Medieval Studies Falconry
by
Baudouin Van den Abeele, An Smets
  • LAST MODIFIED: 13 January 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396584-0122

Introduction

Still practiced today, falconry is the technique of taming and training birds of prey in order to take wild game during a hunting sequence controlled by man. It can be done with falcons (in medieval times mostly peregrines, but also gerfalcons and a few other species) or with hawks (especially goshawks and sparrowhawks). Therefore, one speaks of falconry and hawking stricto sensu, but both terms are often taken as synonyms. There is no certainty about the precise origin of falconry, but it was introduced into the Western world at the time of the Germanic invasions (5th century). From that time, it gradually developed into a highly valued form of aristocratic hunting, open to both men and women, which accounts for a part of its success. Literature and iconography abound in falconry scenes, showing how falcons and hawks became a standard attribute of noble living, requiring patience and skill, in a sort of courteous process of personal refinement. At the same time, this activity has an economic and social relevance, since it requires a web of specialized personnel for trapping and importing the birds of prey, sometimes from distant regions, and for training and keeping the birds in good condition. Social exclusivity was a matter of fact rather than a juridical development, and there were regions and times where falconry was also open to non-noble practitioners. The late Middle Ages witness a rich cultural and social tradition around falconry, combining abundant artistic representations, elaborate artifacts, hunting rituals, and conspicuous diplomatic and political use. Falconry is part of the mainstream topics of medieval historiography. The principal sources for a good understanding of medieval falconry are the practical treatises, documented since the 10th century and at first written in Latin. The tradition develops largely in the 12th century and its content is dominated by the recipes for curing the illnesses of falcons and hawks. Ornithological and cynegetic information is also present, increasingly during the 13th century, when the tradition culminates in the treatise of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, who also commissioned the translation into Latin of two Arabic treatises on falconry. At the same time the genre develops into the vernacular, at first in French and Spanish, then in Italian and in the Germanic languages. The main treatises in several languages are mentioned in this article, together with general and regional overviews, complemented by studies on the place of falconry in lexicology, literature, and iconography. Given the difficulty of getting access to some of the publications listed here, it may be good to signal the existence of some institutions hosting specific libraries, such as the Falconry Heritage Trust in Boise, Idaho.

General Overviews

The history of medieval falconry is part of that of medieval hunting; one needs therefore to consult more general titles, such as Cummins 1988, which provides a broad overview. A more specific monograph is Van den Abeele 1994, based essentially on Latin treatises on falconry. Much scholarship on falconry has been published in conference proceedings, such as Centre d’études medievales de Nice 1980 (see also Mediterranean and Oriental Falconry and Iconography) or in exhibition catalogues, such as La chasse au vol au fil des temps. The general bibliography Harting 1891 can still be useful, especially with its 2011 continuation, but it is not very rich about the medieval period. One of the critical issues of this field of research is the origin of falconry and its introduction into Europe, probably by Germanic tribes around the 5th century. Epstein 1942–1943 and Lindner 1973 should be the starting point for this topic, complemented by the more recent articles Reiter 1988 and Reiter 1989.

  • Centre d’études medievales de Nice. La chasse au Moyen Age: Actes du colloque de Nice (22–24 juin 1979). Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1980.

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    Conference proceedings on medieval hunting providing a large panel of articles on treatises (two), legislation (five), technical aspects (five), regional developments (eight), consumption of venison (five), literature and lexicology (nine), symbolism and art (six articles).

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    • Cummins, John. The Hound and the Hawk: The Art of Medieval Hunting. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988.

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      Presents at first the various forms of venery (hart and deer, boar, hare, bear, and “inedible” animals) and the profile of the huntsman, before turning to hawking, with its technical, cultural, and symbolic aspects. Some French, English, and Spanish archival sources are translated in five appendices.

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      • Epstein, Hans. “The Origin and Earliest History of Falconry.” Isis 34 (1942–1943): 497–509.

        DOI: 10.1086/347874Save Citation »Export Citation »

        The origins of falconry and its introduction to Europe are a matter of debate. This paper, although old, preserves much of its value by its collection of basic quotations from the Old Germanic law books and other sources.

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        • Harting, James Edmund. Bibliotheca accipitraria: A Catalogue of Books Ancient and Modern Relating to Falconry. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1891.

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          Although old, this pioneering work signals and describes, with some detail, works in twenty-seven different languages; several reprints were issued. A continuation was published by John R. Swift, Bibliotheca accipitraria II (Boise, ID: Archives of Falconry, 2011,) encompassing 615 works in English, from 1486 to 2000.

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          • La chasse au vol au fil des temps: 5 juin–23 octobre 1994. Gien, France: Musée international de la chasse, 1994.

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            Accompanying an exhibition held at the castle of Gien, this book offers well-documented contributions on the history and art of falconry in various periods and contexts.

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            • Lindner, Kurt. Beiträge zur Falknerei und Vogelfang im Altertum. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter, 1973.

              DOI: 10.1515/9783110846010Save Citation »Export Citation »

              After a study of the antique techniques for trapping songbirds, the second part of this book concerns the early history of falconry in Europe. Evidence is derived from literary sources and from art, a central role being devoted to the mosaics of Argos (end of the 5th century).

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              • Reiter, Karin. “Falknerei im alten Orient? Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Falknerei.” Mitteilungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Berlin 120 (1988): 189–206.

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                Critical survey of iconographic evidence for falconry in Mesopotamian and Anatolian regions. The evidence is not conclusive on the practice of falconry but the question remains open to debate, as shown in other articles.

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                • Reiter, Karin. “Falknerei im alten Orient? Die Quellen.” Mitteilungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Berlin 121 (1989): 169–196.

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                  Critical survey of written sources mentioning raptor birds in the same areas surveyed in Reiter 1988. The documents are not conclusive on the practice of falconry but the question remains open to debate.

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                  • Van den Abeele, Baudouin. La fauconnerie au Moyen Age: Connaissance, affaitage et médecine des oiseaux de chasse d’après les traités latins. Paris: Klincksieck, 1994.

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                    Synthesis of the information provided by the Latin treatises on falconry from the 10th to the 15th centuries, in three areas: ornithological (categories of raptors), technical (conditions, objects, training, personnel), therapeutic (pathology and recipes). An index of illnesses and cures is added in appendix.

