Islamic Studies Nationalism
by
Michael B. Bishku
  • LAST MODIFIED: 14 December 2009
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0056

Introduction

The term “nationalism” refers to a process by which a group (or groups) of people who possess one or many real or imagined common characteristics—usually language, history, culture and religion—join together, either seeking some form of autonomy within a state or striving to achieve independence so that they may establish their own state. Nationalism could also involve either combining states with inhabitants who possess common characteristics, or looking to annex neighboring territories in which those people inhabit; the former is the goal of “pan-ethnic” movements, while the latter is referred to as “irredentism.” Besides “ethnic” nationalism (as a result of war, decolonization, or the breakup of multiethnic empires), “territorial” nationalism also developed. Both ethnic and territorial nationalism can exist simultaneously, as has been the case in areas of the Islamic world. Religious identity has also been an important factor in shaping nationalism in the Balkans and the Middle East, due in large part to the long history in the Ottoman Empire of the “millet” (Turkish for “nation”) system, which was based on confessional association. (The same can be said for Christian Europe, as the Old Testament provided the original model of a nation and has had an influence up through to the present.) The modern Middle East and South Asia include two countries established on the basis of religious affiliation—Israel and Pakistan—as well as one dominated by members of the ulema: the Islamic Republic of Iran. At the same time, the modern Middle East also includes Turkey, whose founding father, Kemal Ataturk, promoted secularism alongside nationalism. In certain countries in the West—the United States, Great Britain, and France—due to the effects of secularism or the fact that there is not one prevailing group, “civic” nationalism has been promoted. In Asia and Africa, however, nationalism has been in part a movement in reaction to European imperialism and promoted by indigenous elites seeking to raise the level of development in society. In the process, attempts were made to diminish the effects of tribalism or regionalism. In certain cases, having a common enemy or not wanting to be dominated by a more powerful neighbor has enhanced nationalistic feelings. The issue of “others” within territorial boundaries has also been used by a particular group—usually a majority and sometimes a minority, as in the case of the Sunni in Iraq—to maintain dominance within a state and promote nationalism.

Introductory Works

The introductory works on nationalism listed below lean towards Eurocentrism, with Spencer and Wollman 2002 being the exception. Even Kedourie, who has the greatest connection with the study of the Islamic world, sees nationalism as a European invention that has a mixed record of application in the Middle East (Kedourie 1993). These works, which can be used as textbooks in undergraduate and graduate university classes, introduce the different concepts and theories of nationalism using thematic and historical approaches. Anthony Smith has been one of the most well known theorists to try to bridge the gap between the “modernist” school of thought, which regards the French and American revolutions as the starting points of nationalism, and the views of the “primordialists” and “perennialists,” which regard the origins as being immemorial or going back at least to the premodern period (Smith 2002).

Reference Works

The following books are useful and informative in different ways. Calhoun is a modernist, but he concludes that there is no one theory that explains the character of nationalism; instead, he provides background on its three dimensions—a discourse, a project, and an ethical imperative—and relates it to imperialism, colonialism, and economic globalization (Calhoun 1997). Leoussi and Smith 2001 and Özkirimli 2000 focus, in a general manner, on the theories of nationalism, while Minahan 1996 and Moytl 2001 are concerned with the many different persons, events, and issues connected with nationalism. Miscevic 2005 offers a quick reference with regard to the concepts and varieties of nationalism, while Lewis 1998 provides a clear overview of each of the ways that a person in the Middle East might identify himself or herself.

Bibliographies

Perhaps the most thorough bibliographic source on the subject of nationalism and related topics is The Nationalism Project, maintained by Professor Eric G.E. Zuelow since 1999. It is loosely affiliated with the Association for Research on Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Americas (ARENA), based at the University of South Carolina. The Nationalism Project website contains subject bibliographies as well as a bibliography of over 2,000 journal articles. In addition, it provides web links to other nationalism-related resources, book reviews and excerpts, and short entries on various subjects. There is also a very useful sourcebook from Rutgers University Libraries titled Nationalism: Selected Resources that contains a bibliography of reference sources, including specialized encyclopedias, historical atlases, statistical data, and links to other sites with selected bibliographies. Professor Daniele Conversi at the University of Lincoln in England, the editor of Ethnonationalism in the Contemporary World (London: Routledge, 2004) and numerous articles, has a website with a course syllabus for “Theories of Nationalism” that contains an eleven-page bibliography.

Anthologies and English Translations

Listed below are some important anthologies containing translations of the writings and speeches of nationalist leaders and thinkers, especially in the Middle East, as well as writings by academics and policymakers involved with the region. Gökalp 1959 provides an indispensable introduction to the writings of the father of modern Turkish nationalism, while Haim 1976 does the same for the great thinkers of Arab nationalism. Karpat 1982 has broader coverage with regard to indigenous nationalisms but is also concerned with other ideologies and movements in the contemporary Middle East, while Kedourie 1974 focuses solely on nationalism is broader in geographical scope, including both Asia and Africa. Landau 1972 and Zartman 1973 provide writings and speeches of important nationalist and religious leaders in the Middle East and North Africa, respectively. Khalidi 1987 devotes extensive coverage to issues that affected Palestinian nationalism.

  • Gökalp, Ziya. Turkish Nationalism and Western Civilization: Selected Essays of Ziya Gökalp. Edited and translated by Niyazi Berkes. London: Allen & Unwin, 1959.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A good collection of essays dealing with cultural matters by an ideologue that gave inspiration to modern Turkish nationalism. Reprint, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981.

