Buddhism Buddhist Thought and Western Philosophy
by
Jin Y. Park
  • LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 24 April 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195393521-0057

Introduction

Buddhist-Western comparative philosophy is a relatively new field. Most work in this area has been done since the 1980s, even though initial efforts began during the 1940s. Among the diverse Buddhist schools, Mādhyamika Buddhism (especially Nāgārjuna) and Zen Buddhism are those most studied in comparison with Western philosophies. There is no one way to create a general theme for the field, but different time periods tend to focus on specific Western philosophers or a philosophical school in comparison with Buddhism. During the 1970s, process philosophy dominated the field, whereas in the 1990s Buddhist-postmodern comparative philosophy attracted comparative philosophers. During the first decade of the 21st century, a comparison of Buddhism and Derridean deconstruction generated a sizable number of publications. This bibliography is categorized by Western philosophical schools or thinkers instead of Buddhist thinkers, schools, or specific themes. The total number of publications in this field is steadily growing, and the sparsely touched areas, such as analytic philosophy and Tibetan Buddhism, are on the way to joining this group of publications.

General Overviews

No comprehensive anthologies or textbooks on Buddhist-Western comparative philosophy are available yet. The entries in this section offer major themes and perspectives in this field. Inada and Jacobson 1984 is one of the earliest anthologies that explored the common ground of Buddhism and Western philosophy, with a focus on American philosophy. Abe 1985 is a seminal work that compares Zen with diverse Western philosophies. Park 2006 offers essays on Buddhism and deconstruction; Park and Kopf 2009 discusses Buddhism and Merleau-Ponty. Wang 2007 deals with the ethical dimension in Asian philosophy and deconstruction, and D’Amato, et al. 2009 looks at Buddhist philosophy together with analytic philosophy. Faure 2004 examines some of the major Buddhist concepts in line with Western philosophical traditions, and Goodman 2009 proposes a Buddhist ethical paradigm as a form of consequentialism.

  • Abe, Masao. Zen and Western Thought. Edited by William R. LaFleur. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1985.

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    This is the first of a four-volume collection that addresses the concepts of mu, nirvana, purity, emptiness, and buddha-nature in comparison with the philosophies of Nietzsche, Whitehead, Tillich, Christianity, and science. Essays are relatively short and are accessible to nonspecialists as well.

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    • D’Amato, Mario, Jay L. Garfield, and Tom J. F. Tillemans. Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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      This book addresses a range of issues related to philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, logic, epistemology, and metaphysics, at the intersection of Buddhist and Western philosophical and logical traditions. This is a seminal contribution to the growing new field.

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      • Faure, Bernard. Double Exposure: Cutting across Buddhist and Western Discourses. Translated by Janet Lloyd. Cultural Memory in the Present. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.

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        Written for serious nonspecialist readers, according to the author, this book discusses Buddhism in connection with Western thinkers from Plato to Derrida, exploring the possibility of Buddhism’s being integrated into the Western philosophical discourse.

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        • Goodman, Charles. Consequences of Compassion: An Interpretation and Defense of Buddhist Ethics. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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          This book discusses Buddhist ethics by employing various ethical theories of the West. A good contribution to the growing field of Buddhist ethics.

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          • Inada, Kenneth K., and Nolan P. Jacobson, eds. Buddhism and American Thinkers. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984.

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            Contains nine essays discussing Buddhism in connection with the philosophies of American thinkers, including James, Whitehead, Peirce, and Hartshorne, on the themes of suffering, the social nature of reality, freedom, compassion, and the problem of personal identity, emphasizing the common ground shared by two philosophical traditions.

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            • Park, Jin Y., ed. Buddhisms and Deconstructions. New Frameworks for Continental Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

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              The thirteen essays and afterword in this book discuss the shared mode of philosophy in Buddhism (especially Mādhyamika and Zen Buddhism) and Derridean deconstruction. Introduction offers a brief history of Buddhist-Western comparative philosophy.

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              • Park, Jin Y., and Gereon Kopf, eds. Merleau-Ponty and Buddhism. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2009.

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                Contains thirteen chapters discussing major themes of Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy, including visibility, somaticity, and philosophy of language, in comparison with philosophies of major Buddhist thinkers, including Nāgārjuna, Chinul, Dōgen, Shinran, and Nishida Kitarō.

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                • Wang, Youru, ed. Deconstruction and the Ethical in Asian Thought. Routledge Studies in Asian Religion and Philosophy. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.

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                  Contains twelve essays on the ethical dimension and function of deconstruction, by examining various schools of Asian thought, including Indian Buddhism, Zen, other schools of East Asian Buddhism, the Kyōto school, and Daoism, in connection with Derridean deconstruction.

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                  Journals

                  Two major journals offer venues for articles on Buddhist-Western comparative philosophy. Journals have been a main source of publications in this field, in which book-length works are relatively small in number. Philosophy East and West is the oldest and most prestigious journal in this field. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy is a more recent but fast-growing journal in this field. Journal of Chinese Philosophy focuses mainly on Chinese philosophy but also publishes Chinese-Western comparative philosophy.

                  Buddhism and Ancient and Medieval Philosophy

                  Chatterjee 1977 claims for the absence of skepticism in Buddhism, whereas Garfield 1990 proposes skepticism as a response to metaphysical extremism, and Garner 1977 discusses Sextus Empiricus’s skepticism in connection with Chinese Buddhist scholars; namely, Sengzhao and Jizang. Cohen 1976 looks at two different concepts of death and dying, Srivastava 1998 examines the noumenon and phenomenon in Plato and Nāgārjuna, and Fredericks 1995 studies the incomprehensibility of God in comparison with Nāgārjuna’s middle path.

                  • Chatterjee, Dipankar. “Skepticism and Indian Philosophy.” In Special Issue: Dialogue in Skepticism. Philosophy East and West 27.2 (1977): 195–209.

