policy, profession-oriented comparisons, and practice oriented comparisons.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mohan, Brij. 2008. Rethinking international social work. International Social Work 51:11–24.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0020872807083911Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      This article discusses the nature of international social work from the point of view of the importance of comparative analysis by paying attention to the elements of theorizing social work, promoting sound scientific knowledge production, and connecting people to cooperation for alleviating common social problems in an interdependent world.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nagy, Géza, and Diane S. Falk. 2000. Dilemmas in international and cross-cultural social work education. International Social Work 43:49–60.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Making a distinction between the terms “international social work” and “cross-cultural social work” but emphasizing the importance of both, the authors of this article discuss the variety of rationales for introducing an international perspective in social work education and opportunities to include more international and cross-cultural content into educational programs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                        European Comparisons

                                                                                                                                                                                                        There are good reasons to draw attention to studies about comparative social work that focus on the European context. Since the 1990s, and the process of integration within the European Union, there have been a relatively large number of general overviews about the diversity of traditions, policies, and practices of social work in Europe. Most of these works are edited anthologies in which the characteristics of social work are considered from different perspectives in selected individual countries. For example Puhl and Maas 1997 deals primarily with organizational structures of social work, while Adams, et al. 2001 considers both societal preconditions that shape social work and theoretical expression of social work in particular countries. Further, Erath and Littlechild 2010 identifies the characteristics of national traditions of thought and practice in social work. Pringle 1998 offers, using child-care as an example, a bold attempt toward a more general picture of the complexity and diversity of child protection in Europe, through the development of a theoretical framework to understand European child protection policy An excellent example of the complexity of comparative research of social work in rapidly changing societal conditions and the need for multidimensional and wide analysis that deals with theoretical and societal factors is Erath 2012. In a cognate field to comparative social work, the anthology Kornbeck and Rosendal Jensen 2009 examines traditions and practices of social pedagogy in Europe. Lorenz 2005 discusses the nature of a European paradigm of social work in the midst of diverse professional boundaries, theories, policies, and practices. Interest in European comparisons is, as Frost 2008 comments, closely connected with the need to develop a particular European social work identity and explore the restrictions of so doing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Adams, Adrian, Peter Erath, and Steven M. Shardlow, eds. 2001. Key themes in European social work: Theory, practice, perspectives. Lyme Regis, UK: Russell House.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fundamental elements of social work theory and practice have been considered by paying attention to the opportunities to create a common understanding of social work in the midst of diverse philosophies and traditions across Europe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Erath, Peter. 2012. Sozialarbeit in Europa: Fachliche dialoge und transnationale entwicklungen. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            This study provides a comprehensive analysis of preconditions and current trends of development of social work in Europe through selected individual countries. Attention is paid to connections of social work with other subsystems of society such as social policies, law, administration, and economy. The importance of the need to develop a research methodology and program for comparative social work is highlighted.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Erath, Peter, and Brian Littlechild, eds. 2010. Social work across Europe. Accounts from 16 countries. ERIS Monographs 1. Ostrava, Czech Republic: Univ. of Ostrava.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              A comprehensive overview of the variety and diversity of social work and social welfare systems in Europe dealing with the history, current status, and future challenges of social work in sixteen European countries. Each country-specific analysis is structured according to the same themes, making possible comparison.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Frost, Elisabeth. 2008. Is there a European social work identity? European Journal of Social Work 11:341–354.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/13691450802075691Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Based on reflections about theory of identity, the author of this article discussed the diverse nature of European social work and opportunities to develop a particular identity of European social work.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kornbeck, Jacob, and Niels Rosendal Jensen, eds. 2009. The diversity of social pedagogy in Europe. Studies in Comparative Social Pedagogies and International Social Work and Social Policy 7. Bremen, Germany: Europäischer Hochschulverlag.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Traditions of social pedagogy in selected European countries are introduced through consideration of the exploration of historical backgrounds, current tendencies in social work ideas, and systems of professional activities. In addition, there is analysis of how social pedagogy relates to social work.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lorenz, Walter. 2005. Towards a European paradigm of social work: Studies in the history of modes of social work and social policy in Europe. PhD diss., Technische Universität Dresden.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This work explores the opportunities, prerequisites, and obstacles to the development of a common understanding of social work. These factors were considered by examination of the diversity of traditions, policies, and practices of social work in Europe. Available online.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pringle, Keith. 1998. Children and social welfare in Europe. Buckingham, UK: Open Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In this study, the diversity of welfare systems and child policies in Europe is analyzed with a focus upon opportunities to develop a common approach to welfare systems based on an anti-oppressive framework.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Puhl, Ria, and Udo Maas, eds. 1997. Soziale arbeit in Europa: Organisationsstrukturen, arbeitsfelder und methoden im vergleich. Weinheim, Germany: Juventa.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This compilation introduces the organizational structures, working fields, and methods of social work in selected European countries. Some background information for understanding country-specific characteristics is given in each individual article.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        back to top

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Up

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Down