Biblical Studies Pastorals
by
Raymond F. Collins
  • LAST REVIEWED: 28 April 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 13 September 2010
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195393361-0089

Introduction

The modern study of the Pastoral Epistles (1–2 Timothy, Titus) began in the first decade of the 19th century when German scholars first questioned Paul’s authorship of 1 Timothy, and Friedrich Schleiermacher’s “critical open letter” to J. C. Gass, written in 1807 on 1 Timothy, proposed that its author based his work on 2 Timothy and Titus. With Johann Gottfried Eichhorn’s Introduction to the New Testament, published in 1810 to 1827, critical German scholarship began to question the authenticity of the three epistles. Ferdinand Christian Baur’s Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe des Apostels Paulus, of 1835, was the first commentary that used the hypothesis as the basis for a thorough study of the texts. Although Edward Evanson questioned the authenticity of Titus in 1805, the notion that the Pastorals were not written by Paul was largely confined to German scholarship. The debate about the authenticity of the Pastorals dominated scholarship on these letters. Epistles became a matter of scholarly consensus. Some conservative authors continued to maintain the Pauline authorship of the texts, while other scholars expressed hesitancy about the consensus as it applied to 2 Timothy. In recent years several scholars have called for an interpretation of the Pastorals in terms of their individuality, rather than as a unit.

History of Interpretation

As the history of the interpretation of the Pastorals indicates, the issue of the authorship of the Pastorals has dominated scholarly investigation of these texts during the 19th and 20th centuries (Patsch 1999) and the concomitant issues of interpretation that the views on authorship entail. The oldest reference to the Pastorals appears in the writing of Polycarp of Smyrna (Berding 1999). Twomey 2009 provides a selection of interpretations over the course of the centuries. Schenk 1988, Harding 2001, and Donfried 2008 survey important issues that have arisen in recent study of the Pastorals. Richards 2002 and Gourges 2009 plead for the study of each of the Pastorals in terms of their individuality, rather than as a unit.

  • Berding, Kenneth. “Polycarp of Smyrna’s View of the Authorship of 1 and 2 Timothy.” Vigiliae Christianae 53 (1999): 349–360.

    DOI: 10.1163/157007299X00235Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Polycarp is the earliest witness to the belief that the apostle Paul is the author of these epistles.

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    • Donfried, Karl Paul. “Rethinking Scholarly Approaches to 1 Timothy.” In 1 Timothy Reconsidered. Edited by Karl Paul Donfried, 153–182. Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 2008.

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      Surveys approaches to the relationship between 1 Timothy and the authentic Paul, as well as some ethical issues.

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      • Gourgues, Michel. “Étude critique: La recherche sur les pastorales à un tournant?” Science et Esprit 61 (2009): 73–86.

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        A critical overview of recent commentaries: Towner 2006, Fiore 2007 (cited under Recent Commentaries), and Aageson 2008 (cited under Paul in the Pastorals).

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        • Harding, Mark. What Are They Saying about the Pastoral Epistles? New York: Paulist Press, 2001.

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          This is a concise historical study of the authorship of the Pastorals, their social and literary settings, and their relationship with Pauline theology and classic rhetoric.

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          • Patsch, Hermann. “The Fear of Deutero-Paulinism: The Reception of Friedrich Schleiermacher’s ‘Critical Open Letter’ Concerning 1 Timothy in the First Quinquenium.” Journal of Higher Criticism 6 (1999): 3–31.

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            Nineteenth-century scholars found it difficult to evaluate 1 Timothy other than using a simple perspective of “authentic” versus “inauthentic.”

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            • Richards, William A. Difference and Distance in Post-Pauline Christianity: An Epistolary Analysis of the Pastorals. Studies in Biblical Literature 44. New York: Peter Lang, 2002.

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              The three Pastoral Epistles are real letters, but a detailed analysis of grammatical features shows that they were not written by the same person.

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              • Schenk, Wolfgang. “Die Briefe an Timotheus I und II und an Titus (Pastoralbriefe) in der neueren Forschung (1945–1985).” In Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung. Vol. 25, Part 6. Edited by Hildegard Temporini and Wolfgang Haase, 3404–3438. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 1988.

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                The standard review of research on the Pastorals from 1945 to 1985.

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                • Twomey, Jay. The Pastoral Epistles through the Centuries. Blackwell Bible Commentaries. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

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                  A compendium of interpretations of the text from ancient times to the present.

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                  Pseudepigraphy

                  Some authors continue to insist on Pauline authorship, but the current consensus holds that, in the context of the occasional accepted use of pseudepigraphy in Antiquity, the three epistles were not written by Paul and are not genuine letters. Are all three written by a single person so that the three texts should be considered as a single corpus? If so, is this person the Evangelist Luke (see Hypothesis of Lukan Authorship)? In light of its “biographical” indications, should not 2 Timothy be considered a case apart (see The Disputed Authenticity of Second Timothy)? The hypothesis of pseudepigraphy leads to additional questions as to the composition of the texts, their portrayal of Paul, the way in which they deal with their adversaries, and the way they were used in the early Church. Different authors’ answers to these questions are reflected in the commentaries, which offer the most comprehensive studies of these texts, both in general and with reference to specific chapter and verse. German authors first raised the issue of the authenticity of the Pastoral Epistles. Baum 2001 situates the issue within the history of early Christianity. Recent scholarship shows that the issue is not a simple matter of whether these Epistles were by Paul or not. Thus, Wolter 1988 studies the use of the Pauline tradition in the Pastorals. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, English-language scholarship (Donelson 1986, Meade 1986) has continued the discussion, teasing out some of its implications. Collins 1988 gives an overview of the issue. Burnet 2000 addresses the literary implications of the phenomenon. Frenschkowski 2001 and Herzer 2004 call for additional nuance in the discussion.

                  • Baum, Armin Daniel. Pseudepigraphie und literarische Fälschung im frühen Christentum. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, 2d ser., 138. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2001.

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                    Maintains that the literary authenticity of a book was determined by the possibility of tracing its thought back to the person whose name it bears.

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                    • Burnet, Régis. “La pseudépigraphie comme procédé littéraire autonome: L’exemple des Pastorales.” Apocrypha 11 (2000): 77–91.

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                      A careful study of the phenomenon of pseudepigraphy as it pertains to the Pastorals.

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                      • Collins, Raymond F. Letters That Paul Did Not Write: The Epistle to the Hebrews and the Pauline Pseudepigrapha. Good News Studies 28. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1988.

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                        Treats the phenomenon of pseudepigraphy in general (pp. 57–87) and the Pastorals in particular (pp. 88–131).

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                        • Donelson, Lewis R. Pseudepigraphy and Ethical Argument in the Pastoral Epistles. Hermeneutische Untersuchungen zur Theologie 22. Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr, 1986.

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                          Considers that the Pastoral Epistles are typical pseudepigraphic works and highlights many facets of their consistent ethic, particularly as it is represented in the rhetorical syllogisms used in ethical exhortation.

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                          • Frenschkowski, Marco. “Pseudepigraphie und Paulusschule: Gedanken zur Verfasserschaft der Deuteropaulinen, insbesondere der Pastoralbriefe.” In Das Ende des Paulus: Historische, theologische und literaturgeschichtliche Aspekte. Edited by Friedrich Wilhelm Horn, 239–272. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 106. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2001.

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                            The hypothesis of a “Pauline school” calls for a more nuanced understanding of the phenomenon of pseudepigraphy as the manner of composition of the Pastorals.

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                            • Herzer, Jens. “Abschied vom Konsens? Die Pseudepigraphie der Pastoralbriefe als Herausforderung an die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft.” Theologische Literaturzeitung 129 (2004): 1267–1282.

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                              Opposes L. T. Johnson’s position on the authenticity of the Pastorals (see Johnson 2001, cited under Recent Commentaries) and urges that the texts be studied in terms of their individuality, rather than as a unit.

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                              • Meade, David G. Pseudonymity and Canon: An Investigation into the Relationship of Authorship and Authority in Jewish and Earliest Christian Tradition. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 39. Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr, 1986.