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                    Regional Developments

                    At a regional level, many types of documents are open to investigation if one searches for information on the practice, the importance, and the significance of falconry. Archaeological findings provide essential, but rather scattered, evidence through the presence of hawk bones in early medieval tombs (especially in Northern Europe), and the findings of bones or artifacts in settlements (Müller 1993 and Prummel 2013). Archival sources are very rich for certain regions, such as Britain (Oggins 2004) or the Burgundian Netherlands (Niedermann 1995; see also Malacarne 2003 and Bover and Rossello 2002 both cited under Mediterranean and Oriental Falconry). The trade of falcons and hawks in Northern Europe has been well studied (Hofmann 1957, Heckmann 1999), and some case studies exist for the Alpine regions (Morenzoni 1997), but much remains to be investigated for Western regions. The post-medieval decline of falconry has been investigated by Grassby 1997.

                    • Grassby, Richard. “The Decline of Falconry in Early Modern England.” Past and Present 157 (November 1997): 37–62.

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                      Falconry was still very important in English court and country life in the 16th and 17th centuries, but a decline can gradually be observed, due to several factors: the development of guns, changes in society and in rural economy, diversification of leisure, and loss of prestige due to unpredictable results of this type of hunting.

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                      • Heckmann, Dieter. “Preußische Jagdfalken als Gradmesser für die Außenwirkung europäischer Höfe des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts.” Preußenland 37 (1999): 39–62.

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                        The Teutonic order controlled falcon catching and exportation from the Baltic region during the late Middle Ages. This article examines the diplomatic aspects of the annual gifts of falcons and hawks to kings and princes in Western Europe. Archival documents are edited in appendix.

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                        • Hofmann, Gisela, “Falkenjagd und Falkenhandel in den nordischen Ländern während des Mittelalters.” Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum 88 (1957): 115–149.

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                          The first part of this study checks the rather limited evidence for the practice of hawking in Scandinavia derived from archaeology, historical sources, and poetical texts; the second part examines the important trade of Nordic falcons and hawks, documented since the 11th century.

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                          • Morenzoni, Franco. “La capture et le commerce des faucons dans les Alpes occidentales au XIVe siècle.” In Milieux naturels, espaces sociaux: Etudes offertes à Robert Delort. Edited by Elisabeth Mornet and Franco Morenzoni, 287–298. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1997.

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                            Case study on the catching and trade of falcons and hawks in the Duchy of Savoy, showing the interest of toll and manorial accounts for this type of inquiry.

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                            • Müller, Hans Hermann. “Falconry in Central Europe in the Middle Ages.” In Exploitation des animaux sauvages à travers le temps: XIIIe Rencontres Internationales d’Archéologie et d’Histoire d’Antibes. Edited by Jean Desse and Frédérique Audoin-Rouzeau, 431–437. Paris: Anthropozoologica, 1993.

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                              Synthetic reflections on findings of raptor bones and of objects related to falconry in Central Europe, especially Germany and Moravia.

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                              • Niedermann, Christoph. Das Jagdwesen am Hofe Herzog Philipps des Guten von Burgund. Brussels: Archives et Bibliothèques de Belgique, 1995.

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                                Fundamental study of the social and economic importance, organization, and practice of hunting at the Burgundian court under Philip the Good (r. 1419–1467), mainly in the Low Countries, on the basis of archival documents.

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                                • Oggins, Robin. The Kings and Their Hawks: Falconry in Medieval England. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 2004.

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                                  Mainly based on archival sources, this book reveals a wealth of new information about the organization, the staff, the expenditures, and the significance of royal falconry, from Anglo-Saxon times to the reign of Edward I.

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                                  • Prummel, Wietske. “Falconry in Continental Settlements as Reflected by Animal Bones from the 6th to the 12th Centuries.” In Hunting in Northern Europe until 1500 AD: Old Traditions and Regional Developments, Continental Sources and Continental Influences. Edited by Oliver Grimm and Ulrich Schmölcke, 357–377. Neumünster, Germany: Wachholtz, 2013.

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                                    Discusses the types of evidence by which falconry can be demonstrated in settlement layers: falconry devices, bones of hawks, the sexes of the hawks (predominance of female birds), and the bones of specific prey animals. Various tables present overviews of published evidence.

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                                    Mediterranean and Oriental Falconry

                                    A convenient starting point for falconry in the Mediterranean world is the Archivo Iberoamericano de Cetrería. Interesting case studies for Spain and Italy are Bover and Rossello 2002 and Malacarne 2003. One very rich field of inquiry is offered by the cultural parallels that can be drawn between Arabic and Western falconry, be they independent or mutually influenced. The study of Boccassini 2003 procures a perfect overview of the questions raised by this issue. The Arabic tradition of technical treatises on falconry has been outlined and studied by Möller 1965 and has been intensely researched by François Viré (e.g. Viré 1977), and its impact on the West is summarized by Akasoy 2007 (see also Frederick II and the Oriental Tradition and Bibliotheca cynegetica in Treatises on Falconry). But hunting can also be considered in a vast intercultural space, following Allsen 2006.

                                    • Akasoy, Anna. “The Influence of the Arabic Tradition of Falconry and Hunting on Western Europe.” In Islamic Crosspollinations: Interactions in the Medieval Middle East. Edited by Anna Akasoy, James E. Montgomery, and Peter E. Pormann, 46–64. Warminster, UK: Gibb Memorial Trust, 2007.

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                                      Comparative overview of the importance and significance of falconry in Oriental and Western courts, with some new insights about the arrival of Arabic treatises at the court of Frederick II.

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                                      • Allsen, Thomas T. The Royal Hunt in Eurasian History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

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                                        This very broad study of royal hunting in the Eurasian world, as a demonstration of political and social power, from Antiquity to modern times, devotes occasional attention to hawking, especially in the Mongol Empire from the 13th to the 15th centuries.

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                                        • Archivo Iberoamericano de Cetrería.

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                                          Website on the history and culture of falconry in the Iberian peninsula, directed by José Manuel Fradejas Rueda (University of Valladolid). Provides a concise history of falconry, a glossary of terms, bibliography (including manuscripts) on treatises of falconry, transcriptions or reproductions of texts related to falconry.

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                                          • Boccassini, Daniela. Il volo della mente: Falconeria e sofia nel mondo mediterraneo: Islam, Federico II, Dante. Ravenna, Italy: Longo, 2003.

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                                            Studies the philosophical, literary, and artistic aspects of falconry on both sides of the Mediterranean world: parallels are developed between Islamic and southern French and Italian documents, culminating in a new vision of Dante and Frederick II.

