Buddhism Buddhism and Shinto
by
Mark Teeuwen
  • LAST MODIFIED: 13 January 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195393521-0188

Introduction

The historical relationship between Buddhism and Shinto in Japan has been a hotly debated topic within the field of Japanese religion beginning in the 1980s. Since then, views on this topic have changed rather radically. The debate began in earnest when the traditional understanding of Shinto, as Japan’s original indigenous religion, was challenged by Kuroda Toshio (see Kuroda 1981, cited under Shinto’s Historical Relationship to Buddhism). This traditional view posited the existence of a “pure” Shinto tradition in ancient times, which was increasingly “mixed” with Buddhism in the medieval period. In the 18th and 19th centuries, scholars of Kokugaku (Japanese studies) then rediscovered and reconstructed “original” Shinto by cleansing it of Buddhist contamination. Since the 1980s, the history of Shinto has been conceptualized in new ways. As a general tendency, newer accounts of Shinto history stress that cults of kami deities of diverse origin were integrated in Buddhism already in classical times (notably the 8th century), and that “Shinto,” as an abstract concept denoting a non-Buddhist kami-based religion, developed from Buddhist kami practice only in the later medieval period (the 14th century or 15th century). Anti-syncretic notions of a “pure” Shinto gained currency even later, culminating in the government-led separation of Shinto and Buddhism in 1868.

Primary Sources

A wealth of Japanese research is available on all the topics introduced in this article; however, mapping the scope of this literature is beyond the scope of this article. It will be useful, though, at least to include a short list of some of the main source collections of texts related to Buddhist Shinto. Shintō Taikei Hensankai 1977–1994 and Shintō Taikei Hensankai 1995–2007 include editions of a large number of texts, ranging from the medieval period to the Edo period; not all editions, however, are of prime quality (e.g., Reikiki in Shingon Shinto, vol. 2). Kokubungaku Kenkyū Shiryōkan 1998–2011 and Itō, et al. 2000 include facsimiles, transcriptions, and comments by the best experts, and these works are truly superb; their span, however, is limited to the medieval period. Ōmiwa Jinja Shiryō Hensan Iinkai 1967–1991 contains large amounts of little-studied documents from the Edo period, and Nihon Daizōkyō Hensankai 2000 includes the most central texts of Shugendō lineages, spanning both the medieval and the Early Modern periods. Finally, Tsuji Zennosuke, et al. 1983–1984 gives a detailed overview of the dismantling of temple-shrine complexes and Buddhist shrines in the late 19th century.

  • Itō Satoshi, Hara Katsuaki, and Matsuo Kōichi, eds. Ninnaji Shiryō, Shintō-hen, Shintō Kanjō Injin (仁和寺資料【神道篇】神道灌頂印信). Nagoya Daigaku Hikaku Jinbungaku Kenkyū Nenpō 2. Nagoya, Japan: Nagoya Daigaku Hikaku Jinbungaku Kenkyūshitsu, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The imperial temple of Ninnaji was another center of Buddhist Shinto transmissions, some of which are included (in both facsimile and transcription) in this volume.

    Find this resource:

    • Kokubungaku Kenkyū Shiryōkan. Shinpukuji Zenpon Sōkan (真福寺善本叢刊). 24 vols. Kyoto: Rinsen Shoten, 1998–2011.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      This series offers facsimiles and transcriptions from the rich archives of Shinpukuji in Nagoya, which holds an important collection of medieval Shinto texts. Of special interest are volumes on Ise Shinto, Ruiju jingi hongen, Ryōbu Shinto, and Chūsei Nihongi.

      Find this resource:

      • Nihon Daizōkyō Hensankai. Shugendō shōso (修験道章疏). 3 vols. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankōkai, 2000.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This collection of Shugendo scriptures was initially part of Nihon Daizōkyō, a Japanese expansion of the Buddhist canon compiled in the Taishō period. Originally published in 1916 (5 vols., Tokyo: Nihon Daizōkyō Hensankai).

        Find this resource:

        • Ōmiwa Jinja Shiryō Hensan Iinkai. Ōmiwa Jinja Shiryō (大神神社史料). 12 vols. Sakurai, Japan: Ōmiwa Jinja Shiryō Hensan Iinkai, 1967–1991.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This collection includes many texts and initiation documents of (mostly Edo period) Miwa Shinto, in addition to essays about the history of Miwa and its shrines and temples.

          Find this resource:

          • Shintō Taikei Hensankai. Shintō Taikei (神道大系). 120 vols. Tokyo: Shintō Taikei Hensankai, 1977–1994.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            This series, which includes most of the significant texts related to Shinto, includes a number of volumes with editions of Buddhist Shinto works: Ise Shinto (3 vols.), Tendai Shinto (2 vols.), Shingon Shinto (2 vols.), Unden Shinto, Shugendō, Shintōshū, Chūsei Shintō Monogatari.

            Find this resource:

            • Shintō Taikei Hensankai. Zoku Shintō Taikei (続神道大系). 50 vols. Tokyo: Shintō Taikei Hensankai, 1995–2007.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              This continuation of the Shintō Taikei includes the volumes Shūgō Shinto (Jindaikan hiketsu, Mudaiki), Sendai kuji hongi taiseikyō (4 vols.), and Uden Shinto (4 vols.).