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                                The pseudonymous origin of the Pastorals and other Jewish and Christian biblical books does not derogate from their inspired and canonical status.

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                                • Tsuji, Manabu, “Persönliche Korrespondenz des Paulus: Zur Strategie der Pastoralbriefe als Pseudepigrapha.” New Testament Studies 56 (2010): 253–272.

                                  DOI: 10.1017/S0028688509990270Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                  Although more appropriately seen as community missives, these pseudepigraphic texts are presented as personal letters in order to present the “correct” teaching of Paul in a different time and for a different audience.

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                                  • Wolter, Michael. Die Pastoralbriefe als Paulustradition. Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments 146. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1988.

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                                    Considering the Pastorals to have been written in a post-Pauline community, the author studies the Pastorals’ soteriology and tradition, and sees Paul as the guarantor of salvation (see especially 1 Timothy 1:12–17, 2:4–7; Titus 1:1–3).

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                                    Hypothesis of Lukan Authorship

                                    Among those who hold that the Pastorals were not written by Paul, a minority of authors, among whom Stephen Wilson (Wilson 1979) and Jerome Quinn (Quinn 1978) are the most prominent, hold that the texts were written by Luke, the author of Luke-Acts. This hypothesis appears most frequently in English-language literature (Moule 1982, for example), while Strobel 1969 shows that it is not absent from other scholarship.

                                    • Kaestli, Jean-Daniel. “Luke-Acts and the Pastoral Epistles: The Thesis of a Common Authorship.” In Luke’s Literary Achievement: Collected Essays. Edited by C. M. Tuckett, 110–126. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 116. Sheffield, UK: JSOT Press, 1995.

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                                      Both Luke-Acts and the Pastoral Epistles belong to a Pauline “trajectory” that lays claim to Paul’s figure and tradition, but they are not written by the same individual.

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                                      • Moule, C. F. D. “The Problem of the Pastoral Epistles: A Reappraisal.” In Essays in New Testament Interpretation. By C. F. D. Moule, 113–132. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

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                                        Pursues the hypothesis of Lukan authorship.

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                                        • Quinn, Jerome D. “The Last Volume of Luke: The Relation of Luke-Acts and the PE.” In Perspectives on Luke-Acts. Edited by Charles H. Talbert, 62–75. Danville, VA: Association of Baptist Professors of Religion, 1978.

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                                          Proposed the theory that Quinn later pursued in his commentary on Titus (see Quinn 1990, cited under Recent Commentaries).

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                                          • Strobel, August. “Schreiben des Lukas? Zum sprachlichen Problem der Pastoralbriefe.” New Testament Studies 15 (1969): 191–210.

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                                            The incidence of Lukan usage and vocabulary is so high in the Pastorals that one must postulate some sort of dependence on Luke.

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                                            • Wilson, Stephen G. Luke and the Pastoral Epistles. London: SPCK, 1979.

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                                              Studies the similarity of vocabulary between Luke-Acts and the Pastorals and concludes that a single author was responsible for both bodies of work.

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                                              The Disputed Authenticity of Second Timothy

                                              Among the Pastoral Epistles, 2 Timothy stands as a case apart because of both its literary genre and its literary similarities with some of the authentic Pauline letters. Various authors have suggested that some parts of 2 Timothy were written by Paul (Harrison 1921, critiqued by Moule 1965; Miller 1997; Prior 1995; Towner 1999; Bligh 1998; and Gourges 2009). Murphy-O’Connor 1991 stands virtually alone in arguing for the authenticity of 2 Timothy while rejecting the authenticity of 1 Timothy and Titus.

                                              • Bligh, Malcolm C. “Seventeen Verses Written for Timothy (2 Tim 4:6–22).” Expository Times 109 (1998): 364–369.

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                                                Second Timothy 4:6–22 was originally a note from Paul to Timothy, which was later incorporated into the canonical epistle.

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                                                • Gourgues, Michel. Les Deux lettres à Timothée—La Lettre à Tite. Commentaire Biblique: Nouveau Testament 14. Paris: Cerf, 2009.

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                                                  This commentary, the first major commentary in French since Spicq 1947 (cited under Classic Commentaries), proposes that 2 Timothy 1:1–2:13 and 4:6–22 were written by Paul, thus providing an entry for the Pastoral Epistles into the canonical Pauline corpus.

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                                                  • Harrison, P. N. The Problem of the Pastoral Epistles. London: Oxford University Press, 1921.

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                                                    This seminal work claims that 2 Timothy contains fragments of four letters written by Paul.

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                                                    • Miller, James D. The Pastoral Letters as Composite Documents. Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series 93. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

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                                                      Proposes, among other things, that two Pauline notes, now appearing here and there throughout extant 2 Timothy, comprise the authentic core of the epistle (see especially pp. 147–151).

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                                                      • Moule, C. F. D. “The Problem of the Pastoral Epistles: A Reappraisal.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 47 (1965): 430–452.

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                                                        A critique of Harrison’s proposal (Harrison 1921) that fragments of the epistles were written by Paul.

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                                                        • Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome. “2 Timothy Contrasted with 1 Timothy and Titus.” Revue Biblique 98 (1991): 403–418.

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                                                          Argues for Paul’s authorship of 2 Timothy.

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                                                          • Prior, Michael. Paul the Letter-Writer and the Second Letter to Timothy. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 23. Sheffield, UK: JSOT Press, 1995.

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                                                            Holds that 2 Timothy was written by Paul shortly before his death.

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                                                            • Towner, Philip H. “The Portrait of Paul and the Theology of 2 Timothy: The Closing Chapter of the Pauline Story.” Horizons in Biblical Theology 21 (1999): 151–170.

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                                                              Sees Paul’s suffering as a missionary factor, patterned after Jesus’ own suffering.

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                                                              Composition and Literary Genre

                                                              The hypothesis that the Pastorals are not true letters raises issues regarding their manner of composition, structure, and literary form. Particular attention has been given to the structure of Titus (Tollefson 2000, Clark 2002, Van Neste 2002). Van Neste 2004 analyzes the structure of all three texts. Mitchell 2002, Donnelson 1997, and Kidd 1999 give insights into the literary genres of 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus, respectively.

                                                              • Clark, D. J. “Discourse Structure in Titus.” Bible Translator 53 (2002): 101–117.

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                                                                Major breaks in Titus occur at 1:13b and 3:8b.

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                                                                • Donelson, Lewis R. “Studying Paul: 2 Timothy as Remembrance.” Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers (1997): 715–731.

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                                                                  It is not the issue of authorship but the fidelity of the letter to God, Jesus, and the memory of Paul that determines the truth of the text.

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                                                                  • Kidd, Reggie M. “Titus as Apologia: Grace for Liars, Beasts, and Bellies.” Horizons in Biblical Theology 21 (1999): 185–209.

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                                                                    The epistle has an apologetic thrust, prepared by Titus 1:12 and eventually leading to the notion that Christians constitute a new race.

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                                                                    • Mitchell, Margaret M. “PTebt 703 and the Genre of 1 Timothy: The Curious Career of a Ptolemaic Papyrus in Pauline Scholarship.” Novum Testamentum 44 (2002): 344–370.

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                                                                      Pace Johnson 2001 (cited under Recent Commentaries), Tebtunis Papyrus 703 does not provide a basis for determining the genre of 1 Timothy.

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                                                                      • Tollefson, Kenneth D. “Titus: Epistle of Religious Revitalization.” Biblical Theology Bulletin 30 (2000): 145–157.

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                                                                        The revitalization sequence of reformulation, communication, organization, adaptation, cultural transformation, and routinization offers an insight into the structure of Titus.

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                                                                        • Van Neste, Ray. “Structure and Cohesion in Titus: Problems and Method.” Bible Translator 53 (2002): 118–133.

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                                                                          Analyzes the internal coherence of the text, and takes issue with Miller’s hypothesis (see Miller 1997, cited under The Disputed Authenticity of Second Timothy) that Titus is a composite letter.

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                                                                          • Van Neste, Ray. Cohesion and Structure in the Pastoral Epistles. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 280. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2004.

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                                                                            A study of the coherence and design of the three texts.

