Islamic Studies Islam in Russia
by
Janis Eshots
  • LAST REVIEWED: 19 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 25 May 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0119

Introduction

Islam in Russia has a history more than a thousand years long. It can be divided into five major periods: (1) the Khazaro-Bulgarian period (from the appearance of the first Muslim communities in what is now southeastern Russia to the Mongol invasion, c. 737–1240 CE); (2) the period of the Horde (from the foundation of the Genghis [Chingiz] Khan empire and in particular the Ulus Juchi [Golden Horde or Kipchak Khanate] to its collapse and the inclusion of its remnants into the Russian Empire, c. 1240–1550s); (3) the period of Czarist Russia (from the 1550s to 1917); (4) the Soviet period (1917–1991); and (5) the post-Soviet period (since 1991). In the early 21st century there are approximately fifteen or sixteen million “ethnic” Muslims in Russia, of which about ten million are indigenous Russian Muslims and the remaining five or six million are immigrants from other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. The indigenous Russian Muslims are concentrated in two main areas: between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea (that is, the northern Caucasus and the adjacent territories) and in the middle of the Volga basin. The immigrant Muslims in turn reside mainly in the major Russian cities, such as Moscow—in which about three million Muslims are believed to reside—Saint Petersburg, and Novosibirsk. The majority of both the indigenous and the immigrant communities are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school, but most Dagestani Muslims are Shafiʿites. Less than 10 percent of the fifteen or sixteen million Muslims are practicing Muslims, the rest being Muslims by birth only. Approximately half of the citations included works cited in this bibliography are in Russian. This represents the early-21st-century situation in the field: while there are a good number of overviews and outlines available in English, more specific information concerning different periods and regions is still frequently only available in Russian. And although many websites provide some initial information on the history of Islam and the Muslim communities of Russia, few materials of scholarly interest are available online.

General Overviews

The works listed in this section as a rule are aimed at undergraduates. Elmira Akhmetova’s Islam in Russia: History and Facts should be consulted first for basic information. Bennigsen 1972 is much more informative but sometimes slightly biased and somewhat outdated. Hunter 2004 focuses on Russian state policy toward Islam, while Malashenko 1998 views the Islamic renaissance in the broader context of post-Soviet social and political processes. Zenkovsky 1967 remains indispensable for understanding the phenomenon of the so-called Turkic Islam, while Yemelianova 2002 offers a broad (though perhaps at times too broad) historical perspective.

Reference Works

The most important of the works listed in this section is Prozorov 1998–2003. Among English sources, Akiner 1983, Olson 1994, and Langer 2002 are virtually indispensable, since they provide essential cultural and historical background information. Though a little outdated, Asadullin 1999 is a unique source on the formal pattern of Russia’s Muslim community. Arapov 2001 and Arapov 2006 contain important documented evidence of state policy toward Islam, both inside and outside of Russia.

Bibliographies

There are no comprehensive bibliographies on Islam in Russia that cover all the scholarship in the field. Dudoignon and Komatsu 2003– is an indispensable source but covers a narrow period of time. Frank 1998 is a valuable contribution and deals with a selected range of works on a selected topic (the Muslim sources on Volga Bulgars). Stephane Dudoignon’s second project, the Central Eurasian Reader (Dudoignon 2008), if it is published regularly, might become a helpful source of updates.

  • Dudoignon, Stephane, ed. Central Eurasian Reader. Berlin: Klaus Schwartz Verlag, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Critical bibliography and epistemology of Central Asian studies published since 2008 with the support of the Transoxiana Foundation and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Publishes critical notices of books and articles devoted to societies and minority groups of central Eurasia with an Islamic background.

    Find this resource:

  • Dudoignon, S., and H. Komatsu, eds. Research Trends in Modern Central Eurasian Studies (18th–20th Centuries): A Selective and Critical Bibliography of Works Published between 1985 and 2000. Vols. 1–2. Tokyo: Toyo Bunko, 2003–.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A substantial annotated bibliography including entries on virtually all publications on Islam in Russia that appeared during the last fifteen years of the 20th century.

