Criminology International Police Cooperation
by
Joseph Schafer
  • LAST REVIEWED: 04 August 2014
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 March 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396607-0153

Introduction

The idea of international cooperation among police agencies and other facets of the criminal justice system has taken on heightened significance. Criminals and criminal enterprises do not restrict their activities to existing geopolitical boundaries. This circumstance has only accelerated in recent decades with both the softening of some regional borders and the acceleration of computing technologies into our lives. It is now easier than ever for criminals, terrorists, and other motivated offenders to leverage technology to conduct operations at greater distances. These distances provide both physical and legal protection for offenders, while complicating governmental efforts to detect, disrupt, and investigate transnational crimes and illicit activities. International police cooperation is also observable in the trend to introduce blended police and military responses to stabilize and (at times) democratize nations in crisis. Though the need for international cooperation is apparent, bringing about successful cooperative schemes is a difficult process. Nations differ in the structure and procedures associated with their justice systems; in effect, they have differing standards and rules for how their justice systems work. Nations have different cultural values regarding human rights, civil liberties, the role of government in the lives of the citizenry, and the nature of police operations and interactions with the public. Nations have varied political systems for creating and enforcing laws. Nations have varying levels of professionalisms within their policing systems and differing economic capacities to fund public safety and national security operations. At the most fundamental level, nations at times differ in what behaviors constitute a violation of criminal law. All of these factors complicate developing effective international cooperation among nations, even when there is a predisposition to unite. The challenges are further enhanced by the introduction of nationalism, historical regional conflicts, and the varying personalities and egos of those charged with representing the policing interests of their respective nations. Despite these many obstacles, there are examples of effective efforts by nations and police forces to cooperate in the furtherance of law enforcement and national security objectives. Interpol and Europol represent two of the best examples of how cooperative ventures can be established, managed, and sustained. Both also provide important lessons in how various barriers can impede or altogether negate efforts to ensure more effective transnational policing efforts. Their histories and experiences are instructive both for their successes and their failings.

Historical Overviews

Transnational cooperation efforts involving the police date to the mid-19th century when many Western nations were modernizing and professionalizing their policing and security services. It is informative to understand early efforts aimed at enhancing collaboration, communication, and partnerships among police forces. Gerspacher 2008 provides an overview of the ebb and flow of police cooperation across time. Though emphasizing cooperation among police forces in a single nation, the historical analysis of cooperation within Australian policing in the early 20th century offered by Finnane and Myrtle 2011 sheds important perspective on how relationships emerge. Deflem 2002a examines the forces and factors leading to the rise of Interpol in the years before World War II, including consideration of the role of the Nazi regime in establishing police cooperation in Europe. Sheptycki 1998 demonstrates that highly successful collaborations can emerge in smaller regional niches, though politics, personality, and position can influence the efficacy and viability of such ventures. One of the most insightful considerations of recent police cooperation efforts is found in Deflem 2002b, a book that provides a very strong historical and theoretical examinations of this subject. Among the more recent examples of sustained police cooperation is the emergence of Europol with the establishment of the European Union (EU), which is carefully detailed in Monar 2012. Reflecting the priorities and concerns of the time, Europol was initially focused on organized crime, as demonstrated in Gregory 1998. Over time, however, Europol has taken a broader focus to include issues of crimes against children, as described in Lewington and Olsen 1994.

  • Deflem, Mathieu. 2002a. The logic of Nazification: The case of the International Criminal Police Commission (“INTERPOL”). International Journal of Comparative Sociology 43:21–44.

    DOI: 10.1177/002071520204300102Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The article examines how the emergence of the International Criminal Police Commission (now known as Interpol) was influenced by the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany. Though historical in nature, the events illustrate the complex power dynamics that can shape the formation and orientation of international police cooperation.

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    • Deflem, Mathieu. 2002b. Policing world society: Historical foundations of international police cooperation. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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      An historical analysis of the social forces leading to the rise of international police cooperation in the first half of the 20th century. The text focuses particularly on the subject of cooperation between the United States and European nations.

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      • Finnane, Mark, and John Myrtle. 2011. An exercise in police co-operation? The origins of the Conference of Australian Police Commissioners. Australian Journal of Politics and History 57:1–16.

        DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8497.2011.01579.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        A detailed discussion of the historical forces leading to the emergence of cooperation strategies within Australian policing services in the early decades of the 20th century. Though focused on cooperation within Australia, the article offers important implications for the emergence of these efforts on an international level.

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        • Gerspacher, Nadia. 2008. The history of international police cooperation: A 150-year evolution in trends and approaches. Global Crime 9:169–184.

          DOI: 10.1080/17440570701862892Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          An historical overview of transnational collaboration between police forces, emphasizing the cyclical nature and shifting emphases of such cooperation. The article argues the rise of the global fight against terrorism has renewed the political will to support international initiatives.