    Find this resource:

  • Haim, Sylvia, ed. Arab Nationalism: An Anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of twenty writings and documents originally published in 1962, with an introduction of some seventy pages.

    Find this resource:

  • Karpat, Kemal H. Political and Social Thought in the Contemporary Middle East. Rev. ed. New York: Praeger, 1982.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of excerpts of the writings of political and religious leaders, as well as philosophers and social thinkers, on such subjects as nationalism, socialism, and Islamism.

    Find this resource:

  • Kedourie, Elie, ed. Nationalism in Asia and Africa. London: Routledge, 1974.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book's introduction, on pages 1–152, discusses the relationship between nationalism and imperialism and the ideas of Asian and African nationalists, which are presented in an anthology of excerpts from twenty-five writings or documents.

    Find this resource:

  • Khalidi, Walid, ed. From Haven to Conquest: Readings in Zionism and the Palestine Problem until 1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1987.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In addition to an introduction of some sixty pages, this collection of eighty documents, essays, and excerpts from various books that, in J.C. Hurewitz's words, “inform the Palestine-Arab position.”

    Find this resource:

  • Landau, Jacob C., ed. Man, State and Society in the Contemporary Middle East. New York: Praeger, 1972.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Contains a collection of excerpts from the writings and lectures of Arab nationalist leaders, in addition to essays by academics on nationalism and ethnicity, among other subjects.

    Find this resource:

  • Leoussi, Athena S., and Steven Grosby, eds. Nationality and Nationalism. 4 Vols. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This anthology emphasizes theoretical and empirical literature in the field and includes many translations of important works originally written in French and German. Broad in geographical coverage, it deals with such matters as visual arts, music, and literature in the expression and formation of national consciousness.

    Find this resource:

  • Zartman, I. William, ed. Man, State, and Society in the Contemporary Maghrib. London: Pall Mall Press, 1973.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Contains a collection of excerpts from speeches of political and religious leaders, including Morocco's King Muhammad V and King Hassan II, the late Presidents Houari Boumedienne and Habib Bourguiba of Algeria and Tunisia, respectively, and Libya's leader Muammar Qadhafi.

    Find this resource:

Journals

There is no shortage of academic journals concerned with nationalism, both in theoretical and case study approaches. Unfortunately, the first to do so, the Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, is no longer in publication. All of the others listed below are available both in print and online. They have occasional coverage of areas in the Islamic world. All the journals listed below have been important forums for the many issues that make up the study of nationalism, including ethnopolitics, national identity, and race, with Nations and Nationalism carrying the most authority.

Foundations of nationalism

The sharpest division concerning interpretations of nationalism involves the importance of the past in the creation of modern nations. The “primordialists” and “perennialists” believe that ethno-cultural nations are either immemorial or have their origins in the premodern period, whereas the “modernists,” as the name implies, believe that these nations are modern constructs going back at least to the French and American revolutions. Among the latter group, there are those who believe nations are “imagined communities” rather than “real” ones. The modernists would refer to earlier sentiments as “proto-nationalism.” They are the more prevalent school in the study of nationalism. The works cited below are some of the best by well-respected theorists. Anderson (Anderson 1991), Breuilly (Breuilly 1994), Gellner (Gellner 1983), and Hobsbawm (Hobsbawm 1990) are modernists, while Armstrong (Armstrong 1982) and Hastings (Hastings 1997) look toward earlier times for the roots of nationalism. Kohn (Kohn 1944) is essentially a modernist as well, but the other scholars have been affected by his classical work. Smith (Smith 1998) attempts to bridge the differences between the two schools.

  • Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Rev. ed. London: Verso, 1991.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents the case that a “real community” is where everyone has face-to-face contact, whereas a nation is an imagined political community that has finite, albeit elastic, boundaries and is sovereign. Nationalism was possible with the decline of “religiously imagined communities” and the development of print capitalism.

    Find this resource:

  • Armstrong, John A. Nations before Nationalism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author deals with the premodern roots of nations in Europe and the Islamic world from both religious and secular sources. He feels that people in the Christian world were more predisposed, given their lifestyles, to develop ethnic identities.

    Find this resource:

  • Breuilly, John. Nationalism and the State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A challenge to the view that nationalism emerges through a sense of cultural identity. Instead, the author sees it as a means by which elites, social groups, and foreign governments mobilize popular support against a state, and he uses some examples in the Islamic world, such as Turkish, Arab, and Muslim nationalism in India. Originally published in 1982.

    Find this resource:

  • Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents a modernization argument that in order to operate effectively in the industrial stage of human development, there is a need for the ruling classes of a nation to impose “high culture” and education on the masses. Thus, nationalism is a harmonization of the political and national unit.

    Find this resource:

  • Hastings, Adrian. The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion, and Nationalism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author asserts that roots of the nation, national identity, and nationalism are found in the medieval period, and in some cases even before that, by focusing on examples of the English, Irish, Western Europeans, South Slavs, and Africans. Biblical religion and vernacular literature helped to construct the nation before the state in Europe, but Islam is politically “universalist” and directs Muslims towards different political and social formations rather than a nation-state.

    Find this resource:

  • Hobsbawm, Eric. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An overview and analysis of the development of nations from a historical perspective. Hobsbawm contends that national identification changes over time, and that the “national question” is where politics, technology, and social transformation “intersect.”