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                                                                            Paul in the Pastorals

                                                                            The hypothesis of the pseudepigraphic nature of the Pastorals suggests that the author of the Epistles fashions an image of Paul that serves the author’s rhetorical purpose. Collins 1975 was among the first works to raise the issue. Jervis 1999 studies “Paul” as a poet, while Seesengood 2006 analyzes the motif of Paul the prisoner. Schröter 2007 looks at the use of the biographical portrayal of Paul, his suffering, and his teaching. Redalié 2008 sees Paul as the locus for the manifestation of salvation. Fiore 1986 helps to clarify how personal example functions in ancient rhetoric, leading to an understanding of how the figure of Paul is used in the Pastorals. Aageson 2008 stresses the evolution of the figure of Paul. Departing from the pseudepigraphic hypothesis, Prior 2001 calls for a more nuanced image of Paul as a letter writer.

                                                                            • Aageson, James W. Paul, the Pastoral Epistles, and the Early Church. Library of Pauline Studies. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2008.

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                                                                              Studies the Pastorals in their individuality, comparing 1 Timothy to 1 Corinthians, 2 Timothy to Philippians, and Titus to Galatians, and shows how the image of Paul evolved in early Christian texts.

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                                                                              • Collins, Raymond F. “The Image of Paul in the Pastorals.” Laval Théologique et Philosophique 31 (1975): 147–173.

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                                                                                Presents Paul as an apostle—a titular use of the term—a norm for ecclesiastical practice and Church teaching, and as a model for Christians to follow.

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                                                                                • Fiore, Benjamin. The Function of Personal Example in the Socratic and Pastoral Epistles. Analecta Biblica 105. Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1986.

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                                                                                  A study of the use of example in a wide range of Hellenistic philosophic literature casts the ethical exhortations of the Pastorals as a combination of instructions to young leaders and epistolary paraenesis.

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                                                                                  • Jervis, L. Ann. “Paul the Poet in First Timothy 1:11–17; 2:3b–7; 3:14–16.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 61 (1999): 695–712.

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                                                                                    A study of the passages in which “Paul” speaks about himself reveals an understanding of Paul as poet.

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                                                                                    • Prior, Michael. “Revisiting the Pastoral Epistles.” Scripture Bulletin 31 (2001): 2–19.

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                                                                                      Using Quinn 1990 (cited under Recent Commentaries) as a point of departure, Prior argues that scholarship needs a more flexible image of Paul the letter writer.

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                                                                                      • Redalié, Yann. “Le rôle de la figure de Paul dans la théologie des épîtres pastorals.” Revue Biblique 115 (2008): 596–612.

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                                                                                        At the juncture of theology and exegesis, Paul is the locus where salvation becomes visible.

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                                                                                        • Schröter, Jens. “Kirche im Anschluss an Paulus: Aspekte der Paulusrezeption in der Apostelgeschichte und in den Pastoralbriefen.” Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der Älteren Kirche 98 (2007): 77–104.

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                                                                                          Studies the significance of Paul with regard to some biographical details, his suffering, and his teaching.

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                                                                                          • Seesengood, Robert Paul. “Contending for the Faith in Paul’s Absence: Combat Sports and Gladiators in the Disputed Pauline Epistles.” Lexington Theological Quarterly 41 (2006): 87–118.

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                                                                                            A study of the gladiatorial theme in Greco-Roman philosophic texts suggests that the image of Paul as a prisoner is metaphorically similar to the figure of the gladiator.

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                                                                                            Paul’s Opponents

                                                                                            Running throughout Timothy and Titus is a condemnation of critique of false teachers and erroneous teachings. These are summarily dismissed. Scholarly opinion is divided on the issue of the identity of these teachers and what it was that they actually taught. Among other passages, 1 Timothy 4:1–3, provides some indication as to the nature of this teaching. Other passages provide additional, but scant, evidence about the problematic situation confronted by the author(s). Karris 1973 and Johnson 1989 examine the possibility of an anti-Jewish polemic, while Mappes 1999 projects the opponents as being deviant Christians. Pietersen 2004 and Pratscher 2008 examine the function of the polemic dimension of the Pastorals. De Villiers 2000 and De Villiers 2003 study particular expressions of the Pastorals’ polemical attitude.

                                                                                            • De Villiers, Pieter G. R. “A Pauline Letter and a Pagan Prophet.” Acta Patristica et Byzantina 11 (2000): 74–92.

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                                                                                              Considers the use of Greco-Roman polemical techniques in Titus, including a saying of Epimenides (Titus 1:12–14) as an argument against opponents.

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                                                                                              • De Villiers, Pieter G. R. “‘Empty Talk’ in 1 Timothy in the Light of Its Graeco-Roman Context.” Acta Patristica et Byzantina 14 (2003): 136–155.

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                                                                                                Examines 1 Timothy 1:6 within the context of Greco-Roman philosophic texts.

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                                                                                                • Johnson, Luke T. “The New Testament’s Anti-Jewish Slander and the Conventions of Ancient Polemic.” Journal of Biblical Literature 108 (1989) 419–441.

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                                                                                                  In the context of 1st-century anti-Jewish polemic, the polemic of the New Testament is rather mild.

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                                                                                                  • Karris, Robert J. “The Background and Significance of the Polemic of the Pastoral Epistles.” Journal of Biblical Literature 92 (1973): 549–564.

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                                                                                                    Although due attention must be paid to the stock features of the Pastorals’ polemics, the opponents seem to be Jewish Christians who espouse fidelity to the law.

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                                                                                                    • Mappes, David A. “The Heresy Paul Opposed in 1 Timothy.” Bibliotheca Sacra 156 (1999): 452–458.

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                                                                                                      The heresy was a spiritualized understanding of resurrection and the undue promotion of asceticism.

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                                                                                                      • Pietersen, Lloyd K. The Polemic of the Pastorals: A Sociological Examination of the Development of Pauline Christianity. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 264. London and New York: T&T Clark, 2004.

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                                                                                                        Holds that the function of the Pastorals is to transform influential insiders who considered Paul a miracle worker into outsiders, thereby restoring Paul to his role as teacher.

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                                                                                                        • Pratscher, Wilhelm. “Die Auseinanderungsetzung mit Gegnern in den Pastoralbriefen.” Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt 33 (2008): 5–24.

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                                                                                                          The author of the Pastorals is principally concerned with distancing his readers from his adversaries.

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                                                                                                          The Historical Situation

                                                                                                          Given the absence of the Pastorals in P46 (Papyrus 46, a very early New Testament manuscript), critical biblical scholarship raises the issue of the reception of the Pastoral Epistles by the early Church (Duff 1998). Downs 2005 raises the question of the relationship between “early Catholicism” and the Pastorals. Martin 2000 examines 1 Timothy and Titus with respect to Marcion. Häfner 2001 and Aageson 2005 compare the Pastorals with the apocryphal Acts of Paul. Merz 2004 expands the horizon to consider the Pastorals within early patristic literature.

                                                                                                          • Aageson, James W. “The Pastoral Epistles and the Acts of Paul: A Multiplex Approach to Authority in Paul’s Legacy.” Lutheran Theological Quarterly 40 (2005): 237–248.

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                                                                                                            The Pastorals and the apocryphal Acts represent widely divergent developments of the Pauline tradition.

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                                                                                                            • Downs, David J. “‘Early Catholicism’ and Apocalypticism in the Pastoral Epistles.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 67 (2005): 641–666.

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                                                                                                              A study of the apocalyptic imagery of the Pastorals within the horizons of “early Catholicism.”

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                                                                                                              • Duff, Jeremy. “P46 and the Pastorals: A Misleading Consensus?” New Testament Studies 44 (1998): 570–590.

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                                                                                                                The absence of the Pastorals from P46 does not warrant the conclusion that these texts did not belong to the Pauline corpus.

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                                                                                                                • Häfner, Gerd. “Die Gegner in den Pastoralbriefen und die Paulusakten.” Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der Älteren Kirche 92 (2001): 64–77.