                    DOI: 10.2307/1397616Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    This article exposes the absence of skepticism in Indian philosophy and examines how skepticism could affect the relationship between knowledge and language, while conjecturing how some representative schools of Indian philosophy might react to criticism from the skeptics. Available online through purchase.

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                    • Cohen, Maurice. “Dying as Supreme Opportunity: A Comparison of Plato’s Phaedo and The Tibetan Book of the Dead.” Philosophy East and West 26.3 (1976): 317–327.

                      DOI: 10.2307/1397862Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      This article compares two theories on dying: one present in Plato’s Phaedo, the other in The Tibetan Book of the Dead. Available online through purchase.

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                      • Fredericks, James L. “The Incomprehensibility of God: A Buddhist Reading of Aquinas.” Theological Studies 56.3 (1995): 506–520.

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                        This article interprets the Thomist doctrine of the incomprehensibility of God, through a reading of Nāgārjuna’s middle path and the Buddhist notion of emptiness.

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                        • Garfield, Jay L. “Epoche and Śūnyatā: Skepticism East and West.” Philosophy East and West 40.3 (1990): 285–307.

                          DOI: 10.2307/1399425Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          Provides a cross-cultural expository defense of skepticism as a moderate solution to the problems stemming from metaphysical extremism, comparing Sextus Empiricus’s skepticism with Nāgārjuna’s emptiness via Kant and Wittgenstein. Available online through purchase.

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                          • Garner, Dick. “Skepticism, Ordinary Language and Zen Buddhism.” Philosophy East and West 27.2 (1977): 165–181.

                            DOI: 10.2307/1397614Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            Sextus Empiricus’s concept of tranquility through nonaction is compared with those of Sengzhao and Jizang and further explored with the comparison of Wittgenstein’s and Austin’s theories of language. Available online through purchase.

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                            • Srivastava, C. P. “Plato and Nāgārjuna on Saṁvṛti and Paramārtha: Some Converging Perspectives.” Indian Philosophical Quarterly 25.3 (1998): 387–392.

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                              Examines the idealism of Plato and Nāgārjuna in relation to two standpoints of the phenomenal and noumenal in these two philosophies.

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                              Buddhism and Modern European Philosophy

                              Buddhist concepts of self and personal identity are discussed in connection with Cartesian self (Baran 1996), Humean identity (Giles 1993, Jacobson 1969), and the identity in Spinoza (Wienpahl 1971). The Kantian moral principle is interpreted as having affinity with Zen meditation (Olson 1993), Leibniz’s and Fazang’s views of the universe are compared (Liu 1982), and the buddha is claimed to be the spiritual ancestor of Spinoza (Melamed 1933).

                              • Baran, Gary L. “A Buddhist and a Hindu Critique of Descartes.” In East-West Encounters in Philosophy and Religion. Edited by Ninian Smart and B. Srinivasa Murthy, 245–253. Long Beach, CA: Long Beach Press, 1996.

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                                Provides a critique of Descartes’s notion of the self, through the lens of Buddhism and Hinduism.

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                                • Giles, James. “The No-Self Theory: Hume, Buddhism, and Personal Identity.” Philosophy East and West 43.2 (1993): 175–200.

                                  DOI: 10.2307/1399612Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  Discusses the problem of maintaining the enduring personal identity in the philosophy of no-self of Buddhism (employing early Buddhism) and nonexistence of personal essence in Hume. Available online through purchase.

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                                  • Jacobson, Nolan Pliny. “The Possibility of Oriental Influence in Hume’s Philosophy.” Philosophy East and West 19.1 (1969): 17–37.

                                    DOI: 10.2307/1398094Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    This article discusses similarities between the buddha’s and Humean philosophies, especially in their understanding of human self, and attempts to answer the question of why the similarities exist. Available online through purchase.

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                                    • Liu, Ming-wood. “The Harmonious Universe of Fa-tsang and Leibniz.” Philosophy East and West 32.1 (1982): 61–76.

                                      DOI: 10.2307/1398752Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      Explores the affinity in Fazang’s Huayan worldview and Leibniz’s vision of the universe. Available online through purchase.

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                                      • Melamed, S. M. Spinoza and Buddha: Visions of a Dead God. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933.

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                                        Claims that Spinoza’s spiritual ancestor was not a Western philosopher, Descartes, but the buddha of the East.

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                                        • Olson, Phillip. The Discipline of Freedom: A Kantian View of the Role of Moral Precepts in Zen Practice. SUNY Series in Buddhist Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.

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                                          The author interprets Zen master Shunryu Suzuki’s account of Zen practice from a Kantian perspective and claims a connection between Zen meditation and Kantian universal moral principles.

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                                          • Wienpahl, Paul. “Ch’an Buddhism, Western Thought, and the Concept of Substance.” Inquiry 14.1–4 (1971): 84–101.

                                            DOI: 10.1080/00201747108601624Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Compares Chan Buddhism with Spinoza’s concept of egolessness and his rethinking of identity. Available online through purchase.

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                                            Buddhism and 19th-Century Continental Philosophy

                                            Buddhism’s position with 19th-century Continental philosophy takes two opposite sides. Philosophers such as Hegel claimed incompatibility between Buddhism and philosophical tradition of the West, whereas Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, and Schopenhauer have been understood as sharing their visions with Buddhism, sometimes without their awareness, as discussed in Droit 2003 and Dumoulin 1981. Affinity and differences between Schopenhauer’s philosophy and Buddhism are covered in Abelsen 1993 and Droit 1988, Bergson’s idea is compared with the Buddhist concept of consciousness-only in Saigusa 1969, and Buddhist suffering is compared with Marx’s concept of suffering in Vohra 1983. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche are most studied in comparison with Buddhism from this period, so separate sections on them follow. Dumoulin 1981 offers a concise introduction to the reception of Buddhism by the four German thinkers during this period. Droit 2003 offers a good introduction to the cause of the negative view of Buddhism in Europe. Nishitani 1990 provides philosophical investigation of nihilism in 19th-century thinkers and Buddhism.