    Find this resource:

  • Kohn, Hans. The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in Its Origins and Background. New York: Macmillan, 1944.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A classic account of the origins of national identity that regards nationalism as a “state of mind,” but that does does distinguish between Western “civic” nationalism and the ethnic-based variety found elsewhere. Kohn compares the origins of nationalism in 17th-century England with the development of individual freedoms and rights.

    Find this resource:

  • Smith, Anthony. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Smith asserts that nations develop in modern times from premodern cultural attributes such as memory, myth and symbolism. These interpretations, many of which are historically flawed, are embodied in what Smith calls “ethno-symbolism.”

    Find this resource:

Ethnicity and nationalism

Throughout much of the 20th century, ethnicity was the most important factor in organizing resistance to Western imperialism and in developing territorial-based states in the Islamic world. These movements have included pan-ethnic or irredentist tendencies. The most prominent force has been Arab nationalism, while other ethnic groups—such as Armenians, Egyptians, Iranians, Jews, Kurds, Palestinians, Syrians, and Turks—have also played an important part in shaping the politics of the modern Middle East.

Arabs, Pan-Arabism, and Arab Nationalism

In recent years, this field has been one of the most studied; part of the reason is the impact that Gamal Abdel Nasser (or Abd al-Nasir), the late leader of Egypt, had upon the region and its peoples. Indeed, his Philosophy of the Revolution (Nasser 1955) is indispensable for understanding his thoughts on Arab nationalism. Within years of Nasser's death, in 1970, and due to the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 and its impact on the Middle East, many scholars believe that if the movement is not dead, its influence is now quite diminished and used in part to prop up territorial-based nationalisms. Dawisha 2003 provides the best overview and analysis of Arab nationalism, while Khalidi, et al. 1991 concentrates on the origins of the movement. Jankowski and Gershoni 1997 examine the psychological, political, and cultural bases of Arab nationalism. Rejwan 1974 examines Nasser's ideas on Arab nationalism, while the Baathist version in Syria and Iraq that was at times opposed to Nasser's actions in the Middle East is given thorough treatment in Devlin 1976. Farah 1987 is concerned with the relationship between Pan-Arabism and individual state nationalism as well as the interaction of religious revival with Arab nationalism, while Sela1999 in the Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East offers a succinct overview of the movement.

  • Sela, Avraham. “Arab Nationalism.” In Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Edited by Avraham Sela, 117–122. New York: Continuum, 1999.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a brief summary of all the varieties of the movement, from its roots in the 19th century to recent forms.

    Find this resource:

  • Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive survey and analysis that is both readable and well documented. Dawisha defines Arab nationalism as a political and secular desire for a united Arab state, whereas “Arabism” is a broader cultural phenomenon.

    Find this resource:

  • Devlin, John F. The Ba'th Party: A History from Its Origins to 1966. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1976.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A study of the rise and spread of this Arab nationalist movement until its split into separate Syrian and Iraqi organizations.

    Find this resource:

  • Farah, Tawfic E., ed. Pan-Arabism and Arab Nationalism: The Continuing Debate. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of essays dealing with the relationship between Pan-Arabism and individual state nationalism, as well as the interaction of religious revival with Arab nationalism.

    Find this resource:

  • Jankowski, James and Israel Gershoni, eds. Rethinking Nationalism in the Arab Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    These essays examine the psychological, political, and cultural bases of Arab nationalism. The project developed out of a workshop at the University of Colorado, as most studies of nationalism devote little or no attention to the Middle East.

    Find this resource:

  • Khalidi, Rashid, Lisa Anderson, Muhammad Muslih, and Reeva S. Simon, eds. The Origins of Arab Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Most of these essays were presented at a conference at Columbia University and offer revisionist accounts. Ernest Dawn disputes the contention of earlier works that Arabism was a response to “Turkification” in the Ottoman Empire, while other essays illustrate how territorial-based nationalism developed alongside Arab nationalism.

    Find this resource:

  • Nasser, Gamal Abdel. Egypt's Liberation: The Philosophy of the Revolution. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press, 1955.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In the third section of the book, the Egyptian leader outlines “Three Circles” in which Egypt is involved: the Arab, African, and Islamic worlds.

    Find this resource:

  • Rejwan, Nissim. Nasserist Ideology: Its Exponents and Critics. New York: John Wiley, 1974.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An examination of the political, social, and cultural aspects of Nasser's philosophy.

    Find this resource:

Armenians

Of the non-Muslims in the Islamic world, Armenians, along with the Jews, have had an important connection with the region. Both were encouraged by nationalism's development in Europe, while the Armenian embrace of the idea had an important impact on the Ottoman Empire in its final decades of existence. Their national feelings were enhanced by the tragedy of what they referred to as the Armenian Genocide, a term Turkey denies. Nalbandian 1967 is indispensable for understanding the genesis of Armenian political development, while Panossian 2006 describes and analyzes the evolution of national identity.

Egyptians

Local nationalism in this country preceded Arab nationalism, although the two have overlapped at times. Nationalism in Egypt has received greater attention by scholars than other countries of the Arab world. Ahmed 1960 deals with the roots of Egyptian nationalism, while Gershoni and Jankowski 1986 and Gershoni and Jankowski 1995 are concerned with the formative years of that movement, which shifted from being territorial-based to a greater acceptance of the country's Arab and Islamic character. Deeb 1979 provides a historical account of Wafd, Egypt's first political party.