              Find this resource:

              • Tsuji Zennosuke, Murakami Senjō, and Washio Junkei, eds. Shinpen Meiji Ishin Shinbutsu Bunri Shiryō (新編明治維新神仏分離史料). 10 vols. Tokyo: Meicho Shuppan, 1983–1984.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Based on a nationwide survey conducted between 1920 and 1926, this series documents the concrete impact in various regions of Japan of the separation of shrines and temples in the Meiji period.

                Find this resource:

                Shinto’s Historical Relationship to Buddhism

                A first step toward reassessing the relationship between Buddhism and Shinto has been to question the history of the notion of “Shinto” in the first place. Kami shrines and rituals are older than the concept of Shinto, which dominated their signification only in modern times. Kuroda 1981 reflects on early meanings of the word Shinto and on the role of shrines within an overarching Buddhist framework in medieval times. Teeuwen 2002 and McMullin 1989 elaborate further on these two aspects of the argument made in Kuroda 1981. Teeuwen 2002 traces the development of the Buddhist term Shinto into a sectarian designation, while McMullin 1989 focuses on institutional and political aspects of temple-shrine relations.

                • Kuroda, Toshio. “Shinto in the History of Japanese Religion.” Journal of Japanese Studies 7.1 (1981): 1–21.

                  DOI: 10.2307/132163Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  A paradigm-changing article by a leading scholar of medieval Japanese Buddhism, arguing that the notion of an unbroken, pre-Buddhist Shinto tradition is a modern myth and that medieval kami worship must be understood as an integral part of Buddhism.

                  Find this resource:

                  • McMullin, Neil. “Historical and Historiographical Issues in the Study of Pre-modern Japanese Religions.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 16.1 (1989): 3–40.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    A comprehensive article that discusses the relationship between Buddhism and Shinto and temples and shrines with a focus on the social and political roles and functions of religious institutions in different periods rather than on (questionable) doctrinal identities.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Teeuwen, Mark. “From Jindō to Shintō: A Concept Takes Shape.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 29.3–4 (2002): 233–263.

                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      An analysis of the conceptualization of the term Shinto, from a Buddhist term for deities in need of Buddhist sublimation into a designation of an autonomous, non-Buddhist ritual tradition.

                      Find this resource:

                      Shinto Histories

                      Different interpretations of the relation between Shinto and Buddhism in classical times have a great impact on our understanding on the history of Shinto as a whole. Authors who stress the early integration of kami cults in Buddhism depict non-Buddhist or anti-Buddhist Shinto as a late innovation, while scholars who posit the existence of an ancient, pre-Buddhist Shinto see modern Shinto as a reconstruction with ancient roots. Among the works mentioned here, Naumann 1994 and Inoue 2003 see more continuity between classical non-Buddhist kami cults and later Shinto than Breen and Teeuwen 2010, although the authors of all three works attach great importance to Buddhist kami doctrines and practices.

                      • Breen, John, and Mark Teeuwen. A New History of Shinto. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

                        DOI: 10.1002/9781444317190Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        A comprehensive history that questions the notion of a continuous Shinto by focusing on the pre-Buddhist, Buddhist, and post-Buddhist transformations of a shrine (Hiyoshi Taisha), a myth (the heavenly rock-cave), and a ritual (the Daijōsai).

                        Find this resource:

                        • Inoue, Nobutaka, ed. Shinto: A Short History. Translated and adapted by Mark Teeuwen and John Breen. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          A translation of a Japanese Shinto history, including chapters on the development of Buddhist Shinto in the medieval period, the emergence of anti-Buddhist and non-Buddhist forms of Shinto, and the final separation of Shinto from Buddhism in the Meiji period.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Naumann, Nelly. Die einheimische Religion Japans: Teil 2, Synkretistische Lehren und religiöse Entwicklungen von der Kamakura- bis zum Beginn der Edo-Zeit. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1994.

                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            Part 2 of a three-volume Shinto history, dealing with “syncretic” (that is, Buddhist) theories on the kami, medieval kami legends, depictions of kami lore in Noh theater, and developments in popular ritual and pilgrimage in the later medieval period.

                            Find this resource:

                            Buddhist Conceptualizations of Local Deities

                            The integration of local gods, demons, and spirits in Buddhism is not an exclusively Japanese phenomenon. At least partly, the assimilation of kami within Japanese Buddhism followed patterns that are common to Buddhism throughout Asia. Matsunaga 1969, Frank 2000, and Seyfort Ruegg 2008 explore Indian models that impacted on Japan; Blezer and Teeuwen 2013 is of interest for its juxtaposition of Shinto and Tibetan Bön. Teeuwen and Rambelli 2003 maps the interaction of buddhas, kami, and other divine and demonic entities as different expressions of the (originally) Chinese paradigm of “originals and traces.”

                            • Blezer, Henk, and Mark Teeuwen, eds. Buddhism and Nativism: Framing Identity Discourse in Buddhist Environments. Boston: Brill, 2013.

                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              A volume of essays analyzing the dynamic between localizing (nativist) and universalizing tendencies in Buddhist contexts. The main focus is on Japan (Shinto, the notion of Japan as a land of the gods) and Tibet (Bön); other essays discuss the place of nativism in Korea, India, and Bali.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Frank, Bernard. Dieux et bouddhas au Japon. Paris: Éditions Odile Jacob, 2000.

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                A dense and detailed exploration into the history of the role of mostly Indian deities (from Indra to Sarasvatī, Vaiśravaṇa, Hārītī, and more) in Japanese ritual and iconography. “Shinto” deities such as Amaterasu and Hachiman make frequent inroads into Frank’s account, as do Indian deities often found in shrines, such as Benzaiten, Myōken, Daikokuten, and others.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Matsunaga, Alicia. The Buddhist Philosophy of Assimilation. Tokyo: Sophia University, 1969.

