Medieval Studies The Junius Manuscript
by
Leslie Lockett
  • LAST MODIFIED: 24 July 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396584-0145

Introduction

“Junius 11” is the nickname of a manuscript of Old English biblical poetry, whose formal shelf mark is Oxford, Bodleian Library, Junius 11. It contains the sole surviving copies of four long Old English poems, which modern editors have titled Genesis, Exodus, Daniel, and Christ and Satan. As these titles suggest, the first three are poetic renderings of Old Testament narratives; the fourth recounts several New Testament and apocryphal episodes in which Christ triumphed over Satan. Scholars have proposed dates for the manuscript ranging from c. 950 to c. 1050, making it roughly contemporary with the other major Old English poetic codices (the Exeter Book, the Vercelli Book, and the Nowell Codex, which contains Beowulf). Within this group Junius 11 stands out by virtue of the dozens of spaces set aside for illustrations throughout the book, although only a portion of the illustrations for Genesis were ever completed. In his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Bede reports that the first author of Old English biblical poetry was a cowherd named Cædmon, who in middle age became suddenly and miraculously gifted with the ability to orally compose alliterative verse based on biblical topics, including the events of Genesis and Exodus, the life of Christ, and the Last Judgment. Because the contents of Junius 11 parallel Cædmon’s oeuvre, early scholars of Old English believed that Junius 11 preserved Cædmon’s own compositions and labeled it the “Cædmon Manuscript.” However, since the four poems differ markedly from one another in poetic style and in their methods of rendering biblical material into verse, they are now believed to represent the work of at least five poets who belonged to different centuries and regions of Anglo-Saxon England. This article opens with introductory works that will acquaint the reader with the manuscript as an artifact and with the poems contained in it. Subsequent sections present bibliographies for further reading, studies of the manuscript from codicological and art-historical perspectives, and the editions, translations, and studies of each of the Junius 11 poems. The two final sections cover studies of the genre of biblical verse and of the rationale behind the compilation of the Junius 11 poems into a single volume.

General and Introductory Works

No single resource can provide a comprehensive introduction to an artifact as complex as Junius 11, but for readers unfamiliar with the manuscript, Muir 2004 makes readily available the basic information about manuscript features along with a complete digital facsimile, the Old English texts, and Modern English translations. Readers who are looking for a brief, factual introduction to an individual poem should begin with Lapidge et al. 1999; those interested in paleography and codicology should begin with Ker 1990. All of the Junius 11 poems are edited in Krapp 1931. Anlezark 2011 has the advantage of supplementing the edited texts with facing-page translations but the disadvantage of excluding Christ and Satan from the volume. An accessible overview of the content of the poems and the genre of biblical verse, as well as dominant critical interpretations, can be found in Greenfield and Calder 1986.

  • Anlezark, Daniel, ed. and trans. Old Testament Narratives. Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library 7. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

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    Edition and facing-page translation of all the Old Testament poems in Junius 11, with concise and accessible introduction and endnotes. Note that Christ and Satan is not included in this volume.

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    • Greenfield, Stanley B., and Daniel G. Calder. A New Critical History of Old English Literature. New York: New York University Press, 1986.

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      Literary history covering many genres of Old English literature. The chapter on Old Testament verse provides a nuanced but accessible introduction to scholarly interpretations of Genesis, Exodus, and Daniel; the chapter on New Testament verse discusses the structure and imagery of Christ and Satan.

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      • Ker, N. R. Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

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        One of the essential reference works for Anglo-Saxonists. At entry no. 334, Ker reports the key codicological features of the manuscript and describes the hands of the main scribes of Liber I and Liber II as well as the corrections and marks made by later users of the book. Originally published in 1957.

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        • Krapp, George Philip, ed. The Junius Manuscript. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931.

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          The standard critical edition of the Junius 11 poems. The edited texts are highly dependable, but the volume contains no glossary and slim interpretive notes.

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          • Lapidge, Michael, John Blair, Simon Keynes, and Donald Scragg, eds. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.

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            A compact reference work containing several articles pertinent to Junius 11: Paul G. Remley, “The Junius Manuscript”; Peter J. Lucas, “Junius, Franciscus (1591–1677),” “Genesis,” “Exodus,” and “Daniel”; Donald Scragg, “Christ and Satan”; and Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe, “Cædmon.” Each article concludes with a brief bibliography and is thoroughly cross-referenced.

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            • Muir, Bernard J., ed. A Digital Facsimile of Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Junius 11. CD-ROM. Software by Nick Kennedy. Oxford: Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, 2004.

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              High-resolution digital images of the entire manuscript are supplemented by transcriptions and translations of each poem, interpretive and textual notes, extensive bibliography, and brief introductory essays on topics such as the manuscript’s codicology, illustrations, and provenance.

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              Bibliographies and Reference Works

              There is no shortage of bibliographical resources to assist in finding further reading on the Junius 11 manuscript and its poems. Entries in Lapidge et al. 1999 provide a compact introduction to the manuscript and each poem, but the bibliography is extremely selective. For more comprehensive bibliographies that focus primarily on Junius 11, see Caie 1979 and Muir 2004 (but beware of numerous typographical errors in both). Even more exhaustive coverage of scholarship through the year 1972 is found in the pertinent sections of Greenfield and Robinson 1980, and for the period from 1971 into the early 21st century, in the pertinent sections of the annual bibliography in the journal Anglo-Saxon England. The searchable bibliography in the Old English Newsletter has the advantage of being limited to studies of the Anglo-Saxon period, while the searchable database of the International Medieval Bibliography is more diffuse in scope (and therefore requires more patience to search) but is updated more regularly than the Old English Newsletter database.

              • Anglo-Saxon England. 1972–.

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                The leading journal of Anglo-Saxon studies across the disciplines includes an annual bibliography at the end of each yearly volume. For work on Junius 11, see especially the subdivision on poetry in section 3 (“Old English Literature”) as well as section 5 (“Palaeography, Diplomatic and Illumination”). The bibliography in Volume 1 covers 1971, so the chronological range of the annual bibliographies dovetails with Greenfield and Robinson 1980.

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                • Caie, Graham D. Bibliography of Junius XI Manuscript with Appendix on Cædmon’s Hymn. Copenhagen: Department of English, University of Copenhagen, 1979.

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                  A focused bibliography in which each Junius 11 poem is allotted its own section. The general sections on translations and “Background Material Pertaining to the Junius XI MS. Poems and Biblical Themes in Old English” are less efficient to use because they incorporate scholarship on Cædmon and Cædmon’s Hymn.

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                  • Greenfield, Stanley B., and Fred C. Robinson. A Bibliography of Publications on Old English Literature to the end of 1972. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980.

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                    Genesis A and B, Exodus, Daniel, and Christ and Satan are represented among the entries on individual poems, with copious references to editions, translations, and studies of each. See also nos. 222–235A on Junius 11 as a whole.

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                    • International Medieval Bibliography.

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                      A subscription database that allows the user to search several thousand journals and essay collections going back to 1967, from across the disciplines of medieval studies.

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                      • Lapidge, Michael, John Blair, Simon Keynes, and Donald Scragg, eds. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.

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                        Contains introductory articles about Junius 11 and related topics, each with selective bibliography: Paul G. Remley, “The Junius Manuscript”; Peter J. Lucas, “Junius, Franciscus (1591–1677),” “Genesis,” “Exodus,” and “Daniel”; Donald Scragg, “Christ and Satan”; and Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe, “Cædmon.”

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                        • Muir, Bernard J., ed. A Digital Facsimile of Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Junius 11. CD-ROM. Software by Nick Kennedy. Oxford: Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, 2004.

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                          Muir’s extensive bibliography, which includes studies published up to 2002, emphasizes codicological and art-historical studies of the manuscript but also includes thorough coverage of editions, translations, and criticism of each poem.

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                          • Old English Newsletter. 1967–.

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                            Over twenty thousand entries from this journal’s annual bibliographies from 1973 to 2006 are gathered in searchable form online. There is no subscription fee to use the database, but users must register before searching.

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                            The Manuscript

                            Junius 11 consists of ii+230 parchment pages, measuring c. 323 × c. 196mm (Ker 1990, cited under Dating and Phases of Construction). Gollancz 1927 (cited under Manuscript Facsimiles and Images of Illustrations) reproduces the pages at actual size but with extremely wide margins, and the monumental dimensions of the facsimile volume can easily lead the user to forget that the modest dimensions of the manuscript itself are slightly longer and slightly narrower than a standard sheet of 8½ × 11" paper. The present binding of oak boards covered in leather is not original but dates to the period 1100 to 1250 (Raw 1984, cited under Dating and Phases of Construction). A single scribe copied Genesis, Exodus, and Daniel (pp. 1–212), and another three scribes collaborated on Christ and Satan (pp. 213–229). A colophon reading “FINIT LIBER.II. AMEN.” directly follows Christ and Satan: this is one of several reasons why many scholars believe that the text of Daniel originally continued beyond the bottom of p. 212 and once concluded with a similar colophon signaling the end of Liber I (see Lucas 1979 and Raw 1984, both cited under Dating and Phases of Construction; cf. Farrell 1968, cited under Style, Structure, and Meter of Daniel; and Hall 1976, cited under Compilation of the Junius 11 Poems). Most scholars agree that the illustrations of the Genesis narrative were done by two artists. The first, whose illustrations run from the frontispiece on p. ii through the two-panel rendering of Noah’s Ark on p. 68, may also have been responsible for the zoomorphic initials that run through p. 79, but not the isolated zoomorphic initial in Liber II at p. 226. A second artist executed the colored-ink line drawings on pp. 73–88. After p. 88, the spaces intended for illustrations of the rest of Genesis and for subsequent poems were left empty, but a few spaces are now filled with later sketches. In its present state, Christ and Satan does not include spaces for illustrations, although Raw 1984, cited under Dating and Phases of Construction, maintains that such spaces were allotted on leaves that are now missing from the final gathering. The present section is subdivided into facsimiles and selections of images of the Junius 11 manuscript; studies of when, how, and where the manuscript was assembled and where it was subsequently kept; and studies of its figural illustrations, forms of script, and methods of punctuation.

                            Manuscript Facsimiles and Images of Illustrations

                            The illustrations in Junius 11 have been reproduced many times going back to the mid-19th century, but until recently, those who wished to view a high-grade reproduction of the entire manuscript, or to study more than a few snippets of script, had recourse only to the full-size black-and-white facsimile in Gollancz 1927. The Bodleian Library has recently generated digital images of the entire manuscript, opening up new opportunities for research on every aspect of Junius 11 to a much wider audience. Those who are engaged in research on the paleography, codicology, and art history of Junius 11 will wish to consult the high-resolution, color digital images in Muir 2004 and in Early Manuscripts at Oxford University online, which include all the manuscript pages plus the binding and binding strips. It is more cumbersome to navigate through the manuscript on the Early Manuscripts at Oxford University website than to use Muir 2004, and the high-resolution images are slow to load; however, the website is significantly more reliable than Muir 2004 on a variety of web browsers and operating systems. Access to the images in Muir 2004 is enhanced by numerous navigation and search tools, annotations on specific features of each manuscript page, topical commentaries, and transcriptions and translations of the texts. For ease of use, paleographers and art historians will still find the sharp black-and-white images in Gollancz 1927 to be extremely helpful. Those interested in a more casual acquaintance with the style and iconography of the illustrations will find Mason 1990 convenient; Gollancz 1927, Ohlgren 1992, and Muir 2004 include descriptions of the subject matter of every figural illustration in the manuscript. Temple 1976 includes only a few images of Junius 11, but they are helpfully juxtaposed with comparanda from other manuscripts.

                            • Bodleian Library MS. Junius 11. Early Manuscripts at Oxford University.

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                              Free access to high-resolution images of the entire Junius 11 manuscript. The magnifying function brings up an image that is four times larger than actual size, giving impressively intimate views of the ductus of individual letters and the different inks used by the initialler and the later users who added corrections and pointing.

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                              • Gollancz, Israel, ed. The Cædmon Manuscript of Anglo-Saxon Biblical Poetry: Junius XI in the Bodleian Library. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.

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                                This high-quality black-and-white facsimile (with a color frontispiece showing the illustration on p. 84 of the manuscript) remains a useful tool for studying scripts and illustrations. Gollancz thoroughly describes the contributions of each scribe and artist, as well as the narrative content of each illustration.

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                                • Mason, Lawrence, trans. An Anglo-Saxon Genesis. Lampeter, UK: Llanerch Enterprises, 1990.

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                                  This compact paperback includes line-drawing reproductions of the illustrations by the first two artists, as well as the zoomorphic initials, making it an inexpensive and convenient way to study the iconography and its relationship to the narrative.

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                                  • Muir, Bernard J., ed. A Digital Facsimile of Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Junius 11. CD-ROM. Software by Nick Kennedy. Oxford: Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, 2004.

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                                    This is the ideal forum for viewing the manuscript, but only if you have access to Internet Explorer (5.5+ for PC, 5.2+ for Mac). Navigational tools, a magnifying function, and a host of commentaries and annotations supplement the images, which include bindings, binding strips, and the pages of Junius’s handwritten commentary that survive as Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Junius 73.

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                                    • Ohlgren, Thomas H. Anglo-Saxon Textual Illustration. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, 1992.

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                                      Junius 11 is one of sixteen Anglo-Saxon manuscripts for which Ohlgren provides a summary description, black-and-white photographic reproductions of all figural illustrations, and a paragraph of description for every image. Included in Ohlgren’s fifty-one plates from Junius 11 are the drypoint sketches on p. 12 and p. 70 of the manuscript as well as the 12th-century drawing on p. 96.

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                                      • Temple, Elżbieta. Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts 9001066. London: Harvey Miller, 1976.

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                                        The description of Junius 11 at no. 58 in the catalogue covers iconography within the narrative cycle, drawings outside the narrative cycle, and provenance; a selective bibliography emphasizes art-historical studies. Illustrations 189–196 represent the work of both main artists, one zoomorphic initial, and the script of Liber I.

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                                        Dating and Phases of Construction

                                        The questions of when, how, and why the Junius 11 compilation came together have generated long-lived debates. Gollancz 1927 claimed a date of “about 1000” for Liber I, and Ker 1990 proposed “s. x/xi, s. xi1” (which we may take to mean between c. 975 and c. 1050, but probably between c. 1000 and c. 1025). Subsequently, art historians, notably Barbara Raw, have interpreted Scandinavian symptoms in the illustrations as an indicator that the manuscript was initiated during the second quarter of the 11th century, when Danish kings occupied the English throne (Raw 1976). The earlier end of Ker’s range, however, finds support in Lockett 2002, which combines codicological, art-historical, and paleographical evidence. Scholars have also debated the relationship between the Old Testament and New Testament sections of the manuscript: it is unclear whether the compiler of the manuscript intended initially to include Christ and Satan, or whether Junius 11 was meant to be a repository of Old Testament verse, to which Christ and Satan was added some years or decades later. Codicological contributions to this debate include Lucas 1979, Raw 1984, and Hall 1986; for further discussion of the rationale behind the compilation of the poems, from chiefly literary perspectives, see Compilation of the Junius 11 Poems.

                                        • Gollancz, Israel, ed. The Cædmon Manuscript of Anglo-Saxon Biblical Poetry: Junius XI in the Bodleian Library. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.

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                                          Discusses the dating of Liber I and considers what the probable loss of text at the end of Daniel implies about the chronological and conceptual relationship between Liber I and Liber II.

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                                          • Hall, J. R. “On the Bibliographic Unity of Bodleian MS Junius 11.” American Notes and Queries 24.7-8 (1986): 104–107.