  • Ahmed, Jamal Mohammed. The Intellectual Origins of Egyptian Nationalism. London: Oxford University Press, 1960.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book, by a student of Albert Hourani, focuses on the ideas of Muhammad Abdu, Qasim Amin, and Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid, and on their influence in the development of Egyptian nationalism steering a course between traditionalism and secularism.

    Find this resource:

  • Deeb, Marius. Party Politics in Egypt: the Wafd and its Rivals, 1919–1939. London: Ithaca Press, 1979.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A historical account of the party that developed from a mass nationalist movement allying small to medium-size landowners against British control following World War I, including the political challenges that it faced over the next couple of decades.

    Find this resource:

  • Gershoni, Israel, and James P. Jankowski. Egypt, Islam, and the Arabs: The Search for Egyptian Nationhood, 1900–1930. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This study shows that throughout the early part of the 20th century, Egyptians were very much focused on territorial nationalism and paid little interest to developments outside the country.

    Find this resource:

  • Gershoni, Israel, and James P. Jankowski. Redefining the Egyptian Nation, 1930-1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This second volume examines how Egyptians moved from territorial nationalism to supra-Egyptian nationalism, which embraced a greater acceptance of their country's Arab and Islamic character.

    Find this resource:

Iranians

Nationalism in Iran developed territorial nationalism, as it did in Turkey, in part in resistance to European political and economic interference in the country's affairs, and secondarily as an attempt to deny ethnic diversity. Atabaki 2001 deals with the roots of Iran's territorial-based nationalism, while Cottam 1964 provides the best overview of the subject, relating it to the country's history, geography, and social structure. Bill and Louis 1988 focuses on political developments in the early 1950s as they relate to nationalism, while Shaffer 2002 is concerned with the nature of the national identity of Azeris, a large Turkic population concentrated in northwestern Iran.

  • Atabaki, Touraj. “Recasting Oneself, Rejecting the Other: Pan-Turkism and Iranian Nationalism.” In Identity Politics in Central Asia and the Muslim World: Nationalism, Ethnicity and Labour in the Twentieth Century. Edited by Willem van Schendel and Eric J. Zürcher, pp. 65–83. London: I.B. Tauris, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Before Reza Shah's consolidation of power in the 1920s and his repression of the linguistic and cultural identity of the Azeris, intellectuals in that community opted for Iranian territorial nationalism because they felt threatened by Ottoman pan-Turkish policies.

    Find this resource:

  • Bill, James A., and William Roger Louis, eds. Musaddiq, Iranian Nationalism, and Oil. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1988.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Half of this book deals with the political career of the Iranian nationalist leader Muhammad Musaddiq (Mossadeq) and his legacy, Iranian nationalism in general, and the role of Iranian clergy in politics during the period of the early 1950s, in the midst of the crisis over the nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC).

    Find this resource:

  • Cottam, Richard W. Nationalism in Iran. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1964.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A unique study by a former U.S. State Department official who had contacts with Iranian nationalists since the 1950s.

    Find this resource:

  • Shaffer, Brenda. Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Shaffer asserts that Azeris in Iran have always had a “sense of separate identity,” and that, contrary to many works during the Cold War, Azeri ethnic sentiments were not primarily a Soviet invention.

    Find this resource:

Jews and Zionism

Zionism developed in Europe in reaction to anti-Semitism, though not all Jews embraced it, for various reasons. Still, it has had a large impact in the Islamic world, especially since the establishment of the state of Israel sanctioned by the United Nations in 1948. Laqueur 1972 still provides the most comprehensive and readable overview, while Vital 1975 offers an excellent series covering the early years of the Zionist movement. Goldberg 1996 and Shimoni 1995 concentrate on Zionist thought.

Kurds

Although Kurdish nationalism developed later than in most of the Middle East, it is the largest nation without a state and has been considered a threat to the established countries in the region, particularly Turkey, Iran, and Iraq, although smaller numbers of Kurds also live in Syria. Both Chaliand 1993 and Ahmed and Gunter 2007 provide comprehensive historical overviews of Kurdish nationalism, while Natali 2005 discusses the differences in the development of the Kurdish movement in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran—countries with their own nationalist movements. Olson 1989 deals with the roots of Kurdish nationalism, while Romano 2006 is concerned with a theoretical analysis of the movement's structure, especially with regard to Turkey.

  • Ahmed, Mohammed M.A., and Michael M. Gunter, eds. The Evolution of Kurdish Nationalism. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of essays that systematically traces Kurdish nationalism from its modern origins after World War I to its present geostrategic importance. Coverage is given to Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria, although not equally.

    Find this resource:

  • Chaliand, Gerard, ed. A People Without a Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan. Translated by Michael Pallis. New York: Olive Branch Press, 1993.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    These essays survey and analyze Kurdish nationalism since the 19th century, when the vast majority of Kurds were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. The book deals with all the countries where Kurds have resided, including the former Soviet Union.

    Find this resource:

  • Natali, Denise. The Kurds and the State: Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author asserts that Kurdish nationalism has been shaped by the development of nation-states in the region. As a result, movements and individual attitudes toward the respective states developed differently.

    Find this resource:

  • Olson, Robert. The Emergence of Kurdish Nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880–1925. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Olson examines the roots of Kurdish nationalism in the Ottoman Empire, from Sheikh Ubaydallah of Nehri and the Kurdish League through Sheikh Said's unsuccessful rebellion against the newly established Republic of Turkey.

    Find this resource:

  • Romano, David. The Kurdish National Movement: Opportunity, Mobilization and Identity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A theoretical analysis of Kurdish movements, emphasizing the case of Turkey by examining a combination of opportunity structures, mobilization, and cultural framing.

