Biblical Studies Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
by
David A. deSilva
  • LAST REVIEWED: 28 July 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 25 October 2017
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195393361-0007

Introduction

Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha are terms used to label a large body of early Jewish and early Christian literature written between the 3rd century BCE and the first centuries of the common era. The Apocrypha, or Deuterocanonical Books (a term referring to the collection’s canonical status within certain Christian bodies), exists as a collection because of the reading practices of early Christians, who placed an especially high value on these texts and often included them in codices of their Scriptures (the Septuagint), and by ongoing canonical debates about the extent of the “Old Testament” within the Christian Church. Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches include these books as part of the Old Testament; Protestant Christians, following the Jewish canon of Scriptures, do not. The Pseudepigrapha is a much broader collection of extrabiblical literature. “Pseudepigrapha” refers technically to texts with a false attribution of authorship, though the collection has come to include several anonymous texts as well. The scope of texts included in the collection varies from edition to edition. Generally, the collection contains at a minimum pseudonymous Jewish extrabiblical writings from about 200 BCE to 200 CE. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha are of immense value as windows into the development of biblical interpretation, theology, ethics, and liturgy in Early Judaism and Christianity, as well as into the sociocultural and historical contexts within which these developments occurred.

General Overviews

Brief introductions to the content and context of each book included in the Apocrypha or Pseudepigrapha can be found in Evans 2005 and the individual entries in Evans and Porter 2000, Nickelsburg 2005, and Stone 1984. Collins 2000, Delcor 1989, and Helyer 2002 provide more substantial introductions to a less comprehensive range of texts. Kugel 1998 is distinctive in its arrangement of excerpts from these and other texts grouped around particular biblical figures or episodes.

  • Collins, John J. Between Athens and Jerusalem: Jewish Identity in the Hellenistic Diaspora. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2000.

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    An accessible introduction to Jewish Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha emanating from the Diaspora, carefully set in historical and cultural context.

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    • Delcor, Mathias. “The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Hellenistic Period.” In The Cambridge History of Judaism. Vol. 2. Edited by W. D. Davies and Louis Finkelstein, 409–503. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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      An accessible, yet scholarly overview of the major texts (the Apocrypha, 1 Enoch, Jubilees, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Sibylline Oracles, Letter of Aristeas, Joseph and Aseneth). Delcor provides summaries of the contents of each document and locates them in their sociohistorical and tradition-historical setting.

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      • Evans, Craig A. Ancient Texts for New Testament Studies: A Guide to the Background Literature. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2005.

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        Evans provides brief introductions and valuable bibliographical guides for each text. The Apocrypha are treated on pages 9–25, the Pseudepigrapha on pages 26–75.

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        • Evans, Craig A., and Stanley E. Porter, eds. Dictionary of New Testament Background. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2000.

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          Contains entries on each book of the Apocrypha and the major Pseudepigrapha by a variety of scholars, giving overviews of contents, historical setting, major themes, and importance for the study of early Judaism and Christianity. Of value to the beginning student and as a starting point for further research.

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          • Helyer, Larry R. Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period: A Guide for New Testament Students. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2002.

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            An accessible guide to many of the books of the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha (and other Second Temple Jewish literature) with particular attention to historical context, theological ideas, and influence upon early Christian literature.

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            • Kugel, James L. Traditions of the Bible: A Guide to the Bible As It Was at the Start of the Common Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

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              Presents excerpts from the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, early Christian literature, and rabbinic texts organized around particular biblical figures and stories. The volume shows how, and analyzes why, earlier canonical stories are retold and expanded through the Second Temple period and beyond. General.

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              • Nickelsburg, George W. E. Jewish Literature between the Bible and the Mishnah. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2005.

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                A general survey of Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, and other Jewish literature carefully set in historical context (and presented in chronological order). A revision and expansion of the 1981 edition.

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                • Stone, Michael E., ed. Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 1984.

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                  A general introduction to the writings of the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha (grouped and discussed according to genre: tales, rewritten Bible, historiography, wisdom literature, testaments, apocalyptic literature, and liturgical texts), and the writings of the Qumran community, Philo, and Josephus. Given the scope of the volume, treatments of individual texts are very brief.

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                  Introductions to the Apocrypha

                  Because of their special importance in the Christian churches from the beginning to the present day, the Apocryphal books are often given more focused attention. Introductions to the Apocrypha are often the best place to begin one’s study of any particular book in the collection. The boundaries of the Apocrypha are somewhat fluid, with some works covering only those books regarded as canonical by the Catholic Church, and other works covering some additional texts (3 and 4 Maccabees, Prayer of Manasseh, Psalm 151, and 2 Esdras). DeSilva 2018 provides the fullest general introduction to each book and the landscape of scholarship on each book, covering the broader collection of Apocrypha. Harrington 1999 offers a strong but substantially briefer introduction to the same. Dunn and Rogerson 2003 also contains introductions and brief commentaries, and Keck 2015 fuller commentaries, on each of the texts in the broader collection. Pfeiffer 1949 and Charles 1913 include fulsome, though now dated, introductions to the shorter collection, with Metzger 1957 offering a brief introduction to the same. Chapters on each of the Apocryphal books can also be found in Aitken 2015.

                  • Aitken, J. A. The T. & T. Clark Companion to the Septuagint. London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark, 2015.

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                    An introduction to each book of the Hebrew Bible and the Apocrypha in the Greek (Septuagint) translation. The treatment of each book proceeds according to a standard format: editions and translations, general characteristics, time and place of composition, language, translation and composition, key text-critical issues, ideology and exegesis, reception history, and bibliography.

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                    • Charles, R. H., ed. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. Vol. 1, Apocrypha. Oxford: Clarendon, 1913.

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                      A translation of the shorter collection of the Apocrypha with critical introductions and extensive annotations for each book. Despite the age of the volume and the bias of some writers, this remains a valuable resource.

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                      • deSilva, David A. The Apocrypha. Core Biblical Studies. Nashville: Abingdon, 2012.

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                        A brief introduction, organized more thematically. After introductory chapters on the contents and historical context of the Apocryphal books, the following topics are taken up: “God, the Law, and the Covenant”; “Ethics”; “Spirituality”; “The Jewish People and the Nations”; “The Apocrypha and the Christian Church”; and “The Apocrypha and the Christian Canon.”

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                        • deSilva, David A. Introducing the Apocrypha: Message, Context, and Significance. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2018.

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                          An in-depth introduction to each of the books of the Apocrypha (including 2 Esdras, 3 and 4 Maccabees, Prayer of Manasseh, and Psalm 151). Each chapter surveys the structure and contexts, issues in textual transmission, the historical setting and purpose, formative resources, theology, and influence, as well as issues particular to the contents of each book. Contains a fairly up-to-date bibliography.

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                          • Dunn, James D. G., and John W. Rogerson, eds. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2003.

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                            A one-volume commentary on the Bible for general users. This volume is significant for its inclusion of the Apocrypha (including 2 Esdras and 3 and 4 Maccabees) and 1 Enoch. The commentary follows a paragraph-by-paragraph format rather than verse-by-verse, making it very readable.

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                            • Harrington, Daniel J. Invitation to the Apocrypha. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1999.

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                              A brief introduction to each of the books of the Apocrypha (including 2 Esdras, 3 and 4 Maccabees, Prayer of Manasseh, and Psalm 151). Alongside matters of historical context and general overview, Harrington considers how each of the texts responds to the problem of suffering.

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                              • Keck, Leander, gen. ed. The New Interpreter’s Bible Commentary. Volume 6, Esther, Additions to Esther, Tobit, Judith, 1 & 2 Maccabees, Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, Introduction to Apocalyptic Literature, Daniel, Additions to Daniel. 2d ed. Nashville: Abingdon, 2015.

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                                This re-release brings together these medium-level, pastorally oriented commentaries on the Apocryphal books into a single volume (save for commentaries on Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah, which can be found in Volume 6).

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                                • Metzger, Bruce M. An Introduction to the Apocrypha. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957.

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                                  A brief introduction to each of the books of the Apocrypha (not including 2 Esdras, 3 and 4 Maccabees). The second half of the book provides a valuable introduction to the history of the Apocrypha in the Christian church and the influence of these texts on literature, art, music, and society.

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                                  • Pfeiffer, Robert H. History of New Testament Times: With an Introduction to the Apocrypha. New York: Harper, 1949.

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                                    Part 1 contains an overview of Jewish political, religious, and literary history, though under the now anachronistic headings of “Palestinian” versus “Hellenistic” Judaism (see Hengel 1974, cited under the Hellenization Crisis, Maccabean Revolt, and Hasmonean Dynasty). Part 2 (pages 233–522) presents a general introduction to the shorter collection of the Apocrypha.

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                                    • Voicu, Sever, ed. Old Testament: Apocrypha. Vol. 15 of Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2010.

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                                      A compilation of excerpts from Christian texts through the 8th century commenting on passages from Tobit, Wisdom of Solomon, Ben Sira, Baruch, Letter of Jeremiah, and Additions to Daniel. Many of the selections are well chosen, though in some cases the connection with the Apocrypha book is tenuous.

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                                      Historical Context

                                      The texts collected in the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha come from a wide historical and geographical span. The Apocrypha were composed between 300 BCE and about 100 CE, with several being located in Palestine, Egypt, the northeastern Mediterranean, and possibly the eastern Diaspora. While the scope of collections of Pseudepigrapha varies, even the most minimalist collection spans 200 BCE through about 200 CE and has a geographic diversity comparable to the Apocrypha. Many of these texts are, therefore, important sources for historical reconstruction of Jewish history during the period. The section is divided into general treatments and specialized studies of the history of the Hellenization Crisis and Maccabean Revolt.

                                      General

                                      Grabbe 1992, Grabbe 2010, and Davies and Finkelstein 1989 provide comprehensive overviews, with Smallwood 2001 being limited to the Roman period. Hayes and Mandell 1998 cover the general history of Judea, while Barclay 1996, Modrzejewski 1995, and Cappelletti 2006 treat historical issues related to major centers of Diaspora Judaism.

                                      • Barclay, John M. G. Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora: From Alexander to Trajan, 323 BCE–117 CE. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1996.

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                                        An advanced study of the sociopolitical and cultural issues besetting Jews in Egypt and other Mediterranean centers of Diaspora Jews, with special attention to the levels of assimilation, acculturation, accommodation, and antagonism evidenced in particular texts and authors from the period. Concludes with a synthetic analysis of Jewish identity formation and identity markers in the Diaspora setting.

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                                        • Cappelletti, Silvia. The Jewish Community of Rome from the Second Century B.C.E. to the Third Century C.E. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2006.

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                                          A welcome update to the earlier study by Harry Leon, The Jews of Ancient Rome, rev. ed. (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995), this book traces the history and circumstances of Jews in Rome in the republican and pre-Constantinian imperial periods, drawing upon literary, epigraphic, and archaeological evidence.

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                                          • Davies, W. D., and Louis Finkelstein, eds. The Cambridge History of Judaism. Vol. 2. The Hellenistic Period. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

                                            DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521219297Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            A standard reference work by established scholars. Individual entries cover the archaeology and the political and social history of Palestine, linguistic developments, the Diaspora, the interpenetration of Judaism and Hellenism, governance in the Jewish community, surveys of Jewish literature, apocalypticism, the Septuagint, and anti-Judaism.

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                                            • Grabbe, Lester L. Judaism from Cyrus to Hadrian. 2 vols. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992.

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                                              A detailed, scholarly survey of the primary sources for historical inquiry, the historical problems associated with each period, and a painstaking reconstruction of the history of each period.

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                                              • Grabbe, Lester L. An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus. London: T & T Clark, 2010.

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                                                A concise introduction to the history of the period and to major streams of tradition and practice within Judaism (identified as “the priestly and scribal,” “revolutionary,” “apocalyptic,” and “gnostic” currents).

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                                                • Hayes, John H., and Sara R. Mandell. The Jewish People in Classical Antiquity: From Alexander to Bar Kochba. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1998.

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                                                  A general introduction to the history of Judea from 323 BCE to 70 CE.

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                                                  • Modrzejewski, Joseph M. The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1995.

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                                                    An accessible study of the political, social, and cultural history of Jews in Egypt, chiefly during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods.

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                                                    • Smallwood, E. Mary. The Jews under Roman Rule: From Pompey to Diocletian; A Study in Political Relations. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2001.

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                                                      An advanced, careful study of the political history of the period from the beginning of Roman domination in 63 BCE through the 3rd century CE. The focus moves fairly evenly between Jews in Palestine and the Diaspora.

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                                                      The Hellenization Crisis, Maccabean Revolt, and Hasmonean Dynasty

                                                      The attempts at Hellenistic reform in Jerusalem and the backlash of the Maccabean Revolt mark a particularly determinative series of episodes within Second Temple period history, one to which many of the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha are directly or indirectly related. Harrington 1988 provides a concise overview of the sources and reconstruction. Bickerman 1979, Tcherikover 1959, and Hengel 1974 offer more detailed studies with sometimes conflicting conclusions. Portier-Young 2011 offers a fresh perspective on the history, seen in the light of studies on state terror and resistance. Atkinson 2016 and Regev 2013 offer important, complementary studies on the Hasmonean dynasty that emerged from the revolt.

                                                      • Atkinson, Kenneth. A History of the Hasmonean State: Josephus and Beyond. London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark, 2016.

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                                                        A critical reconstruction of the history of the Hasmonean dynasty from its establishment through its ultimate demise with the defeat of Mattathias Antigonus, with an assessment of Josephus’s interests in his version of this history.

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                                                        • Bickerman, Elias J. The God of the Maccabees: Studies on the Meaning and Origin of the Maccabean Revolt. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1979.

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                                                          A classic scholarly study of the historical sources for, and reconstruction of, the Maccabean Revolt. Translation of Der Gott der Makkabäer (Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1937).