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                                            Responding to Lucas 1979 and Raw 1984, Hall uses codicological evidence to reassert his earlier claims that Liber II was an integral part of the original design of Junius 11 (Hall 1976, cited under Compilation of the Junius 11 Poems). Most of Raw’s findings support Hall’s own claims, but Hall challenges her opinion of the designs sketched on p. 225 and p. 230.

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                                            • Ker, N. R. Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

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                                              At entry no. 334, Ker dates Junius 11 to the period “s. x/xi, xi1” chiefly on the basis of script. See also his introduction, where he discusses datable codicological trends relevant to the dating of Junius 11. Originally published in 1957.

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                                              • Lockett, Leslie. “An Integrated Re-examination of the Dating of Oxford, Bodleian Library, Junius 11.” Anglo-Saxon England 31.1 (2002): 141–173, with plates I–IVc.

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                                                Building on earlier studies that establish when and how manuscript production techniques changed over the course of the 10th and 11th centuries in England, Lockett argues that the simplest explanation for the codicological, artistic, and paleographical features that coexist in Junius 11 is that the production of Liber I was initiated during the period c. 960–c. 990.

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                                                • Lucas, Peter J. “On the Incomplete Ending of Daniel and the Addition of Christ and Satan to MS Junius 11.” Anglia 97 (1979): 46–59.

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                                                  Lucas argues that Daniel has been transmitted without its closing lines, and that those closing lines were likely lost when Christ and Satan (which Lucas claims was originally an independent booklet) was inserted into the bifolium that contains the end of Daniel on the verso of its first leaf. Cf. Raw 1984.

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                                                  • Raw, Barbara C. “The Probable Derivation of Most of the Illustrations in Junius 11 from an Illustrated Old Saxon Genesis.” Anglo-Saxon England 5 (1976): 133–148, with plates Ia–IV.

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                                                    Proposes that the models for most of the Junius 11 illustrations took the form of an illustrated copy of the Old Saxon poetic Genesis. Additionally maintains that the dragon-head decorations in the first artist’s renderings of Noah’s Ark signal Scandinavian influence characteristic of English manuscripts of the second quarter of the 11th century.

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                                                    • Raw, Barbara C. “The Construction of Oxford, Bodleian Library, Junius 11.” Anglo-Saxon England 13 (1984): 187–205.

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                                                      Raw thoroughly examines the binding of Junius 11 as well as the pricking, ruling, and stitching of the final gathering. Her findings show that Daniel has probably been transmitted incomplete and that much of the text of Christ and Satan was copied onto parchment prepared for the ending of Daniel. Cf. Lucas 1979.

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                                                      Origin and Provenance

                                                      The history of Junius 11 from the mid-17th century to the 21st century is known: as described in Gollancz 1927, Timmer 1952, and Karkov 2001, it passed from the library of Sir Simonds d’Ewes to James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, who in turn gifted it to Dutch scholar Francis de Jon (Franciscus Junius the Younger) in the 1650s. Because narrative details in Genesis B and Christ and Satan are arguably paralleled in John Milton’s Paradise Lost, there has been speculation (here represented in Lever 1947) that Milton actually read these poems in Junius’s manuscript before the publication of Paradise Lost in 1667. Upon Junius’s death in 1677, his books were bequeathed to the Bodleian Library of Oxford University. The whereabouts of the Junius 11 manuscript are unknown, however, for the period from its creation through the early 17th century. Fox 2002 tentatively suggests an origin or very early provenance in the region of Winchester, while Lucas 1980 proposes that the manuscript originated in Malmesbury—a theory that has been persuasively rebutted in Thomson 1982. The best clue to its medieval provenance is an entry reading “Genesis Anglice depicta” in Prior Eastry’s 14th-century list of the English-language books at Christ Church, Canterbury, a near match for the 14th-century inscription “Genesis in anglico” on p. ii of Junius 11 (Gollancz 1927). Prompted by the possibility of a Canterbury provenance, some scholars have argued (though none very conclusively) for a Canterbury origin (Thomson 1982; see also Karkov 2001, cited under Illustrations and Ornamented Initials, and Temple 1976, cited under Manuscript Facsimiles and Images of Illustrations).

                                                      • Fox, Michael. “Ælfric on the Creation and Fall of the Angels.” Anglo-Saxon England 31.1 (2002): 175–200.

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                                                        Narrative and interpretive similarities prompt Fox to suggest, with all due caution, that Genesis A inspired Ælfric’s treatment of the fallen angels in De initio creaturae, with the implication that Junius 11 was available to be read at Winchester before Ælfric was sent to Cerne between 987 and 990.

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                                                        • Gollancz, Israel, ed. The Cædmon Manuscript of Anglo-Saxon Biblical Poetry: Junius XI in the Bodleian Library. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.

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                                                          Gollancz’s description of the codex makes reference to the inscription on p. ii and to Prior Eastry’s catalogue; he also discusses its 17th-century ownership.

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                                                          • Karkov, Catherine E. Text and Picture in Anglo-Saxon England: Narrative Strategies in the Junius 11 Manuscript. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 31. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

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                                                            Karkov’s closing chapter discusses the reception history of the manuscript from the mid-17th century through the publication of Krapp’s edition in 1931, including the manuscript’s use by Dutch philologist De Laet as a source for his lost dictionary of Old English.

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                                                            • Lever, J. W. “Paradise Lost and the Anglo-Saxon Tradition.” Review of English Studies 23.90 (1947): 97–106.

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                                                              Milton had a middling grasp of Old English and was already blind when Junius’s edition of the Junius 11 poems appeared in 1655; however, letters reveal that “during the first half of 1651 Milton and Junius were close acquaintances” (p. 102) and it is thus reasonable to infer that Junius gave Milton the opportunity to read Genesis. Lever also adduces notable parallels between Genesis B and Paradise Lost.

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                                                              • Lucas, Peter J. “MS Junius 11 and Malmesbury.” Scriptorium 34 (1980): 197–220.

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                                                                Art-historical, codicological, and bibliographical evidence come together in Lucas’s argument that the first phase of the production of Junius 11 occurred at Malmesbury Abbey. Continued in Scriptorium 35 (1981): 3–22. Cf. Thomson 1982.

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                                                                • Lucas, Peter J., ed. Franciscus Junius: Cædmonis Monachi Paraphrasis Poetica Genesios ac præcipuarum Sacræ paginæ Historiarum. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000.

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                                                                  Facsimile reprint of Franciscus Junius’s first edition (1655) of the Junius 11 poems. The volume also reproduces Junius’s handwritten commentary on the poems (now Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Junius 73) and addenda from Mores’s 1752 reissue of Junius’s edition. Lucas’s introductory materials treat Junius’s life and work and the reception of the Junius 11 poems from 1655 through Thorpe’s edition of 1832.

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                                                                  • Thomson, Rodney. “Identifiable Books from the Pre-Conquest Library of Malmesbury Abbey.” Anglo-Saxon England 10 (1982): 1–19.

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                                                                    Thomson convincingly challenges the assertions of Lucas 1980, reiterating the view that Junius 11 was probably copied and illustrated at Christ Church, Canterbury.

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                                                                    • Timmer, Benno J. “The History of a Manuscript.” The Book Collector 1 (1952): 6–13.

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                                                                      A concise history of the ownership and use of the Junius 11 manuscript in the 17th century, including its use by the Dutch philologist Johannes de Laet and ownership by Sir Symonds D’Ewes, Archbishop James Ussher of Armagh, and Franciscus Junius.

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                                                                      The Script and Punctuation of the Junius 11 Manuscript

                                                                      All of the Junius 11 scribes employed Anglo-Saxon minuscules of middling quality. The scribe of Liber I employed a Square minuscule that Lockett 2002 has likened to David Dumville’s Phase V script, associated with southern English scriptoria from the 960s and later. (Dumville’s “English Square Minuscule Script: the Mid-Century Phases,” Anglo-Saxon England 23 (1994): 133–164, is not included in this section because Dumville himself does not name Junius 11 among his Phase V specimens.) The three scribes of Liber II employed a Vernacular minuscule, distinguished by its teardrop-shaped, two-stroke a, which came into use as a bookhand around the year 1000. The characteristic letter-forms of both script types used in the codex are examined in Gollancz 1927, Ker 1990, and Lockett 2002. The method of punctuation in the manuscript has attracted much attention because, contrary to the practices observed in comparable manuscripts such as the Nowell Codex and the Exeter Book, the placement of points is dictated chiefly by an interest in marking metrical units (Gollancz 1927, Ker 1990, Parkes 1993, Lucas 1994). Several studies have explored the rationale behind this method of punctuation, which may be imitative of the pointing in Latin psalters (O’Brien O’Keeffe 1990) or in Continental Germanic poetry (Lockett 2002), or which may have been inserted to support the chanting of the poems in a manner similar to Gregorian chant (Thornley 1954).

                                                                      • Gollancz, Israel, ed. The Cædmon Manuscript of Anglo-Saxon Biblical Poetry: Junius XI in the Bodleian Library. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.

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                                                                        Gollancz’s introduction describes the scribes’ usage of punctuation, accent marks, small capitals, and undecorated initials, as well as the pointing and corrections added by later users of the book.

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                                                                        • Ker, N. R. Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

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                                                                          Ker reports on the letter-forms of the Liber I scribe and offers a more cursory assessment of the scripts seen in Liber II and the system of pointing used in Liber I. Originally published in 1957.

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                                                                          • Lockett, Leslie. “An Integrated Re-examination of the Dating of Oxford, Bodleian Library, Junius 11.” Anglo-Saxon England 31.1 (2002): 141–173, with plates I–IVc.

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                                                                            Lockett argues that the first Junius 11 scribe employed a form of Square minuscule associated with southern English scriptoria in the period from the 960s to the end of the 10th century. She further hypothesizes that the chiefly metrical pointing was derived from Continental Germanic verse, transmitted to England by the exemplar of the Old Saxon Genesis from which Genesis B was translated.

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                                                                            • Lucas, Peter J., ed. Exodus. Rev. ed. Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press, 1994.

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                                                                              Lucas’s detailed examination of pointing in Exodus leads him to conclude that the placement of punctuation was intended to demarcate metrical units.

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                                                                              • O’Brien O’Keeffe, Katherine. Visible Song: Transitional Literacy in Old English Verse. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 4. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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                                                                                Based on the pointing and illustration spaces allotted throughout the poems, O’Brien O’Keeffe hypothesizes that Junius 11 was modeled on high-status Latin manuscripts, and that its regular metrical pointing was adapted from practices used in Latin psalters.

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                                                                                • Parkes, Malcolm B. Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993.

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                                                                                  Parkes discusses Junius 11 only briefly, asserting that the combination of metrical and syntactic punctuation favors the hypothesis that the text was pointed for reading aloud; he cautions that many of the points were inserted after copying, some by the original scribes but some by later users of the manuscript.

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                                                                                  • Thornley, G. C. “The Accents and Points of MS. Junius 11.” Transactions of the Philological Society 53.1 (1954): 178–205.

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                                                                                    Thornley proposes that the diverse types of punctuation marks in Junius 11 are best explained as preparation for the reader who is going to perform the text in the manner of Gregorian chant.

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                                                                                    Illustrations and Ornamented Initials

                                                                                    Two artists were responsible for the forty-eight drawings that appear over the first eighty-eight pages of the manuscript (Henderson 1975, Broderick 1983); the preparer of the parchment left unruled spaces for illustrations available throughout the rest of the manuscript (Raw 1984), and some of these were filled with later sketches (Raw 1976 cited under Dating and Phases of Construction; see also Hall 1986, cited under Dating and Phases of Construction and Ohlgren 1992 and Muir 2004, cited under Manuscript Facsimiles and Images of Illustrations). The first artist executed line drawings in red and brown inks with sporadic additions of a color wash on pp. ii–68 (Karkov 2001); his dragon-head embellishments of Noah’s Ark have been taken in Raw 1976 as signs of Scandinavian influence and a date after c. 1025, but cf. Lockett 2002. The second artist, who has been identified as the illustrator of Prudentius’s Psychomachia in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 23, used colored inks in the line drawings that he contributed on pp. 73–88 (see also Lucas 1980, cited under Origin and Provenance; Karkov 2001). The scribes and the artists appear not to have worked in cooperation: the iconography of the pictures occasionally clashes with narrative details, and the illustrations often appear several pages before the text they are intended to depict (Henderson 1975, Broderick 1983). This perception is challenged in Karkov 2001, which maintains that the artists did not espouse the simplistic view that each illustration was supposed to provide a literal depiction of the text on the nearest page, but instead they deployed illustrations to summarize, to anticipate, and to inject added layers of symbolism into the narrative of the text. Large zoomorphic initials, possibly by the first artist, punctuate the text of Genesis as far as p. 79 (Henderson 1975). Iconographic parallels link the Junius 11 illustrations with the Cotton Cycle, i.e., the series of illustrations in the late antique Bible known as the Cotton Genesis (London, British Library, Cotton Otho B. vi), and possibly also with the Utrecht Psalter (Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, MS 32), which arrived in England c. 1000 (Henderson 1975, Raw 1976). While Raw 1976 argues that the Junius 11 artists adapted their illustrations from a codex that already had Cotton Cycle-type illustrations integrated into an Old Saxon versified Genesis, Broderick 1983 contends that the Junius 11 artists were instead pioneering the integration of this illustration cycle with the poetic text.

                                                                                    • Broderick, Herbert R. “Observations on the Method of Illustration in MS Junius 11 and the Relationship of the Drawings to the Text.” Scriptorium 37 (1983): 161–177, with plate 2.

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                                                                                      Responding to Raw 1976, Broderick argues that the Junius 11 artists were integrating pictures into the verse texts for the first time and did not have an exemplar that combined poems with illustrations. Broderick’s account of the ways in which the illustrations are out of step with the text is clear and comprehensible.

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                                                                                      • Henderson, George. “The Programme of Illustrations in Bodleian MS Junius XI.” In Studies in Memory of David Talbot Rice. Edited by Giles Robertson and George Henderson, 113–145. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1975.

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                                                                                        Henderson examines the apparent lack of coordination between scribes and artists, which he contrasts with “the routine system of picture first, text afterwards, familiar to Canterbury book illustrators from the Utrecht Psalter” (p. 121), and he compares Junius 11 with the Illustrated Old English Hexateuch (London, British Library, Cotton Claudius B. iv).

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                                                                                        • Karkov, Catherine E. Text and Picture in Anglo-Saxon England: Narrative Strategies in the Junius 11 Manuscript. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 31. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                          Karkov strives to rehabilitate the Junius 11 artists and maintains that the illustrations and text are best understood as a cohesive whole. Chapter 2 includes a very helpful account of the styles employed by the two illustrators; subsequent chapters explore themes that unify the illustrations with the poems, such as the role of the word and the role of the body.

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                                                                                          • Karkov, Catherine E. “Exiles from the Kingdom: The Naked and the Damned in Anglo-Saxon Art.” In Naked Before God: Uncovering the Body in Anglo-Saxon England. Edited by Benjamin C. Withers and Jonathan Wilcox, 181–220. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                            This wide-ranging and generously illustrated essay examines the significance of nakedness and exposed genitalia in Anglo-Saxon art, including the Junius 11 figures of the rebel angels, Adam and Eve, and Noah.

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                                                                                            • Lockett, Leslie. “An Integrated Re-examination of the Dating of Oxford, Bodleian Library, Junius 11.” Anglo-Saxon England 31.1 (2002): 141–173, with plates I–IVc.

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                                                                                              Art historians have established how ink colors, figural illustrations, and ornamented initials in English manuscripts underwent changes over the course of the 10th and 11th centuries. Lockett shows that the style of Junius 11’s illustrations and initials supports a date of c. 960–c. 990 for Liber I.