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                                                                                                                  This is a rebuttal of D. R. MacDonald’s proposal that there are tradition-historical connections between the Pastorals and the Acts of Paul. Commenting on it, Häfner concludes that there is no specific connection between the Pastorals and the Acts of Paul.

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                                                                                                                  • Martin, Troy W. “Entextualized and Implied Rhetorical Situations: The Case of 1 Timothy and Titus.” Biblical Research 45 (2000): 5–24.

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                                                                                                                    Departing from the contemporary consensus, this article concludes that Titus resonates with Marcionite positions, to which 1 Timothy offers a rebuttal.

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                                                                                                                    • Merz, Annette. Die fiktive Selbstauslegung des Paulus: Intertextuelle Studien zur Intention und Rezeption der Pastoralbriefe. Novum Testamentum et Orbis Antiquus 52. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 2004.

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                                                                                                                      Studies the intertextuality of the Pastoral Epistles with respect to Paul and early patristic writings, and with special emphasis on fellowship with slaves (Titus 2:9–10; 1 Timothy 6:1–5) and the role of women (1 Timothy 2:9–3:1).

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                                                                                                                      Commentaries

                                                                                                                      Since the earliest days of Christianity, the Pastorals have been the subject of study and dispute. With the rise of the methodology of historical-critical exegesis in the early 19th century, a new breed of commentary was produced, particularly in Germany and England. These commentaries, the Classic Commentaries, addressed philological issues and the issue of authenticity. In the latter part of the 20th century, the issue of authenticity was generally resolved in the commentaries (Recent Commentaries) in favor of their pseudepigraphic origin, which employed different methodologies of study, especially, rhetorical criticism and sociological analysis.

                                                                                                                      Classic Commentaries

                                                                                                                      Historically, most of the critical commentaries on the Pastorals have been written in German (Holtzmann 1880), a trend that would continue well into the 20th century (Jeremias 1934, Holtz 1965). Those written in English (Bernard 1899 and Lock 1924) and in French (Spicq 1947) are exceptions to the general rule. Brox 1963 was the first Catholic exegete to comment on the Pastorals from the standpoint of their pseudepigraphy. Kelly 1963 is arguably one of the best older commentaries in English.

                                                                                                                      • Bernard, J. H., ed. The Pastoral Epistles with Introduction and Notes. Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1899.

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                                                                                                                        The commentary, heavy on philological and grammatical considerations, exposits the texts as letters written by Paul during a second Roman captivity.

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                                                                                                                        • Brox, Norbert. Die Pastoralbriefe. Regensburger Neues Testament. Regensburg, Germany: Friederich Pustet, 1963.

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                                                                                                                          This popular Roman Catholic commentary, widely read in Germany, was the first by a Catholic author to maintain the hypothesis of pseudonymity. Reprinted in 1989.

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                                                                                                                          • Holtz, Gerhard. Die Pastoralbriefe. Theologischer Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament 13. Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1965.

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                                                                                                                            Claiming that the epistles were written under the aegis of Paul, this commentary concentrates on a theological understanding of the texts. Reprinted in 1986.

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                                                                                                                            • Holtzmann, Heinrich Julius. Die Pastoralbriefe. Leipzig, Germany: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1880.

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                                                                                                                              A massive, magisterial study of the Pastorals, more than half of which is devoted to analysis rather than commentary, that argues for their pseudonymity.

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                                                                                                                              • Jeremias, Joachim. Die Briefe an Timotheus und Titus. Das Neue Testament Deutsch 4. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1934.

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                                                                                                                                Written in the early part of the 1st century CE by a disciple of Paul, the Pastorals present Timothy and Titus as models to be followed by newly founded communities. Reprinted in 1963 and 1975.

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                                                                                                                                • Kelly, J. N. D. A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles: I Timothy, II Timothy, Titus. Black’s New Testament Commentaries. London: A. & C. Black, 1963.

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                                                                                                                                  An easy-to-read commentary that maintains the Pauline authorship of the Pastorals.

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                                                                                                                                  • Lock, Walter. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles (I & II Timothy, Titus). International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1924.

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                                                                                                                                    Still useful philological analysis of the text of the Pastorals.

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                                                                                                                                    • Spicq, C. Saint Paul: Les épîtres pastorales. Études Bibliques. Paris: Gabalda, 1947.

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                                                                                                                                      Defending Pauline authorship, the author underscores the singularity of the Pastorals within the Pauline corpus and argues that the false teachers are Jewish-Christian proto-Gnostics. Reprinted in 1969.

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                                                                                                                                      Recent Commentaries

                                                                                                                                      The three-volume commentary on the Pastorals in the Evangelisch-Katholischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament series, by Jürgen Roloff on 1 Timothy, by Alfons Weiser on 2 Timothy, and by Michael Theobald on Titus (projected 2015 publication), represents the best of contemporary German commentaries, but a number of fine commentaries on the Pastorals have been published in English in recent years. The trendsetter was Dibelius and Conzelmann 1972. Marshall and Towner 1999, Johnson 2001, and Towner 2006 are among the recent commentaries that maintain Pauline authorship of the epistles. Quinn 1990 opts for the Lukan authorship of Titus. Collins 2002 and Fiore 2007 do not consider Paul to have been the author of the texts.

                                                                                                                                      • Collins, Raymond F. 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: A Commentary. New Testament Library. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                        Written from the perspective of pseudepigraphy, the commentary locates the Pastorals within the Greco-Roman socioliterary world.

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                                                                                                                                        • Dibelius, Martin, and Hans Conzelmann. The Pastoral Epistles. Translated by Philip Buttolph and Adela Yarbro. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                          A translation of a German classic, written by Dibelius and updated by Conzelmann, Die Pastoralbriefe, 4th ed. (Handbuch zum Neuen Testament 13; Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 1966).

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                                                                                                                                          • Fiore, Benjamin. The Pastoral Epistles: First Timothy, Second Timothy, Titus. Sacra Pagina 12. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                            This commentary demonstrates the relevance of Greco-Roman materials to the interpretation of the Pastorals and shows how the epistles are relevant to the contemporary Church.

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                                                                                                                                            • Johnson, Luke Timothy. The First and Second Letters to Timothy: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Anchor Bible 35A. New York: Doubleday, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                              Written from the perspective of Pauline authorship; holds that the Roman mandatum principis provides a model for the literary genre of 1 Timothy.

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                                                                                                                                              • Marshall, I. Howard, and Philip H. Towner. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                A massive commentary that contains a number of valuable excursuses.

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                                                                                                                                                • Quinn, Jerome D. The Letter to Titus: A New Translation with Notes and Commentary and an Introduction to Titus, I and II Timothy, the Pastoral Epistles. Anchor Bible 35. New York: Doubleday, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                  A massive commentary that was projected to be the first volume of a commentary on all three epistles. The author contends that Titus was the first of the Pastorals to have been written.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Towner, Philip H. The Letters to Timothy and Titus. New International Critical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                    Continues to maintain the Pauline authorship of the epistles, using the notions of eusebeia and epiphaneia as arguments for this position.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Witherington, Ben, III. Letters and Homilies for Hellenized Christians. Vol. 1, A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary on Titus, 1–2 Timothy and 1–3 John. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                      Critical of the idea that the Pastorals are Deutero-Pauline compositions, the author considers that Luke was Paul’s faithful scribe in the transcription of these texts.

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                                                                                                                                                      Thematic Studies

                                                                                                                                                      The major themes addressed in the Pastorals are treated in the Commentaries, not only in the form of commentary on the relevant verses but also in the form of significant excursuses. Some themes have generated particular interest, notably the Church and ministry, women and their role in the Church, and Christology.

                                                                                                                                                      Church

                                                                                                                                                      The structured church of the Pastorals epistles contrasts with the domestic and charismatically organized churches of the authentic Pauline letters. Horrell 2001 and Oberlinner 2007 study the contrast. Verner 1983 examines a number of household motifs in the epistles, thus suggesting the structured Greco-Roman household as a model for the organized churches of the Pastorals. Collins 2001 and Casalini 2007 exploit the legal character of 1 Timothy and Titus to see in them the Church’s first legislative texts. Herzer 2008 examines the ecclesiology of 1 Timothy 3:15. Polaski 2005 argues that the roles assigned to Timothy and Titus in the Pastorals contribute to the deconstruction of a household model of church.