                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  A pioneering work that seeks to find evidence for a consistent “philosophy” through which Buddhism, from its beginnings in India to Kamakura Japan, has assimilated local deities and practices. Key concepts are upāya (skilful means), trikāya (the three bodies of the Buddha), and ben-ji or honji suijaku (manifestations of a Buddhist “original ground” as “traces”). This work contains errors and should be consulted with care.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • Seyfort Ruegg, David. The Symbiosis of Buddhism with Brahmanism/Hinduism in South Asia and of Buddhism with “Local Cults” in Tibet and the Himalayan Region. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2008.

                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    A detailed study of the various ways in which local deities have been fitted into universalizing doctrine in South Asia and Tibet, focusing on the laukika-lokottara paradigm. Seyfort Ruegg makes frequent references to Japanese honji suijaku, which goes beyond this paradigm.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    • Teeuwen, Mark, and Fabio Rambelli, eds. Buddhas and Kami in Japan: Honji Suijaku as a Combinatory Paradigm. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      An edited volume of articles on various aspects of honji suijaku thought and practice in Japan, ranging from the early Heian period to modern times. The book includes a long introduction to the development and nature of the paradigm of honji suijaku (“originals and traces”), both as an epistemological system and as a social and political practice.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      Kami Cults and Continental Traditions in Ancient Japan

                                      The status of the classical court cult of the kami as jingi (“heavenly and earthly deities”) and its relationship to Buddhism, Daoism, and also East-Asian “folk religion” is much debated. Increasingly, scholars question whether it is meaningful, or even feasible, to sift out “indigenous” elements from the melting pot of classical Japanese religious culture. Among the works listed here, Naumann 1996 pays particular attention to the comparison between Japanese and other mythological traditions in East and South Asia. Ooms 2008 stresses Daoist elements in early forms of the jingi cult, while Como 2009 looks for traces of continental popular practices in the earliest Japanese sources. Grapard 1999 describes classical religious practice from a predominantly political perspective, demonstrating the irrelevance of later sectarian categorizations. Finally, McMullin 1988 offers a case study of a central classical cult that clearly defies such categorizations.

                                      • Como, Michael. Weaving and Binding: Immigrant Gods and Female Immortals in Ancient Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2009.

                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        This book takes a fresh look at a wide variety of early “native” concepts and practices of ancient Japan (often termed “ancient Shinto”) in the light of contemporary popular Chinese and Korean religious practice, stressing the influence of immigrant groups and their ritual expertise.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Grapard, Allan G. “Religious Practices.” In The Cambridge History of Japan. Vol. 2, Heian Japan. Edited by Donald H. Shively and William H. McCullough, 517–575. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

                                          DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521223539Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          An introductory chapter that aims to present a coherent overview of religious practice in classical Japan without imposing anachronistic categories (such as “Shinto” and Buddhism) on the material.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • McMullin, Neil. “On Placating the Gods and Pacifying the Populace: The Case of the ‘Gion Goryō’ Cult.” History of Religions 27.3 (1988): 270–293.

                                            DOI: 10.1086/463123Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            A groundbreaking article on the complicated origins of the Gion cult (of today’s Yasaka shrine in Kyoto) in a complex mix of Buddhist, Japanese, and continental lore. This article offers a useful excursion into the maze of classical beliefs and practices and does away with the myth of ancient, “pure” Shinto.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Naumann, Nelly. Die Mythen des alten Japan. Munich: C. H. Beck, 1996.

                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              A close reading of the kami myths of Kojiki and Nihon shoki, with frequent references to Chinese and otherwise continental parallels and influences. Naumann finds in these works a pre-Buddhist worldview that entered into a “syncretic” relationship with Buddhism only in late classical and medieval times.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • Ooms, Herman. Imperial Politics and Symbolics in Ancient Japan: The Tenmu Dynasty, 650–800. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008.

                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                In this book, Ooms analyzes early shifts and turns in the emergence of an ideology and ritual practice of imperial legitimacy in the formative centuries of the classical Japanese state. Ooms stresses the importance of Daoist (or “Daoisant”) elements in the early half of the period and the increasing prominence of Buddhism in the latter half.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                Medieval Shinto

                                                “Shinto” began to take on clear contours during the medieval period (from the late 12th century until the 15th century). In contrast to early modern and modern Shinto, however, medieval Shinto was firmly rooted within (esoteric) Buddhism. Grapard 1988 addresses the institutional setting within which Buddhist kami doctrine and practice developed in late classical Japan. Faure, et al. 2006–2007 includes a number of essays that analyze specific examples of Buddhist Shinto; Morrell 1985 offers a full translation of a text that contains many references to kami and shrines from a Buddhist perspective. Satō 2003 reflects on the different structural functions of buddhas and kami (as well as other divine figures) within a single, popularly held worldview. Teeuwen 2007 and Rambelli 2009 reflect on the reasons why, in the course of the 14th and 15th centuries, the notion arose that the kami belonged to a pre-Buddhist, or even non-Buddhist realm.

                                                • Faure, Bernard, Michael Como, and Iyanaga Nobumi, eds. Special Issue: Rethinking Medieval Shintō/Repenser le shintō médiéval. Cahiers d’Extrême-Asie 16 (2006–2007).