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                                                                                              • Raw, Barbara C. “The Probable Derivation of Most of the Illustrations in Junius 11 from an Illustrated Old Saxon Genesis.” Anglo-Saxon England 5 (1976): 133–148, with plates Ia–IV.

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                                                                                                Raw makes the case that the Cotton Cycle models for the Junius 11 illustrations came to England in the form of an illustrated copy of the Old Saxon poetic Genesis.

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                                                                                                • Raw, Barbara C. “The Construction of Oxford, Bodleian Library, Junius 11.” Anglo-Saxon England 13 (1984): 187–205.

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                                                                                                  One of the few studies to consider the acanthus and Ringerike designs on p. 225 and p. 230. Raw claims these designs were sketched before the text of Christ and Satan was added; cf. Hall 1986, cited under Dating and Phases of Construction.

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                                                                                                  Genesis A

                                                                                                  The first poem in Junius 11, Genesis runs to 2,936 lines, making it the second-longest Old English poem to survive (after Beowulf, at 3,182 lines). But Genesis is a composite poem: lines 235–851 consist of an Old English translation of an Old Saxon verse narrative of the Fall of Man. This material, conventionally known as Genesis B, was interpolated into a preexisting Old English verse rendering of the Genesis narrative from the Fall of the Rebel Angels through the Abraham’s sacrifice of Isaac, now called Genesis A. The most well-rounded treatment of Genesis A can be found in Doane 1978 (cited under Editions and Translations of Genesis A). Within this section, the subdivision on Editions and Translations of Genesis A includes materials that are varied enough to serve both general audiences and specialists; among these, Krapp 1931 and Doane 1978 engage most substantially with textual criticism. Studies of the Sources of Genesis A represent a major subset of scholarship on this poem, and most of the works cited there also participate, implicitly or explicitly, in an ongoing debate over the respective influences of the Germanic heroic tradition and the patristic exegetical tradition on Old English verse. Additional subdivisions cover Style, Meter, and Formulaic Language of Genesis A and Narrative and Thematic Elements of Genesis A.

                                                                                                  Editions and Translations of Genesis A

                                                                                                  The standard critical edition of Genesis A is found in Krapp 1931, although readers looking for more in-depth interpretive notes should consult Doane 1978, and those who will benefit from a facing-page translation should use Anlezark 2011. Since the publication of Anlezark 2011, Mason 1990 is no longer the only readily available translation of the entirety of Genesis A, but it remains a convenient and economical way to study the translated text and the illustrations together. Bradley 1982 curtails his prose translation just after the passage in which God makes his covenant with Noah. Two verse translations of excerpts from Genesis A are cited: Shapiro 2011 would be suitable for teaching undergraduates about the style and form of Old English verse, while Ferry 2011 is a more original composition that does not mirror the form of alliterative verse.

                                                                                                  • Anlezark, Daniel, ed. and trans. Old Testament Narratives. Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library 7. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                    Contains the Old English text and facing-page prose translation of the Old Testament poems in Junius 11, including the entire composite Genesis. Anlezark’s introduction and endnotes are accessible to students and general readers.

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                                                                                                    • Bradley, S. A. J., trans. Anglo-Saxon Poetry. London: Dent, 1982.

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                                                                                                      Bradley’s prose translation of the best-known items in the Anglo-Saxon poetic corpus includes only the first 1,542 lines of the composite Genesis, meaning that almost 1,400 lines of Genesis A have been omitted after the account of God’s covenant with Noah. A concise overview of the composite Genesis precedes the translation.

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                                                                                                      • Doane, A. N., ed. Genesis A: A New Edition. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978.

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                                                                                                        Doane’s edition reproduces “the manuscript forms with a minimum of emendation and typographical intrusion” (p. 108). The edited text is amply supported by an introduction of over a hundred pages, another hundred pages of explanatory and textual notes, and a glossary.

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                                                                                                        • Ferry, David. “From Genesis A: Offering of Isaac.” In The Word Exchange: Anglo-Saxon Poems in Translation. Edited by Greg Delanty and Michael Matto, 337–351. New York: W. W. Norton, 2011.

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                                                                                                          This poem is less a translation than an original composition inspired by the action and the mood of lines 2,846–2,936 of Genesis A. Ferry’s spare language is well suited to the bleakness of the scene, in which Abraham, unwaveringly obedient, is alone with his God and his son.

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                                                                                                          • Krapp, George Philip, ed. The Junius Manuscript. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931.

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                                                                                                            Most scholars continue to cite Krapp’s edition. His introduction reports on features of the manuscript and summarizes the poems, and additional textual and interpretive notes follow the poems.

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                                                                                                            • Mason, Lawrence, trans. An Anglo-Saxon Genesis. Lampeter, UK: Llanerch Enterprises, 1990.

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                                                                                                              Complete translations of Genesis A are rare; this volume combines Mason’s prose translation of Genesis A alone (first published in 1915) with line-drawing reproductions of the figural illustrations and zoomorphic initials that run through both parts of the composite Genesis. The slender four pages of endnotes are primarily textual rather than interpretive.

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                                                                                                              • Shapiro, Harvey. “From Genesis A: The Fall of the Rebel Angels and the First Day.” In The Word Exchange: Anglo-Saxon Poems in Translation. Edited by Greg Delanty and Michael Matto, 327–335. New York: W. W. Norton, 2011.

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                                                                                                                Shapiro’s long lines of free verse render the first 135 lines of Genesis A in language that closely follows the Old English in meaning, diction, and the use of four heavy stresses per line. The corresponding Old English text appears on the facing pages (pp. 326–334).

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                                                                                                                Sources of Genesis A

                                                                                                                On the surface, the studies in this section simply investigate the textual sources that directly and indirectly influenced the Genesis A poet, such as the unusual type of biblical text he used (Remley 1996), Christian Latin poems by Prudentius and Aldhelm that the poet may have known directly (Orchard 1994, Wright 1996), and patristic literature representing early medieval perceptions of God’s creation of the cosmos (Allen and Calder 1976). However, most of these studies also defend a position, whether explicit or implicit, in the long-running debate over the extent to which Old English poets assimilated and deployed the allegorical and typological approaches to the Old Testament that were ubiquitous in Latin exegesis. Brockman 1974 and Wright 2012 staunchly oppose the pan-allegorical approach exemplified in Huppé 1959 (cited under Genre of Old English Biblical Verse): as Brockman writes, “one must doubt that patristic habits of mind had become so thoroughly acclimated in 8th-century Britain as to produce primary or even secondary responses like that Huppé associates with [Noah’s] raven; the native Germanic heritage . . . must have exerted a more compelling claim on the attitudes, the associative responses, the habits of thought of both poet and audience than Huppé allows” (p. 116). Allen and Calder 1976 are sympathetic to the pan-allegorical impulse while dutifully admitting that they cannot establish that the Genesis A poet had direct knowledge of any of the comparable texts they adduce. Gatch 1975 introduces the problem of iconographic sources into his search for the extra-biblical detail of Noah’s raven failing to return to the Ark.

                                                                                                                • Allen, Michael J. B., and Daniel G. Calder, trans. Sources and Analogues of Old English Poetry: The Major Latin Texts in Translation. Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1976.

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                                                                                                                  The authors adduce a list of seven Latin hexameral treatises beginning with Ambrose and concluding with Hrabanus Maurus, yet they concede that these texts provide “neither formal nor material analogues for the poem as a whole” (p. 2). Nonetheless, their brief discussion of Genesis A provides useful background on the Latin hexameral tradition.

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                                                                                                                  • Brockman, Bennett. “Heroic and Christian in Genesis A: The Evidence of the Cain and Abel Episode.” Modern Language Quarterly 35.2 (1974): 115–128.

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                                                                                                                    Brockman accepts Huppé’s use of “the typological principle to advocate the structural coherence of Genesis A” but claims that the Anglo-Saxon audience of Genesis A would have understood the poem and its symbolism chiefly through the lens of the heroic tradition.

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                                                                                                                    • Gatch, Milton McC. “Noah’s Raven in Genesis A and the Illustrated Old English Hexateuch.” Gesta 14.2 (1975): 3–15.

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                                                                                                                      Gatch investigates multiple potential sources behind the poet’s introduction of an extra-biblical detail: the failure of Noah’s raven to return to the Ark. He also considers the iconographic tradition behind the detail of the raven landing on a drowned corpse in the Illustrated Old English Hexateuch.

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                                                                                                                      • Orchard, Andy. “Conspicuous Heroism: Abraham, Prudentius and the Old English Verse Genesis.” In Heroes and Heroines in Medieval English Literature: a Festschrift presented to André Crépin on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday. Edited by Leo Carruthers, 45–58. Woodbridge, UK, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer, 1994.

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                                                                                                                        Orchard regards the accounts of Abraham’s deeds in war (lines 1,960–2,095) as some of the finest poetry in Genesis A: they deploy the heightened diction and poetic devices that are typical of battle narratives, but as Orchard proposes, the poet also drew inspiration from the Psychomachia of Prudentius for his characterization of Abraham and several non-biblical narrative elaborations.

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                                                                                                                        • Remley, Paul G. Old English Biblical Verse. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 16. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511553004Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                          Clues in the narrative details and the diction of Genesis A lead Remley to conclude that the poet’s biblical source text contained chapters 1–22 of Genesis in a mixture of Vetus Latina and Vulgate language; the poem shows additional influences of the Genesis-derived diction of early medieval liturgy.

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                                                                                                                          • Wright, Charles D. “The Blood of Abel and the Branches of Sin: Genesis A, Maxims I and Aldhelm’s Carmen de uirginitate.” Anglo-Saxon England 25 (1996): 7–19.

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                                                                                                                            Genesis A and Maxims I share an unusual image of sin sprouting like vegetation from the ground that was watered with the blood of Abel when he was murdered by Cain. Wright argues persuasively that the authors of both poems (and perhaps the illustrators of the Old English Hexateuch too) probably drew the image from Aldhelm’s Carmen de uirginitate.

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                                                                                                                            • Wright, Charles D. “Genesis A ad litteram.” In Old English Literature and the Old Testament. Edited by Michael Fox and Manish Sharma, 121–171. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                              In opposition to Huppé, Doane, and others who have claimed that Genesis A was composed and read chiefly as an allegorical and typological narrative, Wright argues that the poem operates primarily on the literal, historical level, much like the genre of the universal history. The author additionally shows how some features of the poem are wholly incompatible with typological interpretation.

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                                                                                                                              Style, Meter, and Formulaic Language of Genesis A

                                                                                                                              Although the poems of Junius 11 are no longer attributed to Cædmon himself, most scholars continue to regard Genesis A as one of the oldest surviving Old English poems, or at least one of the most metrically conservative. Fulk 1992 is a highly technical and erudite analysis of the linguistic and metrical features of Old English verse that can be shown to change in predictable ways over time, and his findings support the conclusion that Genesis A is earlier than all other surviving Old English verse except Beowulf. Another feature of Genesis A’s conservatism is its deployment of formulaic diction: while the association of formulaic diction with oral and non-literate compositional methods has been challenged in recent years, it is undeniable that formulae represent one of the pillars of traditional Old English verse composition. Greenfield 1955, representing the strain of scholarship that links formulae with orality, traces the use of formulae associated with the motif of exile. Orchard 2007 is likewise interested in formulaic diction, but he uses his data on shared formulae to show that the poet of Judith likely read and deliberately echoed Genesis A. Interestingly, the objective of Bredehoft 2009 is quite similar to that of Orchard 2007, but rather than focusing on oft-repeated formulae he locates the “unique parallels” among poems which, he claims, signal literate borrowings from earlier poems that were read by later poets. The remaining studies cited here explore forms of embellishment deployed by the Genesis A poet, such as metaphors rooted in heroic diction (McKill 1987), paronomasia or word-play (Frank 1972), and envelope patterns (Stévanovitch 1996).

                                                                                                                              • Bredehoft, Thomas A. Authors, Audiences, and Old English Verse. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                On the basis of unique parallels with the Metres of Boethius, Bredehoft theorizes that Genesis A was among the “Saxon songs” learned by King Alfred in his childhood; he also claims that it was known in the 10th century to the poets of the Menologium and the Chronicle-poems as well as Ælfric.

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                                                                                                                                • Frank, Roberta. “Some Uses of Paronomasia in Old English Scriptural Verse.” Speculum 47.2 (1972): 207–226.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2856688Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Genesis A figures prominently in Frank’s classic study of wordplay in Old English, in which it is established that wordplay served numerous rhetorical and aesthetic purposes in Old English biblical verse, including etymological punning on Hebrew names, ornamentation of rhetorical and narrative climaxes, and onomatopoeia.

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                                                                                                                                  • Fulk, R. D. A History of Old English Meter. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                    Combined linguistic, metrical, and literary evidence leads Fulk to favor a terminus a quo of c. 680 for Genesis A, Exodus, and Daniel; he considers Beowulf and Genesis A to be the most conservative of all surviving Old English poems, produced probably before c. 725 (or before c. 825 if Beowulf could be shown to have a Northumbrian rather than Mercian origin).

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                                                                                                                                    • Greenfield, Stanley B. “The Formulaic Expression of the Theme of ‘Exile’ in Anglo-Saxon Poetry.” Speculum 30.2 (1955): 200–206.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/2848466Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                      The Junius 11 poems, especially Genesis A and Christ and Satan, figure prominently in Greenfield’s analysis of how conventional formulaic language operates in poetic portrayals of exile.

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                                                                                                                                      • McKill, L. N. “The Artistry of the Noah Episode in Genesis A.” English Studies in Canada 13 (1987): 121–135.

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                                                                                                                                        In order to rebut the general perception that the poet produced an artless and unimaginative paraphrase, McKill shows the rhetorical and structural utility of the poet’s heroic diction and the richness of metaphorical language rooted in heroic concepts, e.g., God as protector and treasure-giver, or the Ark as Noah’s hall.

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                                                                                                                                        • Orchard, Andy. “Intoxication, Fornication and Multiplication: The Burgeoning Text of Genesis A.” In Text, Image, Interpretation: Studies in Anglo-Saxon Literature and its Insular Context in Honour of Éamonn Ó Carragáin. Edited by Alastair Minnis and Jane Roberts, 333–354. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                          Orchard’s essay exemplifies the current scholarly view of poetic formulae as a technique of literate composition. He demonstrates how and why the Genesis A poet used extensive formulaic repetitions to provide structure within the poem, and then he turns the same approach outward to show that the author of Judith deliberately echoed words and phrases that he had read in Genesis A.

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                                                                                                                                          • Stévanovitch, Colette. “Envelope Patterns in Genesis A and B.” Neophilologus 80 (1996): 465–478.

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                                                                                                                                            Analyzes envelope patterns and their multiple rhetorical functions within Genesis A and Genesis B as well as one envelope pattern that seems to connect the beginning of Genesis A with the closing section of Exodus.

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                                                                                                                                            Narrative and Thematic Elements of Genesis A

                                                                                                                                            Despite the wide sweep of the narratives in Genesis A, scholars tend to revisit its most prominent themes again and again, giving readers the opportunity to compare the results of different theoretical approaches to the same subject. Three studies cited here address the poet’s treatment of the Israelites’ migrations: Battles 2000, which introduces a folkloric approach that views migration as a traditional theme rather than a mere historical event; Howe 2003, which emphasizes the elegiac quality of the Israelites’ (and the Anglo-Saxons’) endurance of a migration; and Scheil 2004, which investigates Anglo-Saxon perceptions of the historical Jews. Two further studies situate Genesis A within cross-culturally significant narrative traditions: stories of the Fall (Evans 1968) and stories of the Flood (Anlezark 2006).

                                                                                                                                            • Anlezark, Daniel. Water and Fire: The Myth of the Flood in Anglo-Saxon England. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                              Asserts that the Flood narrative in Anglo-Saxon literature functions as a myth that symbolically accounts for the universal origins of humankind and their relationship with their creator; in particular, the myth of the Flood in Genesis A highlights the social relationship established by the covenant between God and the Israelites.