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                                                          • Harrington, Daniel J. The Maccabean Revolt: Anatomy of a Biblical Revolution. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1988.

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                                                            A careful, detailed, yet accessible examination of the principal sources for the period (Daniel, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Polybius) and cogent reconstruction of the history.

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                                                            • Hengel, Martin. Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in Their Encounter in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974.

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                                                              The groundbreaking study on the political, economic, and cultural penetration of Hellenism into Judea, together with a judicious re-creation of the history of the Hellenistic “Reform” of 175–166 BCE. Translation of the German original, Judentum und Hellenismus.

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                                                              • Portier-Young, Anathea E. Apocalypse against Empire: Theologies of Resistance in Early Judaism. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2011.

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                                                                The first half of this book offers an important study of the historical sources for the period of Seleucid domination of Judea using the methodological framework of social-scientific study of state terror and resistance.

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                                                                • Regev, Eyal. The Hasmoneans: Ideology, Archaeology, Identity. Journal of Ancient Judaism Supplements 10. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2013.

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                                                                  An insightful analysis of the mechanisms (ideological and otherwise) of Hasmonean rule rather than a history of the same.

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                                                                  • Tcherikover, Victor. Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews. Translated by S. Applebaum. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1959.

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                                                                    An advanced but very readable history of Judea under Ptolemaic and Seleucid domination, with a shorter treatment of the political and social structures and cultural climate of Diaspora Judaism during this period.

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                                                                    Sociocultural and Theological Context

                                                                    The often creative, sometimes conflictive, interaction between cultures during the Hellenistic period made this a time of significant cultural and religious ferment. Hengel 1974 provides the classic study on these developments, while Barclay 1996 attempts to refine the analysis of Jewish responses to Hellenism. Newsome 1992 and Cohen 1987 constitute broader overviews of trends and movements. Collins 1987 focuses on the emergence of apocalypticism, a particularly important development of the period. Nickelsburg 2006 focuses on the development of expectations concerning postmortem existence as a response to the challenges of the period.

                                                                    • Barclay, John M. G. Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora: From Alexander to Trajan, 323 BCE–117 CE. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1996.

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                                                                      An advanced study of the sociopolitical and cultural issues besetting Jews in Egypt and other Mediterranean centers of Diaspora Jews, with special attention to the levels of assimilation, acculturation, accommodation, and antagonism evidenced in particular texts and authors from the period. Concludes with a synthetic analysis of Jewish identity formation and identity markers in the Diaspora setting.

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                                                                      • Boccaccini, Gabriele. Middle Judaism: Jewish Thought, 300 BCE to 200 CE. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.

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                                                                        Boccacini proposes a new historiographic term (“Middle Judaism”) to name the period of variegated Judaisms one encounters prior to the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism. He includes an extensive annotated bibliography and in-depth treatments of Ben Sira, Daniel, the Dream Visions of 1 Enoch, and the Letter of Aristeas (pages 77–188).

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                                                                        • Cohen, Shaye J. D. From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1987.

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                                                                          An accessible introduction to Jewish-Gentile relations, Jewish religion and its diversity, social and religious institutions in the Second Temple period, and the process and ideology of the canonization of the Hebrew Bible.

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                                                                          • Collins, John Joseph. The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to the Jewish Matrix of Christianity. New York: Crossroad, 1987.

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                                                                            A definitive treatment of apocalypticism and Jewish literature expressive of apocalypticism. Includes significant treatments of 1 Enoch, Daniel, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, 4 Ezra, 2 Baruch, the Sibylline Oracles, and the Apocalypse of Abraham.

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                                                                            • Hengel, Martin. Judaism and Hellenism. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974.

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                                                                              The groundbreaking study on the political, economic, and cultural penetration of Hellenism into Judea, together with a judicious re-creation of the history of the Hellenistic “Reform” of 175–166 BCE.

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                                                                              • Newsome, James D. Greeks, Romans, Jews: Currents of Culture and Belief in the New Testament World. Philadelphia: Trinity, 1992.

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                                                                                A general introduction to the history, culture, theological trends, movements, and literature of the late Second Temple period.

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                                                                                • Nickelsburg, G. W. E. Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism and Early Christianity. Expanded edition. Harvard Theological Studies 56. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                  A scholarly investigation of the development of ideas of postmortem existence during the later Second Temple period, rooted in the exegesis of specific texts. This expansion of the original 1972 edition includes three additional chapters carrying the original investigation forward into early Christian literature.

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                                                                                  Texts and Translations of the Apocrypha

                                                                                  The Old Testament Apocrypha is readily accessible in many Bible translations. Catholic Bibles (for example, the Jerusalem Bible, New Jerusalem Bible, and New American Bible) include them interspersed throughout the Old Testament. Protestant and ecumenical Bibles group them generally between the testaments (for example, the New Revised Standard Version) or, in rare cases, at the end (as in the English Standard Version with the Apocrypha). The latter collections include a broader sampling of Apocrypha than the Catholic canon, adding 1 and 2 Esdras, 3 and 4 Maccabees, Prayer of Manasseh, and Psalm 151. Kohlenberger 1997 provides a useful synopsis of multiple texts and translations. Coogan 2010 and Green 2013 offer helpful study editions. Pietersma and Wright 2007 gives English readers reliable access to the complete Septuagint, including the broader collection of the Apocrypha (minus 2 Esdras). Rahlfs and Hanhart 2006 gives convenient access to the Greek text and major variants, though the individual volumes in the Göttingen Septuagint are the preferred resources for text-critical work.

                                                                                  • Coogan, Michael D., ed. The New Oxford Annotated Apocrypha. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                    The New Revised Standard translation of the Apocrypha/Deuterocanonicals with annotations by established scholars.

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                                                                                    • Green, Joel B., gen. ed. The Common English Bible Study Bible with Apocrypha. Nashville: Abingdon, 2013.

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                                                                                      The Common English Bible translation of the Apocrypha/Deuterocanonicals with annotations by established scholars. More room is given to annotations here than in Coogan 2010, though the latter offers more in the way of references to ancient (extrabiblical) literature.

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                                                                                      • Kohlenberger, John R., III, ed. The Parallel Apocrypha. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                        This Synoptic Apocrypha presents the Greek text from Rahlfs’s Septuaginta (Latin Vulgate for 2 Esdras) alongside the translations of Apocryphal books found in the King James Version, Douay Old Testament, Holy Bible by Ronald Knox, Today’s English Version, New Revised Standard Version, New American Bible, and New Jerusalem Bible.

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                                                                                        • Pietersma, Albert P., and Benjamin G. Wright, eds. A New English Translation of the Septuagint. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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                                                                                          A first-rate English translation of the Septuagint undertaken by a team of Septuagint specialists. Read-only files for each book may also be downloaded from the official website.

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                                                                                          • Rahlfs, Alfred, and Robert Hanhart, eds. Septuaginta. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2006.

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                                                                                            A critical edition of the Greek translation of the Jewish Scriptures, together with the Apocrypha, based largely on the major 4th-century and 5th-century codices Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Sinaiticus, with some notice of Lucianic and Origenic readings. Corrected edition of Rahlfs’s original, published in 1931 (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht). Advanced text-critical study is better undertaken using extant volumes from the Göttingen Septuagint.

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                                                                                            First Esdras

                                                                                            First Esdras is an early, Greek retelling of 2 Chronicles 35–36, Ezra, and Nehemiah. Hanhart 1974 provides a critical edition of the Greek text and Talshir 2001 a commentary on text-critical issues. Talshir 1999 offers a major study of the composition and translation techniques of the author. Myers 1974, Pohlmann 1980, and Bird 2012 provide useful commentaries.

                                                                                            • Bird, Michael. 1 Esdras. A Commentary Based on the Text in Codex Vaticanus. Septuagint Commentary Series. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2012.

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                                                                                              An advanced commentary with an introduction covering text-critical issues extensively (including a section specifically on the character of the text of 1 Esdras in Codex Vaticanus), as well as the questions of date, provenance, purpose, structure, and reception history, with fulsome bibliography. The focus on Codex Vaticanus does not render the commentary any less useful for the study and exegesis of 1 Esdras.

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                                                                                              • Hanhart, R. Esdrae liber I. Septuaginta 8.1. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1974.

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                                                                                                The preferred critical edition of the Greek text, with text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                • Myers, Jacob M. I, and II Esdras. Anchor Bible 42. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974.

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                                                                                                  Scholarly introduction and commentary, particularly strong in comparisons of 1 Esdras with the source material in the Hebrew Bible.

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                                                                                                  • Pohlmann, Karl-Friedrich. Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistisch römischer Zeit. Vol. 1, Historische und legendarische Erzählungen; 5, 3, Esra-Buch. Gütersloh, Germany: Gerd Möhn, 1980.

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                                                                                                    Scholarly, German introduction, translation, and extensive annotations for 1 Esdras.

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                                                                                                    • Talshir, Zipora. I Esdras: From Origin to Translation. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 1999.

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                                                                                                      A meticulous, scholarly investigation of the original scope of 1 Esdras, its literary structure and seams, and the translation techniques employed by the author. Excellent comparisons of 1 Esdras with the relevant parallel material from the Hebrew Bible and the Septuagint translation of Ezra and Nehemiah.

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                                                                                                      • Talshir, Zipora. 1 Esdras: A Text Critical Commentary. SBLSCS 50. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2001.

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                                                                                                        A thorough commentary on the unusually complex text-critical issues surrounding this book.

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                                                                                                        First Maccabees

                                                                                                        First Maccabees relates the history of the Maccabean Revolt and early Hasmonean dynasty. The historical sources and value of the text, and the literary unity of the same (see Schunck 1954 and Williams 1999), are matters of perennial interest. Bartlett 1998 is a reliable introductory guide. Tedesche and Zeitlin 1950 is a briefer, more accessible commentary; Goldstein 1976 is more advanced. Abel 1949, Schunck 1980, and Tilly 2015 are valuable commentaries for those with reading knowledge of French and German. Kappler 1967 is the preferred critical edition of the text.

                                                                                                        • Abel, F. M. Les livres des Maccabées. Paris: Gabalda, 1949.

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                                                                                                          A classic, scholarly introduction and commentary in French. The Greek text is given alongside a French translation, with a critical apparatus. Special attention is given throughout to the question of the historicity and relative historical value of 1 and 2 Maccabees.

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                                                                                                          • Bartlett, John R. 1 Maccabees. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                            An accessible guide to scholarly investigation of 1 Maccabees. Bartlett explores the author’s use of sources, the literary structure of the work, and the historical value of its presentation of events.

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                                                                                                            • Goldstein, Jonathan A. I Maccabees: A New Translation, with Introduction and Commentary. Anchor Bible 41. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976.

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                                                                                                              Scholarly introduction, new translation, and extensive annotations. The introduction treats 1 and 2 Maccabees comparatively in regard to content and character, sources, date, and setting, and the purpose of each within the polemics of the period. It also presents Goldstein’s own reconstruction of the Hellenistic Reform, which lays more stress on Antiochus’s initiative than most.

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                                                                                                              • Kappler, W. Maccabaeorum liber I. Septuaginta 9.1. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1967.

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                                                                                                                The preferred edition of the Greek text, with extensive text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                                • Schunck, Klaus-Dietrich. Die Quellen des I und II Makkabäerbuches. Halle, Germany: Niemeyer, 1954.

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                                                                                                                  This scholarly German monograph defends the literary unity of 1 Maccabees, discusses the problems of chronology (explained on the basis of different systems of dating the start of the Seleucid kingdom), and attempts to discern the sources used in the composition of 1 Maccabees and the history of Jason of Cyrene (abridged as 2 Maccabees).

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                                                                                                                  • Schunck, Klaus-Dietrich. Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistisch römischer Zeit. Vol. 1, Historische und legendarische Erzählungen; 4, 1, Makkabäerbüch. Gütersloh, Germany: Gerd Mohn, 1980.

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                                                                                                                    Scholarly German resource providing a detailed introduction, new translation, and extensive annotations.

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                                                                                                                    • Tedesche, Sidney, and Solomon Zeitlin, eds. The First Book of Maccabees. New York: Harper, 1950.

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                                                                                                                      Scholarly, yet accessible, introduction focusing on issues of literary integrity (chapters 1–13 are regarded as original, chapters 14–16 a secondary addition) and historical and chronological questions. The Greek text as found in Rahlfs’s Septuagint is the basis for a new English translation and annotations.

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                                                                                                                      • Tilly, Michael. 1 Makkabäer. Herders theologischer Kommentar zum Alten Testament. Freiburg, Germany: Herders, 2015.

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                                                                                                                        A mid-level commentary with extensive bibliography, a concise introduction (literary structure, historical background, reception, and foundational theology), and critical treatment of lexical, historical, ideological, and theological issues in the text.

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                                                                                                                        • Williams, David S. The Structure of 1 Maccabees. Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association, 1999.

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                                                                                                                          A scholarly study of the macro-structure and internal structuring devices of 1 Maccabees. Williams holds the first two sections (1:1–6:17 and 6:18–14:14), which evidence parallel internal and chiastic structures, to comprise the original work, with the third section (14:16–16:24) being added later to discredit the reign of Simon.

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                                                                                                                          Second Esdras (Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Ezra)

                                                                                                                          It is known that 2 Esdras is a composite apocalypse, 4 Ezra (2 Esdras 3–14) is a Jewish apocalyptic response to the aftermath of the destruction of the Second Temple, and 5 and 6 Ezra (2 Esdras 1–2; 15–16) are Christian additions from the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. Longenecker 1995 gives an accessible overview. Stone 1990 is the premier scholarly commentary, particularly important for its text-critical comments, though Myers 1974 remains valuable. Thompson 1977, Willett 1989, Hogan 2008, and Najman 2014 all examine, from different angles, the author’s attempt at theodicy. DeSilva 2014 explores the author’s views of divine grace and forgiveness and argues against caricatures of the author as legalistic. Bensly 1895 provides a critical edition of the Latin text. Bergren 1990 reconstructs the two major recensions of 5 Ezra, and this work and Stanton 1997 both argue for its dependence upon Matthew’s Gospel. Bergren 1998 provides a comprehensive introduction to 6 Ezra.