    Find this resource:

  • Frank, Allen J. Islamic Historiography and “Bulghar” Identity among the Tatars and Bashkirs of Russia. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Arab and Turkish sources on the Volga Bulgars discussed in great detail.

    Find this resource:

Journals

The scholarly journals that deal with Islam in Russia are usually either well-established academic Western journals, which usually treat the issue in the context of Soviet and post-Soviet studies. Then there are more recently established Russian journals, which tend to consider Islam in the context of the wider history of Russia and central Eurasia. Falling within the former category are publications such as Central Asian Survey, which focuses on Central Asia but also deals with the North Caucasus, Europe-Asia Studies (the former flagship of Sovietology), Middle Eastern Studies (dealing with Russia’s involvements in Middle Eastern affairs, and vice versa), the Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs (focusing on different Muslim movements), and, to a degree, Iran and the Caucasus (discussing Russia’s relationship with the Caucasus). The second category includes publications such as Ab Imperio: Studies of New Imperial History and Nationalism in the Post-Soviet Space, which focuses on post-Soviet space and the different processes taking place in it, Pax Islamica, which deals with almost every branch of Islamic studies (with some emphasis on Tatar Islam), the no longer published independent but academic Vestnik Evrazii/Acta Eurasica, and the trilingual Ishraq: An Islamic Philosophy Yearbook, which focuses on different theoretical aspects of Islamic thought. The journals listed in this section belong to one of these two categories. Two other categories of journals worthy of mention (but not represented in this entry) are journals of Oriental studies, published by different divisions of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian universities and dealing with the entire East, and popular journals, published by different Muslim communities in Russia and that explain the essentials of Muslim faith and deal with the community life, addressed first and foremost to the members of these communities.

Islam During Specific Periods

This part of the entry focuses on works dealing with certain periods of the dissemination of Islam in Russia, according to the periodization proposed in the Introduction.

Khazaria and Volga Bulgaria Period

Much information about the role and place of Islam in Khazaria and Volga Bulgaria comes from two main sources: the accounts of the Muslim travelers (in particular Ibn Fadlan) who visited the region and archaeological excavations. Hence, virtually all scholarship on this period represents a more or less successful attempt to restore a sense of Islam’s place on the basis of the few preserved written scraps and material evidence. Christian 1998 should be consulted first for basic facts. Barthold 1968 remains the best general introduction to this period. Artamonov 1962 and Smirnov 1951, by outstanding Soviet historians, provide indispensable information about the Khazars and Volga Bulgars, respectively, obtained during decades of archaeological excavations. Davletshin 1990 and Bariev 2005 are reliable sources on the Volga Bulgar culture (the former focusing on its spiritual and the latter on its material side). Frye 2005 provides a rare eyewitness account of the Islamization of Volga Bulgaria.

The Period of the Horde

Our information about the Horde period is by degrees richer in comparison to the Khazar period. However, it is uneven and disproportionate. While we can describe with certainty some peculiarities of this period, several others remain the object of vague and wild speculation. With the notable exception of DeWeese 1994, mostly dealing with one particular episode or story of the ruler’s conversion to Islam, all the suggested literature is in Russian. Grekov and Yakubovski 1950 offers a general introduction of sufficient detail, though some of the authors’ judgments are not entirely reliable. Trepavlov 2001, Zaitsev 2004a, and Zaitsev 2004b deal with the later period of the Horde (or rather its successors, the Nogay Horde and Astarkhan khanate, respectively). Klyashtorniy and Savinov 2005 and in particular Abashin 2003 provide a wealth of information on the culture of the Horde, but again some of these theories may be far-fetched.