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                                                                                                                                              • Battles, Paul. “Genesis A and the Anglo-Saxon Migration Myth.” Anglo-Saxon England 29 (2000): 43–66.

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                                                                                                                                                Engages with the premise of Nicholas Howe’s Migration and Mythmaking in Anglo-Saxon England (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989), namely that the adventus Saxonum is “the central myth” of Anglo-Saxon culture. Battles shows that the eight migration scenes in Genesis A contain formulaic repetitions, supporting the folkloric classification of “Migration” as a traditional theme.

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                                                                                                                                                • Evans, J. M. Paradise Lost and the Genesis Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                  Readers may be put off by Evans’s dated and condescending speculations about the brutish, survivalist mentality of the average Anglo-Saxon; however, Evans does useful work in contextualizing Genesis A within the long history of narratives of the Fall.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Howe, Nicholas. “Falling into Place: Dislocation in the Junius Book.” In Unlocking the Wordhord: Anglo-Saxon Studies in Memory of Edward B. Irving, Jr. Edited by Mark C. Amodio and Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe, 14–37. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                    Howe explores how the poems of Junius 11 bring together the elegiac perspective on isolation and exile, both geographical and figurative, with biblical episodes of displacement and the search for a homeland. “That the fall was not entirely unfortunate, that the movement from place to place can yield a new homeland, is articulated through the experience of the Hebrews,” writes Howe of the composite Genesis (p. 21).

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                                                                                                                                                    • Scheil, Andrew P. The Footsteps of Israel: Understanding Jews in Anglo-Saxon England. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                      Although known only through texts, since there was no Jewish community in pre-conquest England, the Jews played a significant role in the Anglo-Saxons’ self-definition as Christians and as a post-migration population. In chapter 4 Scheil examines portrayals of the Hebrews in Genesis A, attending to the typological relationship between the Hebrews and the Anglo-Saxons.

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                                                                                                                                                      Genesis B

                                                                                                                                                      The editorial title Genesis B refers to lines 235–851 of the composite Genesis, consisting of an account of the Fall of Man that was interpolated into the much longer Genesis A narrative that runs from the Fall of the Rebel Angels through Abraham’s sacrifice of Isaac. Although nothing in the manuscript signals visually that such an interpolation took place, in 1875 Eduard Sievers famously hypothesized that these lines in the composite Genesis were distinct from the rest of the work and that they had been translated from an Old Saxon poetic rendering of the Genesis narrative (Sievers 1875, cited under Sources of Genesis B and its Relationship to the Old Saxon Genesis). Sievers’s hypothesis was vindicated two decades later by Karl Zangemeister’s discovery of fragments of an Old Saxon Genesis poem in a Vatican manuscript (Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Pal. lat. 1447). One of the fragments preserves the part of the Old Saxon poem from which lines 790–817a of Genesis B were translated into Old English (Zangemeister and Braune 1894, cited under Sources of Genesis B and its Relationship to the Old Saxon Genesis). Critical investigation of the text of Genesis B is intertwined with the study of the Old Saxon Genesis, as reflected by the juxtaposition of the two texts in several items cited under Editions and Translations of Genesis B; many scholars have attempted to discern when the translation was made, whether the translator was an Anglo-Saxon or a Continental Saxon, and whether Genesis B is best regarded as a transliteration rather than a translation (see Sources of Genesis B and its Relationship to the Old Saxon Genesis). Scholars have yet to identify any certain sources that influenced the translator other than the Old Saxon Genesis, although it would be difficult to discern such influences, given that the surviving Old Saxon fragments overlap with Genesis B for only twenty-six lines. Linguistic and formalist analyses of the poem have concentrated chiefly on the ways in which Old Saxon influence has left its mark on the lexicon and meter of Genesis B (see Style, Structure, and Meter of Genesis B), while studies of the poem’s content have shown particular interest in Eve’s sensory perceptions and psychological motivations at the moment of her temptation (see Narrative and Themes of Genesis B).

                                                                                                                                                      Editions and Translations of Genesis B

                                                                                                                                                      Krapp 1931 remains the standard critical edition of Genesis B; the text is edited conservatively and accurately, although the introduction and explanatory notes are not as comprehensive as those of Timmer 1954 and Doane 1991. Behaghel 1984, which has long been the standard scholarly edition of the Old Saxon Heliand and Genesis, also includes a critical edition of Genesis B to facilitate comparison. Researchers will want to consult Timmer 1954, whose edited text “is as close to the MS. as seemed practicable” (p. 68) but is supported by substantial commentary, and especially Doane 1991, which unquestionably provides the most thorough study of the text and line-by-line commentary. Students and general readers will appreciate the prose translations of Bradley 1982 and Anlezark 2011, the latter of which supplies the Old English and translated texts on facing pages.

                                                                                                                                                      • Anlezark, Daniel, ed. and trans. Old Testament Narratives. Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library 7. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                        An edition and facing-page translation of the Old Testament poems in Junius 11, including the entirety of the composite Genesis. Anlezark’s introduction and endnotes are accessible to students and general readers.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Behaghel, Otto, ed. Heliand und Genesis. Rev. 9th ed. Tübingen, Germany: Max Niemeyer, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                          A critical edition of Genesis B supplements Behaghel’s text of the Old Saxon Genesis; where the two poems overlap, the texts are arranged on facing pages. The glossary is skeletal, and the introductory notes are quite selective, but reviser Bernhard Taeger has updated the bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Bradley, S. A. J., trans. Anglo-Saxon Poetry. London: Dent, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                            Bradley’s straightforward prose translation of the best-known items in the Anglo-Saxon poetic corpus includes all of Genesis B even though he truncates Genesis A. A concise overview of the composite Genesis precedes the translation.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Doane, A. N., ed. The Saxon Genesis: An Edition of the West Saxon Genesis B and the Old Saxon Vatican Genesis. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                              Although Doane’s editing practices have often been thought too conservative, this volume as a whole provides outstandingly well-rounded support for the study of Genesis B. Edited texts of both Genesis B and the Old Saxon Genesis are supplemented by a 200-page commentary, line-by-line annotations, parsing glossaries for both texts, and several images of Junius 11 and Pal. lat. 1447.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Krapp, George Philip, ed. The Junius Manuscript. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931.

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                                                                                                                                                                The standard critical edition of Genesis B appears on pp. 9–28 as lines 235–851 of the composite Genesis. Krapp’s introductory materials deal primarily with features of the manuscript; additional textual and interpretive notes appear after the edited texts.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Timmer, B. J., ed. The Later Genesis Edited from MS. Junius 11. Rev. ed. Oxford: Scrivener, 1954.

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                                                                                                                                                                  An extremely conservative edition, supported by commentary on the manuscript, language, meter, genre, and Old Saxon source of the poem, as well as interpretive endnotes and a glossary.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Sources of Genesis B and Its Relationship to the Old Saxon Genesis

                                                                                                                                                                  As the Old Saxon Genesis is the only firmly identified source text used by the poet-translator of Genesis B, scholars have intently studied relationship between the two texts, although the fact that the texts overlap for only twenty-six lines (which are meticulously analyzed in Doane 1991) makes it difficult to draw broad conclusions. Sievers 1875 presents the author’s famous assertion, made and convincingly defended two decades before the discovery of the Old Saxon Genesis fragments, that Genesis B was translated from an Old Saxon verse rendering of Genesis. A few months after Zangemeister’s discovery of the fragments, Zangemeister and Braune 1894 made available an edition of the text with sufficient linguistic commentary to permit further study. Remley 1996 investigates which versions of the biblical Genesis underlie the Old Saxon and Old English versions, while Allen and Calder 1976 cautiously offers Avitus’s epic poem on salvation history as a possible source for Genesis B. Timmer 1954 and Rauch 1993 represent opposing sides in the debate over whether the Genesis B poet was an Anglo-Saxon or a Continental Saxon; they rely primarily on linguistic evidence, but see also the following section (Style, Structure, and Meter of Genesis B) for further contributions to this debate based on metrical analysis.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Allen, Michael J. B., and Daniel G. Calder, trans. Sources and Analogues of Old English Poetry: The Major Latin Texts in Translation. Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Chapter 1 situates both Genesis A and Genesis B against the backdrop of the Latin patristic hexameral tradition and provides a translation of Book 2 of Alcimus Avitus’s De spiritalis historiae gestis, although the translators concede that its precise relationship to Genesis B is difficult to pin down.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Doane, A. N., ed. The Saxon Genesis: An Edition of the West Saxon Genesis B and the Old Saxon Vatican Genesis. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Doane recounts the early and crucial contributions of Sievers, Zangemeister, and Braune to the study of Genesis B and offers a detailed comparison of the first fragment of the Old Saxon Genesis with its corresponding Old English lines (Genesis B 790–817a). The inclusion of both the Old Saxon and Old English texts in a single volume facilitates further study of the relationship between the two.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Rauch, Irmengard. “The Old English Genesis B Poet: Bilingual or Interlingual?” American Journal of Germanic Linguistics and Literatures 5.2 (1993): 163–184.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/S1040820700001098Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Rauch uses data from present-day studies of linguistic interference and the cognitive processes of language acquisition to reassess the lexical data adduced in Timmer 1954 and to overturn Timmer’s conclusion that the Old English Genesis B was translated by a Continental Saxon.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Remley, Paul G. Old English Biblical Verse. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 16. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511553004Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Remley explains that Genesis B has “no known direct source beyond its Old Saxon template” (p. 166) and that the Old English poem is not closely based on the diction of either the Vetus Latina or the Vulgate text of Genesis, even though echoes of both occur periodically.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Sievers, Eduard. Der Heliand und die angelsächsische Genesis. Halle, Germany: Max Niemeyer, 1875.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Sievers demonstrates that the formulaic epithets for God in Genesis B differ markedly from those of Genesis A and that the diction of Genesis B has many close parallels in the Old Saxon Heliand, leading to the conclusion that Genesis B is an Old English rendering of an Old Saxon verse Genesis.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Timmer, B. J., ed. The Later Genesis Edited from MS. Junius 11. Rev. ed. Oxford: Scrivener, 1954.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Timmer uses phonological and lexical evidence to argue for the dating of Genesis B to the reign of King Alfred (871–899) or slightly later and to support his claim that the translator-poet was not an Anglo-Saxon but a native speaker of Old Saxon.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Zangemeister, Karl, and Wilhelm Braune. “Bruchstücke der altsächsischen Bibeldichtung aus der Bibliotheca Palatina.” Neue Heidelberger Jahrbücher 4 (1894): 205–294.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Zangemeister announced his discovery of the Old Saxon Genesis fragments in mid-1894; this follow-up study, authored primarily by Braune, sets out a more thorough study of the language of the Saxon Genesis and its relation to its biblical source. This study includes Braune’s edition of the Old Saxon text on pp. 242–254, with the corresponding passage of the Old English Genesis B printed across from the first Old Saxon fragment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Style, Structure, and Meter of Genesis B

                                                                                                                                                                                Among formalist studies of Genesis B, one topic that has drawn ongoing attention is the extent and nature of metrical and linguistic Old Saxonisms that deviate from Old English norms. Lucas 1988 takes into account such metrical criteria as the rates and distributions of Sieversian half-line types, disposition of hypermetric half-lines, and breaches of Kuhn’s first and second laws, while Lewis 1987 analyzes the poem’s placement of particles, the frequency of single hypermetric verses, and the frequent breaches of Kuhn’s laws. Both studies are highly technical, but Lucas 1988 is the more reader-friendly because the author periodically recapitulates his findings in plain language. Contrary to Timmer 1954 (cited under Sources of Genesis B and its Relationship to the Old Saxon Genesis), both Lucas and Lewis conclude that the Genesis B poet was probably an Anglo-Saxon. In another highly technical study, Fulk 1992 concurs with their view that the poem adheres in many respects to the standards of classical alliterative verse, but he nonetheless excludes Genesis B from the diachronic trends that he observes across the corpus of Old English verse. Bredehoft 2009 makes an altogether different use of metrical data. Genesis B serves to show how Old Saxon influences Old English poetic composition; building upon this information Bredehoft searches for Old Saxon influence on other Old English poems. Readers who are interested in the rhetorical structure of Genesis B should consult Stévanovitch 1996, which analyzes the nature and purposes of envelope patterns.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Bredehoft, Thomas A. Authors, Audiences, and Old English Verse. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Genesis B supplies baseline evidence for the nature of Old Saxonisms in Old English verse; additionally, Bredehoft maintains that unique parallels between Genesis B and other Old English poems show that Genesis B was known in the 10th century to the authors of the Chronicle-poems and The Battle of Maldon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fulk, R. D. A History of Old English Meter. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Fulk concurs with other scholars who assign the poem to the second half of the 9th century. He excludes Genesis B from the diachronic trends that he establishes for Old English verse at large, on the grounds that it diverges from normal Old English metrical standards, though he concurs with Lucas 1970 that this divergence is less pronounced than scholars often assume.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lewis, David J. G. “The Metre of Genesis B.” Anglo-Saxon England 16 (1987): 67–125.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Although the high frequency of single hypermetric verses and the frequent breaches of Kuhn’s laws in Genesis B represent markedly un-Anglo-Saxon qualities, the poem adheres in other respects to the metrical tendencies of traditional Old English verse, so Lewis cautiously concludes that the translator was likely an Anglo-Saxon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lucas, Peter J. “Some Aspects of Genesis B as Old English Verse.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature 88C (1988): 143–178.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Analysis of multiple metrical criteria leads Lucas to conclude that the Genesis B poet was not a native speaker of Old Saxon; Genesis B adheres in most respects to the metrical standards of conservative Old English alliterative verse, although not as successfully as the most skillfully wrought Old English poems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Stévanovitch, Colette. “Envelope Patterns in Genesis A and B.” Neophilologus 80.3 (1996): 465–478.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/BF00312426Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Stévanovitch illustrates the operation of envelope patterns within Genesis A and Genesis B and explores their multiple rhetorical and aesthetic effects.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Narrative and Themes of Genesis B

                                                                                                                                                                                          The figure of Eve in Genesis B has attracted a great deal of attention from scholars who are interested in gender and in narratives of psychological events. Many of the works cited here, though diverse in methodology, touch upon these topics in some form. For scholarship that resists the totalizing and sometimes unrealistic typological approach to Old English verse, see Davis 2001 and Langeslag 2007. Davis argues that the search for patristic influences on Genesis B has diverted attention from the poet’s important innovations, especially the effects of Satan and of the forbidden fruit on the sensory perception of Eve and subsequently of Adam. Langeslag likewise underscores the poem’s departure from patristic precedent, but he is chiefly concerned with the fact that the narrator minimizes Eve’s guilt and injects a dose of psychological realism by maintaining that her sin was motivated by loyalty to God’s messenger rather than excessive pride or gluttony. Psychological realism is also a central concern of Woolf 1963, who notes that the Mystère d’Adam, a 12th-century Anglo-Norman play, is the only other literary work of the Middle Ages that imbues the story of the Fall with the same degree of psychological verisimilitude. Since this play shares many of Genesis B’s more idiosyncratic narrative details, Woolf hypothesizes that both texts likely descend from a common source that has yet to be identified. Dockray-Miller 2003 compares the verbal and pictorial versions of the Genesis B narrative, observing that they send conflicting signals about Eve’s feminine and maternal nature. Despite scholarly resistance toward the patristic source-study approach to Old English verse, it remains useful to contextualize Genesis B within the broader history of narrating and interpreting the Fall, as Evans 1968 does within a longer study of the literary and exegetical works that exercised a formative influence on John Milton as he composed Paradise Lost in the mid-17th century. The scope of Jager 1993 is similarly far-reaching, as it traces the evolution of the Augustinian notion of the fallenness of human language, in texts where it is intertwined with narratives of the Fall itself. On the poet’s characterization of Adam and Eve as exiles from their homeland in paradise, see also Howe 2003, cited under Narrative and Thematic Elements of Genesis A.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Davis, Glenn M. “Changing Senses in Genesis B.” Philological Quarterly 80.2 (2001): 113–131.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Davis examines the sensory perceptions of Eve and of Adam during their temptations, concluding that the Genesis B poet injected into the narrative an anxiety about the fallibility of the senses, which is unprecedented in the most commonly cited patristic commentaries on the Fall.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dockray-Miller, Mary. “Breasts and Babies: The Maternal Body of Eve in the Junius 11 Genesis.” In Naked Before God: Uncovering the Body in Anglo-Saxon England. Edited by Benjamin C. Withers and Jonathan Wilcox, 221–256. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Considers contradictions between the textual and pictorial portrayals of Eve in Junius 11. In the illustrations, Eve’s remarkably prominent nipples seem designed to call attention to her “maternal performance,” even while the text of Genesis A downplays her parental role and “defines reproduction as a male process and performance” (p. 222).