                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  A collection of essays on a range of Buddhist varieties of Shinto. The body of this volume focuses on doctrinal texts and iconography, referring, among other things, to Indian (“Hindu”) and Chinese (“Daoist”) influences within medieval Buddhist Shinto.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • Grapard, Allan G. “Institution, Ritual, and Ideology: The Twenty-Two Shrine-Temple Multiplexes of Heian Japan.” History of Religions 27.3 (1988): 246–269.

                                                    DOI: 10.1086/463122Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    An article that analyzes the late classical (or early medieval) network of twenty-two shrines, almost all integrated into temple complexes, that formed the focus of court ritual. Grapard points out that it was from these institutions that medieval Shinto schools emerged.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • Morrell, Robert E. Sand and Pebbles (Shasekishū): The Tales of Mujū Ichien: A Voice for Pluralism in Kamakura Buddhism. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985.

                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      A translation of a famous collection of tales, legends, and anecdotes from the Kamakura period that makes frequent mention of shrines and kami in a Buddhist context. The same work was earlier translated into French as Collection de sable et de pierres (Paris: Gallimard, 1979) by Hartmut O. Rotermund.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Rambelli, Fabio. “Before the First Buddha: Medieval Japanese Cosmogony and the Quest for the Primeval Kami.” Monumenta Nipponica 64.2 (2009): 235–271.

                                                        DOI: 10.1353/mni.0.0080Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        This article explores the development, in the Kamakura period, of a genre of texts that focuses on the origin of the cosmos in terms of kami history. Rambelli seeks to explain the dynamic that led fundamentally Buddhist thinkers beyond the boundaries of the traditional Buddhist system, opening up a space that could be conceptionalized as “Shinto.”

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Satō, Hiroo. “Wrathful Deities and Saving Deities.” In Buddhas and Kami in Japan: Honji Suijaku as a Combinatory Paradigm. Edited by Mark Teeuwen and Fabio Rambelli, 95–114. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          A book chapter that explains the medieval relationship between “original ground” (honji) and “traces” (suijaku) in terms of two categories of divine figures: otherworldly deities of salvation versus this-worldly deities that dispense punishment and rewards.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Teeuwen, Mark. “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of jindō and Shinto.” Bulletin of SOAS 70.2 (2007): 373–402.

                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Comparing Japanese kami worship with similar cults in other Asian countries (e.g., the nat cult in Burma), the author seeks to explore some of the factors that led the former to break with Buddhism and develop an autonomous identity.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            Schools

                                                            The 12th or 13th century saw the formation of Buddhist Dharma lineages that specialized in the transmission of kami- or shrine-related doctrines, ritual procedures, and implements. It was in these circles that the term Shinto first began to be used in a sectarian sense as a designation for a category of religious knowledge and ritual know-how. The body of literature on some of these lineages or schools is growing, while others remain almost unstudied.

                                                            Ise and Ryōbu

                                                            Early Buddhist speculation on kami revolved primarily around the mirror of Amaterasu (the most important of the imperial regalia) and the Ise shrines where Amaterasu was worshipped. Abe 2006–2007 describes the early origins of Buddhist Ise lore; Teeuwen and van der Veere 1998 offers a translation of, and commentary on, one of the earliest texts of this genre. Rambelli 2002 and Teeuwen 2006 focus on the development of Buddhist kami initiations in the 14th century. Andreeva 2006 and Andreeva 2010 are studies of an offshoot of Ise lore, located at the ancient shrine site of Miwa.

                                                            • Abe, Yasurō. “Shintō as Written Representation: The Phases and Shifts of Medieval Shintō Texts.” In Special Issue: Rethinking Medieval Shintō/Repenser le shintō médiéval. Edited by Bernard Faure, Michael Como, and Iyanaga Nobumi. Cahiers d’Extrême-Asie 16 (2006–2007): 98–111.

                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              A broad overview of early esoteric texts and transmissions on Ise, focusing on the late 12th century. This article introduces the “Ono transmissions” (Yaketsu) collected by Shūkaku, prince-abbot of Ninnaji, and argues for an early dating of Ise/Ryōbu lore.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Andreeva, Anna. “Saidaiji Monks and Esoteric Kami Worship at Ise and Miwa.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 33.2 (2006): 349–377.

                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                This article investigates the early beginnings of the esoterization of the kami site of Miwa in the 13th century and the relationship of this movement with the Saidaiji lineage and its leader, Eizon.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Andreeva, Anna. “The Karmic Origins of the Great Bright Miwa Deity: A Transformation of the Sacred Mountain in Premodern Japan.” Monumenta Nipponica 65.2 (2010): 245–296.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1353/mni.2010.0003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  A translation of a foundational text of the Miwa lineage of medieval Shinto, with a thorough investigation of the context in which this lineage may have emerged originally in the late Kamakura period.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Rambelli, Fabio. “The Ritual World of Buddhist ‘Shinto’: The Reikiki and Initiations on Kami-Related Matters (jingi kanjō) in Late Medieval and Early-Modern Japan.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 29.3–4 (2002): 265–297.

                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    A close analysis of the main set of early esoteric kami initiations, based on the Reikiki (late Kamakura period). Rambelli discusses the diffusion of rituals based on this text from the 14th to the early 19th centuries, and he considers the social and ideological background for this phenomenon.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Teeuwen, Mark. Watarai Shinto: An Intellectual History of the Outer Shrine of Ise. Leiden, The Netherlands: CNWS Research School, 1996.