                                                                                                                          • Bensly, Robert L. The Fourth Book of Ezra. Texts and Studies 3.2. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1895.

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                                                                                                                            The critical edition of the Latin text of 4 Ezra, with Latin texts of 5 and 6 Ezra in an appendix.

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                                                                                                                            • Bergren, Theodore A. Fifth Ezra: The Text, Origin and Early History. Septuagint and Cognate Studies 25. Atlanta: Scholars, 1990.

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                                                                                                                              An advanced, scholarly exploration of the manuscript witnesses to 5 Ezra, reconstruction of the two recensions, and analysis of the relationship between the two recensions. The study concludes with an argument for the Christian origin of this text based on probable dependence upon traditions also found in Matthew.

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                                                                                                                              • Bergren, Theodore A. Sixth Ezra: The Text and Origin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                An exhaustive study and reconstruction of the two Latin versions of 6 Ezra (= 2 Esdras 15–16), together with in-depth chapters on the vocabulary and date of the addition and the religious location of its author.

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                                                                                                                                • deSilva, David A. “Grace, the Law, and Justification in 4 Ezra and the Pauline Letters: A Dialogue.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 37.1 (2014): 25–49.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0142064X14545915Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Challenges the lingering notions that 4 Ezra represents a legalistic and essentially grace-less form of Judaism by underscoring the author’s emphasis on God’s grace present in creation, sustenance, and cooperation with those who respond to God justly with gratitude. The distance between 4 Ezra and Paul in regard to divine grace and the cause of divine wrath is closed considerably.

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                                                                                                                                  • Hogan, Karina Martin. Theologies in Conflict in 4 Ezra: Wisdom Debate and Apocalyptic Solution. JSJSup 130. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2008.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004129696.i-272Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    An insightful investigation of the theodicy of 4 Ezra that regards the dialogues as a reflection of an inner-Jewish debate between covenant-based and apocalyptic wisdom and the visions as the path forward to the solution of the problems raised in this debate.

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                                                                                                                                    • Longenecker, Bruce W. 2 Esdras. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                      An accessible guide to 4 Ezra, beginning with an overview of the book’s historical setting, genre, and structure and the author’s theological interests, then moving through an episode-by-episode analysis of the work. A final chapter introduces the Christian developments, 5 and 6 Ezra. Each chapter includes annotated bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                      • Myers, Jacob M. I and II Esdras. Anchor Bible 42. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                        A detailed, scholarly commentary on both texts, including critical introductions (covering setting, date, purpose, structure, and import), a fresh translation, detailed notes (primarily indicating textual issues, suggesting sources, and pointing comparative literature), and analysis of the meaning of each major block of text.

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                                                                                                                                        • Najman, Hindy. Losing the Temple and Recovering the Future: An Analysis of 4 Ezra. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139051651Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Explores 4 Ezra as a “reboot,” an imaginative rewriting of history in which the path forward lay not in the rebuilding of the devastated temple but in adherence to the Mosaic Law even in the midst of mourning the loss and the suffering.

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                                                                                                                                          • Stanton, G. N. “5 Ezra and Matthean Christianity in the Second Century.” Journal of Theological Studies 28.1 (1997): 67–83.

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                                                                                                                                            A study of the use of the Gospel of Matthew by the author of 5 Ezra (2 Esdras 1–2), particularly to advance the idea of the replacement of the historical people of God with a new people, the Church.

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                                                                                                                                            • Stone, Michael E. Fourth Ezra. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                              The definitive, scholarly commentary on 4 Ezra, including a fresh translation, extensive text-critical notes, and detailed commentary with ample discussion of comparative texts and secondary literature.

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                                                                                                                                              • Thompson, Alden L. Responsibility for Evil in the Theodicy of IV Ezra. Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                This dissertation explores the question at the heart of 4 Ezra, which combines explanations that place responsibility for evil upon the individual, upon Adam, and upon God (for implanting the “evil inclination” in human beings), but ultimately resolves the problem of evil experientially rather than rationally.

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                                                                                                                                                • Willett, Tom W. Eschatology in the Theodicies of 2 Baruch and 4 Ezra. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                  This scholarly monograph pursues a comparative analysis of the theodicies expressed in 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch in the context of the literary structure of each, the theological context of biblical and postbiblical literature, and the context of apocalypticism. It emphasizes the importance of postmortem or otherworldly reward and punishment for the sustenance of the worldview of each author.

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                                                                                                                                                  Second Maccabees

                                                                                                                                                  An alternative history of the Hellenizing Crisis and Maccabean Revolt, 2 Maccabees gives more attention to inner-Jewish partisanship and collusion with the Greco-Syrian rulers of Palestine and more attention to theological interpretations and interventions. Schwartz 2008 and Doran 2012 provide up-to-date points of entry into advanced study of the book. Abel 1949, Goldstein 1983, Habicht 1976a, and Tedesche and Zeitlin 1954 remain important commentaries. Doran 1981 remains a valuable resource on historical setting and composition, and especially on the theological purpose of the book. Hanhart 1959 provides the preferred critical edition.

                                                                                                                                                  • Abel, F. M. Les livres des Maccabées. Paris: Gabalda, 1949.

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                                                                                                                                                    A classic, scholarly introduction and commentary in French. The Greek text is given alongside a French translation, with a critical apparatus. Special attention is given throughout to the question of the historicity and relative historical value of 1 and 2 Maccabees.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Doran, Robert. Temple Propaganda: The Purpose and Character of 2 Maccabees. Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 12. Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                      Scholarly investigation of the unity, style, structure, and literary character of 2 Maccabees, marshaling evidence for understanding it as a theological interpretation of the events it relates, reaffirming the basic theodicy of Deuteronomy 28–32.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Doran, Robert. 2 Maccabees. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                        An advanced-level critical commentary on 2 Maccabees, providing consistent insights into text-critical, historical, grammatical, lexical, literary, rhetorical, and theological questions.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Goldstein, J. A. II Maccabees. Anchor Bible 41A. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                          Scholarly introduction, new translation, and extensive annotations. The introduction treats content and character, sources, the historical method of Jason of Cyrene, date and setting, and purpose. It also presents Goldstein’s own reconstruction of the Hellenistic Reform, which lays more stress on Antiochus’s initiative than most.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Habicht, C. Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistisch römischer Zeit. Vol. 1, Historische und legendarische Erzählungen; 3, 2, Makkabäerbuch. Gütersloh, Germany: Gerd Mohn, 1976a.

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                                                                                                                                                            Scholarly German resource providing a detailed introduction, new translation, and extensive annotations.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Habicht, C. “Royal Documents in II Maccabees.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 80 (1976b): 1–18.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/311229Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Scholarly assessment of the historical authenticity of the official decrees and documents recited in 2 Maccabees.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Hanhart, Robert, eds. Maccabaeorum Liber II. f Septuaginta 9.2. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1959.

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                                                                                                                                                                The preferred edition of the Greek text, with extensive text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Schunck, Klaus-Dietrich. Die Quellen des I und II Makkabäerbuches. Halle, Germany: Niemeyer, 1954.

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                                                                                                                                                                  This scholarly, German monograph defends the literary unity of 1 Maccabees, discusses the problems of chronology (explained on the basis of different systems of dating the start of the Seleucid kingdom), and attempts to discern the sources used in the composition of 1 Maccabees and the history of Jason of Cyrene (abridged as 2 Maccabees).

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Schwartz, Daniel R. 2 Maccabees. Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1515/9783110211207Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    The starting point for all serious study of this text. The introduction treats the date and purpose, literary sources and development, historical issues, themes, language, and style. There follows a new translation, commentary, and detailed notes, especially strong in treating philological, tradition-critical, and historical issues, and thoroughly conversant in secondary literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Tedesche, S., and S. Zeitlin, eds. The Second Book of Maccabees. New York: Harper, 1954.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Scholarly, yet accessible, introduction focusing on literary and historical issues. The Greek text as found in Rahlfs’s Septuagint is the basis for a new English translation and annotations.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Third Maccabees

                                                                                                                                                                      Third Maccabees tells a largely fictive story of the deliverance of Jews in Alexandria under Ptolemy Philopator. Croy 2006 is the most up-to-date commentary; readers of French may also consult Modrzejewski 2008. Hadas 1953 remains a valuable and accessible resource. Williams 1995 and Johnson 2004 explore the genre, setting, and purpose of the work, while Hacham 2007 examines its literary relationship with the Greek version of Esther. Hanhart 1980 provides the critical edition of the Greek text.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Croy, N. Clayton. 3 Maccabees. Septuagint Commentary Series. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                        The most up-to-date and detailed commentary on 3 Maccabees available. The commentary is based on the text as found in Codex Alexandrinus, though the relationship of this witness to the standard eclectic text is also discussed. Thorough attention is given to linguistic, grammatical, historical, and theological issues.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Hacham, Noah. “3 Maccabees and Esther: Parallels, Intertextuality, and Diaspora Identity.” Journal of Biblical Literature 126.4 (2007): 765–785.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/27638467Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Hacham examines evidence from thematic-structural parallels and from shared vocabulary and expressions for the dependence of the royal decrees in Greek Esther upon 3 Maccabees. He concludes with reflections on the implications of these royal edicts, and their connection with 3 Maccabees, for our understanding of the social setting of the author of these additions to Greek Esther.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Hadas, Moses. The Third and Fourth Books of Maccabees. New York: Harper, 1953.

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                                                                                                                                                                            An accessible, earlier English commentary on these books. The annotations on 4 Maccabees are largely a translation and digest of the annotations found in Dupont-Sommer 1939 (cited under Fourth Maccabees). The annotations offer valuable philological notes, traditional-historical insights, and comparisons with other Jewish and Greco-Roman literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Hanhart, Robert. Maccabaeorum Liber III. Septuaginta 9.3. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                              The standard critical text of 3 Maccabees, with complete textual apparatus.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Johnson, Sara Raup. Historical Fictions and Hellenistic Jewish Identity: Third Maccabees in Its Cultural Context. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                The second half of this book presents a helpful introduction to the historical setting of the book’s composition and an investigation into the purpose of a book that has so strangely clothed fiction with elements of historical verisimilitude.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Modrzejewski, J. M. Troisième livre des Maccabées. La Bible d’Alexandrie 15. Paris: Cerf, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  An extensive introduction to the book (treating date, genre, reflections of historical events and sociopolitical challenges, and religiosity) is followed by a fresh translation with annotations on linguistic, literary, and historical issues and connections.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Williams, David S. “3 Maccabees: A Defense of Diaspora Judaism?” Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 7.13 (1995): 17–29.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/095182079500001302Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Williams argues that 3 Maccabees was written by an Egyptian Diaspora Jew to emphasize the connection and interrelatedness of Judean and Diaspora Judaism, and to demonstrate to co-religionists in Judea that God’s favor rests upon Jews in their lands of exile as fully as upon Jews in their native land.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Fourth Maccabees

                                                                                                                                                                                    Fourth Maccabees uses Greek philosophical ethics and rhetorical forms to promote continued adherence to the Torah as the path to fulfill even the Greek ideal of the virtuous sage. DeSilva 1998 is a general overview of the rhetorical, philosophical, and theological features of the work. DeSilva 2006 provides an in-depth and up-to-date scholarly introduction and commentary. Dupont-Sommer 1939, Hadas 1953, and especially Klauck 1989 are also important scholarly commentaries, the last particularly for important text-critical information not found elsewhere. Renehan 1972 puts to rest the notion that the author was not adept in Greek philosophy. Van Henten 1997 is an excellent study of the relation of 2 and 4 Maccabees to the Greek tradition of the noble death.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • deSilva, David A. 4 Maccabees. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      An accessible guide to 4 Maccabees. The opening chapter discusses historical and literary issues; successive chapters discuss 4 Maccabees in terms of deliberative, epideictic, and protreptic discourse. Concluding chapters analyze the theological contributions and influence of the work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • deSilva, David A. 4 Maccabees: Introduction and Commentary on the Greek Text in Codex Sinaiticus. Septuagint Commentary Series. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Although this advanced-level commentary on 4 Maccabees is based on the text as found in a particular witness (Codex Sinaiticus), it also fully discusses the eclectic text of 4 Maccabees. The commentary is particularly attentive to the rhetorical criticism of 4 Maccabees, Jewish and Greco-Roman intertexture, and the book’s contribution to forming and maintaining Jewish identity in the Greek diaspora.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dupont-Sommer, A., ed. Le Quatrième Livre des Machabées. Translated by A. Dupont-Sommer. Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion, 1939.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          A French translation with substantial annotations that still have much to offer, particularly in their suggestions regarding philology and Jewish and non-Jewish comparative literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hadas, Moses, ed. The Third and Fourth Books of Maccabees. Translated by Moses Hadas. New York: Harper, 1953.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            An accessible, earlier English commentary on these books. The annotations on 4 Maccabees are largely a translation and digest of the annotations found in Dupont-Sommer. The annotations offer valuable philological notes, traditional-historical insights, and comparisons with other Jewish and Greco-Roman literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Klauck, Hans-Josef. 4 Makkabäerbuch. Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistisch römischer Zeit 3.6. Gütersloh, Germany: Gerd Mohn, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              A German translation with a critical introduction and extensive annotations. In the absence of a volume devoted to 4 Maccabees in the Göttingen Septuagint, Klauck’s account of the textual history and his attention to variant readings are especially important aspects of this volume. Klauck also provides ample and reliable guidance regarding philology, rhetoric, and the location of 4 Maccabees in the philosophical and religious conversations of its day.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Renehan, R. “The Greek Philosophic Background of Fourth Maccabees.” Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 115 (1972): 223–238.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                This brief article is especially important for putting to rest a long-standing criticism of the author of 4 Maccabees, namely, that he was a philosophical dilettante. Renehan shows the author to be, instead, an eclectic philosopher whose positions are in keeping with Middle Stoicism and the eclecticism of the Roman period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • van Henten, Jan W. “A Jewish Epitaph in a Literary Text: 4 Macc 17:8–10.” In Studies in Early Jewish Epigraphy. Edited by Jan W. van Henten, and Pieter W. van der Horst, 44–69. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Van Henten offers what is perhaps to date the most convincing evidence for the provenance of 4 Maccabees, which is usually assumed to come from Alexandria in lieu of better suggestions. Van Henten shows the affinities of a literary epitaph in 4 Maccabees with actual Jewish epitaphs from Cilicia, locating the work more securely in the northeastern Mediterranean.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • van Henten, Jan W. The Maccabean Martyrs as Saviours of the Jewish People: A Study of 2 and 4 Maccabees. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    This monograph offers excellent introductions to the historical setting and literary relationships of 2 Maccabees and 4 Maccabees. These texts are examined alongside Greco-Roman traditions of the noble death of the hero who gives his or her life for the political liberation of his or her people.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Baruch is a composite of prayers of confession offered on behalf of the exiles, a wisdom poem pointing to Torah as the way of restoration, and prophetic passages speaking of the consolation of Israel. The Letter of Jeremiah, a polemic against the validity of idolatrous religions, tended to be treated as the final chapter of Baruch, but it is now recognized as an independent composition. Adams 2014 and Moore 1977 provide accessible yet expert introduction and commentary on both texts, and Ziegler 1957 is the critical edition of the Greek. A major focus of scholarship concerns the relationship of the extant Greek text to putative Hebrew Vorlage (see Burke 1982, Tov 1975, Tov 1976).