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                                            • Bover, Jaume, and Ramon Rossello. “La cetrería en las Islas Baleares: Siglos XIII–XV.” In La caza en la Edad Media. Edited by José Manuel Fradejas Rueda, 9–23. Tordesillas, Spain: Instituto de Estudios de Iberoámerica y Portugal—Seminario de Filología Medieval, Universidad de Valladolid, 2002.

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                                              Archival documents offer a detailed picture of falconry in the Balearic Islands, which were an important center for catching and exporting falcons. During the 14th century, the right to exert falconry was conceded to all inhabitants, a rare situation in Europe, comparable only to that of Brabant.

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                                              • Malacarne, Giancarlo. I signori del cielo: La falconeria a Mantova al tempo dei Gonzaga. Mantua, Italy: Artiglio, 2003.

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                                                The court of Mantua was in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance a major center for the art of falconry, subject of ample expenditures. Archival sources provide precise data on birds used, their training and cure, their role in diplomatic contacts, and the ritual of the hunt. Detailed letters of falconers are edited in appendix.

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                                                • Möller, Detlef. Studien zur mittelalterlichen arabischen Falknereiliteratur. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1965.

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                                                  Fundamental reference book on medieval hunting literature in Arabic, providing a presentation of the individual works, a history of the genre from the 8th to the 13th centuries, and a synthesis of the technical information included.

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                                                  • Viré, François. “Essai de détermination des oiseaux de vol mentionnés dans les principaux manuscrits arabes médiévaux sur la fauconnerie.” Arabica 24 (1977): 138–149.

                                                    DOI: 10.1163/157005877X00028Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                    Among various articles of François Viré, this contribution concerns terms for raptor birds in Arabic sources, mainly treatises on falconry. It shows the importance of Persian influence on Arabic falconry and the dominant status of some falcon species.

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                                                    Treatises on Falconry

                                                    Treatises on falconry are a specifically medieval phenomenon, since the practice had no antique roots. Appearing in manuscripts since the 10th century, the Latin treatises broadly develop during the 12th century and reach their apex in the next century. Simultaneously one watches the appearance of treatises in the vernacular, at first in the Iberian and French areas, then in Italy, and finally in the Germanic areas. The content of these texts is predominantly therapeutic, giving advice to cure sick falcons and hawks, but gradually it is enlarged to technical and ornithological knowledge. A methodological overview of the tradition has been published in Van den Abeele 1996, and interesting theoretical questions are treated by Giese 2007, Smets 2011, and Fradejas Rueda 1986; the author of the last of these has also published conference proceedings on the topic, Fradejas Rueda 2005. Three collections have gathered studies and editions of medieval hunting treatises, starting with the pioneering series of the Swedish philologist Gunnar Tilander, Tilander 1953–1975, followed by Lindner 1954–1973. An ongoing series is the Bibliotheca cynegetica. These three series provide critical editions needed for scholarly research, besides lexicographical material.

                                                    • Bibliotheca cynegetica. 7 vols. Nogent-le-Roi, France: Jacques Laget—LAME, 1999–.

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                                                      Collection devoted to editions and translations of hunting treatises in Latin (Grimaldus, Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, Practica canum, J. A. De Thou) and French (translations of the treatises of Albertus Magnus and of al Gitrif, the oldest Arabic treatise on falconry) and to lexicography (Beaufrère 2004, cited under Lexicography). Volume 1–6 (Nogent-le-Roi, France: Jacques Laget—LAME) and Volume 7 (Geneva, Switzerland: Droz).

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                                                      • Fradejas Rueda, José Manuel. “La originalidad en la literature cinegética.” EPOS: Revista de filología 2 (1986): 75–88.

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                                                        Through the example of texts of the Iberian peninsula, this article tackles the interesting question of copying and compilation in the medieval tradition of hunting treatises.

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                                                        • Fradejas Rueda, José Manuel, ed. Los libros de caza. Tordesillas, Spain: Instituto de Estudios de Iberoámerica y Portugal—Seminario de Filología Medieval, Universidad de Valladolid, 2005.

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                                                          Conference proceedings containing thirteen articles on hunting treatises in Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German, and a general article on early Renaissance treatises.

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                                                          • Giese, Martina. “Graue Theorie und grünes Weidwerk? Die mittelalterliche Jagd zwischen Buchwissen und Praxis.” Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 89 (2007): 19–59.

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                                                            This article discusses the question of the relationship between theory and practice in medieval hunting treatises, starting from the question of their authors and public.

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                                                            • Lindner, Kurt, ed. Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Jagd. 12 vols. Berlin and New York: Walter De Gruyter, 1954–1973.

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                                                              Collection directed by Kurt Lindner and devoted to historical studies about hunting and to editions of treatises in Latin (Guicennas) and German (Deutsche Habichtslehre, translations of Petrus de Crescentiis and Albertus Magnus). Individual titles belonging to this collection are not mentioned separately.

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                                                              • Smets, An. “La mise en recueil des traités de fauconnerie médiévaux en latin et en langue vernaculaire (français et espagnol).” Reinardus 23 (2011): 163–185.

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                                                                Hunting treatises are often grouped in collective manuscripts, either with other treatises, or with other types of texts. This article offers an overview of these groupings in Latin and French manuscripts, with a list of the shelfmarks in appendix.

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                                                                • Tilander, Gunnar, ed. Cynegetica. 19 vols. Lund, Uppsala, Stockholm, and Karlshamn, Sweden: Almqvist and Wiksells, 1953–1975.

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                                                                  Collection published by Gunnar Tilander and devoted to lexicography related to hunting, and to editions of hunting treatises in Latin (Guicennas, Dancus, Guillelmus, Gerardus, Alexander, Grisofus), French (translations of Dancus and Guillelmus), English, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. Individual titles belonging to this collection are not mentioned separately.

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                                                                  • Van den Abeele, Baudouin. La littérature cynégétique. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1996.

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                                                                    Following the framework of the “Typologie des sources du Moyen Age occidental,” this is a methodological presentation of the tradition of hunting treatises: definition of the genre, outline of its history, critical questions, editorial overview, relevance for various historical inquiries, bibliography.