    Find this resource:

Palestinians

Beginning in the late 20th century, scholars have become concerned with the roots of Palestinian nationalism, and with the fact that it developed separately from the reaction against Zionism. Both Khalidi 1997 and Muslih 1988 contend that Palestinian nationalism predated the Palestine Mandate of 1922, with the Muslih attributing it to the fragmentation of the Arab nationalist movement. Porath 1974 and Porath 1977 examine the development of the Palestinian Arab nationalist movement during the Mandate prior to World War II, while Quandt, et al. 1973 focuses on nationalism since 1967.

  • Khalidi, Rashid. Palestinian Identity: The Construction of a Modern National Consciousness. New York: Columbia University Press. 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author asserts that even before the establishment of the Palestine Mandate in 1922, the Arab population had developed a national identity, though it overlapped with religious sentiment and Arabism. Khalidi ties his argument to territorial-based nationalism and sees a “reemergence” in the last couple of decades.

    Find this resource:

  • Muslih, Muhammad Y. The Origins of Palestinian Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press. 1988.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author contends that Palestinian nationalism evolved not just in reaction to Zionism, but more as a result of the fragmentation of the Arab nationalist movement. He focuses on the politics of Palestinian notable families between 1856, following the Crimean War and the development of a commercial bourgeoisie, and the Third Palestinian Arab Congress in December 1920, when territorial-based nationalism was adopted.

    Find this resource:

  • Porath, Yehoshua. The Emergence of the Palestinian-Arab National Movement, 1918–1929. London: Frank Cass, 1974.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the first decade of the movement, beginning with the British capture of Jerusalem in December 1917.

    Find this resource:

  • Porath, Yehoshua. The Palestinian-Arab National Movement: From Riots to Rebellion, 1929–1939. London: Frank Cass, 1977.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Along with the previous volume, this work provides a detailed study of Palestinian nationalist policies and actions from its beginnings to the outbreak of World War II.

    Find this resource:

  • Quandt, William, Fuad Jabber, and Ann Mosely Lesch. The Politics of Palestinian Nationalism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This survey of expressions of Palestinian nationalism focuses on the time period following the 1967 War, highlighting the continuity from earlier times and the relationship between Palestinian and inter-Arab politics.

    Find this resource:

Syria and Pan-Syrianism

King Abdullah, the Jordanian ruler and brother of Faisal (who would rule over Iraq), had to give up the idea of a Greater Syria following the first Arab-Israeli war and his annexation of the West Bank. Khoury 1983 and Khoury 1987 are indispensable in examining Syrian nationalism from its roots in the mid-19th century until the end of the French Mandate, while Pipes 1990 offers the only comprehensive account of Pan-Syrianism, which has been connected with Pan-Arabism.

  • Khoury, Philip S. Urban Notables and Arab Nationalism: The Politics of Damascus, 1860–1920. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An examination of the roots of Arab nationalism. Khoury focuses on how reform in the Ottoman Empire and agrarian commercialization produced a cohesive social class of landowners and bureaucrats that mediated between the Porte and local society.

    Find this resource:

  • Khoury, Philip S. Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920–1945. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a sequel to the book listed below and examines how those “urban notables” attempted to use Arab nationalism to maintain their position of power, which was eventually challenged by the time of independence in 1945.

    Find this resource:

  • Pipes, Daniel. Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive account of Pan-Syrianism, an idea that originated around the mid-19th century and was promoted unsuccessfully by the Hashemite Prince Faisal following World War I. Faisal's idea of Greater Syria included what is today not only Syria, but also Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan. Pipes contends that the late President Hafiz al-Asad of Syria revived the idea during the 1970s. In most cases, it was presented as step toward Pan-Arab unity.

    Find this resource:

Turkey and Pan-Turkism

Turkey developed a territorial-based nationalism while at the same time promoting secularism and denying ethnic diversity, especially with regard to the Kurds, whose population in Turkey is larger than in any other Middle Eastern state. At the same time, the Republic of Turkey discouraged Pan-Turkism, a movement developed during the last decades of the Ottoman Empire, but which still has appeal with right-wing groups in Turkey. Kieser 2006 deals with the subject of how Turkey, which seeks European Union membership, can move beyond ethnic nationalism, while Landau 1995 offers a very comprehensive survey and analysis of Pan-Turkism, which has had a resurgence since the breakup of the Soviet Union.

  • Kieser, Hans-Lukas, ed. Turkey Beyond Nationalism: Towards Post-Nationalist Identities. London: I.B. Tauris, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Offers an analysis of modern Turkey's relationship with nationalism. Kieser explores how the country might evolve past its ethno-nationalist heritage and be a more open society, in terms of historiography and respect for diversity, especially as it seeks membership in the European Union.

    Find this resource:

  • Landau, Jacob M. Pan-Turkism: From Irredentism to Cooperation. 2d rev. ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a survey and analysis of an irredentist ideology and movement, from the time of the late Ottoman Empire through the breakup of the Soviet Union, when it became more concerned with solidarity and cooperation. The author distinguishes between irredentism and Pan-Turanism, which is more expansive in that it includes all peoples whose origins extend back to Central Asia.

    Find this resource:

Imperialism, colonialism, and nationalism

Within the Middle East, there are some countries that have been either created or encouraged to develop by the European powers. In addition, nationalism had its roots in reaction to Ottoman or European imperialism. The Balkan Peninsula was the first area to be influenced by nationalism, while the Arabian Peninsula and particular regions of Africa were some of the last places to develop distinct national identities. The Caucasus region developed distinct nationalisms that Soviet rule could not control.