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Adams, Sean A. Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah. A Commentary Based on the Texts in Codex Vaticanus. Septuagint Commentary Series. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      An advanced commentary with substantial introductions (textual history, origins and purpose, language and grammar, influence) to both texts. Special attention is given to the delineation of sense units in various codices and, above all, to the exposition of the form of the text in Codex Vaticanus (which does not diminish, however, the commentary’s utility for study of Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah based on the eclectic Greek texts).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Burke, David G. The Poetry of Baruch: A Reconstruction and Analysis of the Original Hebrew Text of Baruch 3:9–5:9. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        A proposed reconstruction of the Hebrew Urtext of the second half of Baruch, with analysis of poetic features based on the reconstruction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Moore, Carey A. Daniel, Esther, and Jeremiah: The Additions. Anchor Bible 44. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scholarly introduction and commentary, treating the origin, literary character, theology, purpose, canonicity, and textual history of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Tov, Emanuel, ed. The Book of Baruch, Also Called 1 Baruch (Greek and Hebrew): Edited, Reconstructed, and Translated. Translated by Emanuel Tov. Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Critical Greek text with fresh translation; Tov reconstructs a proposed Hebrew Urtext for Baruch 1:1–3:8.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Tov, Emanuel. The Septuagint Translation of Jeremiah and Baruch: A Discussion of an Early Revision of the LXX of Jeremiah 29–52 and Baruch 1:1–3:18. Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Specialized study on translation technique in the early history of the transmission of Septuagint Jeremiah and Baruch.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ziegler, Joseph. Ieremias, Baruch, Threni, Epistula Ieremiae. Septuaginta 15. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1957.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                The preferred critical edition of the Greek text, with text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ben Sira (Sirach, Ecclesiasticus)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Wisdom of Ben Sira represents the curriculum of a Jewish sage and scribe, the head of a school in Jerusalem near the beginning of the 2nd century BCE. It has been a focus for energetic scholarly investigation, with the result that this entry is divided into Overviews and Commentaries, Specialized Studies, and Text-Critical Resources and Studies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Overviews and Commentaries

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Coggins 1998 and Collins 1997 both provide excellent introductions to Ben Sira’s teachings, the historical context, and currents in scholarly investigation. Skehan and Di Lella 1987 sets the standard for English commentary on Ben Sira, as does Sauer 2000 for German commentary; Duesberg and Auvray 1958 is a shorter, but still helpful, French commentary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Coggins, Richard J. Sirach. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An accessible introduction to scholarship on Ben Sira, treating historical and socioreligious setting, literary structure, textual transmission, biblical interpretation in Ben Sira, Ben Sira’s development of the Jewish wisdom tradition, attitude toward women, and principal theological themes. Includes bibliographies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Collins, John J. Jewish Wisdom in the Hellenistic Age. Old Testament Library. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pages 23–111 offer an exceptional introduction to Ben Sira in its historical context. Collins examines Ben Sira’s reconfiguration of “Wisdom” as Torah-observance, the ethical topics and social situations treated throughout the collection, Ben Sira’s engagement with theodicy, and Ben Sira’s theology of history and eschatology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Duesberg, H., and P. Auvray, trans. La Sainte Bible: Le livre de L’Ecclésiastique. 2d ed. Paris: Cerf, 1958.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An informed but accessible introduction, translation, and detailed commentary in French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sauer, Georg. Jesus Sirach/Ben Sira. ATD Apokryphen Band 1. Göttingen, Germany: Vendenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A moderate-level critical commentary in German that gives careful attention to the Hebrew text where extant, to Ben Sira’s work as an interpreter of Scripture and the Jewish wisdom tradition, and to the meaning of the text he produced.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Skehan, Patrick W., and Alexander A. Di Lella. The Wisdom of Ben Sira: A New Translation with Notes. Anchor Bible 39. New York: Doubleday, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Scholarly introduction, new translation, annotations, and extensive commentary, with particular attention given to the relationship of, and differences between, the Greek version to the Hebrew original. Includes a substantial bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Specialized Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Important topics in the study of Ben Sira have included his attitude toward women (Camp 1991, Trenchard 1982), his relationship to Hellenism and non-Jewish wisdom traditions (Middendorp 1973, Sanders 1983), and the influence of Hellenistic rhetoric on the literary forms of Ben Sira (Lee 1986, Mack 1985). Camp 1991 and deSilva 1996 independently pursue analyses of Ben Sira from the cultural-anthropological lens of honor and shame. Corley 2002 provides an in-depth study of Ben Sira on friendship. Wright 2008 offers studies on Ben Sira from various socioeconomic and politico-religious angles. Harrington 1994 and Di Lella 1996 remain important bibliographical resources.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Camp, C. V. “Understanding a Patriarchy: Women in Second Century Jerusalem through the Eyes of Ben-Sira.” In “Women like this”: New Perspectives on Jewish Women in the Greco-Roman World. Edited by Amy-Jill Levine, 1–39. Atlanta: Scholars, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A cultural-anthropological study particularly of Ben Sira’s teaching concerning women through the lens of honor and shame. Male honor is established, in part, through control over the modesty and sexuality of the women attached to the particular male, whether as wives or as daughters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Corley, Jeremy. Ben Sira’s Teaching on Friendship. Brown Judaic Studies 316. Providence, RI: Brown Judaic Studies, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A close exegetical study of the principal passages on friendship in Ben Sira (6:5–17; 9:10–16; 13:15–23; 19:13–17; 22:19–26; 27:16–21; 37:1–6), with particular reference to the relationship of Ben Sira’s teaching to Greek, Egyptian, and other comparative texts on friendship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • deSilva, David A. “The Wisdom of Ben Sira: Honor, Shame, and the Maintenance of the Values of a Minority Culture.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 58.3 (1996): 433–455.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Investigation of Ben Sira’s use of the sanctions of honor and disgrace, and of praiseworthy and blameworthy examples, to promote Torah observance in a sociocultural situation in which accommodation to Gentile expectations is the path to political advancement.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Di Lella, Alexander A. “The Wisdom of Ben Sira: Resources and Recent Research.” Currents and Trends in Research 4 (1996): 161–181.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Extensive annotated bibliography of research intended as a complement to Harrington 1994 and as a supplement to Skehan and Di Lella 1987, pp. 93–127 (cited under Overviews and Commentary). Includes concluding comments on critical editions and other resources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Harrington, Daniel J. “Sirach Research since 1965: Progress and Questions.” In Pursuing the Text: Studies in Honor of Ben Zion Wacholder. Edited by John C. Reeves and John Kampen, 164–176. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A survey of nearly thirty monographs on Ben Sira, divided into sections dealing with text-critical issues, sociohistorical setting, and major themes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lee, Thomas R. Studies in the Form of Sirach 44–50. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 75. Atlanta: Scholars, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A scholarly, detailed study of the literary form of the hymn in praise of the ancestors in Sirach 44–50. Lee concludes that the passage is modeled more closely after the Greek encomium (with its emphasis on descent and deeds) than other Hebrew or Greek forms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mack, Burton L. Wisdom and the Hebrew Epic: Ben Sira’s Hymn in Praise of the Fathers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A scholarly study of Ben Sira’s hymn in praise of the ancestors in regard to characterization, structure, and themes. Mack emphasizes the importance of the Greek encomium for Ben Sira’s own poetic reconstruction of the Hebrew epic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Middendorp, Theophil. Die Stellung Jesu ben Siras zwischen Judentum und Hellenismus. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A scholarly, German monograph on Ben Sira’s acculturation in regard to Hellenism in the midst of his attempts to promote observance of the Jewish ancestral law.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sanders, Jack T. Ben Sira and Demotic Wisdom. Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series 28. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A scholarly investigation of the relationship of Ben Sira’s wisdom to Jewish, Greek, and Egyptian/Demotic wisdom traditions. Sanders convincingly shows the extent to which Ben Sira adopted and adapted foreign wisdom, particularly in regard to social relationships and the ethic of caution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Trenchard, Warren C. Ben Sira’s View of Women: A Literary Analysis. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A detailed, scholarly comparison of Ben Sira’s statements about women with Ben Sira’s source material (especially Proverbs), showing how Ben Sira creates a markedly more negative picture of women both in his omissions from and in his sharpening of his source material.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wright, Benjamin G., III. Praise Israel for Wisdom and Instruction. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 131. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004169081.i-364Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This collection contains eight essays on Ben Sira in regard to the characterization of the sage, wealth and poverty, support for the Temple cult, the problem of foreign domination, the social location of instruction, and the reception of Ben Sira in rabbinic Judaism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Text-Critical Resources and Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Wisdom of Ben Sira is known primarily from an early translation into Greek by the sage’s grandson. The relationship of this translation to the Hebrew original is a major focus of scholarly investigation (see Wright 1989 for a benchmark study). Beentjes 1997 provides ready access to the extant Hebrew manuscripts; Yadin 1965 offers a transcription and translation of the Masada manuscript; Di Lella 1966 is a study of the text-critical value of the Cairo Geniza manuscripts. Ziegler 1980 provides the critical edition of the Greek text. Rey and Joosten 2011 offers a collection of essays on the various text traditions and major versions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Beentjes, Pancratius C. The Book of Ben Sira in Hebrew. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1997.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1515/9783110803006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Transcription of the extant Hebrew manuscripts of Ben Sira, with a synopsis of overlapping manuscripts. An important aid for text-critical work and for comparing the Septuagint and Hebrew versions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Di Lella, Alexander A. The Hebrew Text of Sirach: A Text-Critical and Historical Study. The Hague: Mouton, 1966.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A scholarly, detailed study of the value of the Cairo Genizeh manuscripts of Ben Sira for the recovery of the original Hebrew text.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rey, Jean-Sébastien., and Jan Joosten. The Texts and Versions of the Book of Ben Sira: Transmission and Interpretation. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 150. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of sixteen essays on the Hebrew, Greek, Syriac, and Latin versions of Ben Sira, including several comparative studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Strugnell, John. “Notes and Queries on ‘The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada’.” In Eretz Israel: Archaeological, Historical, and Geographical Studies. Vol. 9, Essays in Honor of W. F. Albright. Edited by A. Malamat, 109–119. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A brief, scholarly article containing important corrections to, and critiques concerning, Yadin 1965, the principal scholarly edition of the Ben Sira Scroll found at Masada.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wright, Benjamin G., III. No Small Difference: Sirach’s Relationship to Its Hebrew Parent Text. Atlanta: Scholars, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An advanced, scholarly study of the translation techniques evidenced in Ben Sira’s grandson’s translation into Greek of the Hebrew original, with a view to suggesting the prospects of recovering the lost portions of the Hebrew original through retroversion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yadin, Yigael. The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1965.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An introduction, transcription, and translation of an important manuscript witness to the original Hebrew version of Ben Sira. Should be used in conjunction with Strugnell 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ziegler, Joseph, ed. Sapientia Iesu Filii Sirach. Septuaginta 12.2. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The preferred edition of the Greek text, with extensive text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Daniel, Additions to

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Greek version of Daniel contains stories and hymns not found in the Hebrew/Aramaic version. The critical edition of the Greek text is Ziegler 1954. Moore 1977 and Collins 1993 provide reliable introduction and commentary. Steussy 1993 offers a literary-critical study on the religious ideas in the additional tales. Both Steussy and Moore are attentive to the differences between the two major Greek textual traditions. Spolsky 1996 collects studies on the history of the reception of Susanna. Feminist perspectives on Susanna can be found in Brenner 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brenner, Athalya, ed. A Feminist Companion to Esther, Judith and Susanna. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This collection of essays provides a portal into feminist criticism of these texts. Jennifer Glancy and Amy-Jill Levine contribute two essays on Susanna (pp. 288–323).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Collins, John J. Daniel. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The additions to Daniel are included alongside the portions accepted as canonical in Jewish and Protestant circles in this advanced commentary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Moore, Carey A. Daniel, Esther, and Jeremiah: The Additions. Anchor Bible 44. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scholarly introduction and commentary on the Additions to Daniel (pp. 23–151), discussing their origin, theology, purpose, literary merit, and canonicity. Attention is given to the differences between the versions found in Theodotion and the Old Greek, and their significance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Spolsky, Ellen. The Judgment of Susanna: Authority and Witness. Early Judaism and Its Literature 11. Atlanta: Scholars, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of essays, including studies on the reception of Susanna in the early and medieval church, the portrayal of Susanna in literature and in art, and an anthropological study on sexuality and social control in Susanna.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Steussy, Marti J. Gardens in Babylon: Narrative and Faith in the Greek Legends of Daniel. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 141. Atlanta: Scholars, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A scholarly, literary-critical investigation of the faith and worldview encoded in the stories of Susanna and Bel and the Dragon, giving attention to the differences between the versions in the Old Greek and Theodotion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ziegler, Joseph, ed. Susanna, Daniel, Bel et Draco. Septuginta 16.2. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1954.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The preferred critical edition of the Greek text, with text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Esther