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                                                                    Treatises in Latin

                                                                    The first Latin manuscript of a treatise on falconry is a modest collection of recipes for hawks, Bischoff 1984. On the whole, some thirty-five Latin treatises are known until the late Middle Ages. The outlines of the genre have been sketched by Haskins 1922 and the whole tradition has been studied by Van den Abeele 1991—but some treatises have been signalled since then. Several texts have been edited in the series Cynegetica and Bibliotheca cynegetica (see Treatises on Falconry). Among the important representatives of the genre, Adelard of Bath and Albertus Magnus have been edited or studied in recent years (Burnett 1998, Oggins 1980, and Giese 2009; see also Smets 2010, cited under Treatises in French). The monumental treatise of Frederick II is treated here in a separate section (Frederick II and the Oriental Tradition). Some texts remain little known, such as the Archibernardus poem analyzed by Haye 2008. A 16th-century verse treatise in Latin by Jacques Auguste de Thou has recently been edited (De Smet 2013). These treatises are interesting for the history of medical practice and thought, for the history of zoology and for a better understanding of social and cultural representations.

                                                                    • Bischoff, Bernhard. “Die älteste europäische Falkenmedizin (Mitte des zehnten Jhs).” In Anecdota novissima. Edited by Bernhard Bischoff, 171–182. Stuttgart: Hiersemann, 1984.

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                                                                      Edition and commentary of the oldest Latin treatise on falconry, an anonymous fragment preserved in a 10th-century manuscript at Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare, 144.

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                                                                      • Burnett, Charles, ed. and trans. Adelard of Bath: Conversations with His Nephew: On the Same and the Different, Questions on Natural Science and On Birds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

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                                                                        The influential hawking treatise De avibus, written between 1120 and 1150 by Adelard of Bath, is edited, translated, and commented in the final chapter of this publication.

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                                                                        • De Smet, Ingrid. La fauconnerie à la Renaissance. Le Hieracosophion (1582–1584) de Jacques Auguste de Thou. Edition critique, traduction et commentaire précédés d’une étude historique de la chasse au vol en France au XVIe siècle. Geneva, Switzerland: Librairie Droz, 2013.

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                                                                          Critical edition of this neo-Latin didactic poem on falconry, together with its first modern translation and a detailed commentary. Contains a substantive (200 p.) preliminary study of falconry in France, from the time of Francis I to the regency of Marie de Medicis. It draws on a broad range of manuscripts and printed texts, as well as on archival and figurative sources to reassess the court’s obsession with hunting and hawking.

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                                                                          • Giese, Martina. “Der Tractatus de austuribus und seine Rezeption durch Albert den Grossen.” Würzburger medizinhistorische Mitteilungen 28 (2009): 67–110.

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                                                                            Study of an anonymous hawking treatise in ms. Bethesda, National Libr. of Medicine, 73, with edition of the text and of the parallel version included in the De falconibus of Albertus Magnus.

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                                                                            • Haskins, Charles Homer. “Some early treatises on falconry.” Romanic Review 13 (1922): 18–27.

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                                                                              This seminal article still offers a useful overview of Latin treatises of the 12th and 13th centuries. Information on manuscripts must however be complemented by more recent studies. Reprinted in Charles Homer Haskins, Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science, Cambridge, MA, 1927: 346–355.

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                                                                              • Haye, Thomas. “Der Liber falconum des Archibernardus: Das älteste lateinische Gedicht zur Falkenpflege als poetisches Dokument.” In Dichten als Stoff-Vermittlung: Formen, Ziele, Wirkungen: Beiträge zur Praxis der Versifikation lateinischer Texte im Mittelalter. Edited by Peter Stotz, 213–229. Zurich, Switzerland: Kronos Verlag, 2008.

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                                                                                Detailed literary analysis of the prologue and epilogue of the unique Latin rhymed treatise known under the name of Archibernardus (Vatican, BAV, Rossi 58), written in the 12th or 13th century.

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                                                                                • Oggins, Robin S. “Albertus Magnus on Falcons and Hawks.” In Albertus Magnus and the Sciences. Edited by James A. Weisheipl, 441–462. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1980.

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                                                                                  The De falconibus of Albertus Magnus (1200–1280), a substantial part of his book on birds included in his De animalibus, has a certain autonomy as a work. Its sources and originality are briefly presented here, and the various birds of prey mentioned are discussed at length (see Giese 2009, cited under Treatises in Latin).

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                                                                                  • Van den Abeele, Baudouin. “Les traités de fauconnerie latins du Moyen Age.” PhD diss., Université catholique de Louvain, 1991.

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                                                                                    Consisting of four volumes, this study offers a catalogue of the manuscripts, a critical study of the individual texts, and an analysis of their technical and medical content; unedited texts are published in appendix. Parts of the dissertation have been published (see General Overviews and Treatises on Falconry; see also Scriptorium 44 [1990]: 276–286).

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                                                                                    Frederick II and the Oriental Tradition

                                                                                    By its impressive size and its technical and scientific level, the treatise of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, De arte venandi cum avibus or “On the art of hunting with birds” (c. 1240–1248) stands out as a monument in the genre. It has long attracted the attention of scholars and also of falconers, who still today appreciate its practical value. The useful English translation Wood and Fyfe 1943 must be checked with the Latin text edited in Trombetti Budriesi 2000 and the French translation of Paulus and Van den Abeele 2000. The ornithological information of the treatise has been recently evaluated in detail by Kinzelbach 2008; for its vocabulary, see Alessio 1963, cited under Lexicography. The court of Frederick II is also important for the introduction of Arabic texts into the West (see Akasoy 2007, cited under Mediterranean and Oriental Falconry), particularly the Moamin, translated by Theodor of Antioch, which has been subject to editions (Georges 2008 and Glessgen 1996) and a vivid scholarly debate (Fried 1996 and Glessgen and Van den Abeele 2008). See also Fradejas Rueda 2005 and Willemsen 1969.

                                                                                    • El arte de cetrería de Federico II. Facsimile edition (Vol. 1) and commentary (Vol. 2) by José Manuel Fradejas Rueda and Zacarías Prieto Hernández. Vatican City and Madrid: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana—Testimonio, 2005.

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                                                                                      The accompanying volume brings an introduction by J. M. Fradejas Rueda, and a complete translation into Spanish of the six-book version of De arte venandi.

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                                                                                      • Fried, Johannes. “Kaiser Friedrich II. als Jäger, oder, ein zweites Falkenbuch Kaiser Friedrichs II.?” Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. I. Philologisch-Historische Klasse 4 (1996): 115–156.

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                                                                                        This article, followed by two others in 1996 and 1997, argues about a “second book on falconry” of Frederick II, designating mainly the Arabic-Latin translation of Moamin as being a text profoundly influenced by the emperor (see also Georges 2008).