                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      A monograph that traces the emergence and development of the first lineage to define itself as “Shinto”: the Watarai priesthood at the Outer Shrine of Ise. This book covers the period from the 13th century until Meiji.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Teeuwen, Mark. “Knowing vs. Owning a Secret: Secrecy in Medieval Japan, as Seen through the sokui kanjō Enthronement Unction.” In The Culture of Secrecy in Japanese Religion. Edited by Bernhard Scheid and Mark Teeuwen, 172–203. London: Routledge, 2006.

                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        The sokui kanjō enthronement unction or initiation was an important focus of Buddhist Shinto ritual and doctrine. This book chapter investigates the dynamics that produced this and other “secret transmissions” of kami lore within Buddhist Dharma lineages.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Teeuwen, Mark, and Hendrik van der Veere. Nakatomi Harae Kunge: Purification and Enlightenment in Late-Heian Japan. Munich: Iudicium, 1998.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          A translation and analysis of an early Ise text that presents a Buddhist exegesis of the Nakatomi purification formula.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          Sannō

                                                                          Sannō is the name of the deity (or cluster of deities) worshipped at Hie, the shrine complex that formed part of the Tendai complex of Enryakuji on Mount Hiei. This was another site that saw the development of a large body of Buddhist kami lore. Grapard 1987 and Grapard 1998 describe central features of Tendai Sannō exegesis, which was developed in the 13th century by specialized monks known as “chroniclers.” Kuroda 1989 focuses on the same period, with a special emphasis on chroniclers’ view on history. Sugahara 1996 describes the reinvention of Sannō Shinto in the 17th century as a Tokugawa cult.

                                                                          • Grapard, Allan G. “Linguistic Cubism: A Singularity of Pluralism in the Sannō Cult.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 14.2–3 (1987): 211–234.

                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            A doctrinal analysis of a number of texts compiled by the so-called chroniclers (kike) of Mount Hiei, the headquarters of Tendai Buddhism, about the Hie shrines and Sannō, their collective deity.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Grapard, Allan G. “Keiranshūyōshū: A Different Perspective on Mt. Hiei in the Medieval Period.” In Re-visioning “Kamakura” Buddhism. Edited by Richard K. Payne, 55–69. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998.

                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              This book chapter provides an overview of the largest collection of the chroniclers of Mount Hiei, the Keiran shūyōshū (1311–1348), with a focus on the “Sannō Shinto” chapters.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Kuroda, Toshio. “Historical Consciousness and hon-jaku Philosophy in the Medieval Period on Mount Hiei.” In The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture. Edited by George J. Tanabe and Willa Tanabe, 143–158. Translated by Allan G. Grapard. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989.

                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                A book chapter that explores the activities of the chroniclers of Mount Hiei, their understanding of the notion of honji suijaku (which stands in contrast to classical Lotus thought), and the effects of their theology on their understanding of history.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Sugahara, Shinkai. “The Distinctive Features of Sannō Ichijitsu Shinto.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 23.1–2 (1996): 61–84.

                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Sannō Ichijitsu Shinto was formulated in the early Edo period, building loosely and selectively on the Sannō cult of the Kamakura period. It was designed by Tendai monks as a theological foundation for the cult of Tokugawa Ieyasu as Tōshō Daigongen.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  Yoshida

                                                                                  Yoshida Shinto distanced itself from Buddhism in a much more radical way than the kami-specialized Dharma lineages mentioned under Schools; in a sense, it was Yoshida Kanetomo who declared Shinto independent. The only book-length study of this crucial figure and his thought is Scheid 2001. Grapard 1992 offers an English-language introduction into Kanetomo’s background, activities, and ideas. Yoshida 1992 and Ishibashi and Dumoulin 1940 are translations of Kanetomo’s most important text, the Yuiitsu Shintō myōbō yōshū; Scheid 2000 analyzes its structure.

                                                                                  • Grapard, Allan G. “The Shinto of Yoshida Kanetomo.” Monumenta Nipponica 47.1 (Spring 1992): 27–58.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/2385357Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Yoshida Kanetomo (b. 1435–d. 1511) established his own brand of Shinto as a serious competitor of Buddhism. This article surveys the roots of the Yoshida lineage of diviners and priests, his main work Yuiitsu Shintō myōbō yōshū, the Taigenkyū complex he built in Kyoto, and his legacy.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Ishibashi, T., and H. Dumoulin. “Quellenbeiträge: Yuiitsu-Shintô myôbô-yôshû, Lehrabriss des Yuiitsu-Shintô.” Monumenta Nipponica 3.1 (1940): 182–239.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/2382411Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      The first translation into a Western language of the same text, with a short introduction and copious notes.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Scheid, Bernhard. “Reading the Yuiitsu Shintō myōbō yōshū: A Modern Exegesis of an Esoteric Shinto Text.” In Shinto in History: Ways of the Kami. Edited by John Breen and Mark Teeuwen, 117–143. Richmond, UK: Curzon, 2000.

                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        An English version of Scheid’s analysis of Yuiitsu Shintō myōbō yōshū, presented in German in his 2001 monograph.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Scheid, Bernhard. Der eine und einzige Weg der Götter: Yoshida Kanetomo und die Erfindung des Shinto. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2001.