The Period of Czarist Russia

Most of the books in this subsection deal with the Russian conquest of the Caucasus and Central Asia and the state policy toward these newly annexed regions. Bobrovnikov 2006 should be consulted for a general introduction. Campbell 2007 provides a sketchy picture of the state policy toward Islam in the late imperial period; for a more detailed treatment of this issue, Arapov 2004 is the best source. Gasprinski 1993 and Kemper 1996–2004 provide insights into the Muslim culture of this period; the former also offers a (somewhat vague) future vision of it (which could not, however, materialize). Gammer 1994 (on the example of Shamil) and Zelkina 2000 deal with those parts of the Muslim community (mainly in the Caucasus) that showed an active (that is, armed) resistance to the Russian state intervention in their affairs. Mostashari 2006 provides some useful information about the Shiʿite communities in the Caucasus.

  • Arapov, D. Yu. Sistema gosudarstvennogo regulirovaniya islama v Rossiyskoi imperii (poslednyaya tret’ XVIII–nachalo XX vv.). Moscow: Moscow State Pedagogical University, 2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses in great detail the system of regulatory measures the Russian state applied to Islam in the late 18th to early 20th centuries.

    Find this resource:

  • Bobrovnikov, Vladimir O. “Islam in the Russian Empire.” In The Cambridge History of Russia. Vol. 2, Imperial Russia, 1689–1917. Edited by D. Lieven, 202–223. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

    DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521815291Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A useful overview of the place of Islam in the Russian Empire in the late 18th to early 20th centuries by one of the leading Russian experts on the issue.

    Find this resource:

  • Campbell, Elena. “The Muslim Question in Late Imperial Russia.” In Russian Empire: Space, People, Power, 1700–1930. Edited by Jane Burbank, Mark von Hagen, and Anatolyi Remnev, 320–347. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An abridged extract of Campbell’s PhD dissertation, this is the most reliable and accessible English source on state policy on Islam during the final years of the Russian Empire.

    Find this resource:

  • Gammer, Moshe. Muslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan. London: Routledge, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A very detailed but somewhat idealized portrayal of Shamil and his followers.

    Find this resource:

  • Gasprinski, Ismail. Rossiya i Vostok. Kazan, Russia: Fen, 1993.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A reprint of the collected articles of the Crimean Tatar reformist and ideological writer Ismail Gaspirali (b. 1851–d. 1914; also known as Gasprinski), an advocate of Pan-Islamism and Pan-Turkism.

    Find this resource:

  • Kemper, Michael, Anke von Kügelgen, and Dmitriy Yermakov, eds. Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia from the 18th to the Early 20th Centuries. Vols. 1–4. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 1996–2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Volume 2, Inter-Regional and Inter-Ethnic Relations, is of particular interest.

    Find this resource:

  • Mostashari, Firouzeh. On the Religious Frontier: Tsarist Russia and Islam in the Caucasus. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    While mostly dealing with the southern Caucasus (Azerbaijan in particular), this contains some useful analysis of the general treatment of Islam and Muslims by the czarist regime in the 19th century.

    Find this resource:

  • Zelkina, Anna. In Quest for God and Freedom: The Sufi Response to the Russian Advance in the North Caucasus. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focuses on the resistance of the Dagestani peoples and the Chechens to the Russian invasion in the first half of the 19th century and the role of the Sufi brotherhoods (in particular the Naqshbandiyah in this case).

    Find this resource:

The Soviet Period

The number of reputed scholarly works analyzing the place of Islam in Russia during the Soviet period is comparatively small, since many important documents pertaining to this time are still difficult, if not impossible, to access. In view of this, Benningsen and Quelquejay 1967 and Benningsen and Wimbush 1979, although they contain a certain amount of either outdated or incorrect information, still remain the only sources that dare to attempt to provide a general picture of the Soviet era. Arapov 2010 and Ro’i 2000 can be recommended as the best sources covering the pre–World War II and post–World War II periods, respectively. Kemper 2010 is a highly welcomed attempt to thoroughly investigate a particular aspect of Muslim life during the Soviet rule.