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                                                                                        • Georges, Stefan. Das zweite Falkenbuch Kaiser Friedrichs II: Quellen, Entstehung, Überlieferung und Rezeption des Moamin. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2008.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1524/9783050049816Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                          This book tries to reconstruct the oldest version of Moamin and to offer at the same time the history of the text from its arrival in the West until the 16th century. The critical edition takes into account all the known manuscripts.

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                                                                                          • Glessgen, Martin-Dietrich. Die Falkenheilkunde des «Moamin» im Spiegel ihrer volgarizzamenti: Studien zur Romania Arabica. 2 vols. Tübingen, Germany: Max Niemeyer, 1996.

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                                                                                            Study, edition, and detailed lexicographical analysis of the medieval translations of the Latin Moamin into Tuscan and into Neapolitan.

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                                                                                            • Glessgen, Martin-Dietrich, and Baudouin Van den Abeele. “Die Frage des ‘Zweiten Falkenbuchs’ Friedrichs II. und die lateinische Tradition des Moamin.” In Kulturtransfer und Hofgesellschaft im Mittelalter: Wissenskultur am sizilianischen und kastilischen Hof im 13. Jahrhundert. Edited by Gundula Grebner and Johannes Fried, 157–178. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2008.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1524/9783050047195Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                              The articles by Johannes Fried (1996 and 1997) have given rise to a controversy about the so-called “second falconry treatise” of Frederick II. This article discusses the arguments in a critical way (see also Georges 2008).

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                                                                                              • Kinzelbach, Ragnar. “Modi avium: Die Vogelarten im Falkenbuch Kaisers Friedrich II.” In Von der Kunst mit Vögeln zu jagen: Das Falkenbuch Friedrichs II: Kulturgeschichte und Ornithologie. Edited by Mamoun Fansa and Carsten Ritzau, 62–135. Mainz, Germany: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 2008.

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                                                                                                Up-to-date ornithological study of the birds described by Frederick II, most of them being also represented in the margins of the illuminated Vatican manuscript (Vat. lat. 1071).

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                                                                                                • Paulus, Anne, and Baudouin Van den Abeele. Frédéric II de Hohenstaufen: L’art de chasser avec les oiseaux: Le traité de fauconnerie “De arte venandi cum avibus,” traduit, introduit et annoté. Nogent-le-Roi, France: Jacques Laget—LAME, 2000.

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                                                                                                  Translation into modern French of the De arte venandi cum avibus, with a comprehensive introduction, a complete table of titles, indexes, and bibliography.

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                                                                                                  • Trombetti Budriesi, Anna Laura, ed. Federico II di Svevia: De arte venandi cum avibus. Bari, Italy: Laterza, 2000.

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                                                                                                    Replacing the edition by C. A. Willemsen (1942, text and 1970, commentary volume), this edition of the full six-book text of De arte venandi is accompanied by a translation into Italian. A useful numbering of paragraphs has been introduced and indexes and a glossary are included.

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                                                                                                    • Willemsen, Carl Arnold, ed. Fredericus II: De arte venandi cum avibus. Ms. Pal.lat.1071. Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana Facsimile ed. (Vol. 1) and commentary (Vol. 2). Graz, Austria: ADEVA Verlag, 1969.

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                                                                                                      This facsimile, accompanied by a commentary volume, gives a perfect reproduction of the Vatican ms., which is famous for its technically and ornithologically exquisite marginal miniatures. Reduced-format color reproductions of the ms. were issued by Harenberg Verlag (Dortmund, Germany) in the series “Die bibliophilen Taschenbücher” (1980), and by ADEVA (Graz, Austria) in the series “Glanzlichter der Buchkunst” (2000).

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                                                                                                      • Wood, Casey A., and Marjorie Fyfe. The Art of Falconry, Being the “De arte venandi cum avibus” of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1943.

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                                                                                                        This largely accessible English translation of De arte venandi is, in spite of some weaknesses and inconsistencies, a good basis for a cursory reading of the text. The book includes various introductory chapters. Later editions 1957 and 1961.

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                                                                                                        Treatises in French

                                                                                                        In medieval vernacular languages, there are more medieval hunting texts in Romance than in Germanic languages, and they are especially abundant in French. Smets and Van den Abeele 1998 provides a good starting point for any research on medieval French hunting literature, taking into account all known manuscripts and treatises, whereas Thiébaud 1974 offers a start for texts from the late Middle Ages to the 19th century. Scholars interested in the literary value of the French hunting treatises can find a useful introduction in Strubel and De Saulnier 1994. As for the treatises themselves, beside those published in the collections mentioned in Treatises on Falconry, a selection of titles (Tilander 1926, Brereton and Ferrier 1994, Capaccioni 2002, Hunt 2009, and Smets 2010) bearing witness to the variety of falconry treatises in medieval French (translations and original works in Middle French, Occitan, and Anglo-Norman; texts on falcons and on sparrowhawks) is included.

                                                                                                        • Brereton, Georgina E., and Janet M. Ferrier, eds. Le mesnagier de Paris. Translation and notes by Karin Ueltschi. Paris: Librarie générale française, 1994.

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                                                                                                          This guide book for a young married woman, written at the end of the 14th century, contains a detailed section on the keeping and care of sparrowhawks, which is largely original.

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                                                                                                          • Capaccioni, Francesco. “Le fonti del Roman dels auzels cassadors di Daude de Pradas.” In La caza en la Edad Media. Edited by Jose Manuel Fradejas Rueda, 25–37. Tordesillas, Spain: Instituto de Estudios de Iberoámerica y Portugal—Seminario de Filología Medieval, Universidad de Valladolid, 2002.

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                                                                                                            The didactic poem by Daude de Pradas is the only Occitan falconry treatise we know. The text was edited by A. H. Schutz (1945) and studied by several scholars. This more recent study gives a detailed analysis of the sources used by the author.

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                                                                                                            • Hunt, Anthony J., ed. Three Anglo-Norman Treatises on Falconry. Oxford: Society for the Study of Mediaeval Languages and Literature, 2009.

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                                                                                                              Edition of three Anglo-Norman falconry treatises, from the manuscripts Cambridge, UL, Ff.VI.13; Winchester College, 26 and Oxford, Bodleian Library, Digby 86. They all date from the 13th century, and thus are among the oldest hunting treatises in the French domain.

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                                                                                                              • Smets, An, ed. “Des faucons”: Édition et étude des quatre traductions en moyen français du “De falconibus” d’Albert le Grand. Lormaye, France: J. Laget—LAME, 2010.