                                            • Abelsen, Peter. “Schopenhauer and Buddhism.” Philosophy East and West 43.2 (1993): 255–278.

                                              DOI: 10.2307/1399616Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              The author challenges the position underlining the similarities between Buddhism and Schopenhauer’s philosophy and uncovers conceptual variances found in Schopenhauer’s Buddhist philosophies. Available online through purchase.

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                                              • Droit, Roger-Pol. “Schopenhauer et le Bouddhisme: Une ‘Admirable Concordance’?” In Schopenhauer: New Essays in Honor of His 200th Birthday. Edited by Eric von der Luft, 123–138. Studies in German Thought and History. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon, 1988.

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                                                Discusses the fundamental affinities between Buddhism and Schopenhauer’s philosophy and also addresses the basic differences between the two.

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                                                • Droit, Roger-Pol. The Cult of Nothingness: The Philosophers and the Buddha. Translated by David Streight and Pamela Vohnson. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

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                                                  This book offers European reactions to Buddhism from 1784 to 1893, drawing from writings by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Hegel, Cousin, and Renan, with special attention to these thinkers’ characterization of Buddhism as a religion of annihilation.

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                                                  • Dumoulin, Heinrich. “Buddhism and Nineteenth-Century German Philosophy.” Journal of the History of Ideas 42.3 (1981): 457–470.

                                                    DOI: 10.2307/2709187Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    This essay discusses the reception of Buddhism by 19th-century German philosophers, namely, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche. Available online through purchase.

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                                                    • Nishitani Keiji. The Self-Overcoming of Nihilism. Translated by Graham Parkes. SUNY Series in Modern Japanese Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

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                                                      Offers a philosophical investigation of nihilism of Hegel, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Feuerbach, and Nietzsche in comparison with Buddhism.

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                                                      • Saigusa, Mitsuyoshi. “Henri Bergson and Buddhist Thought.” Philosophical Studies of Japan 9 (1969): 79–102.

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                                                        Finds compatibility between Buddhist thought and Bergson’s intuition, focusing on the correlation between Bergson’s ideas and Buddhist consciousness-only theory.

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                                                        • Vohra, Ashok. “The Notion of Suffering in Buddhism and Marxism.” Dialectics and Humanism 10 (1983): 97–102.

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                                                          Claims that the buddha and Marx have a similar conception of suffering as the common lot of all men. For both, suffering occurs not as an individual, isolated phenomenon, but as a universal condition of humankind.

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                                                          Buddhism and Kierkegaard

                                                          Kierkegaard’s internal reflection on and challenge to Christianity’s overintellectualization (Jacobson 1952), his theory of art (Pattison 1989), and concept of human insufficiency (Smith 1996) are compared with Zen Buddhism. Uniqueness of Kierkegaard’s philosophy in the Western philosophical tradition is discussed in connection with various Japanese philosophical traditions (Giles 2008).

                                                          • Giles, James, ed. Kierkegaard and Japanese Thought. Basingstoke, UK, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

                                                            DOI: 10.1057/9780230589827Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            This book examines Kierkegaard’s philosophy in comparison with Japanese philosophy, including that of Dōgen, Hakuin, Nishida Kitarō, Pure Land Buddhism, and samurai spirit, explaining the enigmatic nature of Kierkegaard’s philosophy, which goes beyond the boundary of 19th-century European thought in that context.

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                                                            • Jacobson, Nolan Pliny. “The Predicament of Man in Zen Buddhism and Kierkegaard.” Philosophy East and West 2.3 (1952): 238–253.

                                                              DOI: 10.2307/1397273Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              This essay claims that both Kierkegaard and Zen Buddhism criticize overintellectualization in the existing traditions and point to inwardness as a new source for the understanding of self. Available online through purchase.

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                                                              • Pattison, George. “Eternal Loneliness: Art and Religion in Kierkegaard and Zen.” Religious Studies 25.3 (1989): 379–392.

                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S0034412500019910Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                Examines theories of art and religion in Kierkegaard and Zen Buddhism. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                • Smith, Joel R. “Human Insufficiency in Shinran and Kierkegaard.” Asian Philosophy 6.2 (1996): 117–127.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/09552369608575434Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Examines the comparability of Shinran and Kierkegaard’s theistic views, which similarly emphasize faith, grace, and the person’s radical insufficiency to attain complete self-transformation.

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                                                                  Buddhism and Nietzsche

                                                                  Despite Nietzsche’s definition of Buddhism as a “religion of disgust,” scholars find ample affinity between Nietzsche’s philosophy and Buddhism. Morrison 1997 offers a comprehensive comparison in discussing the similar philosophical vision of Nietzsche and Buddhism. Parkes 1991 is most well known and contains essays comparing Nietzsche with diverse Asian thought. Conche 1987 explores Nietzsche’s dual attitude toward Buddhism; Elman 1983, Mistry 1981, and Parkes 1993 discuss the position of nihilism in Nietzsche and Buddhism.

                                                                  • Conche, Marcel. “Nietzsche et le Bouddhisme.” La Cahier 4 (1987): 125–144.

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                                                                    A good introduction to Nietzsche’s dual attitude toward Buddhism.

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                                                                    • Elman, Benjamin A. “Nietzsche and Buddhism.” Journal of the History of Ideas 44.4 (1983): 671–686.

                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/2709223Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Seeks to shed light on the role nihilism has played in Nietzsche’s philosophical writings, through an analysis of Nietzsche’s understanding of Buddhism and an examination of the claim that Buddhism is itself guilty of nihilism.