                                                                                                                                                      • Casalini, Nello. “Corpus pastorale—Corpus constitutionale (La costituzione della chiesa nelle Pastorali).” Liber Annuus 57 (2007): 253–315.

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                                                                                                                                                        First Timothy is the oldest extant example of Church law. All three Pastoral Epistles are constitutional texts for the Church as institution.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Collins, Raymond F. “The Origins of Church Law.” Jurist 61 (2001): 134–156.

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                                                                                                                                                          Issues of Church order, similar to those in the Pastorals, continue to be addressed in contemporary Church legislation, thus making 1 Timothy and Titus the origin of Church law.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Herzer, Jens. “Rearranging the ‘House of God’: A New Perspective on the Pastoral Epistles.” In Empsychoi Logoi—Religious Innovations in Antiquity: Studies in Honour of Pieter Willem van der Horst. Edited by Alberdina Houtman, Albert de Jong, and Magda Misset-van de Weg, 547–566. Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums 73. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                            Argues that “house of God” in 1 Timothy 3:15 is a reference to the Temple, not the Greco-Roman household.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Horrell, David G. “From adelphoi to oikos theou: Social Transformation in Pauline Christianity.” Journal of Biblical Literature 120 (2001): 293–311.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/3268296Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              In contrast with the authentic Pauline letters, Ephesians, Colossians, and the Pastorals emphasize the hierarchically structured household as a model for the Church.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Oberlinner, Lorenz. “Gemeindeordnung und rechte Lehre: Zur Fortschreibung der paulinischen Ekklesiologie in den Pastoralbriefen.” Theologische Quartalschrift 187 (2007): 295–308.

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                                                                                                                                                                Studies the structured Church of the Pastorals in comparison with the charismatically ordered Church of 1 Corinthians 12.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Polaski, S. H. “‘Let No One Despise Your Youth’: The Deconstruction of Traditional Authority in the Pastoral Epistles.” Lexington Theological Quarterly 40 (2005): 249–263.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Taking its title from 1 Timothy 4:12, the article holds that the roles of Timothy and Titus are a departure from the household model of church organization.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Verner, David C. The Household of God: The Social World of the Pastoral Epistles. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 71. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A seminal work that offers the Greco-Roman household as a model for the organization of the Church.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Ministry

                                                                                                                                                                    The idea that the apparently three-tiered ministry of bishop, elder, and deacon reflects 2nd-century Church structures rather than the charismatic ordering of the Pauline communities was one of the first arguments of those who argued for the non-Pauline authorship of the Pastorals. While it is likely that the texts only distinguish the bishop/overseer from the deacon/server, current scholarship continues to study ministry and ministers in these texts, particularly in 1 Timothy (especially 3:1–13; see Söding 2008) and Titus (especially 1:5–9). Roloff 1965 and Lips 1979 are seminal studies, while Fitzmyer 2004 offers a good overview. Particular issues are the lists of virtues as qualifications for ministers (Mappes 2003, Paschke 2007), the rite of laying on of hands (Dowd 2002), and the matter of female deacons (Stiefel 1995).

                                                                                                                                                                    • Dowd, Sharyn E. “‘Ordination’ in Acts and the Pastoral Epistles.” Perspectives in Religious Studies 29 (2002): 205–217.

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                                                                                                                                                                      A comparative study of the ritual of the laying on of hands in 1 Timothy 4:14, 2 Timothy 1:6, and relevant passages of Acts, and its relationship with other requirements for ministry.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Fitzmyer, Joseph A. “The Structured Ministry of the Church in the Pastoral Epistles.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 66 (2004): 582–596.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Discusses a wide range of topics pertaining to ministry.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Lips, Hermann von. Glaube, Gemeinde, Amt: Zum Verständnis d. Ordination in d. Pastoralbriefen. Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments 122. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Pages 183–222, 247–248, 281–282, and 286–287 make a significant contribution to the Pastorals’ understanding of “charism.”

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Mappes, David A. “Moral Virtues Associated with Eldership.” Bibliotheca Sacra 160 (2003): 202–218.

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                                                                                                                                                                            A study of the qualifications of Church leaders in 1 Timothy 3:1–6.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Paschke, Boris A. “The cura morum of the Roman Censors as Historical Background for the Bishop and Deacon Lists of the Pastoral Epistles.” Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der Älteren Kirche 98 (2007): 105–119.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1515/ZNTW.2007.006Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Argues that the Roman “care of manners” tradition offers good parallels for the qualifications cited in 1 Timothy 3:1–13 and Titus 1:5–9.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Roloff, Jürgen. Apostolat, Verkündigung, Kirche: Ursprung, Inhalt und Funktion des kirchlichen Apostelamtes nach Paulus, Lukas und den Pastoralbriefen. Gütersloh, Germany: Gerd Mohn, 1965.

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                                                                                                                                                                                This is the classic study of Paul’s ministry, from his own perspective, as well as that of Luke and the Pastorals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Söding, Thomas. “1 Timotheus 3: Der Episkopos und die Diakone in der Kirche.” In 1 Timothy Reconsidered. Edited by Karl Paul Donfried, 63–86. Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  A study of the ecclesiology of the Pastorals, with particular attention paid to the role of bishop as leader of the local church.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Stiefel, Jennifer H. “Women Deacons in 1 Timothy: A Linguistic and Literary Look at ‘Women Likewise. . . .’ (1 Tim 3.11).” New Testament Studies 37 (1995): 442–447.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Following a contextual study of 1 Timothy 3:13 and a comparative study of the vocabulary of 1 Timothy 3:8 and 1 Timothy 3:11, the author supports the diaconal ministry of women alongside that of men.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Women

                                                                                                                                                                                    In recent years there has been much interest in the way that the author(s) portrays women and describes their role in the Church. Two passages in particular, 1 Timothy 2:9–15 and 5:3–16, have merited particular scrutiny. Winter 2003 and Beattie 2005 study each of the two passages in depth. Tsiparis 2007 compares 1 Timothy’s teaching on women with that of the Gnostic Gospel of Thomas. Since the bibliography on 1 Timothy 2:9–15 is enormous, a special section (see 1 Timothy 2:9–15) is devoted to the passage.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beattie, Gillian. Women and Marriage in Paul and His Early Interpreters. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 296. London and New York: T&T Clark, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      1 Timothy 2:9–15 and 5:3–16 are texts intended to contribute to women’s group identity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tsiparis, Agneta Enermalm. “Gates Opened, Doors Closed: The Status of Women According to the Gospel of Thomas and the First Letter to Timothy.” Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 72 (2007): 75–94.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Comparing the Gospel of Thomas 114 with 1 Timothy 2:8–15—both making use of Genesis 1–3—the article demonstrates how cultural constraints determine the role of women in the Church.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Winter, Bruce W. Roman Wives, Roman Widows: The Appearance of New Women and the Pauline Communities. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Valuable insights on 1 Timothy 5:11–15, 2:9–15, and Titus 2:3–5.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          First Timothy 2:9–15

                                                                                                                                                                                          Among the passages recently scrutinized to elicit and critique the Pastorals’ views on women, one passage in particular stands out: 1 Timothy 2:9–15. The bibliography on this passages is enormous, not only because of the interest generated by feminist exegesis and the discussion of the role of women in society and the Church, but also because of particular interest in what is meant by 1 Timothy 2:12’s statement that a woman does not have authority over a man (Wolters 2000) and the meaning of the reference in 1 Timothy 2:14–15 to the Genesis creation narrative (Heininger 2002, Merkel 2006). The 1995 first edition of Köstenberger and Shreiner 2005 provoked much of the contemporary discussion. Winter 2000 considers 1 Timothy 2:14–15 within its contemporary social setting. Waters 2004 approaches the problematic text from a totally different perspective, treating it as an allegory. Holmes 2000 studies the passage in detail in order to grasp its general meaning. Batten 2009 pays attention to the issue of women’s attire.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Batten, Alicia J. “Neither Gold nor Braided Hair (1 Timothy 2:9; 1 Peter 3:3): Adornment, Gender and Honour in Antiquity.” New Testament Studies 55 (2009): 484–501.