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                                                                                                                Analysis of the four independent translations in Middle French of the De falconibus by Albertus Magnus, one of the main falconry treatises of the 13th century (see Treatises in Latin). Contains an introduction on the different versions of this text, an edition of each translation, and a common glossary.

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                                                                                                                • Smets, An, and Baudouin Van den Abeele. “Manuscrits et traités de chasse français du Moyen Âge: Recensement et perspectives de recherche.” Romania 116.3–4 (1998): 316–367.

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                                                                                                                  Overview of all manuscripts containing hunting treatises in Old and Middle French, Occitan, and Anglo-Norman, organized by city and library, with basic codicological details. In a second part, a summary of each treatise and a general outline of the history and characteristics of the genre are provided.

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                                                                                                                  • Strubel, Armand, and Chantal De Saulnier. La poétique de la chasse au Moyen Age: Les livres de chasse du XIVe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1994.

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                                                                                                                    Literary study of the three main hunting treatises in Middle French, all of them of the 14th century: the Roman des deduis by Gace de la Buigne, the Livre de chasse by Gaston Phebus, and the Livres du roy Modus et de la royne Ratio by Henri de Ferrières.

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                                                                                                                    • Thiébaud, Jules. Bibliographie des ouvrages français sur la chasse. Paris: Vexin français, 1974.

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                                                                                                                      Originally published in 1934 (Paris: Emile Nourry). Still-indispensable bibliography containing titles of printed texts dealing with various aspects of hunting, both falconry and venery, from the late Middle Ages to the 19th century. Supplements were published by P. Mouchon (Paris: Librairie J. Thiébaud, 1953) and A. Kaps (Bannalec, France: Author, 1998).

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                                                                                                                      • Tilander, Gunnar. “Etude sur les traductions en vieux français du traité de fauconnerie de l’empereur Frédéric II.” Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie 46 (1926): 211–290.

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                                                                                                                        First analysis of the medieval French translations of the De arte venandi cum avibus, the major falconry treatise of the Middle Ages (see Treatises in Latin). It contains a description of the manuscripts, their affiliation, a partial edition, and a well-developed glossary.

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                                                                                                                        Treatises in Other Romance Languages

                                                                                                                        This section includes studies and editions of Spanish and Catalan texts on the one hand, and of Italian texts on the other hand. J. M. Fradejas Rueda, whose website is mentioned in Mediterranean and Oriental Falconry, is at present the most productive scholar on the field of Spanish hunting literature. Fradejas Rueda 1991 and Fradejas Rueda 1998 are indispensable tools for any research about Iberian hunting texts. For Catalan texts, one should consult the publications of Marinela García Sempere, e.g., García Sempere 1999. For the Italian section, Innamorati 1965 and Lupis 1975 are still very useful, and Capaccioni 2012 is a rather rare example of a recent edition of a medieval Italian treatise on falconry.

                                                                                                                        • Capaccioni, Francesco, ed. Egidio d’Aquino, Liber avium viventium de rapina. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2012.

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                                                                                                                          Edition of the Italian translation of the treatise by Egidius of Aquino contained in the MS Oxford, Bodl. L., Canon. ital. 21, with a well-developed critical apparatus. There are twelve known Italian translations of this Latin text (end of the 13th to the beginning of the 14th century).

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                                                                                                                          • Fradejas Rueda, José Manuel. Bibliotheca cinegetica hispanica: Bibliografía crítica de los libros de cetrería y montería hispano-portugueses anteriores a 1799. London: Grant and Cutler, 1991.

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                                                                                                                            Critical bibliography of all Spanish and Portuguese hunting treatises (falconry and venery) written between the Middle Ages and the 18th century. A supplement to the first part was published in 2003; together they form the most complete bibliography in this field. Also see this work’s First Supplement (Woodbridge, UK: Tamesis, 2003).

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                                                                                                                            • Fradejas Rueda, José Manuel. Literatura cetrera de la Edad Media y el Renacimiento español. London: Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College, 1998.

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                                                                                                                              Detailed analysis, by century (13th–17th centuries), of all hunting treatises (falconry and venery) written in Spanish, Catalan, and Portuguese, both compilations/translations and original works. The short introduction describes very well some general characteristics of these texts.

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                                                                                                                              • García Sempere, Marinela, ed. La versió catalana medieval dels tractats de falconeria Dancus rex i Guillelmus Falconarius. Alacante, Spain: University of Alacante, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                Dancus rex and Guillelmus Falconarius were two of the most popular falconry treatises of the 12th century (see Treatises in Latin). They were translated in several vernacular languages, among them Catalan. The editions are followed by a list of all words and all occurrences in the text.

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                                                                                                                                • Innamorati, Giuliano. Arte della caccia: Testi di falconeria, ucellagione e altre cacce. 2 vols. Milan: Il Polifilo, 1965.

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                                                                                                                                  Anthology of Italian texts on falconry. Volume 1 deals with treatises written between the 13th and 17th centuries and offers a partial edition and translation of Frederick II’s De arte venandi and of Pietro de Crescenzi’s treatise, as well as editions of a few anonymous texts.

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                                                                                                                                  • Lupis, Antonio. “La Sezione venatoria della biblioteca aragonese di Napoli e due sconosciuti trattati di Ynnico d’Avalos conte camerlengo.” Annali della Facoltà di lingue e di letterature straniere di Bari 6 (1975): 225–313.

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                                                                                                                                    After an introduction on the importance of hunting and falconry at the Aragonese court of Naples in the second half of the 15th century follows a catalogue of Aragonese manuscripts related to hunting still extant in various libraries, and an edition of two treatises by Ynnico d’Avalos.

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                                                                                                                                    Treatises in Germanic Languages

                                                                                                                                    Medieval German hunting texts were for several decennia at the heart of the research of Kurt Lindner (see Treatises on Falconry), and Lindner 1976 is still a good starting point for any scholar interested in this field. More recently, Martina Giese has published various studies on German hunting texts, among them Giese 2003, on some original German treatises. English texts, fewer in number, were edited by Rachel Hands: see Hands 1972 and Hands 1975. Still fewer in number are hunting treatises in Middle Dutch. One of the rare examples was edited in Braekman 1981.

                                                                                                                                    • Braekman, Willy L. “Uniek Nederlands traktaat over africhting en verzorging van jachtvogels (16e eeuw).” Verslagen en Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde N.R. (1981): 48–99.