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                                                                      • Mistry, Freny. Nietzsche and Buddhism: Prolegomenon to a Comparative Study. Monographien und Texte zur Nietzsche-Forschung. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 1981.

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                                                                        This book demonstrates the proximity of spiritual outlook and ethical philosophy in Nietzsche and Buddhism, through discussion of the overcoming of metaphysics and nihilism, the self, and the universe.

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                                                                        • Morrison, Robert G. Nietzsche and Buddhism: A Study in Nihilism and Ironic Affinities. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

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                                                                          Offers a comprehensive comparison between Nietzsche’s philosophy and Buddhism, on themes including the “will to power” and thirst, self-overcoming, and mind development, demonstrating that despite Nietzsche’s intention to avoid Buddhism, his philosophy has much more affinity with it than he was aware of.

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                                                                          • Parkes, Graham. “Nietzsche and Nishitani on the Self-Overcoming of Nihilism.” International Studies in Philosophy 25.2 (1993): 51–60.

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                                                                            Explores Nishitani Keiji’s discussion of nihilism as a conversion point of Buddhism and Nietzsche, via the Buddhist concept of emptiness.

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                                                                            • Parkes, Graham, ed. Nietzsche and Asian Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

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                                                                              Contains essays on Nietzsche and Nāgārjuna and Nietzsche and Dōgen.

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                                                                              Buddhism and 20th-Century Continental Philosophy

                                                                              Twentieth-century Continental philosophy has been the most productive source of Buddhist-Western comparative philosophy. This is the field in which scholars not only engage themselves with the traditional Buddhist themes but also explore a new philosophical paradigm, by using Buddhist-Western comparative philosophy as a foundation. Kopf 2001, Laycock 1994, Mohanty 1972, and Odin 1981 discuss Buddhism in connection with Continental phenomenology, including the philosophy of Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre. Goodchild 1993 deals with the issue of language in Zen and Gilles Deleuze, Konik 2009 examines Buddhism through Foucauldian lenses, Loy 1996 looks at Buddhism in the context of psychotherapy, and Ziporyn 2004 offers a creative interpretation of Tiantai Buddhism in connection with diverse Western philosophical traditions.

                                                                              • Goodchild, Philip. “Speech and Silence in the Mumonkan: An Examination of Use of Language in Light of the Philosophy of Gilles Deleuze.” Philosophy East and West 43.1 (1993): 1–18.

                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/1399466Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Examines similarities between the use of language in the Mumonkan and Gilles Deleuze’s The Logic of Sense, showing how the techniques of paradox and negation can express a profound meaning, such as religious insight, that escapes the normal powers of expression in language. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                • Konik, Adrian. Buddhism and Transgression: The Appropriation of Buddhism in the Contemporary West. Numen Book Series: Studies in the History of Religions. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2009.

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                                                                                  This book uses Foucauldian discourse analysis to reconceptualize the role of Buddhism in the world, by linking Buddhist practice with acts of discursive transgression.

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                                                                                  • Kopf, Gereon. Beyond Personal Identity: Dōgen, Nishida, and a Phenomenology of No-Self. Routledge Studies in Asian Religion. London and New York: Routledge, 2001.

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                                                                                    This book discusses Dōgen’s Buddhism and the philosophy of Nishida Kitarō on the issues of personal identity, selfhood, otherness, and temporality, by engaging philosophies of Continental thinkers, including Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre.

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                                                                                    • Laycock, Steven. Mind as Mirror and the Mirroring of Mind: Buddhist Reflections on Western Phenomenology. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.

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                                                                                      This book challenges the phenomenology of Husserl, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty and questions the fundamental assumptions that undergird the Western phenomenological tradition, by applying Mādhyamika dialectic and zazen phenomenology to Western philosophy.

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                                                                                      • Loy, David. Lack and Transcendence: The Problem of Death and Life in Psychotherapy, Existentialism, and Buddhism. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1996.

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                                                                                        This book claims that, despite the differences in their methods and goals, psychotherapy, existentialism, and Buddhism are concerned with the same fundamental issues of life and death and death-in-life.

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                                                                                        • Mohanty, Jitendra N. “Phenomenology and Existentialism: Encounter with Indian Philosophy.” International Philosophy Quarterly 12.4 (1972): 485–511.

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                                                                                          Explores the possibility of understanding Indian philosophy in the context of the phenomenology of Husserl, including the concept of transcendental subjectivity.

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                                                                                          • Odin, Steve. “Fantasy Variation and the Horizon of Openness: A Phenomenological Interpretation of Tantric Buddhist Enlightenment.” International Philosophy Quarterly 21.4 (1981): 419–435.

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                                                                                            Huayen Buddhist concept of lishi wuai (noninterference between noumenon and phenomenon) is discussed in connection with the tantric praxis of envisioning form/emptiness mandala environments through visualization exercises, and both are interpreted in terms of the Western phenomenological praxis.

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                                                                                            • Ziporyn, Brook. Being and Ambiguity: Philosophical Experiments with Tiantai Buddhism. Chicago: Open Court, 2004.

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                                                                                              Collection of short essays on various themes, including identity, determinacy, contextuality, being, desire, boredom, addiction, love, and truth. The author explores these through his theory of neo-Tiantai Buddhism, drawn from classical Chinese Tiantai Buddhism’s three truths, and engages them with philosophies of Hegel, Nietzsche, Freud, Lacan, Wittgenstein, and more.

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                                                                                              Buddhism and Postmodernism

                                                                                              Glass 1995 discusses Buddhist emptiness and the theory of the buddha-nature in connection with postmodern philosophy of Derrida, Taylor, and Heidegger; Klein 1994 explores the Buddhist theory of subjectivity in connection with feminism; Olson 2000 discusses Zen and postmodernism, providing a new mode of representative narrative aiming for liberation; and Park 2008 proposes a Buddhist-postmodern ethical paradigm.