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Greek version of Esther, like Daniel, contains substantially more material than the Hebrew original. Hanhart 1966 provides the critical edition of the Greek text, and Moore 1977 full introduction and commentary. Readers of French will benefit from the introduction and annotations in Cavalier 2012. A substantial collection of essays written from feminist perspectives is offered in Brenner 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brenner, Athalya, ed. A Feminist Companion to Esther, Judith and Susanna. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This collection of essays provides a portal into feminist criticism of these texts. Ten essays on various aspects of Esther can be found on pages 26–207.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Cavalier, Claudine. Esther. La Bible d’Alexandrie 12. Paris: Cerf, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An extensive introduction to the Greek book of Esther, with fresh translations of both principal Greek versions (the Septuagint and the Lucianic recension) and annotations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hanhart, Robert, ed. Esther. Septuaginta 3. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1966.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The preferred critical edition of the Greek text, with text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Moore, Carey A. Daniel, Esther, and Jeremiah: The Additions. Anchor Bible 44. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scholarly introduction and commentary, treating questions of the origin, theology, purpose, and textual transmission of the Additions to Esther. While most attention is focused on the Greek additions, the translation and annotations also cover the entirety of the Greek version of Esther.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Judith

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Judith is a work of historical fiction from the Hasmonean period, of particular interest as a window into gender expectations and their subversion (if only temporarily). Numerous commentaries and text-critical resources are available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Commentaries and Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Otzen 2002 gives a general orientation to the work and scholarly investigation thereof. Gera 2014, Schmitz and Engel 2014 (for readers of German) and Moore 1985 provide excellent and substantial introductions and commentaries, surpassing Zeitlin 1972. Craven 1983 is an advanced investigation of the literary features of Judith. Dubarle 1966 introduces (French) readers to the many versions of Judith. Purdie 1927 studies the reception of Judith in literature. VanderKam 1992, Xeravits 2012, and Brenner-Idan 2015 are important collections of essays on Judith, covering a wide range of topics and perspectives.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Brenner-Idan, Athalya, ed. A Feminist Companion to Tobit and Judith. London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of provocative essays on Judith from a feminist-critical perspective, examining whether Judith is a liberating (and liberated) heroine or a vehicle for promoting gynophobia, pious widow or terrorist, liberator or oppressor (as a slaveholder!).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Craven, T. Artistry and Faith in the Book of Judith. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A study of literary and rhetorical aspects of Judith, including irony and comedy, literary structure and symmetry, literary devices such as chiasm and other conventional patterns. Craven goes on to discuss issues pertinent to Judith and gender roles in Second Temple Judaism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dubarle, A. M. Judith: Formes et sens des diverses traditions. 2 vols. Rome: Institut Biblique Pontifical, 1966.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scholarly, French monograph containing studies on the various versions of Judith (Hebrew, Greek, Latin), its retelling in midrash, its influence on later Jewish and Christian literature, religious ideas, and canonicity. Volume 2 provides the original language texts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gera, Deborah Levine. Judith. Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An advanced commentary with extensive introductory essays on the place of Judith in the Jewish community, the setting of its composition, Jewish and Greek influences upon the book, the original language, and Judith’s contribution to reflection on the role of women in Second Temple Judaism. The commentary offers a fresh translation with rich discussions of lexical, traditional-historical, geographical, historical, and literary matters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Moore, Carey A. Judith. Anchor Bible 40. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A new translation, with extensive scholarly introduction and annotation. The introduction provides substantial treatment of Judith as historical fiction, genre, purpose, historical setting of composition, canonicity, original language and Septuagint translation, textual transmission, and canonicity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Otzen, Benedikt. Tobit and Judith. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A guide for the beginning student, discussing the date and provenance, genre, canonical and noncanonical sources, literary elements, theology, and text-critical issues of each book.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Purdie, Edna. The Story of Judith in German and English Literature. Paris: Libraire Ancienne Honoré Champion, 1927.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A study of the influence of the book of Judith on German and English literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Schmitz, B., and H. Engel. Judit. HTKAT. Freiburg, Germany: Herder, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An advanced, richly detailed commentary with introductory essays on manuscript witnesses, original language, canonicity, narrative structure, the meaning of the speeches and prayers, genre and origins, theology, and reception.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • VanderKam, James C., ed. “No One Spoke Ill of Her”: Essays on Judith. Atlanta: Scholars, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of essays, including studies on Judith’s relationship to the pattern of Jael and Deborah, the “domestication” of Judith, the role of Achior as model convert, the relationship of the story of Judith to models in Herodotus, the failure of Judith to acquire canonical status, and representations of the story in later art.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Xeravits, Géza G., ed. A Pious Seductress: Studies in the Book of Judith. Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature Studies 14. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A valuable collection of essays examining Judith in the light of Greek historiography and local history, purity concerns, ethical instruction, interpretation in later dramatic works, and the like.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Zeitlin, Solomon, ed. The Book of Judith. Transated by Morton S. Enslin. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scholarly but accessible introduction, Greek text and English translation on facing pages, and extensive annotations. The introduction includes a substantial comparison of Judith and Esther.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Text-Critical Resources

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hanhart 1979a gives the critical edition, with Hanhart 1979b offering scholarly discussion of the decisions made in that edition.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hanhart, Robert. Iudith. Septuaginta 8.4. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1979a.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The preferred critical edition of the Greek text, with text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hanhart, Robert. Text und Textgeschichte des Buches Judith. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1979b.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A scholarly companion volume to Hanhart 1979a, discussing the characteristics of individual manuscripts and text-types, justifying the groupings of particular manuscripts into families, and treating specific decisions regarding the original reading.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Prayer of Manasseh and Psalm 151

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Prayer of Manasseh is an eloquent confession of sin and prayer of repentance placed in the lips of Judah’s most notorious apostate king. Psalm 151 celebrates the selection of David over his brothers and David’s victory over Goliath (these two events were originally celebrated in two separate psalms that have been conflated in some textual traditions). General introductions can be found in the resources listed under Introductions to the Apocrypha. Van der Horst and Newman 2008 provides a recent scholarly commentary on the Prayer of Manasseh, and Stemm 1999 studies the concept of “repentance” in that text. Van Rooy 1999 is a fairly recent scholarly monograph on the Syriac Psalms 151–155.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Stemm, Sönke. Der betende Sünder vor Gott: Studien zu Vergebungsvorstellungen in urchristlichen und frühjüdischen Texten. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A study of Second Temple period Jewish prayers (including the Lord’s Prayer), which includes a focus particularly on the concept of repentance (metanoia) developed in the Prayer of Manasseh.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • van Rooy, Harry. Studies on the Syriac Apocryphal Psalms. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A collection of scholarly essays on Psalms 151–155. Van Rooy gives a brief overview, the five psalms in translation with variants, and descriptions of each. Chapters 6–9 focus on Psalm 151, including a study of the relationship between the Syriac version to the LXX and Ps 151A and B in 11QPs[a].

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • van der Horst, Pieter W., and Judith H. Newman. Early Jewish Prayers in Greek. Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Texts, translation, and extensive philological and historical commentary on numerous prayers composed in Greek, including the Prayer of Manasseh.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tobit

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tobit is a work of historical fiction from the eastern Diaspora, valued for the windows it gives into domestic life in the Jewish Diaspora and into the development of ethics, angelology, and eschatology. This entry is divided into Commentaries and General Studies and Text-Critical Resources and Studies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Commentaries and General Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Otzen 2002 offers a solid overview of the work and scholarly issues. Scholarly introductions and commentaries are provided in Littman 2008, Fitzmyer 2003, and Moore 1996. Deselaers 1982 is an advanced study on layers of redaction in Greek Tobit for German readers. A feminist perspective on Tobit is offered in Bow and Nickelsburg 1993 and the further essays in Brenner-Idan 2015. Xeravits and Zsengellér 2005 and Bredin 2006 offer a mix of studies from various angles.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bow, B., and G. W. E. Nickelsburg. “Patriarchy with a Twist: Men and Women in Tobit.” In “Women Like This”: New Perspectives on Jewish Women in the Greco-Roman World. Edited by Amy-Jill Levine, 127–143. Atlanta: Scholars, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This accessible essay explores signs within Tobit that patriarchal expectations for the roles of men and women are being breached. Special attention is given to the wisdom reflected in Sarah’s prayer, the role of Deborah, Tobit’s grandmother, in education, and the conversations between Tobit and his wife, Anna.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bredin, M. Studies in the Book of Tobit: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: T & T Clark, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A widely varied collection of essays, including studies of the various textual traditions (the third Greek recension, the Old Latin), comedy in Tobit, the reception of Tobit in various media and circles, and the book’s setting and purpose of composition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brenner-Idan, Athalya, ed. A Feminist Companion to Tobit and Judith. London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The first six essays explore various aspects of Tobit from feminist perspectives: bodies and boundaries, identity and resistance, gender roles (and the breaching of the same) in Tobit, the exorcism of Asmodeus, and issues related to food and eating.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Deselaers, Paul. Das Buch Tobit: Studien zu seiner Entstehung, Komposition, und Theologie. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A scholarly attempt to demonstrate the originality of the Greek version of Tobit, to discern layers of redaction, and to reconstruct the theology and historical setting of each layer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Tobit. Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1515/9783110907032Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The starting point for all serious study of this text. The introduction treats the issues of text-criticism, original language, genre, literary sources, literary integrity, date and provenance, principal themes, canonicity, and structure. There follows a new translation of both principal recensions, commentary, and detailed notes, especially strong in treating text-critical, philological, and tradition-critical issues, and thoroughly conversant in secondary literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Littman, Robert J. The Book of Tobit in Codex Sinaiticus. Septuagint Commentary Series. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scholarly introduction, Greek text, translation, and commentary, which is particularly strong in grammatical information about the Greek text. Although based on the text of Tobit in a particular manuscript, the commentary provides extensive information about the relationship of the Greek text of Sinaiticus to the Hebrew/Aramaic manuscripts and other Greek manuscripts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Moore, Carey A. Tobit. Anchor Bible 40A. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scholarly yet accessible commentary, with fresh translation, extensive textual notes and annotations, and analysis of each passage. The introduction discusses sources in folk tales, genre, literary integrity, purpose, historical setting, theology, canonicity, influence, and issues of textual transmission. Includes a substantial bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Otzen, Benedikt. Tobit and Judith. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A guide for the beginning student, discussing the date and provenance, genre, canonical and noncanonical sources, literary elements, theology, and text-critical issues of each book.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Xeravits, Géza G., and József Zsengellér, eds. The Book of Tobit: Text, Tradition, Theology. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Essays on the textual history of Tobit (Qumran, Old Latin), origin (Palestine or Diaspora), and various themes (eschatology, burial practices, endogamy, dietary practices, and prophecy).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Zimmermann, Frank. The Book of Tobit. New York: Harper, 1958.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A general introduction to the historical setting and textual transmission of Tobit, followed by the Greek text (mainly following Sinaiticus, the principal witness to GII), new English translation, and substantial annotations. The Greek text of Vaticanus (an important witness to GI) is given in an appendix.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Text-Critical Resources and Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Criticism of Tobit is complicated by the fact that it exists in two major Greek versions, and was itself originally written in either Aramaic or Hebrew. Hanhart 1983 and Hanhart 1984 provide access to, and scholarly discussion of, the principal Greek versions. Fitzmyer 1995 provides critical editions of the Aramaic and Hebrew fragments of Tobit discovered near Qumran. Weeks, et al. 2004 provides a complete synopsis of twenty-four Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Syriac manuscripts of Tobit. Hallermayer 2008 offers a critical assessment of these data for reconstruction of the Semitic original.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Fitzmyer, J. A. “Tobit.” In Qumran Cave 4.14: Parabiblical Texts, Part 2. Edited by Magen Broshi, James C. VanderKam, et al., 1–76. Discoveries in the Judean Desert 19. Oxford: Clarendon, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Critical text, translation, and textual notes on the Aramaic and Hebrew fragments of Tobit found in the caves near Qumran. The volume includes photographic plates of the fragments.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hallermayer, Michaela. Text und Überlieferung des Buches Tobit. DCLS 3. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A dissertation on the textual transmission of Tobit, bringing together a wealth of data on, and observations concerning, the variant readings in the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek manuscripts (with a special focus on the Hebrew and Aramaic fragments from Qumran). The author concludes that the Semitic original cannot be recovered from existing data, but that the pluriformity of the textual tradition already before the turn of the era invites further study in its own right.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hanhart, Robert. Tobit. Septuginta 8.5. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The standard edition of the Greek text in both forms (GI and GII), with extensive text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hanhart, Robert. Text und Textgeschichte des Buches Tobitz. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A scholarly companion volume to Hanhart 1983, explaining the relationship between the text-types and the character of individual textual witness to GI.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Weeks, Stuart, Simon Gathercole, and Loren Stuckenbruck, eds. The Book of Tobit: Texts from the Principal Ancient and Medieval Traditions; With Synopsis, Concordances, and Annotated Texts in Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Syriac. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1515/9783110897029Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A synopsis of twenty-four Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Syriac manuscripts of Tobit, giving quick access to the actual wording of these manuscripts for individual or comparative study. Includes an introduction to the witnesses and the major text-critical issues, as well as verse-by-verse critical notes on textual problems and proposed solutions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wisdom of Solomon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wisdom of Solomon is an Egyptian Jewish text written in Greek, offering sustained reflections on postmortem vindication, the persona of wisdom, and the Exodus traditions. Collins 1997 and Grabbe 1997 provide first-rate introductions to the text and scholarly investigation of the text. For commentaries, readers should consult Winston 1979 and Georgi 1980. For the critical edition of the Greek, see Ziegler 1980. Larcher 1969 and Reese 1970 both provide detailed studies of Hellenistic influence on the form and teaching of Wisdom of Solomon. Gilbert 1973 is especially interested in the author’s critique of Gentile religion. Enns 1997 studies the author’s manner of biblical interpretation. Xeravits and Zsengellér 2010 provides an array of exegetical and tradition-historical studies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Collins, John Joseph. Jewish Wisdom in the Hellenistic Age. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pages 135–157, 178–231 offer a strong introduction to Wisdom of Solomon in the context of the challenges facing Diaspora Jews, tracing out the author’s conversations with Greco-Roman philosophy, critique of Gentile religion, theology of Israelite history, and engagement with the issues of universalism and particularism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Enns, Peter. Exodus Retold. Atlanta: Scholars, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A scholarly, detailed study of the retelling and interpretation of the Exodus story and other Pentateuchal traditions in Wisdom of Solomon 10:1–21 and 19:1–9.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Georgi, Dieter. Weisheit Salomos. Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistisch römischer Zeit 3.4. Gütersloh, Germany: Gerd Mohn, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A scholarly, German critical introduction with fresh German translation and extensive annotations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gilbert, Maurice. La critique des dieux dans le Livre de la Sagesse (Sg 13–15). Rome: Biblical Institute, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A detailed, scholarly study of the critique of idolatry in Wisdom of Solomon, particularly its roots in earlier Jewish anti-idolatry polemic and Greek philosophical criticism of the same. In French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Grabbe, Lester L. Wisdom of Solomon. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An accessible guide to scholarly investigation of Wisdom of Solomon, with annotated bibliographies. Included are discussions of literary structure, unity, and canonicity; biblical exegesis and Greek rhetoric in Wisdom; the message of the book; the figure of “Wisdom”; and the book’s sociohistorical context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Larcher, C. Études sur la Livre de la Sagesse. Paris: Gabalda, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Studies of the principal themes of Wisdom of Solomon, particularly strong in discussing comparative literature from both Jewish and Greco-Roman backgrounds, and the influence of Wisdom on emerging Christian theology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Reese, James M. Hellenistic Influence on the Book of Wisdom and Its Consequences. Rome: Biblical Institute, 1970.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A scholarly monograph on the pervasive influence of Greek philosophical, religious, psychological, and ethical concepts on the author of Wisdom of Solomon, with chapters also focusing on the work’s genre, literary unity, addressees, and setting.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Winston, David. The Wisdom of Solomon. Anchor Bible 43. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scholarly introductory discussion of structure, authorship and historical setting, religious ideas, cultural context, purpose, textual transmission and canonicity, with a substantial bibliography, followed by a new translation with extensive annotations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Xeravits, Géza, and József Zsengellér, eds. Studies in the Book of Wisdom. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Essays on a variety of topics, including the profile of the “philosopher-king” in Wisdom, the interpretation of Genesis 1–3, the connections between Wisdom and Greek philosophy, and what distinguishes the righteous from the unrighteous in this book.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ziegler, Joseph. Sapientia Salomonis. 2d ed. Septuaginta 12.1. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The preferred edition of the Greek text, with extensive text-critical apparatus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Texts and Translations of the Pseudepigrapha