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                                                                                                                                      Analysis and edition of the only known treatise on hunting with a goshawk in Middle Dutch, preserved in a manuscript written at the beginning of the 16th century. Because of its rarity, it is a small but important testimony to the cultural history of Middle Dutch.

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                                                                                                                                      • Giese, Martina. “Zu den Anfängen der deutschsprachigen Fachliteratur über die Beizjagd.” Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 125 (2003): 494–523.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1515/BGSL.2003.494Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Presentation, analysis, and manuscript tradition of the five original German texts, which were written before 1500. The interest of these texts lies not only in their content, but also in their use of a specific terminology.

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                                                                                                                                        • Hands, Rachel. “Prince Edward’s Book: A Survey of the Related Texts.” Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 124 (1972): 26–42.

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                                                                                                                                          Analysis of a group of small hawking treatises in Middle English, known as the “Prince Edward’s Book.” The manuscript tradition is rather complicated, and the author corrects some errors made by previous scholars.

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                                                                                                                                          • Hands, Rachel, ed. English Hawking and Hunting in the Boke of St. Albans: A Facsimile Edition of Sigs. a2-f8 of The Boke of St. Albans (1486). London: Oxford University Press, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                            Early example of a printed book containing four didactic texts, among them a treatise on hunting with a goshawk, and a versified book on venery. The anonymous hawking text is based on the “Prince Edward’s Book” (see Hands 1972), whereas the second hunting text is attributed to “Dame Julians Barnes.”

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                                                                                                                                            • Lindner, Kurt. Bibliographie der deutschen und niederländischen Jagdliteratur von 1480 bis 1850. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                              Bibliography of hunting literature (falconry and venery) in German and in Dutch written between the 15th and 19th centuries.

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                                                                                                                                              Lexicography

                                                                                                                                              Falconers, both practitioners of the Middle Ages and contemporary hunters, use a specific vocabulary, which did not vary much through the centuries. Scholars studying hunting treatises or literary or other texts containing hunting scenes can use general reference works, such as Dalby 1965 for German or Lenoble-Pinson 1989 and Beaufrère 2004 for French, when they want to look up specific terms or expressions. Lexicography of hunting terms was also a specialty of Gunnar Tilander (see Treatises on Falconry), as is proven by one of his first publications, i.e., Tilander 1932. Given the predominance of French texts (see Treatises in French), it is no surprise that several studies deal with hunting terminology in medieval French treatises (Alessio 1963) or with the influence of French terminology on other languages (Smets and Toulan 2008). Finally, in hunting terminology, names of birds constitute a specific category. Kitson 1997–1998 studies names of all birds in Old English, not only birds of prey, whereas Evans 1967 is a small but impressive monograph on the name of a single variety of falcons in Middle French.

                                                                                                                                              • Alessio, G. “Note linguistiche sul «De arte venandi cum avibus» di Federico II.” Archivio storico Pugliese 16 (1963): 84–149.

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                                                                                                                                                Analysis of the terminology used by Frederick II in his De arte venandi cum avibus (see Frederick II and the Oriental Tradition). This study clearly underlines the influence of Norman on the Romance languages in Sicily, and even in the rest of Italy.

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                                                                                                                                                • Beaufrère, Hubert. Lexique de la chasse au vol: Terminologie française du XVIe au XXe siècle. Nogent-le-Roi, France: J. Laget—LAME, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                  Indispensable dictionary for everyone interested in terminology related to hawking. Although the oldest sources quoted date from the 16th century, the volume is also useful for the study of Middle French hunting treatises.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Dalby, David. Lexicon of the Mediaeval German Hunt: A Lexicon of Middle High German Terms (1050–1500), associated with the Chase, Hunting with Bows, Falconry, Trapping and Fowling. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1965.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1515/9783110818604Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    As stated in the foreword, this reference work is both a contribution to medieval German hunting terminology and High German lexicography, as well as a very useful tool to understand hunting scenes in High German literature. The long introduction gives a good presentation of the variety of sources used.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Evans, Dafydd. Lanier: Histoire d’un mot. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                      Monograph devoted to the study the word lanier. Three homonyms appear in Middle French, one of them designating the lanner falcon. Their etymology and the possible relationships between them are studied on the basis of various sources in medieval French, Latin, and other Romance languages.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Kitson, P. R. “Old English Bird-Names I and II.” English Studies: A Journal of English Language and Literature 78 (1997): 481–505.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/00138389708599099Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Analysis of names of birds in Old English. The names of birds of prey constitute an important portion of the second of these two articles. Published in 1988 (Vol. 79, pp. 2–22).

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                                                                                                                                                        • Lenoble-Pinson, Michèle. Poil et plume: Termes de chasse et langue courante: Vénerie, fauconnerie, chasse à tir. Paris and Louvain-la-Neuve, France: Duculot, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                          Few people are aware of the cynegetical origins of dozens of expressions in modern French. This useful reference work reveals the links between those modern expressions and hunting texts from the previous centuries. All forms of hunting are included: hawking, venery, and archery.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Smets, An, and Magali Toulan. “Les accessoires des faucons et des fauconniers dans les traductions françaises du De arte venandi cum avibus de Frédéric II et du De falconibus d’Albert le Grand.” In Science Translated: Latin and Vernacular Translations of Scientific Treatises in Medieval Europe. Edited by Michèle Goyens, Pieter De Leemans, and An Smets, 311–330. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                            This analysis shows that in the two main hawking treatises of the 13th century, by Frederick II and Albert the Great (see Treatises in Latin), the Latin hunting terminology was not yet fixed, and that there was a mutual influence between Latin and Middle French.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Tilander, Gunnar. Glanures lexicographiques. Lund, Swedan: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1932.

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                                                                                                                                                              First independent lexicological study by the Swedish scholar Gunnar Tilander, which will be followed by the Essais and Mélanges d’étymologie cynégétique in his series Cynegetica (see Treatises on Falconry).

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                                                                                                                                                              Literature

                                                                                                                                                              Scenes or images of falconry abound in medieval romances, epic, and poetry, often making use of a technical vocabulary or including precise details contributing to a certain “realism.” In the diverse linguistic traditions, the theme has been studied in innumerable articles, but only a handful of books exist. For English literature, Hieatt 1983 is a stimulating essay, Rooney 1993 confers general contextualization, and Horobin 2004 has gathered many specific examples. The majority of Old French occurrences have been studied by Van den Abeele 1990, and a few Italian and Spanish cases are presented by Ferioli 2002, Marruncheddu 2008, and Seniff 1992.