  • Arapov, D. Yu, ed. Islam i sovetskoe gosudarstvo (1917–1936). Moscow: Marjani, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of documents concerning Islam and Muslim communities issued by the Soviet government from 1917 to 1936.

    Find this resource:

  • Bennigsen, Alexandre, and Chantal Lemercier Quelquejay. Islam in the Soviet Union. New York: Praeger, 1967.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Valuable as a testimony of the limited extent of Western scholars’ knowledge about the topic in the 1960s. The early years of the Soviet era are covered much better than the later period.

    Find this resource:

  • Bennigsen, Alexandre, and S. Enders Wimbush. Muslim National Communism in the Soviet Union: A Revolutionary Strategy for the Colonial World. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1979.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the doctrine of national Communism developed by the Tatar thinker Mir Said Sultan Galiev. His teaching of the proletarian nations represents an attempt to reconcile nationalism, Marxism, and Islam.

    Find this resource:

  • Kemper, Michael, Raoul Motika, and Steven Reichmuth, eds. Islamic Education in the Soviet Union and Its Successor States. New York: Routledge, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of articles systematically covering the issue of the formal (medrese) and informal (various underground circles) Islamic education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

    Find this resource:

  • Ro’i, Yaacov, ed. Islam in the Soviet Union: From World War II to Perestroika. London: Hurst, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The sole monograph in English dealing with the post–World War II period, and for this reason, regardless of its somewhat superficial approach to some issues, it is highly recommended.

    Find this resource:

The Post-Soviet Period

There are not many credible works dealing with the post-Soviet period as a whole, as it is too difficult to draw a comprehensive and unbiased picture of the events and processes that are still evolving. Both Malashenko 2001 and Mukhametshin 2005 provide fairly balanced accounts of the process of Islamic revival that continues in Russia. Ro’i 1995 concentrates on more particular issues, and consequently particular trends and currents, emerging in the Muslim communities in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Yemelianova 2010 covers the most radical people and phenomena in the post-Soviet space.

  • Malashenko, A. V., and M. B. Olcott, eds. Islam na postsovetskom prostranstve: Vzglyad iznutri. Moscow: Moscow Carnegie Center, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of articles, mainly by Russian scholars, on different aspects of the Islamic revival during the early post-Soviet years.

    Find this resource:

  • Mukhametshin, R., ed. Islam, identichnost’ i politika v post-sovetskom prostranstve. Kazan: Master Line, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses Islam as a constituent of the national identity of Muslim peoples of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and a major political factor in the post-Soviet space.

    Find this resource:

  • Ro’i, Yaacov, ed. Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies. Ilford, UK: Franc Cass, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Contains fifteen articles by Western and Russian authors discussing Islam and fundamentalism, the secularization of Islam, and the processes evolving in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in the late 1980s to early 1990s.

    Find this resource:

  • Yemelianova, Galina, ed. Radical Islam in the Former Soviet Union. London: Routledge, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Compiled by one of the best-known English experts on the issue. Deals primarily with Chechnya and Dagestan, but some attention is paid to radical Islamist groups in other regions. Articles by Rafik Mukhametshin and Rufat Sattarov are particularly recommended. On the other hand, some of the sources used by the editor and principal contributor appear to be secondary and of questionable reliability.

    Find this resource:

Islam in Specific Regions

Dividing Russia into the regions in this section was dictated by several factors, the most important being the density of the Muslim population in the relevant area and the historical and cultural integrity of the territory.