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Evans, J. M. Paradise Lost and the Genesis Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Despite some off-putting remarks about the incurious and brutish mentality of the average Anglo-Saxon, this volume usefully contextualizes Genesis B within the long history of narratives of the Fall, from the beginnings of the Judeo-Christian tradition through Milton’s Paradise Lost.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Jager, Eric. The Tempter’s Voice: Language and the Fall in Medieval Literature. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  After establishing a Latin patristic context for both Genesis B and the Old Saxon Genesis, Jager argues that “Genesis B equates the Fall with fallible oral-mnemonic tradition by dramatizing that such a tradition is vulnerable to error and misrepresentation” (p. 156). His attentive reading of the poem emphasizes the use and abuse of spoken language and also explores the role of the breast as the repository of thoughts and words.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Langeslag, P. S. “Doctrine and Paradigm: Two Functions of the Innovations in Genesis B.” Studia Neophilologica 79.2 (2007): 113–118.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/00393270701699534Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Maintains that an interest in psychological verisimilitude and in the penitence of Adam and Eve motivated the Genesis B poet (or the Old Saxon Genesis poet) to downplay Eve’s guilt and to characterize her as loyal to the point of vulnerability.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Woolf, Rosemary. “The Fall of Man in Genesis B and the Mystère d’Adam.” In Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Edited by Stanley B. Greenfield, 187–199. Eugene: University of Oregon Books, 1963.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Genesis B’s psychologically realistic explanations for Eve’s disobedience have, according to Woolf, been overlooked by critics, who often claim that the poem portrays a blameless Eve who has been deceived in ways that she is not equipped to resist. Only the 12th-century Anglo-Norman play known as the Mystère d’Adam demonstrates a comparable interest in rationalizing the first acts of disobedience.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exodus

                                                                                                                                                                                                      At 590 lines, the Old English Exodus is far shorter than the composite Genesis and also narrower in scope, retelling only the miraculous parting of the Red Sea from chapters 13 and 14 of the biblical Exodus. Several passages of Exodus defy narrative logic, suggesting possible interpolation or dislocation during the process of copying; works cited under Editions and Translations of Exodus include rationales for their respective arrangements of these troublesome passages (Krapp 1931, Irving 1953, Tolkien 1981, Lucas 1994). One suspected interpolation, referred to as the “patriarchal digression,” interjects a few dozen lines about Noah, Abraham, and Solomon into the narrative just as the Israelites are about to set foot on the dry bed of the Red Sea. Analyses of the patriarchal digression (Isaacs 1968, Farrell 1969, and Hauer 1981) are cited under Style, Structure, and Meter of Exodus; the same subdivision also includes studies of the poetic device of hypallage (Lapidge 2006), datable metrical characteristics (Fulk 1992), and stylistic parallels with the skaldic verse of pre-Christian Norway (Frank 1988). One passage that prompts Frank 1988 to liken Exodus to skaldic verse is the infamously complicated account of the pillar of cloud (lines 71–85), which the poet characterizes as a board, a net, a cloud, a shield, a sail, and a tent. Lucas 1976, cited under Narrative and Thematic Elements of Exodus, argues that the Pillar of Cloud passage embeds proleptic allusions to the Cross; other studies cited under Narrative and Thematic Elements of Exodus situate the poem against the backdrop of motifs such as the universal Flood (Anlezark 2006), the wandering of the Israelites (Scheil 2004 and Howe 2001), and the lone messenger as remnant of a destroyed people (Marsden 1995). Finally, the field of source study has seen some of the most hotly contested arguments about Exodus, several of which are cited under Sources and Reception of Exodus: these include Bright 1912, Remley 1996, and McLoughlin 1969, which argue that Exodus depends on versions of scriptural material used in liturgical contexts, and Irving 1953, Earl 1970, and Lapidge 2006, which emphasize the influence of Latin literary and patristic sources. The subdivision on Sources and Reception of Exodus also includes Klaeber 1918, which examines the parallels between Exodus and Beowulf, and Remley 2005, a study of the parallels between Exodus and the works of Aldhelm, both of which associate Exodus with the very earliest period of Anglo-Saxon literary history.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Editions and Translations of Exodus

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Editors of Exodus are obliged to reckon with several passages that appear to have been either dislocated or interpolated. Of the several editions cited here, Tolkien 1981 shows most clearly how he has handled these passages, but see also the discussions of Krapp 1931, Irving 1953, and Lucas 1994. Although literary critics often continue to rely on the Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records series for the sake of convenience and consistency, Krapp 1931 is not universally well regarded: as Irving 1953 states, Krapp’s edition “shares the unavoidable defects of the Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records series as a whole in that sources and larger problems beyond the merely textual are treated summarily or not at all. Too narrow a basis for judging the worth of an emendation is furnished, since no background material is available in the notes or in the brief introduction” (p. viii). Without question, Krapp’s edited text is itself highly dependable, but readers seeking more contextualization will value the extensive notes provided by Irving 1953, Tolkien 1981, and Lucas 1994. Bradley 1982 caters to readers who want a straightforward prose translation; for access to the Old English and translated texts on facing pages, see Anlezark 2011. In Tolkien 1981, an elegant and stirring prose rendering follows the edited text. Students and general readers are likely to find Tolkien 1981, Curzon 2011, and Love 2002 most accessible and engaging; Love 2002 has the additional advantage of explanatory notes written expressly for non-specialists.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Anlezark, Daniel, ed. and trans. Old Testament Narratives. Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library 7. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        An edition of all of the Old Testament poems in Junius 11. Anlezark’s facing-page prose rendering of Exodus is very readable and is accompanied by a concise introduction and endnotes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bradley, S. A. J., trans. Anglo-Saxon Poetry. London: Dent, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          This prose translation of the best-known items in the Anglo-Saxon poetic corpus includes the entirety of Exodus, preceded by a concise overview of the poem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Curzon, David. “From Exodus: The Israelites Cross the Red Sea.” In The Word Exchange: Anglo-Saxon Poems in Translation. Edited by Greg Delanty and Michael Matto, 353–359. New York: W. W. Norton, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            In his translation of Exodus 276–361 and 447–463, Curzon loosely replicates the alliterative half-lines of the Old English, punctuating climactic moments with hypermetric lines. This translation would be useful for teaching non-specialists about the form and style of the Old English Exodus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Irving, Edward Burroughs, Jr., ed. The Old English Exodus. Yale Studies in English 122. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1953.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Irving’s stated objective is to provide a thorough literary-critical matrix within which to situate and justify better and more numerous textual emendations than conservative editors had previously proposed. Irving rearranges the end of the text, moving lines 549–590 ahead of lines 516–548 in order to restore narrative logic. The text is followed by explanatory notes and a glossary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Krapp, George Philip, ed. The Junius Manuscript. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                The standard critical edition of the Junius 11 poems. Krapp’s conservatively edited text of Exodus is preceded by a brief commentary on Junius 11 and followed by textual and interpretive notes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Love, Damian. “The Old English Exodus: A Verse Translation.” Neophilologus 86 (2002): 621–639.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1023/A:1019681904919Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A lucid and inviting verse translation of Exodus supplemented by four pages of interpretive notes, designed expressly to make the content and aesthetics of Exodus accessible to general audiences. A brief introduction acknowledges the need to remedy a bias that privileges narratives of Germanic material above scriptural poetry in teaching contexts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lucas, Peter J., ed. Exodus. Rev. ed. Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A critical edition amply supported by introductory commentary on codicology, textual criticism, language, meter, style, and source study, as well as a parsing glossary and further commentary conveniently located in footnotes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tolkien, J. R. R., ed. and trans. The Old English Exodus: Text, Translation, and Commentary. Edited by Joan Turville-Petre. Oxford: Clarendon, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Published posthumously, this volume contains the edition, translation, and annotations that Tolkien worked up for the purpose of instructing his advanced students (including the editor, Turville-Petre) in the 1930s and 1940s. Regular marginal line numbers clarify where Tolkien transposed sections of the poem. The translation is crafted in Tolkien’s characteristically powerful prose, and his explanatory notes are wide-ranging and extensive.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sources and Reception of Exodus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Source study has been a particularly vigorous area of the critical discussion about Exodus. Earl 1970 represents a moderate version of the pan-allegorical approach: acknowledging the objections to any reading that assumes extensive direct knowledge of patristic theology among Old English poets, Earl underscores the most widely recognized typologies and symbols at work in the poem (e.g., the ship of the Church). Complicating the discussion of potential typologies in the poem, Exodus seems to have been influenced by the lectiones of the Holy Saturday liturgy, which typologically foreshadow the rite of baptism (Bright 1912), and the constellation of metaphors in the Pillar of Cloud passage may be indebted to liturgical texts such as the prayers in the Hiberno-Latin Antiphonary of Bangor (McLoughlin 1969). Although Bright 1912 firmly rejects the suggestion that the Exodus poet was influenced by the biblical epic De spiritalis historiae gestis by Alcimus Avitus, Paul Remley has shown that the two strains of influence are not mutually exclusive. Remley 1996 confirms the fundamental structural similarities between the Holy Saturday lectiones and Exodus, while Remley 2005 proposes that Exodus originated in the circle of Aldhelm of Malmesbury, in southern England c. 700, in a milieu that certainly was steeped in and influenced by the Latin biblical epics. Lapidge 2006 makes the most convincing case that the Exodus poet had read Avitus and, moreover, that early medieval literate poets across western Europe were strongly influenced, in style and in their methods of reworking biblical material, by the late antique Latin biblical epics. To seal his case that the Exodus poet was influenced by biblical poetry more than by the prose commentaries of the Fathers, Lapidge contrasts Exodus with the Aurora of Peter Riga, which was demonstrably rooted in the commentary tradition. Irving 1953 rejects the theory of a relationship between Exodus and Avitus, but he also expresses doubts about whether a series of liturgical readings can actually function as the source of a poem; as alternatives, Irving proposes other learned Latin works as putative direct and indirect sources for the content of Exodus, including Jerome’s treatise on Hebrew names and, surprisingly, the Greek historical writings of Diodorus Siculus. Also included in this section is Klaeber 1918, which reports on close verbal parallels between Exodus and Beowulf and analyzes whether the nature of the parallels can reveal whether the Exodus poet knew and deliberately echoed Beowulf, or vice-versa.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bright, James A. “The Relationship of the Cædmonian Exodus to the Liturgy.” Modern Language Notes 27.4 (1912): 97–103.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This highly influential essay was the first to propose that Exodus is patterned after the key narratives and overarching symbolism of the series of readings used in the medieval Holy Saturday liturgy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Earl, James W. “Christian Traditions and the Old English Exodus.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 71 (1970): 541–570.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Examines biblical typologies and symbolism in Exodus, concentrating not on learned patristic theology but rather on ideas that would have been accessible to a diverse audience of Anglo-Saxon Christians. Reprinted in The Poems of MS Junius 11. Edited by R. M. Liuzza, 137–172. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Irving, Edward Burroughs, Jr., ed. The Old English Exodus. Yale Studies in English 122. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1953.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            As an alternative to the Holy Saturday lectiones and the poetry of Avitus, Irving proposes other direct and indirect sources for extrabiblical elaborations in Exodus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Klaeber, F. “Concerning the Relation between Exodus and Beowulf.” Modern Language Notes 33.4 (1918): 218–224.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines significant verbal correspondences between Exodus and Beowulf, concluding (though with reservations) that Exodus predates Beowulf and was known to the Beowulf poet.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lapidge, Michael. “Versifying the Bible in the Middle Ages.” In The Text in the Community. Edited by Jill Mann and Maura Nolan, 11–40. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lapidge convincingly revives the case for the influence of Avitus’s De spiritalis historiae gestis and other biblical epics on the Exodus poet, particularly with respect to his ornate style and his use of typology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • McLoughlin, Eleanor. “Old English Exodus and the Antiphonary of Bangor.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 70 (1969): 658–667.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The images and metaphors of the Pillar of Cloud section of Exodus have close analogues in the texts of the Hiberno-Latin Antiphonary of Bangor; a collection of liturgical prayers such as these may have served as a model for the tightly interwoven images and symbols deployed in the Pillar of Cloud passage.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Remley, Paul G. Old English Biblical Verse. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 16. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511553004Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remley confirms multiple parallels between Exodus and the series of readings used at the Holy Saturday Mass during the early Middle Ages; the similarities reside in the structure and scope of the poetic narrative, the poet’s treatment of the offering of Isaac, and the location of the patriarchal digression within the larger narrative.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Remley, Paul G. “Aldhelm as Old English Poet: Exodus, Asser, and the Dicta Ælfredi.” In Vol. 1, Latin Learning and English Lore: Studies in Anglo-Saxon Literature for Michael Lapidge. 2 vols. Edited by Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe and Andy Orchard, 90–108. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Remley advances the bold argument that Aldhelm of Sherborne (d. 709/710) or one of his immediate followers composed Exodus. Remley’s complete survey of the parallels between Exodus and the Latin works of Aldhelm remains unpublished, but a convincing selection of evidence is embedded in this essay, whose central focus is the medieval ascription of Old English poetry to Aldhelm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Style, Structure, and Meter of Exodus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The diversity of the scholarship in this section is a testament to the richness and complexity of Exodus on many levels. Fulk 1992 places Exodus among the most metrically conservative and hence earliest of surviving Old English poems. The Exodus poet was adept at rhetorical embellishment, witnessed by his use of hypallage (transferred epithet), likely learned from the Latin biblical epics (see Lapidge 2006). Indeed, the complexity of Exodus has in some respects been a source of frustration to textual and literary critics. Entire sections seem to have been transposed from their most logical position in the narrative at some point during the poem’s transmission history (Farrell 1969; see also Irving 1953 and Tolkien 1981, cited under Editions and Translations of Exodus). Other sections have occasionally been regarded as interpolations, notably the “patriarchal digression,” in which, at the climactic moment when the Israelites traverse the dry bed of the Red Sea, the narrator unexpectedly turns to Noah and the Flood, Abraham and Isaac, and Solomon’s temple. Farrell 1969 and Hauer 1981 both defend the view that the patriarchal digression is an integral part of the poem (and Hauer helpfully summarizes earlier scholarship that defends the opposite side of the argument), while Isaacs 1968 takes a broader view of the associative and allusive function of narrative digressions in Exodus. Another source of puzzlement has been the Pillar of Cloud passage (lines 71–85); Frank 1988 proposes that the fast-paced introduction of multiple layers of metaphor and symbol in this passage, as well as other obscure scenes, may be best explained by the influence of the skaldic versification tradition that flourished in pre-Christian Norway during the 9th and 10th centuries. (On additional layers of imagery in the Pillar of Cloud passage, see Lucas 1976, cited under Narrative and Thematic Elements of Exodus.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Farrell, Robert T. “A Reading of Old English Exodus.” Review of English Studies 20 (1969): 401–417.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Farrell helpfully surveys earlier opinions regarding possible interpolations and dislocated lines in Exodus; he then proposes that the patriarchal digression was instrumental in the poet’s establishment of Moses as one of several keepers of a covenant with God and recipients of God’s protection and deliverance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Frank, Roberta. “What Kind of Poetry Is Exodus?” In Germania: Comparative Studies in the Old Germanic Languages and Literatures. Edited by D. G. Calder and T. C. Christy, 191–205. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell and Brewer, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Frank proposes that some of the most difficult and artistically complex passages of Exodus might be best understood as relatives of skaldic verse. She devotes particular attention to skaldic analogues of the Pillar of Cloud passage (lines 71–85), including the Þórsdrápa by Eilífr Goðrúnarson, which shares with Exodus the “mixing of metaphors [and] rapidly shifting perspective” (p. 196) that rarely occur elsewhere in Old English verse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fulk, R. D. A History of Old English Meter. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Combined linguistic, metrical, and literary evidence leads Fulk to favor a terminus a quo of c. 680 for Genesis A, Exodus, and Daniel, and a terminus ad quem of c. 825 for Daniel and Exodus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hauer, Stanley R. “The Patriarchal Digression in the Old English Exodus, Lines 362–446.” Studies in Philology 78.5 (1981): 77–90.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hauer surveys earlier opinions that the patriarchal digression is an interpolation; he then argues on the basis of typology and shared themes and images that this section is an integral part of the poem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Isaacs, Neil D. Structural Principles in Old English Poetry. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Explores the salient poetic techniques and stylistic features of numerous Old English poems; most of one chapter is devoted to Daniel and Exodus. While concurring with many emendations in Irving 1953 (cited under Editions and Translations of Exodus), Isaacs turns his attention primarily toward the allusive and associative power of narrative digressions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lapidge, Michael. “Hypallage in the Old English Exodus.” Leeds Studies in English 37 (2006): 31–39.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Documents instances of the literary device called “hypallage” or “transferred epithet” in Exodus. Lapidge attributes the presence of this device in Old English biblical verse to the study of Latin poets, including Vergil, Juvencus, and Avitus, from whose works he adduces examples of hypallage.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Narrative and Thematic Elements of Exodus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  It may be fair to say that the dominant theme of Exodus is salvation by means of water: the poem’s brief digression about Noah and the Flood establishes a symbolic dimension to the Red Sea crossing, which ultimately gestures typologically toward the sacrament of baptism. Anlezark 2006 discusses this genealogy of biblical events as part of a larger examination of Anglo-Saxon approaches to the Flood narrative. Other studies in this section attend to diverse themes and motifs that are woven together in the Exodus poet’s sophisticated adaptation of the basic Red Sea narrative: the migrations of the Israelites and the symbolic resonance of those migrations for the Anglo-Saxons (Howe 2001, Scheil 2004); the significance of the lone survivor of the drowned Egyptian army, who is both the remnant of a destroyed people and the only witness who can pass on their story (Marsden 1995); and the image of the Cross that is metaphorically and proleptically woven into the poet’s depiction of the Pillar of Cloud (Lucas 1976).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Anlezark, Daniel. Water and Fire: The Myth of the Flood in Anglo-Saxon England. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    According to Anlezark, in Anglo-Saxon literature the Flood narrative functions as myth, symbolically accounting for the universal origins of humankind and their relationship with their creator. In Exodus, the fifteen-line account of the Flood serves to introduce the covenant between God and Noah that foreshadows God’s protection of the Israelites as they flee from the Egyptians.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Howe, Nicholas. Migration and Mythmaking in Anglo-Saxon England. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chapter 3 focuses exclusively on Exodus; here Howe claims that the Anglo-Saxons saw in this poem a “parallel between the first exodus and the tribal migration across the North Sea,” an event which is not explicitly narrated in Exodus “because [the poet’s] vision is too profoundly allusive” (p. 72). Originally published in 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lucas, Peter J. “Old English Christian Poetry: the Cross in Exodus.” In Famulus Christi: Essays in Commemoration of the Thirteenth Century of the Birth of the Venerable Bede. Edited by Gerald Bonner, 193–209. London: S. P. C. K., 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Lucas’s explication of the Pillar of Cloud passage explores the multiple symbolic images of the cloud, the tabernacle, and the ship. He then introduces one more layer of symbolism: “the Cross is present on the exodus journey, at two levels: as the mast and cross-bar of the Ship of the Church at the allegorical level, and as a metaphor for the pillar of cloud and fire” (p. 200).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Marsden, Richard. “The Death of the Messenger: The ‘spelboda’ in the Old English Exodus.” Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library 77.3 (1995): 141–164.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Marsden’s point of departure is a seemingly circumscribed point about the word spelboda, “messenger,” in line 514a, but the scope of the study expands to contextualize Exodus amid its biblical and patristic sources and analogues and to consider other literary works that reprise the motif of the lone messenger who survives to tell of the destruction of his people.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Scheil, Andrew P. The Footsteps of Israel: Understanding Jews in Anglo-Saxon England. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chapter 4 examines portrayals of the Hebrews in Exodus, attending to the typological relationship between the Hebrews and the Anglo-Saxons, to which Scheil attributes a significant role in the Anglo-Saxons’ self-definition as Christians and as a post-migration population.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Daniel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Old English Daniel, which amounts to 764 lines in its present (probably incomplete) state, retells events of the first six chapters of the biblical book of Daniel, including the prophet’s interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar’s dreams. The poem places special emphasis upon the Prayer of Azarias and the Song of the Three Youths. Scholars typically regard the poem as consisting of four sections. For some decades, it was believed that the first and fourth sections (lines 1–278 and 409–764) constituted the “original” Daniel, and that the second section (the Prayer of Azarias, 279–361) and the third (the Song of the Three Youths, 362–408) were added later. For a balanced synopsis of the arguments on both sides, see Farrell 1967 (cited under Sources of Daniel and its Relationship to Azarias), an essay that ultimately defends the poem’s unity. The second and third sections of Daniel are verbally very similar—in places even identical—to the poem Azarias in the Exeter Book, which can be read in full in Farrell 1974 and Anlezark 2011 (cited under Editions and Translations of Daniel). Aside from the general textual and interpretive criticism found in Editions and Translations of Daniel, several scholars have concentrated on the nature of Daniel’s biblical source texts and the unusual circumstance of the poem’s middle sections having been replicated in Azarias (see Sources of Daniel and its Relationship to Azarias), and on the questions of the poem’s single or multiple authorship and whether the end of the text is missing (Style, Structure, and Meter of Daniel). Readers have also shown sustained interest in the role of prophecy in the poem and the poet’s earnest attention to the psychological states and events experienced by King Nebuchadnezzar (Narrative and Thematic Elements of Daniel).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Editions and Translations of Daniel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Among the Junius 11 poems, Daniel has received the least attention from editors and textual critics. As with the other poems, Krapp 1931 remains the standard critical edition on the basis of convenience and accuracy, but it has been surpassed in Farrell 1974 with respect to the depth of its commentary and annotations. Anlezark 2011 provides the edited text of Daniel and a translation on facing pages; for a prose translation alone see Bradley 1982. Both Farrell 1974 and Anlezark 2011 include editions of Azarias as well.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Anlezark, Daniel, ed. and trans. Old Testament Narratives. Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library 7. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Old English text and facing-page English translation of all of the Old Testament poems in Junius 11, including Daniel, as well as Daniel’s near relation Azarias from the Exeter Book, supported by a concise introduction and endnotes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bradley, S. A. J., trans. Anglo-Saxon Poetry. London: Dent, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Contains straightforward prose renderings of the best-known items in the Anglo-Saxon poetic corpus, including Daniel; a brief introduction precedes each poem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Farrell, R. T., ed. Daniel and Azarias. London: Methuen, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Extremely user-friendly, with an uncluttered glossary and with interpretive footnotes (rather than endnotes) accompanying the edited texts of both Daniel and Azarias. The introductory materials include a brief and straightforward discussion of distinguishing features of the language, meter, and structure of Daniel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Krapp, George Philip, ed. The Junius Manuscript. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Krapp’s conservative edition of all the Junius 11 poems remains the most widely cited text of Daniel. His introductory materials deal primarily with features of the manuscript, while textual and interpretive commentary is concentrated in the notes that follow the poems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sources of Daniel and Its Relationship to Azarias