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          • Gregory, Frank. 1998. Policing transition in Europe: The role of EUROPOL and the problem of organized crime. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Sciences 11:287–306.

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            The emergence of the EU and the subsequent establishment of Europol demonstrate the challenges and potentials of various forms of intergovernmental cooperation. The author examines the early efforts to establish Europol and how its contributions to organized crime reduction were juxtaposed against its initial structure, resources, and capabilities.

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            • Lewington, Frances, and Ann-Kristin Olsen. 1994. International police cooperation on crimes committed against children. Child Abuse Review 3:145–147.

              DOI: 10.1002/car.2380030212Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              A concise review of how the United Nations and Interpol advanced efforts to address crimes against minors. The article examines the legal and procedural steps leading to the establishment of an INTERPOL working group created to study and address this category of crimes.

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              • Monar, Jörg. 2012. Justice and home affairs: The Treaty of Maastricht as a decisive intergovernmental gate opener. Journal of European Integration 34:717–734.

                DOI: 10.1080/07036337.2012.726011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                The author provides an important historical analysis of how the Treaty of Maastricht advanced the development of the EU, including the establishment of Europol and Eurojust. The lessons learned hold important implications for establishing more effective forms of transnational governmental cooperation, including those emphasizing matters of crime and justice.

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                • Sheptycki, James W. E. 1998. Police co-operation in the English Channel region 1968–1996. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 6:216–235.

                  DOI: 10.1163/15718179820518502Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  International police cooperation can emerge as more localized effort. Drawing on a range of historical data, the author explores how intelligence efforts and criminal investigations functioned among agencies in northwestern Europe. Various political shifts and changes in key personnel representing agencies and nations resulted in dynamic stages of cooperation.

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                  Globalization and Global Policing Initiatives

                  International police cooperation encompasses more than simply the efforts of nations and agencies to share information and coordinate investigations. Cooperation also extends into efforts intended to democratize, professionalize, and reform policing services in nations experiencing crisis, turmoil, civil war, or major transformation. These efforts have taken a wide variety of forms, but examples abound from recent decades as policing reform and transition are viewed as being central to bringing nations back from the brink of becoming failed states. Some efforts were intended to create more effective and professional policing services in order to reduce crime, provide more stability, and help enhance the economic viability of a nation. Other efforts have been undertaken (at times in conjunction with military and United Nations support) to build a policing capacity in nations recovering from political instability, government transformation, civil war, or ethnic conflict. The outcomes and efficacy of these global policing initiatives has been the subject of much debate. As societies drift further into an era of globalization, borders and boundaries become increasingly blurred; this holds true not only for physical borders, but also the legal and cultural divides that have impeded transnational police cooperation. This evolution is not wholly favorable, as it can mean greater government control and intrusion into the lives of “good” citizens. Bayley 2006 provides a strong introduction to this issue through its examination of historical and contemporary approaches to democratic police reform. The work emphasizes these practices by the United States and reinforces the need for clear objectives and the assessment of outcomes to ensure reform efforts achieve maximum results. Aas 2008 provides a general overview of globalization and how it has changed the nature of governance, forms and manifestations of crime, and types of government intrusion and control. Ellison and Pino 2012 provides case studies from seven countries in which policing reforms were implemented as a precondition to pursue broader government democratization reforms. When Western nations seek to use police reform to stabilize troubled regions they often underestimate the important role the police play in fostering and sustaining community order. Sheptycki 2011 documents the ways in which both crime and policing have been evolving through increased globalization and blurring geopolitical, social, and legal borders. Hills 2009 critiques this misunderstanding, while directing readers to understand the importance of the nature of policing before reconstruction as a factor conditioning the rebuilding process. Goldsmith and Sheptycki 2007 provides an edited volume critically assessing the failures the authors see in global policing initiatives. Contributors consider why reform efforts often achieve disappointing results and how future endeavors might be approached in a manner more likely to produce intended outcomes. Globalization has not only transformed the nature of crime, but also police power. Bowling and Sheptycki 2012 demonstrates how globalization is changing the international conversation about global policing foci, efforts, methods, and (lack of) controls.

                  • Aas, Katja Franko. 2008. Globalization and crime: Key appraoches to criminology. London: SAGE.

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                    Patterns and methods of crime are undergoing a broad transformation from globalization. Aas examines how globalization is modifying governance, state independence, and efforts to exert social control over citizens.

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                    • Bayley, David. 2006. Changing the guard: Developing democratic police abroad. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                      This volume examines the historical and contemporary approaches the United States has used to use police reform as a component of expanding democratic governance. Bayley reinforces the need for clear objectives and assessment to ensure efforts are achieving desired outcomes.