Arabian Peninsula

This is one of the least studied regions in the Middle East, especially from the vantage point of its indigenous peoples. Anscombe 1997 demonstrates how the Arab areas of the Persian Gulf region felt insecure under Ottoman rule and sought the protection of Great Britain, which had its own strategic interests in the area. Halliday 1974 offers an indispensable account of understudied regional nationalist movements of the 1960 and 1970s.

  • Anscombe, Frederick F. The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author contends that the Ottoman Empire's difficulties in administering and protecting the Arabian Peninsula in the latter part of 19th and early 20th centuries drove the sheikhs in the region to seek independence (with British assistance). In the process, territorial boundaries were established.

    Find this resource:

  • Halliday, Fred. Arabia without Sultans: A Survey of Political Instability in the Arab World. New York: Vantage Books, 1974.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is especially useful for understanding nationalist movements in South Yemen, particularly the National Liberation Front and, in the Dhofar region of Oman, the Dhofar Liberation Front, known in later years as the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arab Gulf.

    Find this resource:

Azerbaijan

The Soviet Union had an ambivalent attitude toward nationalism, and developments in the last couple of decades of its existence ironically contributed to more independent attitudes. Nationalist forces developed in the Caucasus during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with Azerbaijani nationalism finally developing out of Muslim and Turkish identity. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia has solidified these feelings. See Bolukbasi 2001.

  • Bolukbasi, Suha. “Nation-building in Azerbaijan: The Soviet Legacy and the Impact of the Karabkh Conflict.” In Identity Politics in Central Asia and the Muslim World: Nationalism, Ethnicity and Labour in the Twentieth Century. Edited by Willem van Schendel and Erik J. Zürcher, pp. 35–63. London: I.B. Tauris, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author asserts that the Soviets had created favorable conditions for the growth of nationalism in Azerbaijan and the South Caucasus, and that the situation in Nagorno-Karabkh has solidified nationalist feelings.

    Find this resource:

Balkans

Nation-building in the Balkan states has largely connected ethnicity with religion, but it was originally encouraged by the European powers and Ottoman attempts to strengthen control over the region. Poulton 1997 offers a very readable explanation of complex developments.

  • Poulton, Hugh. “Islam, Ethnicity, and the State in the Contemporary Balkans.” In Muslim Identity and the Balkan State. Edited by Hugh Poulton and Suha Taji-Farouki, pp. 13–32. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a review and analysis of a region where the Ottoman legacy of confessional identity has greatly influenced the development of national identity, with the exception of Albania, where Christians and Muslims did not want to be dominated by stronger neighboring states following independence.

    Find this resource:

Eritrea

This country was created by the Italians, and nationalism was slow to develop, but it nonetheless strengthened as a result of Ethiopian political and military actions. Yohannes 1991 asserts that Eritrean nationalism predated its struggles against Ethiopia during the Cold War, while Erlich 1983 concentrates on the aforementioned conflict prior to it becoming directly involved in the politics of the Cold War.

  • Erlich, Haggai. The Struggle Over Eritrea, 1962–1978: War and Revolution in the Horn of Africa. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1983.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the history of Eritrean separatism, from Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea—which had been part of a United Nations' sanctioned federation between 1952 and 1962, when Christians joined Muslims in the nationalist struggle—until 1978, when Cuba entered the conflict in support of Ethiopia's Marxist government.

    Find this resource:

  • Yohannes, Okbazghi. Eritrea: A Pawn in World Politics. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1991.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Primarily an examination of post–World War II power politics in Eritrea, and peripherally of the genesis and evolution of Eritrean nationalism, which the author contends began in 1894 with a peasant revolt against the Italians, who were confiscating land. However, Yohannes acknowledges that it was during the British occupation from 1941 to 1952 that an Eritrean “consciousness” was developed through education. Unfortunately, the book was published two years before Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia.

    Find this resource:

Iraq

As Great Britain created the borders of this country to suit its imperial interests, a Sunni minority ruled over a Shiʿa majority, while Kurds were denied their self-determination. Naturally, attempting to establish national identity has been a problematic venture, which continues in the post-Saddam era. Lukitz 1995 offers the only comprehensive study of attempts under Sunni-dominated rule to develop territorial-based nationalism for an artificially created country.

Lebanon

Because France created this country to suit its imperial interests, Christians were the largest segment of the population. While the demographics have changed, the vast majority of Lebanese are quite satisfied with being separate from Syria. Both Firro 2003 and Zamir 1985 examine the construction of Greater Lebanon as an alternative Pan-Syrianism, which depended upon the cooperation of various minority groups. Such a project has faced great challenges following World War II, with the successive developments of Pan-Arabism and political Islam.

Maghreb (Maghrib)

While Morocco and Tunisia were French protectorates that had a fairly smooth transition to independence, Libya was an Italian colony that was occupied by Great Britain during World War II and received independence in 1951, though it remained heavily dependent for defense and finances on the Western powers. Of the countries in the Maghreb, only Morocco has had a form of historical identity, yet nationalism developed in part in resistance to the French; this process is examined in Halstead 1967. Brown 2001 reviews and analyzes the policies and accomplishments of Tunisia's Habib Bourguiba in solidifying Tunisian nationalism. Anderson 1986 points out that Tunisia had an easier time than Libya in the creation of national institutions, due to the differences in colonial rule between France and Italy. As a result, once the monarchy was overthrown in 1969 by Muammar Qadhafi, who saw himself as an adversary of Western imperialism, there was an attempt to build a national state. Qadhafi's ideas are elaborated upon in the Green Book (Qadhafi 1988).