                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/S0028688509990075Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            While men often considered these forms of adornment as luxuria, women may have considered them to be signs of status and honor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Heininger, Bernhardt. “Die ‘mystische’ Eva: 1 Tim 2,8–15 und die Folgen des Sündenfalls in der Apokalypsis Mosis.” Biblische Zeitschrift 46 (2002): 205–221.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Studies Eve as a mystic in the Apocalypse of Moses as a useful comparison piece to 1 Timothy 2:8–15.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Holmes, J. M. Text in a Whirlwind: A Critique of Four Exegetical Devices at 1 Timothy 2.9–15. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 196. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                The author concludes that the author intends to exhort men and women equally to live godly lives.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Köstenberger, Andreas J., and Thomas R. Schreiner, eds. Women in the Church: An Analysis and Application of 1 Timothy 2:9–15. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  A debate-provoking collection of essays on 1 Timothy 2:9–15.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Merkle, Benjamin L. “Paul’s Arguments from Creation in 1 Corinthians 11:8–9 and 1 Timothy 2:13–14: An Apparent Inconsistency Answered.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 49 (2006): 527–548.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    In contrast with the argument in 1 Corinthians 11:8–9, the argument from creation in 1 Timothy 2:13–14 pertains directly to the prohibition and is transcultural.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Waters, Kenneth L., Sr. “Saved through Childbearing: Virtues as Children in 1 Timothy 2:11–15.” Journal of Biblical Literature 123 (2004): 703–735.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/3268466Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The passage is an allegorical treatment of faith, love, holiness, and temperance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Winter, Bruce W. “The ‘New’ Roman Wife and 1 Timothy 2:9–15: The Search for a Sitz im Leben.” Tyndale Bulletin 51 (2000): 285–294.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Literary and legal evidence from the late republican to the imperial period shows the development of a different model of being a wife, against which the exhortation of 1 Timothy 2:9–15 is usefully seen.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wolters, Al. “A Semantic Study of authentes and Its Derivatives.” Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism 1 (2000): 145–175.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          The meaning of the word authentes in 1 Timothy 2:12 must be seen within the context of contemporary usage, where it means “master” without any negative connotations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Widows

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 Timothy 5:3–16 is unique within the New Testament as a passage that deals at length with widows in the Church. Thurston 1989 is a general study of widows in the early Church, particularly according to the New Testament witness. A burning issue is what the author of 1 Timothy means by a “true widow” (Horrell 2008). Of particular interest is the caricature of young widows in 1 Timothy 5:13–14 (Kartzow 2005, Pietersen 2007).

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Horrell, David G. “Disciplining Performance and ‘Placing’ the Church: Widows, Elders, and Slaves in the Household of God (1 Tim 5,1–6,2).” In 1 Timothy Reconsidered. Edited by Karl Paul Donfried, 109–134. Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            The study focuses principally on the conditions and duties of a true widow (1 Timothy 5:3–16) and on issues that concern elders (1 Timothy 5:17–25).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kartzow, Marianne Bjelland. “Female Gossipers and Their Reputation in the Pastoral Epistles.” Neotestamentica 39 (2005): 255–272.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sees 1 Timothy 5:13–14 as a rhetorical ploy in support of male dominance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pietersen, Lloyd K. “Women as Gossips and Busybodies? Another Look at 1 Timothy 5:13.” Lexington Theological Quarterly 42 (2007): 19–35.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                The author contends that the phrase in 1 Timothy 5:13 normally translated as “gossips and busybodies” really means “those who talk nonsense and those who practice magic.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Thurston, Bonnie Bowman. The Widows: A Woman’s Ministry in the Early Church. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Chapter 3, “Origins of the Widows’ Order” (pp. 36–55), is a study of 1 Timothy 5:3–16.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ethics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Dibelius–Conzelmann commentary on the Pastorals (see Recent Commentaries) described their ethical exhortation as that characteristic of a bourgeois morality. Since then a large number of journal articles have focused on one or another virtue or vice (De Villiers 1996) cited in the various lists of 1 Timothy and Titus (Hock 2006), including those offered cited as qualification for Church ministers. Of particular interest is the virtue of “piety” (eusebeia) that occupies a prominent place in the Pastorals (D’Angelo 2003, Standhartinger 2006, Herzer 2007; see also 1 Timothy 5–6) but does not appear in the authentic letters. The monograph Kidd 1990 looks at the issue of wealth. Towner 1989 and Matera 1996 provide significant overviews.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • D’Angelo, Mary Rose. “Eusebeia: Roman Imperial Family Values and the Sexual Politics of 4 Maccabees and the Pastorals.” Biblical Interpretation 11 (2003): 139–165.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/156851503765661258Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The family values of 1 Timothy 2:13–15 are shaped by imperial sexual politics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • De Villiers, Pieter G. R. “The Vice of Conceit in 1 Timothy: A Study in the Ethics of the New Testament within Its Graeco-Roman Context.” Acta Patristica et Byzantina 7 (1996): 37–67.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Greco-Roman topos on deceit is used to study the characterization of the opponents in 1 Timothy 6:3–5.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Herzer, Jens. “‘Das Geheimnis der Frömmigkeit’ (1 Tim 3,16): Sprache und Stil der Pastoralbriefe im Kontext hellenistisch-römischer Popularphilosophie—Eine methodische Problemanzeige.” Theologische Quartalschrift 187 (2007): 309–329.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The use of eusebeia in 1 Timothy 3:16 is an example of the adaptation and transformation of a Greco-Roman philosophic notion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hock, Andreas. “Equipping the Successors of the Apostles: A Comparative Study of the Ethical Catalogues in Paul’s Pastoral Letters (1 Tim 1:9–10; 6:4–5; 2 Tim 3:2–4; Tim 3:3).” Estudios Biblicos 64 (2006): 85–98.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Pastorals’ catalogues of vices implicitly exhort the readers to follow the opposing virtues.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kidd, Reggie M. Wealth and Beneficence in the Pastoral Epistles: A “Bourgeois” Form of Early Christianity? Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 122. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Embracing an “average morality” based on radical hope, the Pastorals offer neither a broad vision of Christian civilization nor a project for the regeneration of society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Matera, Frank J. New Testament Ethics: The Legacies of Jesus and Paul. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Chapter 11, “Reliable Moral Guides: The Pastoral Epistles” (pp. 229–247), treats the ethics of the Pastoral Epistles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Standhartinger, Angela. “Eusebeia in den Pastoralbriefen: Ein Beitrag zum Einfluss römischen Denkens auf das Entstehende Christentum.” Novum Testamentum 48 (2006): 51–82.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1163/156853606775454756Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A discussion of “piety” in the Pastorals within the context of the Greco-Roman understanding of eusebeia/pietas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Towner, Philip H. The Goal of Our Instruction: The Structure of Theology and Ethics in the Pastoral Epistles. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 34. Sheffield, UK: JSOT Press. 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Maintains that theology and ethics form a consistent unit in the Pastorals, as a result of which it is inadequate to propose that they offer a bourgeois ethic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Christology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  For decades the Pastorals, especially 1 Timothy and Titus, were considered as documents that dealt principally with Church order and Christian behavior. In the 1970s particular interest began to be paid to the passages that feature the word epiphaneia and its cognates as pointing to a Christological model that is not found in other New Testament texts (Hasler 1977, Oberlinner 1980). Lau 1996 provides an English-language study of epiphany Christology. Stenger 1977 and MacLeod 2002 examine a key text, namely, the hymn in 1 Timothy 3:16 (see also First Timothy 3–4). Collins 2002 examines the relative absence of resurrection language in the Pastorals. Läger 1996 and Stettler 1998 offer comprehensive studies of the Pastorals’ Christology.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Collins, Raymond F. “What Happened to Jesus’ Resurrection from the Dead? A Reflection on Paul and the Pastoral Epistles.” In Resurrection in the New Testament: Festschrift J. Lambrecht. Edited by Reimund Bieringer, Veronica Koperski, and Bianca Lataire, 423–440. Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarun Lovaniensium 165. Louvain, Belgium: Louvain University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In contrast with the authentic Pauline letters, in which Jesus’ resurrection from the dead lies at the core of the apostolic kerygma, the Pastorals contain only one explicit reference to the resurrection (2 Timothy 2:8).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hasler, Victor. “Epiphanie und Christologie in den Pastoralbriefe.” Theologische Zeitschrift 33 (1977): 193–209.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Christological epiphany schema of the Pastorals protects the transcendence of God.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Läger, Karoline. Die Christologie der Pastoralbriefe. Hamburger Theologische Studien 12. Münster, Germany: Lit, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Christology of the Pastoral Epistles is characterized not only by the epiphaneia motif but also by the author’s soteriology and early Christological traditions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lau, Andrew Y. Manifest in Flesh: The Epiphany Christology of the Pastoral Epistles. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, 2d ser., 86. Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The author of the Pastorals has creatively interpreted apostolic tradition about Christ by means of contemporary epiphanic language.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MacLeod, David J. “Christology in Six Lines: An Exposition of 1 Timothy 3:16.” Bibliotheca Sacra 159 (2002): 334–348.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 Timothy 3:16 teaches about Christ’s incarnation, resurrection, ascension, proclamation, reception, and enthronement.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Oberlinner, Lorenz. “Die ‘Epiphaneia’ des Heilswillens Gottes in Christus Jesus: Zur Grundstruktur der Christologie der Pastoralbriefe.” Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der Älteren Kirche 71 (1980): 192–213.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1515/zntw.1980.71.3-4.192Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Key to understanding the Christology of the Pastorals are the idea of epiphaneia and the title soter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Stenger, Werner. Die Christushymnus 1 Tim 3, 16: Eine strukturanalytische Untersuchung. Regensburger Studien zur Theologie 6. Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A detailed study of the Christological hymn in 1 Timothy 3:16.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Stettler, Hanna. Die Christologie der Pastoralbriefe. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, 2d ser., 105. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  After an overview of the study of the Pastorals’ Christology by 20th-century authors, this work makes an exegesis of nineteen pertinent texts and draws together the results in a fifty-page synthesis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  God