                                                                                              • Glass, Newman Robert. Working Emptiness: Toward a Third Reading of Emptiness in Buddhism and Postmodern Thought. American Academy of Religion Reflection and Theory in the Study of Religion. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                Discusses the three types of emptiness—emptiness as presence, as difference, and as subtraction/essence—and applies these ideas to Derrida, Taylor, and Heidegger in comparison with the śūnyatā theory, tathāgata-garbha, and the buddha-nature.

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                                                                                                • Klein, Anne C. “Presence with a Difference: Buddhists and Feminists on Subjectivity.” In Special Issue: Feminist Philosophy of Religion. Hypatia 9.4 (1994): 112–130.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1527-2001.1994.tb00652.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  The relationship between essentialist and postmodern feminism is examined through the Buddhist theories of subjectivity. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                  • Olson, Carl. Zen and the Art of Postmodern Philosophy: Two Paths of Liberation from the Representational Mode of Thinking. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                    Examines the philosophical positions between various postmodern thinkers and Zen Buddhist philosophers (e.g., Dōgen and Nishitani) on different themes, including language and play, self and other, and time and death, and claims that both postmodernism and Zen Buddhism try to overcome the shortcomings of the representational mode of thinking.

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                                                                                                    • Park, Jin Y. Buddhism and Postmodernity: Zen, Huayan and the Possibility of Buddhist Postmodern Ethics. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2008.

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                                                                                                      Discusses Buddhist concepts of self, language, and truth and offers a Buddhist postmodern ethical paradigm, through a close analysis of Zen encounter dialogue (gong’an) and Huayan Buddhist philosophy in connection with the philosophies of Kristeva, Merleau-Ponty, Lyotard, and Derrida, by employing the paradigm of centripetality, centrifugality, and the tension between them.

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                                                                                                      Buddhism and Derrida

                                                                                                      Magliola 1984 was the first book connecting Buddhism with Derridean deconstruction. Park 2006 provides a good selection of essays on the topic. Wang 2007 offers essays on the ethical dimension of Buddhism and deconstruction. Loy 1996 and Magliola 1997 expand the comparison of Buddhism and Derridean deconstruction into Buddhist-Christian dialogue. Coward 1990 and Foshay 1994 discuss the role of language in Buddhist and Derridean deconstruction. Loy 1992 explores different types of deconstruction in Buddhism and Derrida.

                                                                                                      • Coward, Harold. Derrida and Indian Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                        The philosophy of Derrida is analyzed together with traditional Indian philosophies, the Hindu philosopher Bhartrhari, Chinese Daoism, and Buddhist philosophy of Nāgārjuna, with a focus on the philosophy of language.

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                                                                                                        • Foshay, Toby Avard. “Denegation, Nonduality, and Language in Derrida and Dōgen.” Philosophy East and West 44.3 (1994): 543–558.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/1399740Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Explores the role of language in the thought of Derrida, Nāgārjuna, and Dōgen, specifically using Derrida’s essay “How to Avoid Speaking: Denials,” Nāgārjuna’s Mūlamadhyamakakārika, and Dōgen’s admonition that “words and letters liberate” rather than reify. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                          • Loy, David. “The Deconstruction of Buddhism.” In Derrida and Negative Theology. Edited by Harold Coward and Toby Foshay, 227–253. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                            Provides an overview of how Buddhism is at once ontotheological (that which needs to be deconstructed) and deconstructive (providing examples of how to deconstruct) and discusses Derrida’s logocentric deconstruction from a Buddhist perspective.

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                                                                                                            • Loy, David, ed. Healing Deconstruction: Postmodern Thought in Buddhism and Christianity. American Academy of Religion Reflection and Theory in the Study of Religion. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                              Puts together the two contemporary developments of the Buddhist-Christian dialogue and Derridean deconstruction, exploring the healing possibilities of deconstruction and at the same time the Buddhist-Christian dialogue’s healing power for deconstruction, discussing the issues of the buddha, the god, mindfulness, and language.

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                                                                                                              • Magliola, Robert. Derrida on the Mend. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1984.

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                                                                                                                Examines Derridean deconstruction and Nāgārjuna’s four-cornered logic, focusing on differentialism manifested in both philosophies in connection with the centrism with which the author characterizes Heidegger’s philosophy and Christianity.

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                                                                                                                • Magliola, Robert. On Deconstructing Life-Worlds: Buddhism, Christianity, Culture. American Academy of Religion Cultural Criticism Series. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                  Various Derridean concepts, including trace and difference, are discussed with the Buddhist two levels of truth and the logic of the tetralemma. The author also applies these themes to his own life story.

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                                                                                                                  • Park, Jin Y., ed. Buddhisms and Deconstructions. New Frameworks for Continental Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

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                                                                                                                    Contains thirteen essays in which Nāgārjuna’s tetralemma, Huayan worldview, and Zen gong’an language, as well as Buddhist-Christian dialogue, are considered in connection with Derridean deconstruction.

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                                                                                                                    • Wang, Youru, ed. Deconstruction and the Ethical in Asian Thought. Routledge Studies in Asian Religion and Philosophy. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.

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                                                                                                                      Contains twelve essays in two sections: the first section deals with the deconstruction of normative ethics, and the second section discusses similarities and differences between the Levinasian-Derridean and Asian ethical paradigm.

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                                                                                                                      Buddhism and Heidegger

                                                                                                                      Heidegger’s rejection of metaphysics (Steffney 1977), his unique understanding of the truth (Kapstein 1992) and time (Heine 1985), and his ontology based on ontic-ontological difference and Heidegger’s concept of releasement (Kreeft 1971 and Olson 1981) are major themes of Buddhist-Heideggerian comparative philosophy. Parkes 1990 was one of the first volumes on this theme. Ecological relevance of Heidegger and Buddhism is explored in Zimmerman 1993. It is now clear that Heidegger’s philosophy was influenced by Eastern thought, especially Daoism and Zen Buddhism, as detailed in May 1996.