  • Anderson, Lisa. The State and Social Transformation in Tunisia and Libya, 1830–1980. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author contends that state formation was influenced in Tunisia and Libya by the colonial powers. In Tunisia, the French strengthened and extended bureaucratic administration under the protectorate; while in Libya, the Italians destroyed local administration and replaced it with one of their own. Hence, following independence, the two countries pursued different courses, with Tunisia continuing to develop a social and political organization along the lines of clientele and class structure, while Libya first had a rentier monarchy and later a distributive Jamahiriyyah (a country governed by its citizens).

    Find this resource:

  • Brown, L. Carl. “Bourguiba and Bourguibism Revisited: Reflections and Interpretation.” Middle East Journal 55, no. 1 (2001): 43–57.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A review and analysis of the policies and accomplishments of the Tunisian nationalist leader Habib Bourguiba, who has been compared to Turkey's Kemal Ataturk in terms of being at the forefront in achieving independence and in developing a predominantly secular modern country.

    Find this resource:

  • Halstead, John P. Rebirth of a Nation: The Origins and Rise of Moroccan Nationalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is the only comprehensive study of the roots of nationalism in Morocco.

    Find this resource:

  • Qadhafi, Muammar. Qaddafi's Green Book: An Unauthorized Edition. Edited by Henry M. Christman. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1988.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Outlines the Libyan leader's philosophy on political, social, and economic issues.

    Find this resource:

Malaysia and Indonesia

Malaya was a protectorate of the British, and it was not until the Communist insurgency developed in 1948 that Great Britain faced any serious challenge to its rule. Independence was granted in 1957, and Malayan and British troops finally defeated the Communists three years later. During the 19th century, the Dutch quashed a number of rebellions, and beginning in the early 20th century, many nationalist organizations were established. Eventually, following World War II, there was a four-year conflict before Indonesia was granted its independence in 1949. This area is not as well studied regarding nationalism (compared to the Middle East), but both Kahin 1952 and Roff 1994 offer excellent reviews and analyses of developments in Indonesia and Malaysia, respectively.

Somalia

While this country is the most homogenous in Africa in terms of ethnicity, in recent years there has been no real state, and relationships have reverted largely to the clan level. Touval 1963 offers an indispensable account of Somali nationalism, while Adam 1983 looks at an important factor shaping that development.

  • Adam, Hussein M. “Language, National Consciousness and Identity: The Somali Experience.” In Nationalism and Self-Determination in the Horn of Africa. Edited by I. M. Lewis. London: Ithaca Press, 1983.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The Somali language, a Cushitic tongue that has dialects that are mutually understandable, did not have a written script until 1972. English and Italian had been used as administrative languages until then.

    Find this resource:

  • Touval, Saadia. Somali Nationalism: International Politics and the Drive for Unity in the Horn of Africa. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A good, but rare, book-length study of Somali nationalism, which developed politically after World War II. While the Somalis have cultural ties that extend across much of the Horn of Africa, clan connections have also traditionally divided them.

    Find this resource:

Sudan

As the country was jointly ruled by Great Britain and Egypt from 1899 to 1956, colonial rule was much more complicated than in other territories, and part of the nationalist movement was pro-Egyptian. Beshir 1974 provides a comprehensive account on the politics of Sudanese nationalism. Just like Somalia, but for different reasons, the country is plagued with divisions.

Western Sahara

Nationalism was slow to develop in this territory, which will not have self-determination as long as Morocco is able to delay any moves in that direction. Damis 1983 and Hodges 1983 provide insights on nationalism in a region much neglected in world politics since the end of the Cold War.

  • Damis, John. Conflict in Northwest Africa: The Western Sahara Dispute. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1983.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author points out that while the Polisario Front was a strongly committed nationalist group, it was militarily very weak and heavily dependent upon aid from Algeria and Libya. Today, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), which was established by the Polisario Front in 1976, is recognized by the African Union and many states in the Third World and is basically a government-in-exile.

    Find this resource:

  • Hodges, Tony. Western Sahara: The Roots of a Desert War. Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill, 1983.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book deals with the genesis of Sahrawi nationalism in the 1950s and 1960s and the birth of Polisario Front during the latter decade. The Polisario Front fought first against Spain until it withdrew 1976 and later against Morocco, which still occupies the territory.

    Find this resource:

Islam and nationalism

Many scholars believe that the Islamic religion (and thus Muslims) is antagonistic toward nationalism, but the relationship is far more complex. Indeed, since its inception as a religion, Islam has emphasized an attachment of Muslims to the umma (nation of believers). During the 19th century, Pan-Islamism was developed by Sultan Abdulhamid II in reaction to ethnic nationalism, while in the following century Pakistan became the first modern country to base nationalism on Muslim religious affiliation. Later, more secular Bosnians achieved national identity connected with a confessional background. Zubaida 2004 explains how nationalist and Islamic discourses have “moved between” and “combined” the “principles” of territorial nation-state, Pan-Arab nationalism, and Islam in dealing with political problems and other situations. Halliday 2000 contends that nationalism and national identity continue to be redefined within the Middle East, while Van der Veer 1994 argues that religious identities are not “primordial attachments,” but rather are in a state of change due to evolving discourse and practice. Both Tibi 1997 and Gellner 1981 are concerned with the conflict between political Islam and states based on ethnic and territorial nationalism. Gellner 1981 asserts that colonialism and industrialization have contributed to radical Islam's antagonism toward modern states in the Muslim world, while Piscatori 1986 notes that most Muslims have at the same time adapted to the nation-state system because traditional legal theory in Islam provides for territorial pluralism.