                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          A monograph that explores the life and work of Yoshida Kanetomo. Scheid offers a brilliant analysis of the relationship between ritual and doctrine and exoteric teachings and esoteric know-how that sheds light on the inner workings of other Shinto schools as well.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          • Yoshida, Kanetomo. “Yuiitsu Shintō myōbō yōshū.” Monumenta Nipponica 47.2 (Summer 1992): 137–161.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/2385235Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            An annotated translation of Yoshida Kanetomo’s main doctrinal text. Translated by Allan G. Grapard.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            Nichiren

                                                                                            The kami also had an important role to play within Nichiren Buddhism. The only Western-language study on this subject is Dolce 2003.

                                                                                            • Dolce, Lucia. “Hokke Shinto: Kami in the Nichiren Tradition.” In Buddhas and Kami in Japan: Honji Suijaku as a Combinatory Paradigm. Edited by Mark Teeuwen and Fabio Rambelli, 222–254. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              A study of the medieval incorporation into Hokke (Nichiren) Buddhism of thirty prominent shrines as protectors of the thirty days of the month (sanjū banjin).

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              Early Modern Shinto and Buddhism

                                                                                              Although Shinto in the Edo period (1600–1868) moved away from Buddhism toward amalgamation with Confucianism or nativist anti-syncretism, a late flourishing of Buddhist Shinto schools, such as Miwaryū and Goryū, also took place. However, these schools remain almost completely unstudied even in Japanese, and our knowledge of Buddhist Shinto in the Early Modern period is very limited. However, some literature on other aspects of the Buddhist-Shinto interface in the Edo period is available; most of it is found in more general works (see Shinto Histories) listed above. Among the three works listed here, Hardacre 2002 casts light on the religious landscape in late Edo in its entirety and its transformation in early Meiji. Bocking 2001 examines the same history through the development of one of the age’s most popular religious objects, namely scrolls depicting three of the most well-known kami. Murphy 2009 traces the Buddhist legacy of Kokugaku, the school of learning that was most influential in the redefinition of Shinto in late Edo and early Meiji.

                                                                                              • Bocking, Brian. The Oracles of the Three Shrines: Windows on Japanese Religion. Richmond, UK: Curzon, 2001.

                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                A study that traces the development of scrolls depicting the kami triad of Amaterasu, Kasuga, and Hachiman from the 14th century until the Meiji period, with emphasis on its proliferation in the Early Modern period and its transformation in Meiji, when all Buddhist elements were deleted.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Hardacre, Helen. Religion and Society in Nineteenth-Century Japan: A Study of the Southern Kantō Region, Using Late Edo and Early Meiji Gazetteers. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002.

                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  This book offers an analysis of administrative surveys of shrines and temples in a particular area. Among other findings, it reveals concrete evidence of the institutional setting in which people in late Edo and early Meiji related to temples and shrines in conjunction.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Murphy, Regan E. “Esoteric Buddhist Theories of Language in Early Kokugaku: The Sōshaku of the Man’yō daishōki.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 36.1 (2009): 65–92.

                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Kokugaku (Japanese studies) was the intellectual movement that was to determine the ways in which “pure Shinto” was to be imagined in the late Edo and Meiji periods. This article sheds light on Buddhist structures underlying Kokugaku understandings of language.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    Studies of Specific Sites

                                                                                                    Allan Grapard has convincingly argued that general abstractions such as “Buddhism” and “Shinto” are of very limited use in understanding the dynamics of local cultic sites, most of which were temple-shrine “multiplexes” or even “megaplexes.” His insight has inspired a range of studies that focus on a particular site and trace its transformations historically. Grapard 1992 and Tyler 1990 are studies of the Kasuga-Kōfukuji complex; Grapard 1989 examines the Shugendō center of Kunisaki; and Moerman 2005 treats Kumano. In contrast to these works, which focus primarily on medieval times, Ambros 2008 (Ōyama) and Bouchy 1987 (Atago) address developments mainly in the Early Modern period, while Thal 2005 (Konpira) and Smyers 1999 (Inari) take us into modern times.

                                                                                                    • Ambros, Barbara. Emplacing a Pilgrimage: The Ōyama Cult and Regional Religion in Early Modern Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2008.

                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Like Konpira, the pilgrimage center of Ōyama started out as a Buddhist site in medieval times, began to gravitate toward Shinto in the later Edo period, and was “separated” from Buddhism and transformed into a Shinto shrine in early Meiji.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Bouchy, Anne-Marie. “The Cult of Mount Atago and the Atago Confraternities.” Journal of Asian Studies 46.2 (1987): 255–277.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/2056014Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        A study of the history and social dynamics of the popular pilgrimage to Mount Atago. Bouchy argues that the pilgrimage fuses “Buddhism and the cult of the god of the mountain” and points out that this fusion was brought about by yamabushi.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        • Grapard, Allan G. “The Textualized Mountain–Enmountained Text: The Lotus Sutra in Kunisaki.” In The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture. Edited by George J. Tanabe and Willa Tanabe, 143–158. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989.

                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          An analysis of the way the geography of the Kunisaki peninsula in Kyushu, a flourishing center of Shugendō practice, was sacralized as an abode of the buddhas on the basis of the Lotus sutra.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          • Grapard, Allan G. The Protocol of the Gods: A Study of the Kasuga Cult in Japanese History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            This book examines the “combinative cult” of Kōfukuji temple and the Kasuga shrines (in Grapard’s terms, the “Kōfukuji/Kasuga multiplex”), spanning the classical, medieval, and Early modern periods. Grapard presents this cult as a model for similar “multiplexes” throughout Japan.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Moerman, D. Max. Localizing Paradise: Kumano Pilgrimage and the Religious Landscape of Pre-modern Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2005.