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The fact that lines 279–408 of Daniel are remarkably similar to the Exeter Book poem Azarias has prompted much discussion of the relationship between the texts. Additionally, the present state of the text in Junius 11, which paraphrases only the first six of twelve chapters in the biblical Daniel, has raised persistent questions: what kind of biblical text(s) does the poem depend upon, and what influenced the poet to concentrate only on chapters 1–6, contrary to the precedent set by Jerome’s commentary on Daniel? Farrell 1967 and Farrell 1974 both offer well-rounded analysis of Daniel’s sources and a comparison of Daniel with Azarias, and these two studies are accessible and uncontroversial, with two exceptions: the author defends the position that the middle two sections of Daniel are original rather than interpolated, and he also maintains that no part of the text is missing at the end (cf. Remley 1996 and Lucas 1979, cited under Style, Structure, and Meter of Daniel). Elsewhere, Farrell proposes that the Daniel poet may have had recourse to a strain of exegesis other than Jerome’s, such as the commentary on Daniel by Hippolytus of Rome, which foregrounds the first six chapters of the biblical source rather than the prophetic material (Farrell 1969). Jones 1966 claims that the differences between Daniel and Azarias are best accounted for by the theory that they descend from a common source by means of oral transmission. The most sophisticated source study of Daniel has been done by Paul Remley. Based on narrative elaborations and biblical lore in the main narrative of Daniel (i.e., lines 1–278 and 409–764), Remley 1996 determines that the poet’s source was a Vetus Latina version closely related to the older Septuagint. Remley treats the second and third sections of Daniel separately from the main narrative, cautiously demonstrating that the Prayer of Azarias and the Song of the Three Youths share certain features with the Vespasian Psalter glosses, and proposing that the poet knew an Old Latin version of the Canticum and perhaps also a version “of the Oratio Azariae prepared for recitation among the ‘monastic’ canticles” (p. 428). (See also Gollancz 1927.) Subsequently, Remley 2002 boldly asserts that both Daniel and Azarias underwent many stages of transmission prior to their present copies in Junius 11 and the Exeter Book respectively, and this study furthermore posits the existence of a redactor of Daniel who introduced new material based on a damaged exemplar of a poem antecedent to Azarias.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Farrell, Robert T. “The Unity of Old English Daniel.” Review of English Studies, new ser., 18.70 (1967): 117–135.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Includes a helpful table summarizing the content and critical assessment of each section of Daniel and of corresponding sections of the Vulgate Daniel and Exeter Book Azarias.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Farrell, Robert T. “A Possible Source for Old English Daniel.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 70 (1969): 84–90.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The most widely used commentary on Daniel in the early Middle Ages was that of Jerome, which devotes far more attention to the prophetic material in chapters 7–12 than to the narratives of chapters 1–6. Seeking an explanation for the Daniel poet’s departure from Jerome’s example, Farrell proposes an indirect connection between Daniel and the Daniel commentary by Hippolytus of Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Farrell, R. T., ed. Daniel and Azarias. London: Methuen, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Building on his earlier studies, here Farrell prefaces his edited texts of both poems with a discussion of their differences in content, structure, language, and meter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gollancz, Israel, ed. The Cædmon Manuscript of Anglo-Saxon Biblical Poetry: Junius XI in the Bodleian Library. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gollancz’s analysis of the sections of Daniel includes a table comparing passages of Daniel and Azarias with the Old English glosses in the Vespasian Psalter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jones, Alison. “Daniel and Azarias as Evidence for the Oral-Formulaic Character of Old English Poetry.” Medium Ævum 35 (1966): 95–102.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few scholars would now accept the entirety of Jones’s reasoning about the role of oral transmission in the production of the particular differences between Daniel and Azarias (cf. Farrell 1974, p. 41). Nonetheless, this study remains useful for its attentive comparison of the two poetic texts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Remley, Paul G. Old English Biblical Verse. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 16. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Remley demonstrates that the poet’s scriptural source for the main Daniel narrative was a Vetus Latina version of Daniel closely related to the older Septuagint. He suggests more tentatively that the two middle sections of Daniel might rely on monastic canticles and revisits the parallels between Daniel and the Vespasian Psalter glosses.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Remley, Paul G. “Daniel, the Three Youths Fragment and the Transmission of Old English Verse.” Anglo-Saxon England 31 (2002): 81–140.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This dense study of Daniel and Azarias (which Remley refers to as The Three Youths) notably claims that both Daniel and Azarias have undergone at least four stages of transmission; Remley also reconstructs the contributions of the redactor (whom he calls the “Canticle-Poet”), who added a damaged version of the Azarias material to the original Daniel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Style, Structure, and Meter of Daniel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Questions about the structure and unity of Daniel have received a great deal of attention in recent decades; these studies are concerned not only with the putative interpolations of the Prayer of Azarias and the Song of the Three Youths but also with the restricted scope of the poem and the possibility that the ending of the poem has been lost. Farrell 1967 defends the poem’s single authorship, and Farrell 1968 reasserts single authorship while also arguing that the poem is complete as transmitted in Junius 11. The formal analysis in Isaacs 1968 implicitly assumes single authorship of Daniel as well. Lucas 1979 argues that the poem has sustained the loss of some undetermined amount of text at the end (cf. Farrell 1968). Prominent metrical features of Daniel are described briefly in Farrell 1974; the more technical discussion in Fulk 1992 is intended to establish the degree of metrical conservatism in Daniel and hence establish a relative date of composition. The poet’s use of paronomasia to embellish his narrative is discussed in Frank 1972.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Farrell, Robert T. “The Unity of Old English Daniel.” Review of English Studies, new ser., 18.70 (1967): 117–135.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    With great clarity Farrell surveys earlier opinions concerning whether the middle two sections of the poem are interpolations. Farrell’s own argument in favor of the poem’s unity rests on the observation that the same supposed flaws in the narrative structure of Daniel are also present in the Vulgate text of Daniel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Farrell, Robert T. “The Structure of Old English Daniel.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 69 (1968): 533–559.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      According to Farrell, the Daniel poet intentionally omitted the prophetic material in Daniel chapters 7–12 and wove into the remaining narrative his overarching interest in divine counsel and wisdom, the Law and the Covenant, and skill (cræft). This thematic continuity is, for Farrell, a sign that the poem was written by one author and that it has been handed down to us complete.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Farrell, R. T., ed. Daniel and Azarias. London: Methuen, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The introduction to the edited text includes several pages on metrical problems in Daniel as well as a comparison with the relatively unproblematic meter of Azarias.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Frank, Roberta. “Some Uses of Paronomasia in Old English Scriptural Verse.” Speculum 47.2 (1972): 207–226.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Daniel contributes numerous passages to Frank’s classic study of word-play and its rhetorical and aesthetic purposes in Old English biblical verse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fulk, R. D. A History of Old English Meter. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Combined linguistic, metrical, and literary evidence leads Fulk to favor a terminus a quo of c. 680 for Genesis A, Exodus, and Daniel, and a terminus ad quem of c. 825 for Daniel and Exodus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Isaacs, Neil D. Structural Principles in Old English Poetry. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Isaacs explores how the Daniel poet establishes a rapid narrative pace that slows to a crawl during four crucial episodes. He discerns, however, no single unifying poetic technique; rather, aesthetic concerns are all secondary to the poet’s “singleminded purpose of stating, restating, and exemplifying his theme,” namely “the sin of pride and the virtue of humble obedience” (p. 145).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lucas, Peter J. “On the Incomplete Ending of Daniel and the Addition of Christ and Satan to MS Junius 11.” Anglia 97 (1979): 46–59.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lucas argues that Daniel has been transmitted without its closing lines, and that those closing lines were likely lost when Christ and Satan was inserted into the bifolium that contains the end of Daniel on the verso of its first leaf. Cf. Raw 1984 (cited under Dating and Phases of Construction).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Narrative and Thematic Elements of Daniel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In Farrell 1968, the case for single authorship of Daniel is supported in part by the observation that the poet deliberately foregrounded the narrative material of the first six chapters of the biblical Daniel and neglected the prophetic material in chapters 7–12. It is interesting, then, that several works cited in this section underscore the prominence of mental phenomena such as prophecy and dreams in Daniel. Bugge 2006 marshals evidence from the Latin Fathers to illustrate the long history of associating monastic virginity with the ability to prophesy; he then demonstrates that this association was adopted by Anglo-Saxon authors, notably Aldhelm and the Daniel poet. Fanger 1991 directly challenges the position of Farrell 1968 and others, writing that “As a miracle story, the poem Daniel may be seen to be about prophecy, about the interrelationship of the knowledge of divine power and the power of divine knowledge” (p. 125). Antonina Harbus, known for her studies of Old English poetic portrayals of the mind, explores the Daniel poet’s surprisingly keen interest in the dreams of Nebuchadnezzar and his resulting psychological states and experiences (Harbus 1994). This shift in emphasis, Harbus claims, accounts for the minimal attention that the poet gives to Daniel himself and is underscored by the clever wordplay (e.g. collocations of swefn “dream” with sefa “mind”) that other scholars have noted. Among the studies cited here that investigate psychological events in Daniel, only Overing 1984 concurs with Farrell 1968 that the poet gives short shrift to the prophetic gifts of Daniel in order to develop the story of Nebuchadnezzar’s conversion. Outside these studies of prophecy and psychology in Daniel, several works explore specifically Old Testament themes, such as the Law and the Covenant (Farrell 1968), the migration of the Israelites (Howe 2003 and Scheil 2004), and the typological dimension of the biblical account of Daniel as underscored in the medieval series of lectiones used for the Holy Saturday liturgy (see Portnoy 1994, which is useful for its close reading of typologies and symbolism within Daniel, although the broader argument is somewhat undermined by the author’s lack of familiarity with important areas of the critical discussion of Junius 11; for further discussion, see Compilation of the Junius 11 Poems).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bugge, John. “Virginity and Prophecy in the Old English Daniel.” English Studies 87.2 (2006): 127–147.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This extremely learned essay illustrates how patristic and Anglo-Saxon discourses, including the Old English Daniel, portray the gift of prophecy to be specially linked to virginity and hence to monasticism. Bugge additionally discusses convergences between Daniel and the Holy Saturday lectiones.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fanger, Claire. “Miracle as Prophetic Gospel: Knowledge, Power and the Design of the Narrative in Daniel.” English Studies 72.2 (1991): 123–135.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The author sets aside earlier discussions of thematic unity and the poet’s fashioning of a moral exemplum in order to concentrate on the features that make the narrative interesting per se, notably the poet’s treatment of Daniel’s acts of prophecy, and the storytelling devices that Daniel shares with medieval miracle stories.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Farrell, Robert T. “The Structure of Old English Daniel.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 69 (1968): 533–559.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The stylistic and conceptual unity of Daniel is confirmed by the poet’s preoccupation with particular themes—divine counsel and wisdom, the Law and the Covenant, and skill (cræft)—and his deployment of the characteristic diction attached to each theme.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Harbus, Antonina. “Nebuchadnezzar’s Dreams in the Old English Daniel.” English Studies 75.6 (1994): 489–508.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Although Jerome’s commentary on Daniel primed medieval audiences to focus on prophecy in the Daniel narrative, what most interested the Old English poet, says Harbus, was the dreams of Nebuchadnezzar and his resulting psychological states and experiences.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Howe, Nicholas. “Falling into Place: Dislocation in the Junius Book.” In Unlocking the Wordhord: Anglo-Saxon Studies in Memory of Edward B. Irving, Jr. Edited by Mark C. Amodio and Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe, 14–37. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Howe explores how the poems of Junius 11 combine an elegiac perspective on isolation and exile, both geographical and figurative, with biblical episodes of banishment, displacement, and the search for a homeland. In Daniel, the homeland of Jerusalem is an object of longing for the Israelites who are suffering under the Babylonian captivity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Overing, Gillian R. “Nebuchadnezzar’s Conversion in the Old English Daniel: A Psychological Portrait.” Papers in Language and Literature 20.1 (1984): 1–14.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Examines the “remarkably accurate psychological study of one man’s conversion to God” (p. 4) that results from the Daniel poet’s proportionally greater interest in Nebuchadnezzar than in Daniel and his prophetic gifts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Portnoy, Phyllis. “‘Remnant’ and Ritual: The Place of Daniel and Christ and Satan in the Junius Epic.” English Studies 75.5 (1994): 408–422.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Portnoy maintains that the Holy Saturday liturgy influenced the structure of Daniel; she additionally traces the significance of the concept of the “remnant” (Old English laf) of the Israelites in the poem and in its liturgical analogues.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Scheil, Andrew P. The Footsteps of Israel: Understanding Jews in Anglo-Saxon England. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scheil’s fourth chapter examines portrayals of the Hebrews in Daniel, attending to the typological relationship between the Hebrews and the Anglo-Saxons, which played a significant role in the Anglo-Saxons’ self-definition as Christians and as a post-migration people.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Christ and Satan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The final poem in the Junius 11 manuscript, Christ and Satan stands apart from the other poems by virtue of its New Testament content. The fact that this poem was copied by three scribes, using an Anglo-Saxon Vernacular minuscule characteristic of the early 11th century, further distances Christ and Satan from the Old Testament poems copied in a late-10th-century Square minuscule. Consequently it remains unclear whether the compiler of Liber I planned to include a New Testament poem or whether Christ and Satan was added some years or decades after the copying of Liber I. Over the course of 729 lines, Christ and Satan juxtaposes several episodes in which Christ triumphs over his enemy. Since the 19th century, most scholars have recognized three sections within the poem: the banishment of the fallen angels to hell in lines 1–365; the Harrowing of Hell, the Resurrection, and the Ascension in lines 366 to approximately 662; and Christ’s temptation in the desert, from approximately line 663 to the end (Sleeth 1982, cited under Editions and Translations of Christ and Satan). Since the boundaries between these perceived sections are not signaled rhetorically in the text or visually in the manuscript, scholars have disagreed in particular about where the second section ends and the third begins; Stévanovitch 1996 (cited under Style, Structure, and Meter of Christ and Satan) proposes dividing the poem into only two sections (lines 1–364 and 365 to the end). Earlier scholarship typically regarded Christ and Satan as a composite poem of three fragments by different authors, since there are substantial discontinuities in poetic style and narrative technique among the sections, but most scholars now regard the poem as the work of a single author, even though it requires much rationalization to explain why a single author would have constructed such an internally discontinuous poem. One of the most puzzling features of the poem is the placement of the Temptation of Christ at the end of the poem, rather than in chronological order between the Fall of the Rebel Angels and the Harrowing of Hell. Contributions to the aforementioned discussions appear in Style, Structure, and Meter of Christ and Satan and Compilation of the Junius 11 Poems, as well as in the better-annotated critical editions listed in Editions and Translations of Christ and Satan. Works cited under Sources of Christ and Satan adduce a surprising array of literary sources and analogues, while Narrative and Thematic Elements of Christ and Satan introduces studies linking the poem to motifs that extend across the Old English corpus and even across the Western literary tradition.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Editions and Translations of Christ and Satan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Students of Christ and Satan have recourse to a surprisingly high number of well-executed critical editions supported by well-rounded studies of the poem. Krapp 1931 remains the most frequently cited edition, but a number of present-day scholars prefer Clubb 1925; researchers will certainly want to consult Clubb 1925, Finnegan 1977, or Sleeth 1982, all of which offer more comprehensive textual and interpretive notes than Krapp 1931. As Christ and Satan was excluded from Anlezark 2011 (cited under Editions and Translations of Genesis A), the most convenient place to read the work in translation remains Bradley 1982.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bradley, S. A. J., trans. Anglo-Saxon Poetry. London: Dent, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This plainspoken prose rendering of the best-known Anglo-Saxon poems includes a translation of Christ and Satan preceded by a concise overview of the subject matter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clubb, Merrel Dare, ed. Christ and Satan: An Old English Poem. Yale Studies in English 70. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1925.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A critical edition of the text supported by a thorough introduction, over ninety pages of notes, a substantial bibliography, and a parsing glossary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Finnegan, Robert Emmett. Christ and Satan: A Critical Edition. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Finnegan edits conservatively and in his preface virtually apologizes for occasional emendations to the text. Textual notes appear beneath the text, while thirty pages of explanatory notes and a parsing glossary follow the text.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Krapp, George Philip, ed. The Junius Manuscript. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Krapp’s fairly conservative edition remains the standard; his introduction deals primarily with features of the manuscript, and limited textual and interpretive notes follow the edited texts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sleeth, Charles R. Studies in Christ and Satan. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Having undertaken his edition and study at roughly the same time that Finnegan 1977 was in progress, Sleeth published a book that foregrounds literary criticism and relegates his edition of the text to a set of microfiche. An appendix (pp. 115–132) explains the basis of Sleeth’s editorial decisions where they differ from Finnegan’s.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sources of Christ and Satan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Each of the stand-alone editions of Christ and Satan (Clubb 1925, Finnegan 1977, and Sleeth 1982) dedicates a chapter to identifying direct and indirect sources of the poem, but with a few exceptions, these discussions can only adduce analogues and loose parallels for the more unusual narrative details in Christ and Satan, which often differ sharply from the more conservative patristic tradition and align instead with a diverse assortment of New Testament apocrypha. Much of the second section of Christ and Satan depends ultimately, though not directly, on the apocryphal Descent into Hell, and the third section is chiefly indebted to Gospel accounts of Christ’s temptation in the desert. On the sources and analogues of the first two sections of the poem, see especially Finnegan 1977 and Sleeth 1982; and for parallels between Christ and Satan and other Old English verse, see Clubb 1925. Beyond the editions, numerous brief studies propose additional sources and analogues, chiefly among the New Testament apocrypha. Morey 1990 makes the case that the Questions of Bartholomew (which was known to Insular authors in a Latin translation by the 8th or 9th century) may have authorized the poem’s depiction of Adam’s existence predating Lucifer’s fall in lines 19–29. Also in Morey 1990 is the suggestion that a Latin translation of Origen’s commentary on Matthew may ultimately underlie an unusual elaboration (present in both Christ and Satan and the Old Saxon Heliand), according to which Judas’s arrival in hell after his suicide served as a harbinger of Christ’s imminent arrival and the Harrowing of Hell. Hill 1969 and Wilcox 2008 examine the cosmology at the opening of Christ and Satan. Hill 1969 proposes the Visio Pauli as a likely influence on the basis of the stream uton sæ (“stream outside the sea”), which seems to refer to Oceanus as depicted in the Visio sancti Pauli. Wilcox 2008 shows how the poet’s cosmology owes its unusual image of the grundas in heofene (“foundation in heaven,” i.e., the firmament) to patristic hexameral and cosmological discourse; how the concept of the firmamentum was mediated to the Anglo-Saxons by Isidore of Seville and Hiberno-Latin exegesis of the 7th century; and how the cosmology of Christ and Satan is analogous to that in Bede’s De natura rerum and in the hymn Inmense caeli conditor, which was known in England by at least the late 10th century.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clubb, Merrel Dare, ed. Christ and Satan: An Old English Poem. Yale Studies in English 70. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1925.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clubb’s introduction to the edited text adduces Latin sources and Old English analogues and verbal parallels.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Finnegan, Robert Emmett. Christ and Satan: A Critical Edition. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Chapter 3 of Finnegan’s introductory materials is entitled “Sources,” but its scope extends well beyond demonstrably direct sources to touch upon numerous loosely related analogues, ranging from biblical and apocryphal texts to works of hagiography and patristic theology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hill, Thomas D. “Apocryphal Cosmography and the ‘stream uton sæ’: A Note on Christ and Satan, Lines 4–12.” Philological Quarterly 48 (1969): 550–554.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hill proposes that stream uton sæ in line 5 of Christ and Satan refers to the river Oceanus, which in medieval Christian cosmography surrounded all the lands of the earth. This detail is likely to have been taken over from the apocryphal Visio sancti Pauli, a source relationship that would help to explain other features of lines 4–12 as well.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Morey, James H. “Adam and Judas in the Old English Christ and Satan.” Studies in Philology 87.4 (1990): 397–409.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Morey evaluates proposed emendations of lines 19–29 of Christ and Satan, in which Adam’s creation precedes Satan’s fall; his interpretation of this passage is supported by the apocryphal Questions of Bartholomew. Moreover, Christ and Satan depicts Judas’s arrival in hell as a sign that the Harrowing of Hell is imminent, a detail that agrees with Origen’s commentary on Matthew against the majority of the western Fathers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sleeth, Charles R. Studies in Christ and Satan. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Adduces a wide range of Latin doctrinal and literary sources and analogues for Christ and Satan and situates the poem within the context of Old English verse, attending especially to markers of supposed Cynewulfian influence and the convergence of Christian narrative with heroic Germanic motifs and themes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wilcox, Miranda. “Meotod, the Meteorologist: Christ and Satan, Lines 9–12a.” Leeds Studies in English new ser. 38 (2008): 19–34.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This deeply learned study illuminates several troubling lines at the opening of Christ and Satan by contextualizing their unusual cosmological images against a backdrop of hexameral and cosmological literature, including Isidore of Seville, Irish biblical exegesis, Bede’s De natura rerum, and the hymn Inmense caeli conditor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Style, Structure, and Meter of Christ and Satan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Formalist analysis of Christ and Satan has focused chiefly on the relationship among the three sections of the poem and the question of their common authorship. Scholars of the 19th century advanced the view that Christ and Satan was three separate poems or a series of fragments (see Clubb 1925 and Finnegan 1969 for surveys of these studies). In the 20th century, scholars have defended the poem’s unity and single authorship on the basis of linguistic continuity among the three parts (Frings 1913, Clubb 1925) and stylistic and structural continuities (Sleeth 1982, Stévanovitch 1996). The most elaborate defense of the poem’s conceptual and structural coherence is that of Finnegan 1969 (reprised in more concise form in Finnegan 1977). The structure of Christ and Satan, Finnegan maintains, befits “the dual theme of the Revelation of Christ to man, and man’s moral obligation(s) with respect to this Revelation” (Finnegan 1969, p. 551). This defense of the poem’s unity depends upon a lengthy demonstration that the didactic sections of Christ and Satan conform to the genre of the homiletic exemplum (of which many Latin and Old English examples are provided). While he cannot deny the disjointedness of the poem that modern commentators have often criticized, Finnegan maintains that this disjointedness does not signify structural incoherence or multiple authorship: “many Anglo-Saxon poems . . . like Beowulf for example, proceed by juxtaposing narrative and dramatic verse” (p. 524). Studies whose chief concern lies outside the poem’s unity include Fulk 1992, which finds that the meter of Christ and Satan resists efforts to fit it into the diachronic patterns of metrical change observed across the corpus of Old English verse; and Greenfield 1955, which draws a substantial amount of evidence from Christ and Satan in exploring how Old English poets deployed formulaic language in their portrayals of exile. Finally, Stévanovitch 1996 examines the structure of Christ and Satan at the level of envelope patterns, which are deployed for different aesthetic and rhetorical purposes in the first section than in the remainder of the poem.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clubb, Merrel Dare, ed. Christ and Satan: An Old English Poem. Yale Studies in English 70. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1925.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clubb examines earlier scholarship on the poem’s unity and, with reservations, concurs that it is more likely to be the work of one author than of several; he sets out verbal parallels among the three sections of the poem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Finnegan, R. E. “Christ and Satan: Structure and Theme.” Classica et Mediaevalia 30 (1969): 490–551.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          At great length Finnegan defends the poem’s single authorship and its thematic and structural coherence. He shows affinities between the poem’s didactic elements and the genre of the homiletic exemplum, and he argues that the poem’s alternation between narrative and didactic verse, which other readers have found disorienting, is an integral part of the poem’s design.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Finnegan, Robert Emmett. Christ and Satan: A Critical Edition. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chapter 2 of Finnegan’s introductory materials recapitulates, in more concise form, the arguments laid out in Finnegan 1969. After surveying earlier scholarship, Finnegan defends the unity, artistry, and pedagogical merit of the poem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Frings, Theodor. “Christ und Satan.” Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie 45 (1913): 216–237.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Drawing on many early philological studies that are now difficult to access, Frings adduces phonological, morphological, and metrical evidence that supports the single authorship of Christ and Satan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Fulk, R. D. A History of Old English Meter. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                While Fulk confirms that Christ and Satan was composed in an Anglian dialect, the metrical and literary evidence cannot support the conclusive assignment of either an absolute date or a relative one.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Greenfield, Stanley B. “The Formulaic Expression of the Theme of ‘Exile’ in Anglo-Saxon Poetry.” Speculum 30.2 (1955): 200–206.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Satan repeatedly laments his banishment from heaven and his imprisonment in hell, lending plentiful evidence to Greenfield’s examination of conventional formulaic language in Old English verse portrayals of exile.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sleeth, Charles R. Studies in Christ and Satan. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sleeth defends the unity of the poem on the basis of language, placement of capital letters in the text, rhetorical formulae, themes, and structure; he additionally argues that Christ and Satan was originally written in an Anglian dialect, probably in the second half of the 9th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Stévanovitch, Colette. “Envelope Patterns and the Unity of Christ and Satan.” Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 223 (1996): 260–267.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Numerous envelope patterns in lines 1–364 of Christ and Satan perform a structural function; however, from line 365 to the end, envelope patterns are less frequent and serve chiefly to decorate and emphasize. Stévanovitch does not regard the two parts of the poem as the work of different authors but suggests that envelope patterns were simply more suitable to the repetitious narrative in the first half.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Narrative and Thematic Elements of Christ and Satan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The rapidly shifting topics within Christ and Satan have prompted a diverse body of scholarship on the content of the poem. Both Evans 1968 and Finnegan 1969 situate Christ and Satan within broader traditions of Western literature: for Evans, narratives of the Fall from the start of the Judeo-Christian tradition through Milton’s Paradise Lost, and for Finnegan, the genre of the homiletic exemplum in Latin and in Old English. Ericksen 2002 similarly contextualizes the cosmology of Christ and Satan within the genre of wisdom poetry. In the opening lines of the poem (also analyzed in Hill 1969 and Wilcox 2008, cited under Sources of Christ and Satan) God establishes each feature of the universe and is said to have knowledge of and power over it all, such that he can count the drops of rain. Ericksen adduces parallels in a wide range of wisdom literature and demonstrates how the poem’s opening salute to God’s ineffable wisdom is ironically paralleled by Satan’s failures to attain and manipulate wisdom, culminating in his being sentenced to “measure with your hands” the fullest dimensions of hell. Additional studies that attend to specific themes and motifs in Christ and Satan include Wehlau 1998, which focuses on the role of knowledge in each interaction between Christ and Satan, and Hasenfratz 1990, whose clever and wide-ranging essay shows how elegiac language and the motif of the “penitent damned” combine to elicit sympathy toward clearly evil figures such as Grendel in Beowulf and Satan in Christ and Satan. Finally, Johnson 1994 is doubly useful: a substantial introductory section orients the reader to the whole genre of Old English biblical verse going back to the story of Cædmon in Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People, then the bulk of the essay treats Christ and Satan, summarizing its overall structure before focusing on the content of Part 1. Johnson approaches the poem’s troubling narrative and doctrinal inconsistencies by employing the multivalent method of reading explained in Augustine of Hippo’s De doctrina christiana, although, showing sensitivity to contemporary debates about Old English biblical verse (see the Genre of Old English Biblical Verse), he underscores the coexistence, rather than the competition, of Christian and Germanic elements within Christ and Satan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ericksen, Janet Schrunk. “The Wisdom Poem at the end of MS Junius 11.” In The Poems of MS Junius 11. Edited by R. M. Liuzza, 302–326. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ericksen shows that a motif employed in the opening lines of the poem, in which God’s ineffable knowledge is illustrated by his intimate understanding of the details of the cosmos, is characteristic of the “popular and multigenre category” of wisdom literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Evans, J. M. Paradise Lost and the Genesis Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Despite a condescending approach toward the intellectual life of the average Anglo-Saxon, Evans adduces notable parallels between Christ and Satan and other works within the long history of Fall narratives in the West, including Milton’s Paradise Lost.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Finnegan, R. E. “Christ and Satan: Structure and Theme.” Classica et Mediaevalia 30 (1969): 490–551.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Finnegan understands the poem’s dual theme—Christ’s revelation and man’s moral response to that revelation—to be aptly expressed by the poem’s alternation between didactic and narrative verse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hasenfratz, Robert J. “The Theme of the ‘Penitent Damned’ and its Relation to Beowulf and Christ and Satan.” Leeds Studies in English, new ser. 21 (1990): 45–69.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Old English authors frequently portrayed the inhabitants of hell as penitents, fruitlessly wracked by remorse and sadness for their crimes. The figures of Grendel in Beowulf and of Satan in Christ and Satan resemble these penitent damned persons, and both poems use language mirroring that of the elegies to arouse sympathy for Grendel and Satan in their suffering.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Johnson, David F. “Old English Religious Poetry: Christ and Satan and The Dream of the Rood.” In Companion to Old English Poetry. Edited by Henk Aertsen and Rolf H. Bremmer Jr., 159–187. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                After discussing the genre of Old English biblical verse, Johnson applies an allegorical method of reading to the first part of Christ and Satan while maintaining attention to the significance of its heroic elements.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wehlau, Ruth. “The Power of Knowledge and the Location of the Reader in Christ and Satan.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 97.1 (1998): 1–12.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wehlau calls attention to two ongoing concerns of the Christ and Satan poet: his structuring of the narrative to maximize its hortatory force, and his interest in the role of knowledge—particularly the knowledge of one’s own and others’ personal identities—in the interactions between Christ and Satan at each stage of the narrative.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Genre of Old English Biblical Verse