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Most studies that treat the “theology” of the Pastoral Epistles understand theology in a broad sense to include virtually the entire thought construct of the texts (Young 1994). Redalié 1994, a large overview, is one of the best comprehensive studies available. Some recent studies have paid specific attention to the notion of the deity that emerges from the texts (Collins 2000, Couser 2000). Goodwin 1996, Thurston 1999, and Sumney 2001 examine the theological perspective that colors the teaching of the Pastorals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Collins, Raymond F. “The Theology of the Epistle to Titus.” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 76 (2000): 56–72.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2143/ETL.76.1.532Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A study of God and divine activity, with particular attention paid to Titus 1:4, 2:11–14, 3:4–7.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Couser, Greg A. “God and Christian Existence in the Pastoral Epistles: Toward Theological Method and Meaning.” Novum Testamentum 42 (2000): 262–283.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A study of the Pastorals’ understanding of God, with particular attention paid to 1 Timothy 1:17 and 6:15–16.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Goodwin, Mark J. “The Pauline Background of the Living God as Interpretive Context for 1 Timothy 4.10.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 18 (1996): 65–85.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0142064X9601806104Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        First Timothy 4:10 uses the Pauline tradition of the “living God” to legitimate godliness/eusebeia as a key ethical norm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Redalié, Yann. Paul après Paul: Le temps, le salut, la morale selon les épîtres à Timothée et à Tite. Le Monde de la Bible 31. Geneva, Switzerland: Labor et Fides, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A comprehensive overview of the theology of the Pastorals that includes a significant study of God, Christ, and soteriology (pp. 157–256).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sumney, Jerry. “God Our Savior: The Theology of 1 Timothy.” Lexington Theological Quarterly 36 (2001): 31–41.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The basic theological conviction of 1 Timothy is the idea that God is Savior, with the various consequences resulting from that idea.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Thurston, Bonnie. “The Theology of Titus.” Horizons in Biblical Theology 21 (1999): 171–184.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1163/187122099X00137Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The epistle is focused on Church order within the theological perspective of God-as-Savior.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Young, Frances. The Theology of the Pastoral Letters. New Testament Theology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A handy overview of the theology and ethics of the Pastorals that includes a study of Church structures in these texts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Prayer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                First Timothy 2:1–10 offers a number of directives on prayer, including those that mention various forms of prayer, those on behalf of whom prayer should be offered, and how men and women, respectively, should pray. Mitchell 2008 provides a good overview, while Pearson 2008 examines the biblical context of praying with one’s arms extended.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mitchell, Margaret M. “Corrective Composition, Corrective Exegesis: The Teaching on Prayer in 1 Timothy 2,1–15.” In 1 Timothy Reconsidered. Edited by Karl Paul Donfried, 41–62. Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Studies various issues that arise from 1 Timothy 2:1–15 related to the prayer of men and of women.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pearson, Calvin. “Lifting Holy Hands? Comparing Contemporary Practice with Biblical Injunctions and Descriptions.” Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society 21 (2008): 65–76.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Old Testament usage shows that praying with hands and arms extended, the “orans posture,” is a sign of human dependence on God.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Studies of Particular Verses

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Relatively few monographs have been devoted to individual verses of the Pastorals, but there is an abundance of literature in journals on many of them. What follows is a selection of some of the more important journal articles on specific verses in the Pastorals. Since so much has been written about 1 Timothy, the citations of sources on 1 Timothy are divided according to which chapters they focus on.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    First Timothy 1–2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Zamfir and Verheyden 2008 address the text-critical issues of 1 Timothy 2:8–10, while Payne 2008 studies a grammatical issue in 1 Timothy 2:12. Miranda 2000 sees 1 Timothy 1:4 as the thesis of the epistle. Gerber 2000 suggests that 1 Timothy 1:1b presents a teaching on eschatological salvation. Neyrey 2005 studies the doxologies of the epistle. Harrill 1999 examines one of the vices from the list of vices in 1 Timothy 1:9–10. Kimberley 1992 places 1 Timothy 2:15 in a historical setting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gerber, Daniel. “1 Tm 1,15b: L’indice d’une sotériologie pensée prioritairement en lien avec la venue de Jésus.” Revue d’Histoire et de Philosophie Religieuses 80 (2000): 463–477.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Attempting to correct a soteriology based exclusively on the crucifixion, 1 Timothy 1:15b’s soteriology relates to the coming of Jesus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Harrill, J. Albert. “The Vice of Slave Dealers in Greco-Roman Society: The Use of a Topos in 1 Timothy 1:10.” Journal of Biblical Literature 118 (1999): 97–122.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The author of 1 Timothy uses the classic topos of the slave trader stealing people from their households to disparage his opponents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kimberley, David R. “1 Tim 2:15: A Possible Understanding of a Difficult Text.” Journal of the Evangelical Theology Society 35 (1992): 481–486.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Suggests that the verse is directed against a Gnostic teaching that childbearing is to be condemned.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miranda, Americo. “La ‘retta administrazione’ (1Tm 1,4) nella communità cristiana dell’età subapostolica.” Revista biblica 48 (2000): 167–197.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The theme of the epistle is well summed up in a phrase of 1 Timothy 1:4, which is appropriately translated “administration of the house.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Neyrey, Jerome H. “‘First,’ ‘Only,’ ‘One of a Few,’ and ‘No One Else’: The Rhetoric of Uniqueness and the Doxologies in 1 Timothy.” Biblica 86 (2005): 59–87.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Studies 1 Timothy 1:17 and 6:15–16 in the context of the rhetorical language of praise and the cultural context of honor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Payne, Philip B. “1 Tim 2.12 and the Use of oude to Combine Two Elements to Express a Single Idea.” New Testament Studies 54 (2008): 235–253.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Finding support in Origen’s interpretation of 1 Timothy 2:12, the article uses a grammatical study to express the view that a woman’s teaching and having authority over a man are a single idea.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Zamfir, Korinna, and Joseph Verheyden. “Text-Critical and Intertextual Remarks on 1 Tim 2:8–10.” Novum Testamentum 50 (2008): 376–406.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1163/156853608X297703Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  First Timothy 2:8–10 is a rereading of 1 Corinthians 11:4–7a, allowing what Paul had written about himself to be corrected by “Paul,” that is, pseudo-Paul.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  First Timothy 3–4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Christological hymn in 1 Timothy 3:16 is one of the most studied verses in the New Testament; see, for example, Murphy-O’Connor 1984, Testa 1996, Frary 2003, Arichea 2007, and Magee 2008. Valleskey 1999 studies another passage, 1 Timothy 3:2–7, which gives an overview of the qualifications of a bishop.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Arichea, Daniel C., Jr. “Translating Hymnic Materials: Theology and Translation in 1 Timothy 3.16.” Bible Translator 58 (2007): 179–185.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The article studies three different possible relationships of the lines in 1 Timothy 3:16 to one another and the implications of this for translating New Testament hymns for use in the Church.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Frary, Stephen W. “Who Was Manifested in the Flesh? A Consideration of Internal Evidence in Support of a Variant in 1 Tim 3:16a.” Filología Neotestamentaria 16 (2003): 3–18.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Calls for a reexamination of the external evidence in considering the variant.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Magee, Gregory S. “Uncovering the ‘Mystery’ in 1 Timothy 3.” Trinity Journal 29 (2008): 247–265.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Proposes that the meaning of mysterion is consistent with the meaning of the term in Paul’s letters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome. “Redactional Angels in 1 Tim 3:16.” Revue Biblique 91 (1984): 178–187.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The phrase ophthe angelois is a redactional insertion that links the past with the present.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Testa, E. “L’inno sul ‘sacramentum pietatis’ (1Tm 3,16).” Liber Annuus 46 (1996): 87–100.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The pre-Pauline hymn, emanating from the polemic against the cult of emperors, proclaims the exaltation of the divine king, his presentation to the angels and the world, and his enthronement/glorification.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Valleskey, David J. “The Pastor Must Be ‘Above Reproach’: An Examination of anepilemptos (1 Timothy 3:2) and anenkletos (Titus 1:6) with Application to the Public Ministry of the Gospel.” Wisconsin Lutheran Quarterly 96 (1999): 194–207.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The meaning of the Greek words translated as “above reproach” and “blameless” is an important element in establishing qualifications for ministry.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              First Timothy 5–6