Dagestan

Of all Russian regions, Dagestan’s contribution to various aspects of Islamic culture is the most significant and impressive. The wealth of literature devoted to the region seems to confirm this. Gammer and Knysh 2003 and Alikberov 2001 should be read as general introductions (both provide correct facts, but the latter is more cautious in its evaluations). Ghadchiyev 1997 is a good source on the medieval period. Bobrovnikov 2002 deals with Muslim law and local customs. Gammer 2009 is the best source on Sufism in Dagestan. Alikberov 2003 and Hasan Hilmi al-Kahi al-Daghestani al-Naqshbandi2006 are reliable translations of Sufi texts with detailed commentaries, while Alikberov 2001 provides a long introductory essay on this region. Shikhsaidov 2001 should be consulted for detailed information about the role of Islam in shaping the history of Dagestan. Ware 2010 focuses on Russia’s influence on different segments of Dagestan’s Muslim community.

  • Alikberov, A. K. “Severniy Kavkaz.” In Islam na territorii bivshey Rossiyskoy imperii. Vol. 3. Edited by S. M. Prozorov, 89–95. Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A useful outline of the history of Islam in the North Caucasus from its advent to the early 21st century.

    Find this resource:

  • Alikberov, A. K. Epoha klassicheskogo islama na Kavkaze: Abu Bakr al-Darbandi I ego sufiyskaya enciklopediya “Rayhan al-haqa’iq.” Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The monograph describes the early or classical period (8th to 11th centuries) of Islam in the Caucasus (in particular Dagestan), using as its main source the encyclopedic dictionary of Sufism Rayhan al-haqa’iq, compiled by Abu Bakr al-Darbandi (late 11th to early 12th centuries).

    Find this resource:

  • Bobrovnikov, V. B. Musul’mane Severnogo Kavkaza: Obichay, pravo, nasiliye. Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the Muslim customs and law practiced in the North Caucasus as well as the issue of violence in the traditional society of North Caucasian Muslims.

    Find this resource:

  • Gammer, Moshe, ed. Islam and Sufism in Dagestan. Helsinki: Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An impressive collection of articles that most of the Western and Russian experts on the subject have contributed to.

    Find this resource:

  • Gammer, M., and A. Knysh. “Al-Kabk.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam. 2d ed. Supplement Vol. 7–8. Edited by P. J. Bearman, T. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W. P. Heinrichs, 483–501. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Extremely rich in facts, but the accuracy and objectivity of some of the authors’ statements can be disputed.

    Find this resource:

  • Ghadchiyev, V. G., O. M. Davudov, and A. R. Sixsaidov. Istoriya Dagestana s drevneyshikh vremen do kontsa XV veka. Makhachkala, Russia: DNTs RAN, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive work on the history of Dagestan from Antiquity to the late Middle Ages. The third part, written by Amri Shikhsaidov (Sixsaidov) and dealing with Islam proper, is of particular importance.

    Find this resource:

  • Hasan Hilmi al-Kahi al-Daghestani al-Naqshbandi. Talkhis al-maʿarif fi targhib Muhammad ʿArif/ Kratkoe izlozheniye sokrovennikh znaniy dlya nastavleniya Muhammada ʿArifa. Translated into Russian by I. R. Nasirov and A. S. Atsaev. Moscow: Islam, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A Russian translation of an important work of a Dagestani Sufi of the Naqshbandi order, Hasan Hilmi (b. 1862–d. 1937), representing a guide for a Sufi novice. A typical example of the Sufi texts that circulated among the North Caucasian Sufis in the late 19th to early 20th centuries.

    Find this resource:

  • Shikhsaidov, A. R., ed. Islam i islamskaya kul’tura v Dagestane. Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comprehensive work on Islam and Islamic culture in Dagestan from the 7th century to the early 21st century.

    Find this resource:

  • Ware, Robert B., and Enver Kisriev. Dagestan: Russian Hegemony and Islamic Resistance in North Caucasus. London: Sharpe, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A monograph on Dagestan. Analyzes the history of Russian domination in Dagestan and the local resistance in relation to the complex structure of the multinational mountain society, giving a rather pessimistic forecast for the harmonious development of Dagestani society.