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Shepherd 1966 and Greenfield and Calder 1986 introduce the general and student readership to the Junius 11 poems and some foundational critical interpretations of them. Godden 1991 establishes an unusually rich context for the Old Testament poems that incorporates works that are not entirely devoted to scriptural paraphrase. Raw 1991 is equally helpful for understanding Christ and Satan, both as a complement to the Old Testament stories of human fallenness in the other Junius 11 poems, and within the context of other New Testament verse narratives. Remley 1996, in contrast, is a highly technical investigation of the biblical source texts that underlie the Old Testament poems in Junius 11. Remley’s lengthy source study is not for casual readers, but his first chapter offers an approachable survey of “various circumstances under which Anglo-Saxon Christians are known to have encountered texts of the Bible” (p. 90). Several studies cited here participate in a contentious debate over the appropriate interpretation of Old English scriptural poetry: on this debate, see Hill 2002, which takes a critical view of those who privilege Germanic heroic elements as well as those who privilege allegorical and typological readings rooted in patristic exegesis. Both ways of reading, Hill states, “confidently bring to bear upon a given text a body of extratextual assumptions which tend to generate a self-confirming reading” (p. 6) and perpetuate the perception of “intellectual and inspirational homogeneity” (p. 7) across the corpus of Old English verse. Examples from the Junius 11 poems support Hill’s case for a more nuanced, less circular interpretation. Representing the pan-allegorical tradition, Huppé 1959 is an influential book that applies Augustine of Hippo’s theory of allegorical and typological interpretation to the Old Testament poems of Junius 11, especially Genesis A; similarly, Shepherd 1966 identifies typological levels of meaning in each of the Junius 11 poems. Opposing this trend in the scholarship, Shippey 1972 claims that neither Genesis nor Daniel operates chiefly at the typological level; rather, the deployment of Germanic heroic diction is evidence of “pressures at work other than those of faithful translation or dogmatic relevance” (p. 138), and such pressures conflict with figural readings. Greenfield and Calder 1986 are wary of both sides in the debate: those who “reductively” understand the Junius 11 poems as simple biblical paraphrases beneath a veneer of Germanic motifs, and those who advance sophisticated typological readings that cannot convincingly account for the responses of Anglo-Saxon readers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Godden, Malcolm. “Biblical Literature: The Old Testament.” In The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature. Edited by Malcolm Godden and Michael Lapidge, 206–226. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Godden offers an expansive view of the literary treatments of Old Testament matter in Old English literature, both verse and prose, establishing a very rich literary and intellectual context for Genesis A and B, Exodus, and Daniel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Greenfield, Stanley B., and Daniel G. Calder. A New Critical History of Old English Literature. New York: New York University Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A nuanced but inviting introduction to scholarly interpretations of the individual Old Testament narratives in Junius 11 and a useful explication of the structure and imagery of Christ and Satan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hill, Joyce. “Confronting Germania Latina: Changing Responses to Old English Biblical Verse.” In The Poems of MS Junius 11. Edited by Roy Liuzza, 1–19. New York: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Junius 11 poems provide the focus for Hill’s critiques of two influential modes of reading Old English poetry: that which privileges symptoms of a pan-Germanic heroic ethos, and that which ascribes to the poems allegorical and typological layers of meaning derived from a broad and intensive education in patristic exegesis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Huppé, Bernard F. Doctrine and Poetry: Augustine’s Influence on Old English Poetry. New York: State University of New York Press, 1959.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This influential book applies Augustine of Hippo’s theory of typological and allegorical interpretation, laid out in his De doctrina christiana, to Old English verse. A lengthy chapter is devoted to Genesis A, and brief discussion in Huppé’s concluding chapter extends this interpretation to the remaining Old Testament poems in Junius 11.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Raw, Barbara C. “Biblical Literature: The New Testament.” In The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature. Edited by Malcolm Godden and Michael Lapidge, 227–242. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Raw suggests that within the Junius 11 compilation, Christ and Satan functions as a New Testament complement to the Old Testament narratives that precede it; she then situates Christ and Satan within the broader context of Old English verse narratives of New Testament material, particularly Christ and Dream of the Rood.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Remley, Paul G. Old English Biblical Verse. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 16. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Remley meticulously investigates which versions of biblical source texts were used by the Old Testament poets of Junius 11. Two notable features of Remley’s discussion appear in the first chapter, where he enumerates real-life contexts in which people at different educational strata were exposed to the Bible and biblical instruction, and where he argues that the poems have undergone at least four stages of manuscript transmission.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Shepherd, Geoffrey. “Scriptural Poetry.” In Continuations and Beginnings: Studies in Old English Literature. Edited by Eric Gerald Stanley, 1–36. London: Nelson, 1966.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This essay, which is very sympathetic to the approach of Huppé 1959, provides a useful if old-fashioned introduction to the Junius 11 poems and what the Anglo-Saxons valued about them. The final fifteen pages of the essay consider the Junius 11 poems in turn, foregrounding the narratives and their typological significance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Shippey, Thomas A. Old English Verse. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In chapter 6, Shippey concedes that Exodus succeeds in creating a multi-layered typological narrative, but (pace Huppé 1959) denies that the same is true for Genesis and Daniel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Compilation of the Junius 11 Poems