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Delimitation of the Pseudepigrapha varies considerably more than delimitation of the Apocrypha. Charlesworth 1983–1985 gives access to the broadest collection in translation (with Bauckham, et al. 2013 expanding the repertoire), while Charles 1913 and Sparks 1984 offer more selective collections of the earlier and more important texts. The introductions and commentary on the most important Pseudepigrapha in Charles 1913 are still valuable, but see the more comprehensive and up-to-date introductions and annotations in the collection Feldman, et al. 2013. Many texts are available online in Greek and in translation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bauckham, Richard, James Davila, and Alexander Panayotov, eds. Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: More Noncanonical Scriptures. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A supplement to the two volumes of Pseudepigrapha published by Charlesworth, this collection makes an additional thirty-nine texts available (though some were available previously, e.g., Aramaic Levi, and Fifth and Sixth Ezra). The collection consists mostly of expansions of or additions to the biblical story or writings modeled after that corpus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Charles, R. H., ed. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. Vol. 2, Pseudepigrapha. Oxford: Clarendon, 1913.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A translation of the major Pseudepigrapha with critical introductions and extensive annotations. Despite the age of the volume and the bias of some writers, this remains a valuable resource.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Charlesworth, James H. The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research, with a Supplement. Septuagint and Cognate Studies 7. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Brief introductions and substantial bibliographies for each pseudepigraphon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 2 vols. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983–1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The broadest collection of Pseudepigrapha in fresh translations, with critical introductions and extensive annotations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Feldman, Louis H., James L. Kugel, and Lawrence H. Schiffman, eds. Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture. 3 vols. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This landmark resource provides introductions, translations, annotations, and further notes to the major books of the Pseudepigrapha as well as the Apocrypha and selections from Philo, Josephus, and the Dead Sea Scrolls, all by recognized experts in the field.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Online Critical Pseudepigrapha.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An ambitious project still in its early stages. The full Greek texts of many Pseudepigrapha are now available, along with a critical apparatus providing access to variants in the multiple versions (for example, Ethiopic and Aramaic) for several Pseudepigrapha.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • On Line Texts Related to Biblical Study: Old Testament Pseudepigrapha.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An index to online original-language texts and translations for each pseudepigraphon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sparks, H. F. D., ed. The Apocryphal Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of major Pseudepigrapha in (largely) fresh translations, more inclusive than Charles 1913, significantly less inclusive than Charlesworth 1983–1985. The translations are sometimes more reliable, as in Michael Knibb’s translation of 1 Enoch. Each text is preceded with a critical introduction; annotations tend only to note text-critical issues.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tools for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DiTommaso 2001 entails a comprehensive bibliography through 1999. Charlesworth 1981 and the online bibliographies by Davila remain very helpful. Denis 1987 is the only print concordance of this material, while the Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha is a useful online tool.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Charlesworth, James H. The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research, with a Supplement. Septuagint and Cognate Studies 7. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Brief introductions and substantial bibliographies for each pseudepigraphon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Denis, Albert-Marie. Concordance grecque des pseudépigraphes d’Ancien Testament. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A concordance to the (Greek) Pseudepigrapha, with an appendix containing the complete Greek text of Pseudepigrapha extant in that language. The concordance offers a full print line of context for each occurrence of a word.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DiTommaso, Lorenzo. Bibliography of Pseudepigrapha Research, 1850–1999. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 39. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A non-annotated, comprehensive listing of texts, translations, commentaries, entries in reference works, and specialized studies, arranged alphabetically by title of text/primary figure in title of text. This is an indispensable starting point for advanced study of any pseudepigraphon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha. London: SAGE, 1987–.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting study of the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha in their historical, literary, tradition-historical, and social contexts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Classified Bibliographies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Dr. James Davila has compiled extensive bibliographies pertinent to the Pseudepigrapha, including a bibliography on texts in languages other than Greek (through 2007), texts allegedly composed in Hebrew or Aramaic (through 2002), texts composed and transmitted in Greek (through 1999), and a general bibliography (through 1997). An index of Pseudepigrapha available in translation online is also included.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              First Enoch

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              First Enoch is a composite apocalypse written in stages between 300 BCE and 70 CE that exercised significant influence in early Judaism and early Christianity. Commentaries and text-critical resources are available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Overviews and Specialized Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Black 1985, Nickelsburg 2001, Nickelsburg and VanderKam 2011, Stuckenbruck 2007, and Tiller 1993 provide scholarly commentaries on all or parts of the text. Argall 1995 offers a comparative study of particular topics in 1 Enoch and Ben Sira. The volumes edited by Boccaccini (Boccaccini 2005, Boccaccini 2007) contain a broad range of scholarly essays on the relationship of 1 Enoch to Qumran and related literature and on the most recent stratum of 1 Enoch, the “Parables.” Reed 2005 traces the reception history of 1 Enoch 1–36 through the medieval period. Portier-Young 2011 reads the Apocalypse of Weeks and Animal Apocalypse as resistance texts composed in protest of Seleucid rule.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Argall, Randal A. 1 Enoch and Sirach. Atlanta: Scholars, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A detailed, scholarly study comparing the development of the topics of revelation, creation, and judgment in 1 Enoch and the Wisdom of Ben Sira as windows into the complex of agreements and debates within early Judaism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Black, Matthew, ed. The Book of Enoch or 1 Enoch: A New English Edition. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Critical introduction, fresh English translation, and detailed commentary on the entire text of 1 Enoch.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Boccaccini, Gabriele, ed. Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of scholarly essays from the Second Enoch Seminar convened by Boccaccini. Essays focus on the relationship of 1 Enoch to Daniel and Jubilees, topics particular to the Apocalypse of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17), a reexamination of the Groningen Hypothesis (identifying several Hasmonean “Wicked Priests” as the targets of the Pesher Habakkuk), and a reexamination of the relationship of 1 Enoch, Qumran, and the Essene group.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Boccaccini, Gabriele, ed. Enoch and the Messiah Son of Man: Revisiting the Book of Parables. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of scholarly essays from the Third Enoch Seminar convened by Boccaccini. Essays treat textual and structural issues, the place of the Parables within the Enoch tradition, the figure of the Son of Man in the Parables, the relationship of the Parables to various early Jewish and Christian groups and texts, the social setting of the Parables, and the vexed question of the date of composition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nickelsburg, George W. 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch Chapters 1–36, 81–108. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A scholarly introduction, translation (with textual notes), and commentary on 1 Enoch 1–36 and 81–108. The introduction treats text-critical issues, literary questions, theology, influence, and surveys recent research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nickelsburg, George W., and James C. VanderKam. 1 Enoch 2: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch Chapters 37–82. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A scholarly introduction, translation (with textual notes), and commentary on 1 Enoch 37–82. Like the first volume, this sequel treats text-critical issues, literary questions, theology, and influence as well as surveys recent research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Portier-Young, Anathea E. Apocalypse against Empire: Theologies of Resistance in Early Judaism. Grand Rapids, MI: William. B. Eerdmans, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The second half of this book offers an interpretation of two pre-Hasmonean portions of 1 Enoch (the Apocalypse of Weeks and Animal Apocalypse) as texts of resistance against Seleucid rule, building upon the historical and theoretical foundation of the first half.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Reed, Annette Yoshiko. Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A scholarly study of the reception history of 1 Enoch 1–36 (the Book of the Watchers). Reed studies its use and influence first within pre-rabbinic Judaism (including the earliest churches), then within early rabbinic Judaism and Ante-Nicene and Nicene Christianity, and finally in the churches in Late Antiquity and medieval Judaism. Reed uses this framework as a means of analyzing also Jewish and Christian reflection on the origin of evil, the relationship between Scripture and rewritten Bible or parabiblical literature in these faith communities, and the process of canonization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Stuckenbruck, Loren T. 1 Enoch 91–108. Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An exhaustive, advanced commentary on the “Epistle of Enoch,” with detailed discussion of the complex textual history and variants throughout. The sections of commentary proper provide lucid insights into these chapters, and they are suitable for all students of the text.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Tiller, Patrick A. A Commentary on the Animal Apocalypse of 1 Enoch. Early Judaism and Its Literature 4. Atlanta: Scholars, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Introduction (date, provenance, relationship to Enochic corpus, the allegory); critical text reconstructed from the Greek, Aramaic, and Ethiopic witnesses; commentary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Text-Critical Resources and Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Knibb 1978 provides a critical edition and translation of the Ethiopic version of 1 Enoch. The Aramaic fragments from Qumran are given in the critical editions Milik and Black 1976 and Puech 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Knibb, Michael A. The Ethiopic Book of Enoch: A New Edition in Light of the Aramaic Dead Sea Fragments. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Critical edition and fresh translation of the Ethiopic version of 1 Enoch, compared against the Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts and Greek text.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Milik, J. T., and Matthew Black. The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments from Qumran Cave 4. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A transcription of the Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch found in Cave 4, with translations, textual notes, and photographic plates of the fragments themselves. The transcriptions are supplemented by a diplomatic edition of all seven fragments, with Milik’s reconstruction of the lacunae. This edition is somewhat superseded by Puech 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Puech, Émile. Qurman Grotte 4: XXII: Textes arameéns, première partie: 4Q529–549. Discoveries in the Judean Desert 31. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Critical texts, translations, and textual notes of the Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch found in Cave 4 near Qumran are found on pages 9–116, with photographic plates of the fragments.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Second Baruch