    Find this resource:

Northwest Caucasus

This section includes works predominantly devoted to other parts of the Caucasus apart from Chechnya and Dagestan, such as Ossetia, Adigeya, Kabarda, Balkaria, and Karachaevo-Cherkessia. As a rule there are only one or two sources (or sometimes none at all) dealing in detail with Islam in each of the listed provinces. In the absence of a reliable general introduction, the basic facts should be sought in Gammer 2008 and Richmond 2008. Khanakhu 2001, Kratov 2008, and Yemelianova 2003 should be used with some caution, since the information they provide is sometimes only approximately (but not exactly) correct.

Tatarstan

There exists a fairly rich body of literature on Islam in Tatarstan. With a few exceptions, however, most of the works are only available in Russian. Elmira Akhmetova’s brief article Islam in the Volga region: Between embracement and phobia is a decent general introduction. Azade-Ayshe 1986 should be consulted for the medieval period. Mukhametshin 1998 is a reliable source on the Tatar confessional tradition. Kemper 1998 should be consulted for Sufism in Tatarstan, while Yuzeev 1998 is good on philosophy. Noack 2000 dwells on the development of Muslim nationalist movements. Mukhametshin 2003 provides an adequate account of the vicissitudes of Islam in Tatarstan during the Soviet era.

Bashkortostan

The Bashkirs are quite careful to point to their peculiar culture, language, and mentality, which distinguish them from their Tatar neighbors. An acquaintance with the copious research on Bashkir Islam testifies that such assertions are not at all groundless. Yunusova 1998 provides a concise introduction, while Yunusova 1999b is the most detailed overview. Sultanova 1994 covers the medieval period, while Faizov 1995 and, in particular, Yamaeva 2002 (which focuses on Muslim liberal movements in the 20th century) deal with the political aspects of Islam in the region. Farkhshatov 1994 is a valuable investigation of the Jadidist movement. Algar 1992 looks at the last charismatic religious leader of Bashkortostan, Zaynullah Rasulov, whose works have been translated into Russian by Ilshat Nasirov (see Rasuli 2001). Yunusova 1999a provides an outline of the dissemination of Islam in the Volga basin.

Siberia

Since certain parts of western Siberia have been inhabited by Muslim Tatars for more than half a millennium, there is a good reason to treat Islam as an ancient (if not indigenous) Siberian religion. Serious academic publications on Islam in Siberia, however, only started to appear in the early 21st century. Dudoignon 2000 should be consulted for a brief outline of the history of Islam in Siberia. Suslova 2002 deals with the ethnography of Siberian Muslims, while Seleznev, et al. 2009 studies the cult of saints that existed (and still exists) among them. Azamatov 2000 deals with the charity issues.

Central Russia

Sadly, there is neither a comprehensive study nor even a decent overview on Islam in central Russia available. The works listed in this subsection deal mostly with the well-established Muslim communities of Moscow (Asadullin 1998 in brief, and Khayretdinov 2002 in considerable detail) and Saint Petersburg. Anas B. Khalidov’s succinct account, available in both Russian (Khalidov 1998) and English (Khalidov 1994), is the most trustworthy one, although Zagidullin 2003 provides much more detail; Aminov 1994 deals specifically with the Tatars of Saint Petersburg. Virtually no serious academic works on minor communities, scattered among the provincial towns, have been published, with the noteworthy exception of Idrisov, et al. 1997 on the Nizhniy Novgorod Muslim community.

Other Regions

Norris 2009 is an important study of Islam in the Baltic States. This is a relevant text, since for several centuries the Baltic region and Poland were part of the Russian Empire.

  • Norris, Harry T. Islam in the Baltic: Europe’s Early Muslim Community. London: I. B. Tauris, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An insightful analysis of the history of Muslim communities in the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia), Poland, and Belarus. Throughout the centuries, these communities were formed by immigrants from the Horde, the Crimean khanate, and the Caucasus.

    Find this resource:

back to top

Article

Up

Down