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stark differences among Genesis, Exodus, Daniel, and Christ and Satan, with respect to both poetic style and handling of the biblical material, have led scholars to conclude that none of the four works shares common authorship with any of the others. If the four poems do not represent the work of Cædmon himself, as was once believed, what motivated the compilation of them into a single codex? For the scholars cited here, the fact that all four works are biblical poems is not a sufficient explanation. Larès 1964 proposes that the structural principle of Junius 11 is found in the lectiones for Holy Week in a 5th-century use of Jerusalem, which include portions of Genesis, Exodus, and Daniel that are shown to parallel the selection of events portrayed in the Old Testament verse of Junius 11. (Scholars who cite Larès 1964 value the liturgical parallels that the study adduces, but some find the rest of the argument somewhat less credible.) Portnoy 1994 similarly maintains that the proper lectiones for Holy Week and the rite of baptism on Holy Saturday provide the typological and structural principles of the Junius 11 compilation. (Though valuable for its scrutiny of typological relationships across the four poems, Portnoy’s essay should be used with caution, as the author seems unaware of significant areas of the critical conversation about Junius 11.) Liturgical rationales are considered insufficiently precise in Hall 1976, which maintains that the compiler followed a narrative outline of salvation history intended for catechesis, similar to that set forth by Augustine in his De catechizandis rudibus, which would give Christ and Satan an integral role in the original conception of the manuscript. Hall 2002 reasserts the author’s earlier claims and pointedly responds to studies appearing since 1976 that discuss rationales for the Junius 11 compilation. Among the studies cited here, only Raw 1991 sets aside the insoluble question of the compiler’s intent and analyzes how readers of the whole Junius 11 compilation would have viewed Christ and Satan in light of the Old Testament poems that precede it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hall, J. R. “The Old English Epic of Redemption: The Theological Unity of MS Junius 11.” Traditio 32 (1976): 185–208.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Finding liturgical rationales for the compilation to be too imprecise, Hall claims that the structure and content of Junius 11 follow a narrative outline of salvation history intended for catechesis. A table illustrates narrative parallels among the Junius 11 poems, Augustine’s De catechizandis rudibus, and Wulfstan’s Sermo 6. Reprinted in The Poems of MS Junius 11. Edited by R. M. Liuzza, 20–52. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hall, J. R. “‘The Old English Epic of Redemption’: Twenty-Five-Year Retrospective.” In The Poems of MS Junius 11. Edited by R. M. Liuzza, 53–68. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hall responds to several studies that appeared since the publication of Hall 1976, including those that propose liturgical models for the Junius 11 compilation and those that challenge the conceptual unity of the manuscript.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Larès, M.-M. “Échos d’un rite hiérosolymitain dans un manuscrit du haut Moyen Âge anglais.” Revue de l’histoire des religions 165.1 (1964): 13–47.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A helpful diagram supports the author’s demonstration of parallels between the content of the Junius 11 poems of Liber I and the Holy Week lectiones in a 5th-century Jerusalem use.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Portnoy, Phyllis. “‘Remnant’ and Ritual: the Place of Daniel and Christ and Satan in the Junius Epic.” English Studies 75.5 (1994): 408–422.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Recapitulates and bolsters other scholars’ arguments that the Junius 11 compilation reflects the narrative structure, typological perspective, and ongoing themes of the lectiones for the Holy Saturday liturgy and of the baptismal rite.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Raw, Barbara C. “Biblical Literature: The New Testament.” In The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature. Edited by Malcolm Godden and Michael Lapidge, 227–242. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Raw examines the role of Christ and Satan within the Junius 11 compilation as a New Testament complement to the Old Testament narratives of Genesis, Exodus, and Daniel.

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