                                                                                                                      • Heine, Steven. Existential and Ontological Dimensions of Time in Heidegger and Dōgen. SUNY Series in Buddhist Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                        A step-by-step comparison of Heidegger’s Being and Time and Dōgen’s Shōbōgenzō, on the themes of time and temporality, death and dying, and finitude and impermanence.

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                                                                                                                        • Kapstein, Matthew. “The Trouble with Truth: Heidegger on Aletheia, Buddhist Thinkers on Satya.” Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research 9.2 (1992): 69–85.

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                                                                                                                          An analysis of the meaning of truth in Heidegger and Indian Buddhism.

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                                                                                                                          • Kreeft, Peter. “Zen in Heidegger’s ‘Gelassenheit.’” International Philosophical Quarterly 11.4 (1971): 521–545.

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                                                                                                                            Offers an analysis of Heidegger’s Gelasseneheit (“releasement”) with Zen Buddhist concepts of no-mind, satori, and detachment.

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                                                                                                                            • May, Reinhard. Heidegger’s Hidden Sources: East-Asian Influences on His Work. Translated by Graham Parkes. London and New York: Routledge, 1996.

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                                                                                                                              Explains that Heidegger drew some of the major themes of his philosophy from German translations of Daoist and Zen Buddhist classics.

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                                                                                                                              • Olson, Carl. “The Leap of Thinking: A Comparison of Heidegger and the Zen Master Dōgen.” Philosophy Today 25.1 (1981): 55–62.

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                                                                                                                                Explores the affinity between Heidegger’s and Dōgen’s thought, especially on the issue of thinking, the identity of man, and Gelassenheit.

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                                                                                                                                • Parkes, Graham, ed. Heidegger and Asian Thought. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                  Collection of essays discussing Heidegger’s thinking in relation to Vedanta, Daoism, and Zen and Tibetan Buddhism.

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                                                                                                                                  • Steffney, John. “Transmetaphysical Thinking in Heidegger and Zen Buddhism.” Philosophy East and West 27.3 (1977): 323–335.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/1398002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    By comparing Heidegger with Zen Buddhism, this article evaluates Heidegger’s attempt to think beyond metaphysics. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                    • Zimmerman, Michael E. “Heidegger, Buddhism, and Deep Ecology.” In The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger. Edited by Charles Guignon, 240–269. Cambridge Companions to Philosophy. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CCOL0521385709Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      This essay argues that Heidegger, Mahayana Buddhism, and the deep ecologist Arne Naess share the idea that humans are the “nothingness” in which entities can display themselves and thus “be.” The ecological crisis stems from humans’ wrongly considering themselves to be entities, for example, egos, that must defend themselves by dominating nonhuman entities.

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                                                                                                                                      Buddhism and Husserl

                                                                                                                                      Two major issues in the comparison of Buddhism with Husserl’s phenomenology are (1) the question of Buddhism as a phenomenology (Bossert 1976) and (2) comparison of the concept of consciousness in Buddhism and Husserl’s phenomenology (Larrabee 1981 and Laycock 1985). Husserl’s understanding of Buddhism is explored in Schumann 1992.

                                                                                                                                      • Bossert, Philip J. “Paradox and Enlightenment in Zen Dialogue and Phenomenological Description.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 3.3 (1976): 269–280.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6253.1976.tb00393.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Discusses similarities between Husserl’s method of epoche and reduction to solve seeming paradoxes in transcendental phenomenology and a method suggested by Chung-Ying Cheng (ontic noncommitment and ontological reduction) for the resolution of certain paradoxes in Zen Buddhist gong’an.

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                                                                                                                                        • Larrabee, M. J. “The One and the Many: Yogācāra Buddhism and Husserl.” Philosophy East and West 31.1 (1981): 3–15.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/1399062Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          This article sketches a comparison between the ālaya-vijñāna of Buddhist idealism and the “flux” of Husserlian idealism, alternatively termed inner-time consciousness. The article addresses the extent to which one phase of Husserl’s notion of consciousness can shed light on some of the theoretical problems in the doctrine of the ālaya. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                          • Laycock, Steven. “Hui-neng and the Transcendental Standpoint.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 12.2 (1985): 179–196.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6253.1985.tb00006.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Examines the different ideas of consciousness espoused by Hui-neng, Husserl, and Sartre.

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                                                                                                                                            • Schumann, Karl. “Husserl and Indian Thought.” In Phenomenology and Indian Philosophy. Edited by D. P. Chattopadhyaya, Lester Embree, and Jitendranath Mohanty, 20–43. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                              Discusses Husserl’s understanding and evaluation of Buddhism.

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                                                                                                                                              Buddhism and Merleau-Ponty

                                                                                                                                              Merleau-Ponty seriously challenges the traditional dualisms of body and mind, the self and the world, and phenomenon and noumenon and proposes for them a chiasmic relationship. For Buddhist philosophers, Merleau-Ponty’s rejection of dualism and emphasis on intertwining of binary opposites open a shared space for a dialogue between Buddhist and Merleau-Ponty’s philosophies. A new ethical paradigm is also discussed in this shared mode of nondualist thinking. Park and Kopf 2009 offers a comprehensive anthology on Buddhist–Merleau-Pontean comparative philosophy. Levin 1997 discusses Merleau-Ponty and Nāgārjuna as a philosophy of liberation from structuralism, and Berman 2004 considers the sociopolitical and ethical implication of Merleau-Ponty’s and Buddhist philosophy.