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Second Baruch is an apocalypse written in the aftermath of the destruction of the Second Temple. Bogaert 1969 provides scholarly commentary for readers of French. Murphy 1985 pursues a literary study of the book’s structure and major themes. Comparative studies with 4 Ezra, a near-contemporary apocalypse, are facilitated by Berger 1992 and exemplified by Willett 1989, which focuses on the role of eschatology in answering questions about divine justice. Sayler 1984 also approaches the question of theodicy in relation to the fall of Jerusalem, though from a broader comparative perspective. Nir 2003 swims against the stream by proposing a Christian origin for this text. Gurtner 2009 provides a new critical text of the Syriac text.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Berger, Klaus. Synopse des Vierten Buches Ezra und der syrischen Baruch-Apokalypse. Tübingen, Germany: Franke, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          German translations of 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch in parallel columns. In one section, 4 Ezra is presented in regular order with parallel paragraphs from 2 Baruch in the second column; in the other, 2 Baruch is presented in regular order with parallel paragraphs from 4 Ezra. Helpful resource for comparative study of these near-contemporary apocalypses.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bogaert, Pierre-Maurice, trans. Apocalypse de Baruch. 2 vols. Paris: Cerf, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scholarly introduction, translation, and commentary, in French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gurtner, Daniel M. Second Baruch: A Critical Edition of the Syriac Text. T & T Clark Jewish and Christian Texts 5. London: T & T Clark, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A new critical edition of the Syriac text (with Greek and Latin fragments noted). The volume includes an introduction to 2 Baruch, English translation, and a concordance of the Syriac text.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Murphy, Frederick J. The Structure and Meaning of Second Baruch. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 78. Atlanta: Scholars, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A study of the structure of 2 Baruch, as well as the importance of several dominant themes, including the “Two Ages” construct, Zion, and the Covenant.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nir, Rivka. The Destruction of Jerusalem and the Idea of Redemption in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Against the scholarly consensus, this study proposes a Christian context for 2 Baruch based on the traditions it uses to describe Jerusalem’s destruction and to portray the Messiah’s coming and eschatological redemption.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sayler, Gwendolyn B. Have the Promises Failed? A Literary Analysis of 2 Baruch. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 72. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Treats structure, the issue of theodicy (the “covenant in crisis”), historical situation reflected in the text, comparison with 4 Ezra, Apocalypse of Abraham, Paraleipomena of Jeremiah, Pseudo-Philo, and the Gospel of Matthew (regarding the response to events of 70 CE).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Willett, Tom W. Eschatology in the Theodicies of 2 Baruch and 4 Ezra. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This scholarly monograph pursues a comparative analysis of the theodicies expressed in 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch in the context of the literary structure of each, the theological context of biblical and postbiblical literature, and the context of apocalypticism. It emphasizes the importance of postmortem or otherworldly reward and punishment for the sustenance of the worldview of each author.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Many important texts exist only in fragmentary form, mostly preserved as quotations in later Christian patristic writings. Holladay 1983, Holladay 1989, Holladay 1995, and Holladay 1996 collect and provide extensive commentary on these fragments in four volumes: historians, poets, fragments from Aristobulus, and Orphica.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Holladay, Carl R. Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors. Vol. 1, Historians. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Critical introductions, the Greek (or Latin) texts, translations, and extensive annotations for the extant fragments of Demetrius the Chronographer, Eupolemus, Pseudo-Eupolemus, Artapanus, Cleodemus Malchus, Aristeas “the exegete,” Pseudo-Hecataeus, Theophilus, Thallus, and Justus of Tiberias.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Holladay, Carl R. Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors. Vol. 2, Poets. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Critical texts, translations, and extensive annotations and commentary on the extant fragments of Theodotus, Philo the Epic Poet, and Ezekiel the Tragedian.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Holladay, Carl R. Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors. Vol. 3, Aristobulus. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An introduction to the historical issues surrounding Aristobulus and the authenticity of these fragments, followed by the critical texts of, translations of, and extensive annotations on the fragments of Aristobulus preserved in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, and Clement, Protrepticus and Stromateis. Includes an exhaustive, partially annotated bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Holladay, Carl R. Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors. Vol. 4, Orphica. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Greek texts of poems of Jewish origin attributed to the Greek mythical singer, Orpheus. The Orphic poems exist in four recensions, and Holladay argues that the first three are pre-Christian. The volume contains Greek texts of all four recensions, English translations, and detailed annotations/commentary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Joseph and Aseneth

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Joseph and Aseneth supplements the biblical story of Joseph’s marriage by recounting Aseneth’s conversion to the monotheistic faith of the Hebrews. Humphrey 2000 is an excellent overview to the major issues in scholarship and interpretation. Bohak 1996 seeks to read the text as a story written to support the rival Jewish Temple in Heliopolis, Egypt, while Kraemer 1998 offers the author’s own poignant challenges to scholarly consensus on the text. Burchard 2003 provides a critical edition of the longer recension.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bohak, Gideon. Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis. Atlanta: Scholars, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bohak’s dissertation seeks to establish a 2nd-century BCE date for the work, Reads the story as a piece written in support of the Jewish Temple built in Heliopolis as an alternative worship site to Jerusalem after the expulsion of Onias III from Judea.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Burchard, Christoph. Joseph und Aseneth. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Critical text of the longer recension, with introduction, textual apparatus, and bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Humphrey, Edith M. Joseph and Aseneth. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This brief guide introduces readers to the complex text history (whether to adopt the longer or to adopt the shorter recension as original); issues of provenance, date, and genre; and sociological aspects of the work. It provides a rhetorical and literary analysis of the whole, as well as an analysis of feminist perspectives on this work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kraemer, Ross S. When Aseneth Met Joseph: A Late Antique Tale of the Biblical Patriarch and His Egyptian Wife, Reconsidered. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This scholarly monograph challenges current scholarly consensus on several points, including provenance (advocating for Syria rather than Egypt, and arguing that a Christian author is as likely as a Jewish one), textual transmission (arguing that the shorter recension is the more original), and date (reversing the tendency to date the text in the early 2nd century CE, favoring a date in the 3rd or the 4th century CE).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jubilees

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jubilees is an expansive retelling of Genesis 1 through Exodus 14 that appears to have exercised considerable authority in some Jewish circles.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Overviews and Specialized Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      VanderKam 2001 provides a first-rate introduction to Jubilees and significant issues. VanderKam 2008 and the essays in Boccaccini and Ibba 2009 give up-to-date windows into scholarship on the text, literary relationships, theological and ethical application, and historical importance of Jubilees. Endres 1987 and Van Ruiten 2000 are detailed studies of biblical interpretation in Jubilees. Davenport 1971 provides a detailed investigation of the book’s eschatology. Halpern-Amaru 1999 explores the characterization of women.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Albani, Matthias, Jörg Frey, and Armin Lange, eds. Studies in the Book of Jubilees. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A compendium of scholarly essays on the setting and origins of Jubilees, the book’s methods of biblical interpretation, the calendar, festivals, and worldview reflected in the book, and the reception of Jubilees in early Christian literature. Essays are written in either English or German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Boccaccini, Gabriele, and Giovanni Ibba. Enoch and the Mosaic Torah: The Evidence of Jubilees. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A collection of essays from the Fourth Enoch Seminar convened by Boccaccini. Essays focus on text-critical questions, the literary relationship of Jubilees to contemporary works, theological questions in Jubilees, Jubilees as a basis for sectarian halakhah, and the role of Jubilees in Enochic Judaism and Qumran. The collection includes an up-to-date bibliographic essay.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Davenport, Gene L. The Eschatology of the Book of Jubilees. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A thorough exegetical study of the passages in Jubilees relevant to the reconstruction of the eschatology of the text in its various strata, with a concluding synthesis of results.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Endres, John C. Biblical Interpretation in the Book of Jubilees. Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A careful study of the manner in which the author of Jubilees has interpreted and expanded the Jacob story as known from Genesis and pre–Second Temple period compositions. The study provides an important window into early Jewish exegesis and concludes with a hypothesis regarding the life setting of Jubilees.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Halpern-Amaru, Betsy. The Empowerment of Women in the Book of Jubilees. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A close examination of the characterization of women in Jubilees. Halpern-Amaru argues that the author stresses matrilineal descent as the essential element in defining true Israelites. Matriarchs are exemplary figures alongside patriarchs, and they play an active role in implementing the covenant promises.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Segal, Michael. The Book of Jubilees: Rewritten Bible, Redaction, Ideology and Theology. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A detailed, scholarly study of the composition and editing of Jubilees. Segal suggests that an editor reworked existing narrative source material (an earlier paraphrase of Genesis and Exodus 1–14) and incorporated this into the editor’s own chronological framework and legal material. Special attention is given to passages in Jubilees concerning law and the origins of evil.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • VanderKam, James C. The Book of Jubilees. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A general guide to the text. VanderKam introduces readers to issues in the development and transmission of the text; determination of date; the relationship of Jubilees to Genesis and Exodus; the profile of the author; and the work’s influence, theology, genre, and purpose.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • van Ruiten, J. T. Primaeval History Interpreted: The Rewriting of Genesis 1–11 in the Book of Jubilees. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A detailed, scholarly study of the interpretative techniques of Jubilees 2–10 as a retelling of the primeval narratives of Genesis 1–11. Through comparative study of the parallel passages, the author comments on the structure of each and analyzes the additions, omissions, and other changes found in Jubilees vis-à-vis Genesis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • VanderKam, James C. “Recent Scholarship on the Book of Jubilees.” Currents in Biblical Research 6.3 (2008) 405–431.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A survey particularly of recent investigations of the original Hebrew text, literary and compositional issues, and major themes (purity, women, calendar, and eschatology), with an excellent and abundant bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Text-Critical Resources and Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        VanderKam 1989 is the standard critical edition (with translation), the culmination of decades of careful investigation (see VanderKam 1977). For the Hebrew fragments, see Attridge 1994.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Attridge, Harold, ed. Qumran Cave 4: VIII: Parabiblical Texts, Part I. Discoveries in the Judean Desert 13. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          James VanderKam and J. T. Milik provide critical texts, translations, and textual notes on the Hebrew fragments of Jubilees found among the Dead Sea Scrolls on pages 1–186. The volume includes photographic plates of these fragments.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • VanderKam, James C. Textual and Historical Studies in the Book of Jubilees. Harvard Semitic Monographs 14. Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The first half offers detailed, scholarly studies on the relationship of the various versions of Jubilees and on the text type of the Jewish Scriptures used by the author. The second half engages the issue of date of composition, advancing arguments in favor of sometime between 161–140 BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • VanderKam, James C., ed. and trans. The Book of Jubilees: A Critical Text. 2 vols. Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Critical edition and fresh translation of Jubilees based on Ethiopic, Greek, Latin, and Syriac versions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Psalms of Solomon and Odes of Solomon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Psalms of Solomon are liturgical/poetic texts from the early Roman period. Kaiser 2004 and Holm-Nielsen 1977 are good introductions for readers of German, the latter also including extensive annotations to the text. Atkinson 2004 provides a more fulsome introduction and approaches providing commentary for each of the Psalms. Embry 2002 gives a nuanced account of the messianism of Psalms 17–18, while Trafton 1994 gives a review of research from 1977 to 1993. Hann 1982 treats issues in textual transmission, and Wright 2007 provides the critical edition of the Greek text. Bons and Pouchelle 2015 extends the conversation in this collection of essays. The Odes of Solomon are a collection of Christian poems, now given comprehensive treatment in Lattke 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Atkinson, Kenneth. I Cried to the Lord: A Study of the Psalms of Solomon’s Historical Background and Social Setting. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A recent, scholarly investigation of the date, setting, and religious alignment of the Psalms, including a fresh translation of each psalm and treatment of text-critical issues. Of particular interest is the historical intertexture of the Psalms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bons, Eberhard, and Patrick Pouchelle, eds. The Psalms of Solomon: Language, History, Theology. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A collection of essays, including investigations into historical and cultic reflections in the Psalms, literary and lexical issues, and the formation of the pious person.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Embry, Brad. “The Psalms of Solomon and the New Testament: Intertextuality and the Need for a Re-Evaluation.” Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 13.2 (2002): 99–136.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This article particularly addresses the use of Psalms of Solomon 17–18 as a witness to Second Temple Jewish messianism and as a comparative text for understanding early Christian messianism. Embry argues that scholars have not yet sufficiently heard this theme in the context of the interest of the Psalms in Temple, purity, and the Law of Moses, that is, in the context of the entire collection.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hann, Robert R. The Manuscript History of the Psalms of Solomon. Septuagint and Cognate Studies 13. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An advanced, scholarly discussion of the characteristics of the various textual witnesses to, and text types of, the Psalms of Solomon, with an attempt to reconstruct the development of the text.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Holm-Nielsen, Svend. Die Psalmen Salomos. Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistisch römischer Zeit 4.2. Gütersloh, Germany: Gerd Mohn, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        German, scholarly, critical introduction, fresh translation, and extensive annotations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kaiser, Otto. “Tradition und Gegenwart in den Psalmen Salomos.” In Prayer from Tobit and Qumran: Inaugural Conference of the ISDCL at Salzburg, Austria, 5–9 July 2003. Edited by Renate Egger Wenzel and Jeremy Corley, 315–357. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This German article supports a mid-1st-century BCE date for the collection, and argues that the Psalms were written to promote assurance that God was in the process of vindicating God’s people against foreign and indigenous enemies. Kaiser supplies a brief introduction to each Psalm, analyzing each as a call to righteous conduct in the hope of national deliverance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lattke, Michael. Odes of Solomon: A Commentary. Hermeneia Commentaries. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A scholarly introduction, translation, text-critical notes, and commentary for this early Christian pseudepigraphon. An up-to-date starting point for research at any level.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Trafton, Joseph L. “The Psalms of Solomon in Recent Research.” Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 6.12 (1994): 3–19.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Surveys scholarship on the Psalms from 1977 to 1993, covering discussions of text-critical questions, structure, and the theology and ethics of the collection.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wright, Robert B. The Psalms of Solomon: A Critical Edition of the Greek Text. London: T & T Clark, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A critical edition compiled from the eleven Greek manuscripts of the Psalms with critical apparatus and fresh English translation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sibylline Oracles