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Two of the expressions in 1 Timothy 5:17, “double honor” and “especially,” are studied in Schöllgen 1989 and Kim 2004. Byrne 2001 examines 1 Timothy 6:6’s take on the Stoic virtue of self-sufficiency in relation to piety (eusebeia), a virtue examined in detail in Mihoc 2008, a study of the final chapter of 1 Timothy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Byrne, P. J. “1 Tim 6:6 ‘A Window on the World of the Pastorals.’” Proceedings of the Irish Biblical Association 24 (2001): 9–16.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The text makes self-sufficiency (autarkeia) a part of piety (eusebeia).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kim, Hong Bom. “The Interpretation of malista in 1 Timothy 5:17.” Novum Testamentum 46 (2004): 360–368.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The traditional translation of malista, “especially,” remains the best translation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mihoc, Vasile. “The Final Admonition to Timothy (1 Tim 6,3–21).” In 1 Timothy Reconsidered. Edited by Karl Paul Donfried, 135–152. Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Includes a significant reflection on the use of eusebeia in 1 Timothy 6:3 (pp. 141–143).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Schöllgen, Georg. “Die diple time, von 1 Tim 5,17.” Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der Älteren Kirche 80 (1989): 232–239.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The practice of different kinds of associations in Greco-Roman society to give a double or triple portion during the meal to a deserving member, especially a leader, sheds light on 1 Timothy 5:17.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Second Timothy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Torres 2002 and MaGee 2008 study the figure of Paul in 2 Timothy; Huston 1997 examines the figure of Timothy. Given the importance given of 2 Timothy 3:16 for the Christian understanding of the inspiration of Scripture, Häfner 2000 studies the verse and the epistle’s use of the Jewish Scriptures. Poythress 2002 examines the key adverb in 2 Timothy 4:13.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Häfner, Gerd. Nützlich zur Belehrung (2 Tim 3, 16): Die Rolle der Schrift in den Pastoralbriefen im Rahmen der Paulusrezeption. Herders Biblische Studien 25. Freiburg, Germany: Herder, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        With 2 Timothy 3:16 as a leitmotif, this is a study of the use of Scripture in 1 Timothy 2:13–14, 4:3–4, 5:18, 2 Timothy 2:19, 3:8–9.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Huston, C. R. “Was Timothy Timid? On the Rhetoric of Fearlessness (1 Corinthians 16:10–11) and Cowardice (2 Timothy 1:7).” Biblical Research 42 (1997): 58–73.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The reference to a spirit of cowardice in 2 Timothy 1:7 is intended to prod Timothy to take decisive action.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MaGee, Gregory S. “Paul’s Response to the Shame and Pain of Imprisonment in 2 Timothy.” Bibliotheca Sacra 165 (2008): 338–353.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Portraying traits of shame and hardship that are associated with the life of a prisoner and are verified by other ancient sources, the Epistle shows Paul resisting these pressures for the sake of the gospel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Poythress, Vern Sheridan. “The Meaning of malista in 2 Timothy 4:13 and Related Verses.” Journal of Theological Studies 53 (2002): 523–532.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/jts/53.2.523Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Malista means “especially,” not “namely.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Torres, M. L. “Pauline Vicissitudes and 2 Tim 3:11.” Hermeneutica 2 (2002): 45–59.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Within the context of a Greco-Roman circumstantial catalogue, 2 Timothy 3:11 presents Paul, faced with opposition from Jews and Gentile, confronting death itself.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Titus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Epistle to Titus is an essay on early Church order. Marshall 2008 studies the use made of the figure of Paul in Titus, and Wieland 2009 examines its relationship to the historical and cultural situation of Crete. De Villiers 2000, Faber 2005, and Gray 2007 study Titus 1:12, the only verse in the New Testament to quote a pagan author. Smith and Song 2006 exploits the Christology of Titus 2:13. Zimmermann 2009 studies the doctrine of salvation in Titus 3:5.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • De Villiers, Pieter G. R. “A Pauline Letter and a Pagan Prophet.” Acta Patristica et Byzantina 11 (2000): 74–92.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Discusses the association of the saying quoted in Titus 1:12 with Epimenides.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Faber, Riemer. “‘Evil Beasts, Lazy Gluttons’: A Neglected Theme in the Epistle to Titus.” Westminster Theological Journal 67 (2005): 135–145.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Titus 1:12 is intended to show that doctrinal error is accompanied by moral misconduct.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gray, Patrick. “The Liar Paradox and the Letter to Titus.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 69 (2007): 302–314.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The statement attributed to a Cretan in Titus 1:12 is an oxymoron that should be seen in the light of logical paradoxes in Antiquity and what the Pastorals say about speech in its various forms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Marshall, John W. “‘I Left You in Crete’: Narrative Description and Social Hierarchy in the Letter to Titus.” Journal of Biblical Literature 127 (2008): 781–803.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The epistle achieves its rhetorical force by appropriating and adapting the image of Paul as argument from ethos.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Smith, Kevin, and Arthur Song. “Some Christological Implications in Titus 2,13.” Neotestamentica 40 (2006): 284–294.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Identifies the contributions of the key terms to an understanding of the verse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wieland, George M. “Roman Crete and the Letter to Titus.” New Testament Studies 55 (2009): 338–354.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/S0028688509000241Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Shows how the Epistle relates to societal, cultural, and religious life in 1st-century Crete.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Zimmermann, Christiane. “Wiederentstehung und Erneuerung (Tit 3:5): Zu einem erhaltenswerten Aspekt der Soteriologie des Titusbriefs.” Novum Testamentum 51 (2009): 272–295.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A study of the formula “through the water of rebirth and renewal” (Titus 3:5), which holds that palingenesia should be translated as “regeneration” rather than “rebirth.”

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