  • Gellner, Ernest. Muslim Society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author contends that colonialism and industrialism upset the traditional balance in Muslim society, in which weak states coexisted with a strong culture and urban scholars lived side-by-side with folk traditions. As a result, the world is experiencing radical Islam.

    Find this resource:

  • Halliday, Fred. Nation and Religion in the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Most of the essays in this book have been published previously in numerous places. Especially useful is Chapter 2, titled “The Middle East and the Nationalism Debate,” which was published in Middle East Lectures, No. 3 (1999), by the Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies of Tel Aviv University. Halliday is a modernist who asserts that nationalism and national identity in the Middle East continue to be redefined within independent countries.

    Find this resource:

  • Piscatori, James P. Islam in the World of Nation-States. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Piscatori discusses how Muslims have adapted themselves to a world composed of nation-states by alternating between cooperation and competition; while traditional legal theory in Islam provides for territorial pluralism, it also divides the world into Muslim and non-Muslim spheres and dictates that societies be regulated by the will of God rather than by the will of rulers.

    Find this resource:

  • Tibi, Bassam. Arab Nationalism: Between Islam and Nation-State. 3d ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edition includes a new chapter on the tensions between Arab nationalism and political Islam. The author also attempts to discuss theories of nationalism in the context of non-Western societies in the “Third World.”

    Find this resource:

  • Van der Veer, Peter. Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author argues that religious identities are not “primordial attachments,” but rather are in a state of change due to evolving discourse and practice. Indeed, Hindu and Muslim nationalism in India is not a product of the colonial past but of changing forms of organization and communication.

    Find this resource:

  • Zubaida, Sami. “Islam and Nationalism: Continuities and Contradictions.” Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 4 (2004): 407–420.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1354-5078.2004.00174.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A review of how nationalist and Islamic discourses have “moved between” and “combined” the “principles” of territorial nation-state, pan-Arab nationalism, and Islam in dealing with political problems and other situations.

    Find this resource:

Bosnians

It has only been with the breakup of the former state of Yugoslavia that there has been greater attention given to Bosnians, who converted to Islam during Ottoman rule and were given the status of a nationality by the late Yugoslavian leader Tito. While Bosnian Muslims speak the same language as Croatian Catholics and Serbian Orthodox Christians, they are distinguished by their religion. Friedman 1996 offers the best account of this transformation from a confessional to a national group.

Pakistan

This country has had the most trouble developing an integrated state, for there are groups in the country that continue to identify themselves by ethnicity. As for religious affiliation—the basis for the state itself—a telling fact is that more Muslims live in India. Jafferelot 2002 discusses the failure of Pakistan to create a permanent national identity, while Malik 1963 is concerned with the roots of Muslim nationalism in the Indian subcontinent.

  • Jafferelot, Christophe, ed. Pakistan: Nationalism without a Nation? London: Zed Books, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The theme of the book is that despite Muhammad Ali Jinnah's dream to create a state with “one nation, one culture, one language,” and despite attempts to promote territorial nationalism, Pakistan has yet to develop a “positive” national identity but relies more on anti-Indian nationalism.

    Find this resource:

  • Malik, Hafeez. Moslem Nationalism in India and Pakistan. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press, 1963.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An examination of the roots of Muslim nationalism, focusing on the political, economic, social, and religious factors that eventually contributed to the establishment of Pakistan. Reprint, Lahore, Pakistan: People's Publishing House, 1980.

    Find this resource:

Pan-Islamism

In the last decades of the Ottoman Empire's existence, Sultan Abdulhamid II used the idea of Pan-Islamism in an effort to discourage ethnic nationalisms and strengthen Muslim solidarity in the face of European imperialism. In recent years, it has been encouraged by Saudi Arabia in such projects as the Organization of the Islamic Conference. Landau 1990 provides the most thorough account of these developments, while Sela 1999 in the Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East offers a succinct overview.

Secularism and nationalism: the unique case of Turkey

The Republic of Turkey is the only country in the Middle East where secularism is strongly tied to nationalism and national identity. This represents a clear break with the Ottoman Empire. While in the Arab world, a number of nationalists accepted varying degrees of secularism, they still connected national identity with Islamic identity. Kili 2003 introduces a paradigm for modernization in Turkey under Ataturk based largely on nationalism and secularism, while Poulton 1997 offers an excellent overview and analysis of modern Turkish nationalism.

  • Kili, Suna. The Atatürk Revolution: A Paradigm of Modernization. Istanbul: Kultur Yayinlari, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author emphasizes how nationalism and secularism were two of the most important principles for Ataturk in promoting unity, authority, and equality.

    Find this resource:

  • Poulton, Hugh. Top Hat, Grey Wolf, and Crescent: Turkish Nationalism and the Turkish Republic. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    While focusing on the state-sponsored secular nationalism of Kemal Ataturk and its rival ideologies (Pan-Turkism, Kurdish nationalism, and Islamism), this study places these movements in their historical context.

    Find this resource:

back to top

Article

Up

Down