                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              Using a 16th-century “pilgrimage mandala” as a guide, Moerman analyzes the major religious site of Kumano from a range of different perspectives. One of these is the combination of Buddha and kami cults, discussed in the chapter “Emplacements.”

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • Smyers, Karen. The Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Inari Worship. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.

                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Inari is a divine figure of composite origin that was shintoized in Meiji. Based on fieldwork at the two major centers of Inari worship (Fushimi Inari and Toyokawa Inari), Smyers analyzes the diversity of understandings of this deity, not only between regions or groups, but also even on an individual level.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Thal, Sarah. Rearranging the Landscape of the Gods: The Politics of a Pilgrimage Site in Japan, 1573–1912. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Konpira in Shikoku is one of Japan’s most visited pilgrimage sites. Thal traces the numerous reinventions of this site from late medieval until modern times. Starting as a Buddhist site, dedicated at first to the Lotus sutra, Konpira took on an increasingly Shinto identity; today, it is exclusively a Shinto shrine.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  • Tyler, Royall. The Miracles of the Kasuga Deity. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    At the core of this book is a translation and interpretation of Kasuga gongen genki (1309), an illustrated scroll depicting miracle tales about the kami and buddhas (in close association) of the Kasuga shrines.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    Shugendō

                                                                                                                    Shugendō, sometimes rendered “mountain ascetism,” refers to the traditions of yamabushi or shugenja, a category of ritualists in the borderlands of Buddhism. A large body of Buddhist practices addressing local deities was developed and spread by Shugendō practitioners. Sekimori 2002 gives an overview of Shugendo studies in which the work of Miyake 2001 takes place of pride. Renondeau 1965 is a classic work that is perhaps somewhat outdated. Faure, et al. 2009 is a collection of essays that covers most aspects of Shugendo studies. Earhart 1970 is an early ethnological study; Sekimori 1995 adds a historical dimension to its focus, the Akinomine. Averbuch 1995 is also based on fieldwork but focuses on the performative traditions of a group of yamabushi.

                                                                                                                    • Averbuch, Irit. The Gods Come Dancing: A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University East Asia Program, 1995.

                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      A fieldwork-based study of the yamabushi kagura dances performed by a group based at the Shugendō center of Mount Hayachine. Averbuch gives detailed descriptions of the dances and analyzes the way they link the domain of the gods to that of man.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Earhart, H. Byron. A Religious Study of the Mount Haguro Sect of Shugendō: An Example of Japanese Mountain Religion. Tokyo: Sophia University, 1970.

                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        The first Western study on Shugendō that relies on fieldwork rather than library research. Earhart offers a brief history of Shugendō, followed by a detailed description and analysis of the Akinomine retreat and its embryological symbolism.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        • Faure, Bernard, D. Max Moerman, and Gaynor Sekimori, eds. Special Issue: Shugendō: L’histoire et la culture d’une religion japonaise. Cahiers d’Extrême-Asie 18 (2009).

                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          A collection of English-language essays on Shugendō, covering such topics as conceptions of Shugendō, the modern restoration of Shugendō practices, Shugendō’s early modern institutionalization, social roles of yamabushi, Shugendō legends and iconography (Zaō), and ritual (Hokke senbō and yudate kagura). This issue includes a comprehensive bibliography on Shugendō.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • Miyake Hitoshi. Shugendō: Essays on the Structure of Japanese Folk Religion. Edited by H. Byron Earhart. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 2001.

                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            A collection of essays written by the leading authority on Shugendō between 1972 and 1996. Miyake’s focus is on the Kumano-Yoshino region, which he sees as a cradle of the tradition. The book consists of two parts: “Shugendō” and “Folk Religion.” Includes an introduction by H. Byron Earhart.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            • Renondeau, G. Le Shugendō: Histoire, doctrine et rites des Anachorètes dits Yamabushi. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1965.

                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              A pioneering study that traces the origins of Shugendō to pre-Buddhist “shamanism and Taoism” and analyzes its “incorporation” of esoteric Buddhism.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Sekimori, Gaynor. “The Akinomine of Haguro Shugendō: A Historical Perspective.” Transactions of the International Conference of Eastern Studies 40 (1995): 163–186.

                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                An exploration of the history of the Akinomine at Mount Haguro that supplements Earhart’s account.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • Sekimori, Gaynor. “Shugendō: The State of the Field.” Monumenta Nipponica 57.2 (2002): 207–227.

                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  A detailed review of Miyake 2001, supplemented by a rich bibliography of Shugendō studies, mostly in Japanese and English.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  Art

                                                                                                                                  The association between local deities and their Buddhist “origins” was expressed in paintings, statues, and other cultic objects that have been studied as “Shinto art” (or, more accurately, “suijaku art”). Kageyama, introduced to a Western audience in Kageyama 1973, was central in defining, and even creating, this field of study. Among the works listed here, ten Grotenhuis 1999, Meri 2006, Tyler 1992, and Kanda 1985 concentrate on medieval art, while Watsky 2004 and Blair 2011 discuss developments in the Edo and Meiji periods.

                                                                                                                                  • Blair, Heather. “Zaō Gongen: From Mountain Icon to National Treasure.” Monumenta Nipponica 66.1 (2011): 1–47.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1353/mni.2011.0008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    This article traces the history of a bronze fragment depicting Zaō, the “avatar” of the Shugendō center of Kinpusen, with special emphasis on its post-Meiji fate, when this piece (discarded in Meiji as “syncretic”) found new recognition as celebrated national heritage.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Kageyama, Haruki. The Arts of Shinto. Translated and adapted by Christine Guth. New York: Weatherhill, 1973.