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Sibylline Oracles are a collection of Jewish texts written after the pattern of Greek oracular literature, written at differing times and with varying purposes. Collins 1999 and Stone 1984 provide general introductions to the corpus. Collins 1974, Buitenwerf 2003, and Felder 2002 investigate the setting and purpose of Oracles 3 and 5 in particular. Van Henten 2000 contributes to the conversation about the Nero redivivus myth by questioning the appropriateness of appealing to the Sibyllines in support of it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Buitenwerf, Rieuwerd. Book III of the Sibylline Oracles and Its Social Setting. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A scholarly study of the third book of the Sibylline Oracles. The first section provides a detailed history of research and an analysis of the historical setting of the third book. The second section provides extensive textual and analytical notes on the contents of the third book (with translations of certain fragments and paraphrases of remaining portions). A final section explores the social issues, theology, and ethics reflected in the book.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Collins, John J. The Sibylline Oracles of Egyptian Judaism. Missoula, MT: Society of Biblical Literature, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An advanced study of Sibylline Oracles 3 and 5 in their sociohistorical context. Collins finds Oracle 3 to reflect a greater degree of openness between Jews and Egyptian Greeks reflective of the period of Ptolemy VI Philometer, with the author inviting Greeks to consider afresh the nobility of the Jewish way of life. Oracle 5 reflects a more antagonistic setting with its anti-Roman polemic, probably postdating the fall of the Temple in 70 CE and the Diaspora Rebellions of 115 CE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Collins, John J. Between Athens and Jerusalem: Jewish Identity in the Hellenistic Diaspora. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An accessible introduction to the Sibylline Oracles can be found on pages 83–96, 143–151, and 160–167.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Felder, Stephen. “What Is the Fifth Sibylline Oracle?” Journal for the Study of Judaism 33.4 (2002): 363–385.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A scholarly investigation of the Jewish and Christian strata of the Fifth Sibylline Oracle, with an assessment of the value of the earlier stratum for reconstructing Hellenistic Judaism in Egypt. In contrast to other scholars’ emphasis on signs of growing alienation from Greco-Roman society in this material (see Collins 1974), Felder argues that it reflects a vibrant interaction among Jewish, Greek, Roman, and Persian motifs, suggestive of a setting of openness to cultural diversity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Stone, Michael E. Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          John J. Collins provides an accessible but thorough introduction to the corpus on pages 357–381.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • van Henten, Jan Willem. “Nero Redivivus Demolished: The Coherence of the Nero Traditions in the Sibylline Oracles.” Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 11.21 (2000): 3–17.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This specialized study is particularly interesting because of the prevalence of discussions of the myth of Nero returning, specifically after his death, to retake the reins of the Roman Empire. This myth is used as a background to the development of the Antichrist figure and especially to its relevance for Revelation. Van Henten argues that the Sibylline Oracles do not, in fact, support the notion of a dying and returning Nero, despite their frequent use of it as evidence for such a myth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Testament of Abraham

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Testament of Abraham is an imaginative tale about revelations made to Abraham when the angel of the Lord was sent to prepare him for his death. Allison 2003 provides an up-to-date scholarly commentary, though Delcor 1973 is still valuable for readers of French. Nickelsburg 1976 collects a variety of essays on text-critical, literary, and theological topics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Allison, Dale C. Testament of Abraham. Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An advanced resource. The introduction orients the reader to the text-critical issues concerning the longer and shorter recensions of the Greek text, the question of origin (Jewish or Christian), date, provenance, and structure, followed by detailed, critical commentary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Delcor, Mathias, trans. Le Testament d’Abraham: Introduction, traduction du texte grec et commentaire de la recension grecque longue. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Prior to Allison 2003, the most substantial introduction and commentary on the Testament, based on the longer recension. The volume includes a French translation of the Testaments of the Three Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob) from the Eastern tradition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nickelsburg, George W. E., ed. Studies on the Testament of Abraham. Septuagint and Cognate Studies 6. Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The collection of essays focuses on the recensional problem, questions of structure and genre, theological issues, and the relationship of the traditions of the death of Abraham in the Testament to other traditions of the same in other Second Temple period literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs uses the fiction of deathbed speeches made by each of the sons of Jacob to their children as the vehicles for the ethical and theological content the authors wish to convey. Kugler 2001 provides a cogent overview to scholarly debates about the origins of the Testaments as well as to the contents; deSilva 2013 provides a counterpoint concerning the Jewish origin of the work. Slingerland 1977 remains a valuable history of investigation through 1973. For a critical edition of the Greek text, see de Jonge 1975. Hollander and de Jonge 1985 provides a detailed, advanced commentary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • de Jonge, Marinus, eds. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. Amsterdam: Van Gorcum, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The critical edition of the Greek text of the Testaments.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • deSilva, David A. “The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs as Witnesses to Pre-Christian Judaism: A Re-Assessment.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 22 (2013): 21–68.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Against the tendency to treat the Testaments as an essentially Christian text, this article reexamines the Testaments in terms of distinctively Jewish interests, of the variations in (and reliability of) the textual witnesses, and of the tendency on the part of some scholars to assume material to be Christian too quickly.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hollander, Harm W., and Marinus de Jonge. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: A Commentary. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A detailed commentary for the advanced student, particularly strong in directing the reader to comparative texts and traditions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kugler, Robert A. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The first part of this brief volume provides an excellent guide to the different positions advanced in scholarly conversion concerning the Testaments and especially their relationship to the early Jewish and Christian communities. A second part provides a guide to significant features of each Testament, and a final section explores the particular issue of the interaction of the Testaments with the canonical Scriptures.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slingerland, H. Dixon. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: A Critical History of Research. Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series 21. Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Slingerland provides a comprehensive survey of research and a critical analysis of the issues that have occupied scholarship of the Testaments from the medieval period through 1973. The work includes a substantial bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Other Pseudepigrapha

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scholarship on the Pseudepigrapha is as extensive as the collection itself. This section collects some seminal works on some other important texts: Hadas 1951 and Wright 2015 on the Letter of Aristeas, Anderson and Stone 1994 and de Jonge and Tromp 1997 on the Life of Adam and Eve, Knibb and van der Horst 2005 and Kraft 1974 on the Testament of Job, Knight 1995 on the Ascension of Isaiah, Wilson 2005 on the Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides, and van der Horst and Newman 2008 on individual Jewish prayers in Greek. See DiTommaso 2001 (cited under Tools for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha for further bibliographic aid. Bauckham, et al. 2013 presents a collection of further Pseudepigrapha.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Anderson, Gary A., and Michael E. Stone. A Synopsis of the Books of Adam and Eve. Atlanta: Scholars, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Greek, Latin, Armenian, Georgian, and Slavonic recensions of the Life of Adam and Eve are set out in five parallel columns as a tool for study and text-critical work. The Greek and Latin recensions are presented in their own languages, the Armenian in English translation, the Georgian in French translation, and the Slavonic in German translation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bauckham, Richard P., James R. Davila, and Alexander Panayotov, eds. Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: More Noncanonical Scriptures. Grand Rapids, MI: William. B. Eerdmans, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A further collection of pseudepigraphical works prior to the rise of Islam meant as a complement to, and extension of, the collection by James H. Charlesworth (see Charlesworth 1983–1985, cited under Texts and Translations of the Pseudepigrapha).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • de Jonge, Marinus, and Johannes Tromp. The Life of Adam and Eve and Related Literature. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The first half of this brief guide discusses the exceptionally difficult textual history of the several recensions of the Life of Adam and Eve, analyzing the relationships between them. The second half analyzes the constituent elements and main themes of the Life and argues for an origin in Christian circles between 100 and 600 CE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hadas, Moses, ed. Aristeas to Philocrates. Jewish Apocryphal Literature. Translated by Moses Hadas. New York: Harper, 1951.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A fulsome introduction, followed by Greek text, translation, and ample annotations guiding readers to biblical and extrabiblical sources and comparative material.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Knibb, Michael A., and Pieter W. van der Horst, eds. Studies on the Testament of Job. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Collection of essays from 1986 and 1987 Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas Pseudepigrapha Seminar.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Knight, Jonathan. The Ascension of Isaiah. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Knight argues for a 2nd-century, Christian origin for the Ascension, which was written to provide encouragement to Christians in the face both of Jewish rejection of their claims and increasing Roman hostility and persecution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kraft, Robert A. The Testament of Job. Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A scholarly introduction to the relevant text-critical issues, followed by a critical Greek text with apparatus and English translation on facing pages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • van der Horst, Pieter W., and Judith H. Newman. Early Jewish Prayers in Greek. Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Texts, translation, and extensive philological and historical commentary on the Hellenistic Synagogal prayers (preserved in the Apostolic Constitutions), Prayer of Manasseh, Prayer of Azariah, Prayer of Joseph, Prayer of Jacob, and three other prayers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wilson, Walter T. The Sentences of Pseudo Phocylides. Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1515/9783110892765Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An advanced commentary, including an introductory discussion of the sources, structure, and purpose of the wisdom collection, and a translation and detailed analysis of each saying. The commentary is especially strong in its use of comparative literature to demonstrate the more universal, nonparochial nature of the Sentences. The complete Greek text is included as an appendix.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wright, Benjamin G., III. The Letter of Aristeas. Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An advanced commentary, perhaps the first of its kind on this text. The introduction offers valuable essays on the setting of the text’s composition, the historical value of the story it tells, and its relationship to other Jewish literature (including its possible sources). The commentary proper offers a fresh translation of each section, text-critical notes, and comments on literary, philosophical, sociopolitical, and other facets of the passage.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Pseudepigrapha and Qumran

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The accelerating publication of the texts recovered from the caves near Qumran have substantially broadened scholarly definitions of Pseudepigrapha. Nevertheless, many such works remain accessible only in collections of the Dead Sea Scrolls, such as García Martínez 1996 and Vermes 1997, rather than extant collections of the Pseudepigrapha. The collections of essays in Boccaccini 2005 and Boccaccini and Ibba 2009 provide an important starting point for scholarly investigation of the relationship of 1 Enoch and Jubilees to the Qumran community.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Boccaccini, Gabriele, ed. Enoch and Qumran Origins. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A collection of scholarly essays from the Second Enoch Seminar convened by Boccaccini. Essays focus on the relationship of 1 Enoch to Daniel and Jubilees, topics particular to the Apocalypse of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17), a reexamination of the Groningen Hypothesis (identifying several Hasmonean “Wicked Priests” as the targets of the Pesher Habakkuk), and a reexamination of the relationship of 1 Enoch, Qumran, and the Essene group.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Boccaccini, Gabriele, and Giovanni Ibba. Enoch and the Mosaic Torah: The Evidence of Jubilees. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of essays from the Fourth Enoch Seminar convened by Boccaccini. Essays focus on text-critical questions, the literary relationship of Jubilees to contemporary works, theological questions in Jubilees, Jubilees as a basis for sectarian halakhah, and the role of Jubilees in Enochic Judaism and Qumran. The collection includes an up-to-date bibliographic essay.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fitzmyer, Joseph A. The Genesis Apocryphon of Qumran Cave I: A Commentary. Rev. ed. Rome: Biblical Institute, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A scholarly introduction, critical text, translation, and detailed annotations/commentary on one of the more important Qumran nonsectarian pseudepigraphic texts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • García Martínez, Florentino, ed. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English. 2d ed. Translated by Wilfred G. E. Wilson. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A nearly comprehensive collection of the nonbiblical texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls in translation. Although many of the texts included herein would fall properly under “Qumran Sectarian Literature,” a substantial number of Pseudepigrapha are also represented, including several that are not typically included in other collections of Pseudepigrapha. Especially helpful is the editorial decision to translate each of the multiple manuscripts of a particular work rather than present a composite/eclectic reconstruction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • García Martínez, Florentino, and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, eds. Dead Sea Scrolls: Study Edition. 2 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A convenient compendium of the critical texts and translations of the nonbiblical manuscripts of the Dead Sea Scrolls in numerical sequence from 1Q1 to 11Q31.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Like García Martínez 1996, a nearly comprehensive collection, including many fragments of Pseudepigrapha generally included in other collections and several associated only with the Dead Sea Scrolls.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Pseudepigrapha and the Early Church

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An area of perennial interest is the influence of the Pseudepigrapha on the thought and writings of the early church. This focus runs throughout the accessible introductions to Jewish literature in Helyer 2002 and deSilva 2012. It was the topic of an important monograph—Charlesworth 1985—and recently of a collection of essays—Oegema and Charlesworth 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Charlesworth, James H. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament: Prolegomena for the Study of Christian Origins. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Charlesworth demonstrates the importance of, and possibilities for, the study of the Pseudepigrapha to our understanding of early Judaism and Christian origins, as well as the question of literary influence of particular Pseudepigrapha upon the New Testament. The volume concludes with minutes of the proceedings of the Pseudepigrapha Seminars of the Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas from 1976 to 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • deSilva, David A. The Jewish Teachers of Jesus, James, and Jude: What Earliest Christianity Learned from the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195329001.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A study of the impact of select texts from the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha on the teachings attributed to Jesus and the letters attributed to James and Jude. After preliminary chapters on the issues involved in recovering the voices of Jesus, James, and Jude from the literary sources, successive chapters provide introductions to, and analyses of, possible points of influence of Ben Sira, Tobit, 1 Enoch, Psalms of Solomon, 2 Maccabees, Lives of the Prophets, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and Testament of Job.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Helyer, Larry R. Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period: A Guide for New Testament Students. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An accessible guide to many of the books of the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha (and other Second Temple Jewish literature) with particular attention to historical context, theological ideas, and influence upon early Christian literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Oegema, Gerbern, and James H. Charlesworth, eds. The Pseudepigrapha and Christian Origins. New York: T & T Clark, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of scholarly essays from the Pseudepigrapha and Christian Origins Seminar of the Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas (2000–2007). Fourteen essays focus on how the study of the Pseudepigrapha can illumine questions relating to the historical Jesus, the Letters of Paul, Luke–Acts, and the Apocalypse of John.

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