                                                                                                                                              • Berman, Michael. “Merleau-Ponty and Nagarjuna: Relational Social Ontology and the Ground of Ethics.” Asian Philosophy 14.2 (2004): 131–146.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/0955236042000237372Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Offers a comparative analysis of the key ontological notions in Merleau-Ponty and Nāgārjuna and develops a relational social ontology that is grounded in their respective implicit and explicit ethics.

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                                                                                                                                                • Levin, David Michael. “Liberating Experience from the Vice of Structuralism: The Methods of Merleau-Ponty and Nagarjuna.” Philosophy Today 41.1 (1997): 96–111.

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                                                                                                                                                  The essay juxtaposes Nāgārjuna’s “deconstructive” logic with the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty and claims that Nāgārjunian and Merleau-Pontean philosophy offers a “third way” between rationalism and empiricism.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Park, Jin Y., and Gereon Kopf, eds. Merleau-Ponty and Buddhism. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                    Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology, with an emphasis on the chiasmic relationship between the subject and object, and his concepts of somaticity and the flesh and visibility are discussed in connection with the Buddhist philosophies of Nāgārjuna, Chinul, Dōgen, Shinran, and Nishida Kitarō.

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                                                                                                                                                    Buddhism and Sartre

                                                                                                                                                    Sartre’s proposal of nothingness, instead of essence, as the ground for ontology kindled comparative works of Buddhism and the philosophy of Sartre, as in Bosart 1986, Heyman 1997, and Laycock 2001. Teo 1973 considers the ethical dimension of Sartre’s and Buddhist philosophy.

                                                                                                                                                    • Bosart, William. “Sartre’s Theory of Consciousness and the Zen Doctrine of No-Mind.” In The Life of the Transcendental Ego: Essays in Honor of William Earle. Edited by Edward S. Casey and Donald V. Morano, 126–150. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                      This paper shows that Sartre’s theory of consciousness and Hui-neng’s doctrine of no-mind maintain similar characterizations of consciousness and agree that the self lies outside consciousness. At the same time, the paper illuminates their divergence regarding their ideas about the relationship between the self and consciousness.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Heyman, Derek K. “Dual and Non-Dual Ontology in Sartre and Mahayana Buddhism.” Man and World 30.4 (1997): 431–443.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1023/A:1004276714831Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Examines Sartre’s dualistic ontology in the light of the nonduality asserted by Mahayana Buddhism, comparing the ontologies and theories of consciousness posited by Sartre and Buddhism.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Laycock, Steven W. Nothingness and Emptiness: A Buddhist Engagement with the Ontology of Jean-Paul Sartre. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                          Challenges Sartre’s ontology in his Being and Nothingness by exploring it together with Mādhyamika and Zen Buddhism.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Teo, Wesley K. H. “Self-Responsibility in Existentialism and Buddhism.” International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4.2 (1973): 80–91.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/BF00138696Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Examines the ethical paradigm of Sartre, Kierkegaard, and Buddhism, with a focus on a person’s sense of responsibility. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                            Buddhism and Whitehead

                                                                                                                                                            Buddhism and Whiteheadian philosophy was the most productive field in the comparative studies of Buddhism and Western philosophy during the 1970s. Whiteheadian rejection of substantial essence and understanding of being as process are understood as the fundamental similarities in the Whiteheadian and Buddhist worldviews. Odin 1982 provides a comprehensive discussion on the theme, in connection with Huayan Buddhism. Cobb 1974 and Griffin 1974 approach Buddhist-Whiteheadian comparative philosophy from the perspectives of process philosophers, and Inada 1975 offers a Buddhist position on the comparison. Ford 1976 examines Whitehead’s understanding of Buddhism; in Olson 1975, Buddhist and Whiteheadian worldviews (Hartshorne 1975 and Kakol 2002) are compared, and the meaning of speculative philosophy in Whitehead and Buddhism is explored. Chapters 4 and 8 of Inada and Jacobson 1984 (cited under Buddhism and American Thinkers) also look at Buddhism in connection with Whitehead’s philosophy.

                                                                                                                                                            • Cobb, John B., Jr. “‘Mosa-Dharma’ and Prehension: Nagarjuna and Whitehead Compared.” Process Studies 4.1 (1974): 26–36.

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                                                                                                                                                              Examines the extent to which Nāgārjuna and Whitehead diverge in the religious and existential meanings drawn from this shared premise of the rejection of substantial existence.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Ford, Lewis S. “Whitehead’s Appropriation of the Teachings of the Buddha.” Religion in Life 45.2 (1976): 184–190.

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                                                                                                                                                                Whitehead’s scattered statements about Buddhism are collected and discussed, and the final chapter of his Adventures of Ideas (New York: Macmillan, 1933), on peace, is interpreted in terms of the Buddhist experience of satori.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Griffin, David R. “Buddhist Thought and Whitehead’s Philosophy.” International Philosophical Quarterly 14.3 (1974): 261–284.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Four Buddhist doctrines are compared with correlative Whiteheadian notions, so that ultimately Whitehead’s philosophy can be understood in a way in which it can provide the foundation for Buddhist and Christian thought and existence.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Hartshorne, Charles. “Whitehead’s Differences from Buddhism.” Philosophy East and West 25.4 (1975): 407–413.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/1398222Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Focuses on some significant differences between Whitehead’s metaphysics and Mahayana Buddhism. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Inada, Kenneth K. “The Metaphysics of Buddhist Experience and the Whiteheadian Encounter.” Philosophy East and West 25.4 (1975): 465–488.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/1398226Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Noting that comparative studies of Whitehead and Buddhist thought have been presented mainly from the Whiteheadian standpoint, this essay attempts to present the Buddhist perspective. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Kakol, Peter. “A General Theory of Worldviews Based on Mādhyamika and Process Philosophies.” Philosophy East and West 52.2 (2002): 207–223.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1353/pew.2002.0027Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        This paper compares Mādhyamika Buddhism and process philosophy in an effort to formulate a transcultural theory of worldviews. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Odin, Steve. Process Metaphysics and Hua-yen Buddhism: A Critical Study of Cumulative Penetration vs. Interpenetration. SUNY Series in Systematic Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Compares Huayan Buddhism and Whitehead’s process philosophy, focusing on the concept of interpenetration.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Olson, Robert F. “Whitehead, Mādhyamika, and the Prajñāpāramitā.” Philosophy East and West 25.4 (1975): 449–464.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/1398225Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Explores the incongruence of ideas between Whitehead and Buddhist thought in regard to the validity of speculative philosophy. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Buddhism and Analytic Philosophy