                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      A survey of shrine-related art from kami statues and shrine mandalas to lacquered cases, mirrors, and banners; includes many color and monochrome illustrations.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • Kanda, Christine Guth. Shinzō: Hachiman Imagery and Its Development. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1985.

                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        This book consists of two parts. The first gives a broad introduction to the Hachiman cult and its history, while the second analyzes Hachiman statues preserved at Tōji, Yakushiji, and Tōdaiji.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        • Meri, Arichi. “Sannō Miya Mandara: The Iconography of Pure Land on this Earth.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 33.2 (2006): 319–347.

                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Mandalas of the Hie (or Hiyoshi) shrines of Mount Hiei, dedicated to gods collectively referred to as Sannō, became common in the course of the Kamakura period, together with similar mandalas of Kasuga and other shrines. This article explores Sannō mandalas of the Kamakura and Muromachi periods as depictions of “sacred landscapes.”

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          • ten Grotenhuis, Elizabeth. Japanese Mandalas: Representations of Sacred Geography. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.

                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            This richly illustrated book explores mandalas of esoteric (Shingon) and Pure Land Buddhism, before moving on to mandalas that depict the divinities and idealized landscapes of Kasuga and Kumano.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Tyler, Susan C. The Cult of Kasuga Seen through Its Art. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 1992.

                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              A monograph, illustrated with monochrome images, that concentrates on iconographic analyses of Kasuga imagery (mainly mandalas), defined as “Kasuga art.”

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • Watsky, Andrew M. Chikubushima: Deploying the Sacred Arts in Momoyama Japan. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Chikubushima, a tiny island in Lake Biwa, is a major pilgrimage destination dedicated primarily to Benzaiten (Sarasvatī). This volume analyzes the history and architecture during the late Momoyama and Edo periods of a building that was defined as the Main Hall of Tsukubusuma shrine in early Meiji. It contains many colored illustrations.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                The Modern Separation of Shrines from Temples

                                                                                                                                                The so-called separation edicts of the first years of Meiji sought to “clarify” the difference between Shinto and Buddhism and inspired concrete measures that broke up most of the temple-shrine complexes of pre-Meiji Japan. A range of studies shed light on the local circumstances and effects of this revolutionary policy. Grapard 1984 is an early article on the subject, including a case study of Tōnomine. Antoni 1995, Inoue 2003, and Gunji 2011 introduce three more cases of temples that were turned into shrines. Sekimori 2005 and Ambros 2009 investigate the impact of the separation edicts on Shugendō.

                                                                                                                                                • Ambros, Barbara. “Clerical Demographics in the Edo-Meiji Transition: Shingon and Tōzanha Shugendō in Western Sagami.” Monumenta Nipponica 64.1 (2009): 83–125.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1353/mni.0.0049Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  This article uses a regional temple register to put numbers on the impact that the separation edicts had on Buddhist monks (of the Kogi Shingon sect) and shugenja or yamabushi (of the Tōzanha branch) in western Sagami (Hakone). If the latter, especially, many failed to survive as religious specialists.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • Antoni, Klaus. “The ‘Separation of Gods and Buddhas’ at Ōmiwa Jinja in Meiji Japan.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22.1–2 (1995): 139–159.

                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    This article describes the devastating effects of the separation edicts on the shrine temples and monks of Miwa. Antoni sees the changes of this period in terms of destruction and “unsolved guilt.”

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Grapard, Allan G. “Japan’s Ignored Cultural Revolution: The Separation of Shinto and Buddhist Divinities in Meiji (‘Shimbutsu Bunri’) and a Case Study: Tōnomine.” History of Religions 23.3 (1984): 240–265.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1086/462953Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Through a study of the shrine-temple complex of Tōnomine (dedicated to Fujiwara no Kamatari), Grapard sheds light both on the close “association” of Buddhist with Shinto divinities before Meiji and on the significance of the dramatic “dissociation” of 1868.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      • Gunji, Naoko. “Redesigning the Death Rite and Redesignating the Tomb: The Separation of Kami and Buddhist Deities at the Mortuary Site for Emperor Antoku.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 38.1 (2011): 55–92.

                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        In this article, the author analyzes the transformation of the Amidaji, mortuary temple dedicated to the child-emperor Antoku, into a Shinto shrine (Akamagū) in the first years of Meiji.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        • Inoue, Takami. “The Interaction between Buddhist and Shinto Traditions at Suwa Shrine.” In Buddhas and Kami in Japan: Honji Suijaku as a Combinatory Paradigm. Edited by Mark Teeuwen and Fabio Rambelli, 287–312. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Inoue reconstructs the mandalic structure underlying the Upper and Lower Shrine complexes at Suwa. He describes 18th-century conflicts between shrine monks and shrine priests at Suwa as well as the Meiji reinvention of the site as a Shinto shrine in the face of local resistance.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Sekimori, Gaynor. “Paper Fowl and Wooden Fish: The Separation of Kami and Buddha Worship in Haguro Shugendō, 1869–1875.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 32.2 (2005): 197–234.

                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Shugendō sites suffered greatly under the separation edicts of 1868. This article tells the tale of the transformation of the Haguro shrine-temple complex into “Ideha shrine”; the author uses the unpublished diary of that shrine’s first state-appointed priest as the article’s main source.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            back to top

                                                                                                                                                            Article

                                                                                                                                                            Up

                                                                                                                                                            Down