                                                                                                                                                              • Ferioli, Alessandro. “Falchi e falconieri nella letteratura medievale italiana.” Quaderni medievali 53 (2002): 6–40.

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                                                                                                                                                                Italian literary uses of falconry are studied, starting with various scenes and allusions in Boccaccio’s Decameron, showing how subtly the poet makes use of the social and symbolic valence of falconry. Historical texts and Early Modern literature are also investigated.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Hieatt, Constance B. “Stooping at a Simile: Some Literary Uses of Falconry.” Papers on Language and Literature 19 (1983): 339–360.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Taking his examples mostly from post-medieval literature (Shakespeare and Spenser), the author argues that technical knowledge of falconry is essential to a good understanding of famous literary works and reflects about the reception of these images.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Horobin, David. Falconry in Literature: The Symbolism of Falconry in English Literature from Chaucer to Marvell. Surrey, BC; and Blaine, WA: Hancock House, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Advertised as “a layman’s guide to falconry as presented in literary texts,” this study by a practitioner of falconry brings useful technical comments on scenes related to a few dominant themes: nobility and ignobility, royalty and power, love.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Marruncheddu, Sara. “Animaux, méprises et tromperies: Réflexions sur l’image littéraire de certains oiseaux dans la nouvelle italienne.” Reinardus 20 (2008): 40–50.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1075/rein.20.04marSave Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Concerns the literary function of raptor birds in some Italian novels: the falcon in Filoconio e Eugenia of Sabadino degli Aretini, and the sparrowhawk in Trecentonovelle of Franco Sacchetti.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Rooney, Anne. Hunting in Middle English Literature. Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Although this study is focused on scenes of venery in Middle English literature, it provides useful reflections on the general significance of hunting, transferable to falconry. Two 14th-century texts are studied in detail: Chaucer’s Book of the Duchess and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Seniff, Dennis P. Noble Pursuits: Literature and the Hunt. Edited by Diane M. Wright and Connie L. Scarborough. Newark, DE: Juan de la Cuesta, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Among the articles reprinted here, several titles touch on falconry in medieval Spanish literature (e.g., Cantigas de Santa Maria, romances) and on Spanish hunting treatises.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Van den Abeele, Baudouin. La fauconnerie dans les lettres françaises du XIIe au XIVe siècle. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Literary study of the theme of falconry in Old French literature. The first part analyzes falcons and falconry as elements of reality in the narrative, the second part is devoted to metaphorical and symbolic uses. A corpus of 992 quotations is published in appendix.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Weick, Reiner. Der Habicht in der deutschen Dichtung des 12. bis 16. Jahrhunderts. Göppingen, Germany: Kummerle, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Study of the use and function of the lemma habech (Goshawk) and of other raptors in medieval German poetry, based on a corpus of 161 references in forty-three works. Combines a literary approach and present-day ornithological knowledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Iconography

                                                                                                                                                                              Most predictably, falcons and falconry appear in all sorts of courtly iconography, such as portraits and scenes of aristocratic leisure (Gasser and Stampfer 1995) or erotic imagery (Friedman 1989). But falcons can be associated as an attribute to persons (as saints, see Swaen 1926), states and moments (youth, sanguine complexion, spring) or signify vices or virtues by association (Van den Abeele 2000). A very rich repertoire of references is provided by Peters 1973, which can be a perfect starting point, whereas Chamerlat 1987 offers a sample of good-quality reproductions. Early scenes are commented by Åkerström 1974 and Oehrl 2013. The lack of a comprehensive study of the theme in medieval art is obvious.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Åkerström, Gunilla. The Calendar and Hunting Mosaics of the Villa of the Falconer in Argos: A Study in Early Byzantine Iconography. Stockholm: Svenska Institutet I Athen, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Detailed study of the Argos mosaics, which are the first precise figuration of falconry scenes in Western art, dating from the end of the 5th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Chamerlat, Christian Antoine de. Falconry and Art. London: Sotheby’s, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Large public book with abundant iconography reproduced in color. Includes scenes from Antiquity to the present, with many medieval examples, not always well referenced however. (Translated from French, 1986.)

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Friedman, Mira. “The Falcon and the Hunt: Symbolic Love Imagery in Medieval and Renaissance Art.” In Poetics of Love in the Middle Ages: Texts and Context. Edited by Moshe Lazar and Norris Lacy, 157–175. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This article offers a partial translation of the author’s dissertation on hunting scenes in the art of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Tel Aviv, 1978). Main themes of the dissertation were class significance, attributes, images of secular life, associations to sinning and to love.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gasser, Christoph, and Helmut Stampfer. La caccia nell’arte del Tirolo. Bolzano, Italy: Athesia, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Study of the abundant hunting iconography of wall paintings in castles and churches of the Trentino and Alto Adige, from the 13th century to the 17th century, with main emphasis on the late medieval period. Also published in German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Oehrl, Sigmund. “Can Pictures Lie? Hunting the Red Deer with Raptors: According to Visual Representations from the Viking Age.” In Hunting in Northern Europe until 1500 AD: Old Traditions and Regional Developments, Continental Sources and Continental Influences. Edited by Oliver Grimm and Ulrich Schmölcke, 515–530. Neumünster, Germany: Wachholtz, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Discusses the presence, on some rune stones of the Viking Age in Sweden, of raptors attacking large game (deer), and confronts various examples from Insular Celtic and Oriental culture documenting this type of hunting, whether realistic or not.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Peters, Heinz. “Falke, Falkenjagd, Falkner und Falkenbuch.” In Reallexikon zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte. Vol. 6. Edited by Otto Schmitt, col. 1261–1366. Munich: Beck, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Very detailed inventory of the various iconographic contexts where falcons, falconers, or falconry scenes appear in medieval and Early Modern art. Provides hundreds of precise references.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Swaen, A. E. H. De valk in de iconographie. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Gebr. Van Aelst, 1926.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            The focus of this small publication is the iconography of saints represented with a falcon on the fist, with as foremost example St. Bavo; other cases include St. Agilulf, Quirinus, Gengulf, Baudry, Gorgonius.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Van den Abeele, Baudouin. “Le faucon sur la main: Un parcours iconographique médiéval.” In La chasse au Moyen Age: Société, traités, symboles. Edited by Agostino Paravicini Bagliani and Baudouin Van den Abeele, 87–109 and pl. 1–12. Florence: SISMEL, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Overview of the various connotations, both positive and negative, which can be linked to a falcon on the fist of a protagonist, as represented mainly in medieval miniatures.

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