                                                                                                                                                                            There have been very few comparisons of Buddhism and analytical philosophy, with the exception of a comparison with Wittgenstein’s philosophy. In the early 21st century the field has attracted a group of scholars; D’Amato, et al. 2009 is a good example of this scholarship.

                                                                                                                                                                            • D’Amato, Mario, Jay L. Garfield, and Tom J. F. Tillemans, eds. Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Contains essays on three main themes of the ineffability and limits of language; two truths and the issues of the conventional and ultimate realities; and epistemology and the philosophy of mind.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Buddhism and Wittgenstein

                                                                                                                                                                              Buddhism’s engagements with Wittgensteinian philosophy focus on the investigation of language, as in Gudmunsen 1977, Cheng 1981, and Kalansuriya 1987. Thurman 1980 focuses on the concept of private language; Waldo 1975 and Anderson 1985 deal with the idea of language game.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Anderson, Tyson. “Wittgenstein and Nāgārjuna’s Paradox.” Philosophy East and West 35.2 (1985): 157–169.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/1399048Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                Evaluates the comparability of Nāgārjuna’s works to Wittgenstein’s philosophy, especially in his Tractatus and Philosophical Investigations. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Cheng, Hsueh-Li. “Nagarujuna, Kant and Wittgenstein: The San-Lun Mādhyamika Exposition of Emptiness.” Religious Studies 17.1 (1981): 67–85.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/S0034412500012798Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  Discusses similarities between Nāgārujuna’s and Kant’s critiques of metaphysics and exposes different approaches taken by Nāgārjuna and Wittgenstein in their evaluations of language.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gudmunsen, Chris. Wittgenstein and Buddhism. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Seeks to translate the Mādhyamika articulation of the Buddhist dharma by comparing it with the language analysis of Wittgenstein.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kalansuriya, A. D. P. A Philosophical Analysis of Buddhist Notions: The Buddha and Wittgenstein. New Delhi: Sri Satguru, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Interprets some of the major Buddhist concepts, including truth, causality, knowledge, and emancipation, by employing later Wittgensteinian philosophy, especially the theory of language game.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Thurman, R. A. “Philosophical Nonegocentrism in Wittgenstein and Candrakīrti in Their Treatment of the Private Language Problem.” Philosophy East and West 30.3 (1980): 321–337.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/1399191Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Explores the issue of Wittgensteinean “private language” with the Prāsaṅgika-Mādhyamika philosophers, ranging from Candrakīrti, in India (7th century), to Tsongkhapa (b. 1357–d. 1419), in Tibet. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Waldo, Ives. “Nāgārjuna and Analytic Philosophy.” Philosophy East and West 25.3 (1975): 281–290.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/1398198Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          A concise discussion on the issue of language in Nāgārjuna and Wittgenstein. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Buddhism and American Thinkers

                                                                                                                                                                                          A comparison of Buddhism and American thinkers marks one of the earliest efforts in Buddhist-Western comparative philosophy. Earlier publications date back to the 1950s. Inada and Jacobson 1984 offers a collection of essays that demonstrate major themes in this comparison, summarized into two issues: (1) process philosophy and (2) logic (Puhakka 1975). The Buddhist concept of self is discussed in connection with American thinkers in philosophy in Mathur 1978 and Odin 1996. Ames 1956 tries to use Zen Buddhism to resolve problems in American society.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ames, Van Meter. “Zen and American Philosophy.” Philosophy East and West 5.4 (1956): 305–320.

                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/1396882Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            This article pays attention to the growing interest in Zen literature in the 1950s in America and discusses the affinity between Zen philosophy and American thought, in an attempt to see the possibility of Zen Buddhism in offering remedy for some of problems American society experiences. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Inada, Kenneth K., and Nolan P. Jacobson, eds. Buddhism and American Thinkers. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Contains nine essays in which Buddhist concepts of self, dependent coarising, and others are discussed in connection with the philosophies of American thinkers, including James, Peirce, and Whitehead, with an emphasis on the common ground shared by the two philosophical traditions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mathur, D. C. “The Historical Buddha (Gotama), Hume, and James on the Self: Comparisons and Evaluations.” Philosophy East and West 28.3 (1978): 253–269.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/1398236Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Discusses the Buddha’s approach to the problem of the self in comparison with the “radical empiricism” of James and the “brick-and-mortar” empiricism of Hume. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Odin, Steve. The Social Self in Zen and American Pragmatism. SUNY Series in Constructive Postmodern Thought. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Proposes that there was a social turn in modern Japanese Zen Buddhist philosophy of the Kyōto school and American pragmatism (especially G. H. Mead) and examines conflicting issues, such as individualism versus collectivism, freedom versus determinism, liberalism versus communitarianism, and relativism versus objectivism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Puhakka, Kaisa. Knowledge and Reality: A Comparative Study of Quine and Some Buddhist Logicians. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    This work examines the logical, epistemological, and ontological doctrines of Buddhism through Dignāga, Dharmakīrti, and Ratnakīrti, in comparison with the philosophy of W. V. Quine.

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