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                      • Bowling, Ben, and James Sheptycki. 2012. Global policing. London: SAGE.

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                        As globalization changes how citizens live their lives, it also transforms the nature and methods of governance, including police and social control. This provocative book explores how the goals, methods, and culture of policing are being globalized in a manner that poses unclear consequences for citizens.

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                        • Ellison, Graham, and Nathan Pino. 2012. Globalization, police reform and development: Doing it the western way? London: Palgrave Macmillan.

                          DOI: 10.1057/9781137284808Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          Police reforms are often pursued as a precursor to broader democratization reforms in a nation. This book examines whether democratic policing can be effectively implemented and sustained in undemocratic nations using case studies from seven countries.

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                          • Goldsmith, Andrew, and James Sheptycki. 2007. Crafting transnational policing: Police capacity building and global policing reform. Oxford: Hart.

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                            An edited volume examining why global policing projects often result in disappointing outcomes. The contributors seek to answer why policing reform is a preferred tool to effect broader government transformations in troubled states. They also consider how reforms actually progress and how future efforts might be more effectively undertaken.

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                            • Hills, Alice. 2009. Policing post-conflict cities. London: Zed Books.

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                              Though Western nations often emphasize the role of the police in enforcing the law, in post-conflict communities the primary role is the provision of order. This insightful book considers how a failure to understand the meaning of order leads to misguided efforts to use the police effectively to foster regional stabilization.

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                              • Sheptycki, James. 2011. Transnational crime and policing. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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                                This edited volume explores how globalization and transnational crime are modifying policing culture and practices around the world. The contributors draw on a range of historical and contemporary case studies to illustrate how the methods, objectives, and nature of both crime and policing are continually evolving.

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                                Legal and Political Considerations

                                International cooperation quickly becomes complicated by the divergent legal and political systems governing participating nations, as well as variations in national culture and perspectives on proper roles and orientations within the criminal justice system. It is imperative to examine the ways in which law and politics can, do, and should define how cooperative efforts operate and how accountability is preserved. Alain 2001 considers the broad set of political, legal, and cultural issues that shape how transnational cooperation arises and functions. The 9/11 terror attacks shifted the emphasis of most international cooperation away from traditional organized criminal enterprises and toward national security and counter-terrorism. Mitsilegas 2003 offered one of the earliest considerations of the complexities that arise with extradition, mutual assistance, and the exchange of police intelligence data, all of which are imperative tools in the global war on terror. Deflem 2006 provides a sociological examination of how the 9/11 attacks both rejuvenated international cooperation and triggered a shift in many structural and political principles in order to facilitate greater collaboration and partnership. The rise of a global war on terror resulted in an emerging tension regarding border security, particularly within the EU. A major objective of the EU was to remove literal and bureaucratic barriers to easy transit across the borders of member nations, yet as Pawlak 2009 describes, such freedom challenges the ability of nations to preserve the border integrity so valued in the current political climate. Reminding us that the dynamics between nations and their cooperative efforts are not unidirectional, Mounier 2009 articulates how Europol has actually leveraged policy influence back on the EU and its member nations themselves. Gottlieb 2011 offers a review of how new aspects of Intepol’s governing documents regulate the boundaries of that body’s authority, demonstrating that the scope and nature of cooperation continue to evolve. One of the greatest challenges to cooperation is how to derive accountability systems that satisfy the legal requirements and cultural expectations of each participating nation. Wagner 2006 considers the historical trajectory of accountability systems within European partnerships. Though many resources examining international cooperation consider partnerships both within Europe and between European and North American nations, Lay 2010 documents the emergent trend toward transnational cooperation of all types in Southeast Asia.

                                • Alain, M. 2001. Transnational police cooperation in Europe and in North America: Revisiting the traditional border between internal and external security matters, or how policing is being globalized. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 9:113–129.

                                  DOI: 10.1163/15718170120519354Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  Police cooperation takes place within the context of a complex set of legal, structural, political, and cultural frameworks, while also being conditioned by personal relationships among those charged with these duties. This article explores how these frameworks have conditioned cooperation between nations in Europe and North America.

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                                  • Deflem, Mathieu. 2006. Global rule of law of global rule of law enforcement? International police cooperation and counter-terrorism. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 603:240–251.

                                    DOI: 10.1177/0002716205282256Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    The 9/11 terror attacks reinvigorated efforts at global police cooperation in the furtherance of counter-terrorism efforts. This article provides a sociological examination of how nations participating in Interpol have reconciled global law, bureaucracy, and political principles in the emerging war on terror.

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                                    • Gottlieb, Yaron. 2011. Article 3 of INTERPOL’s constitution: Balancing international police cooperation with the prohibition on engaging in political, military, religious, or racial activities. Florida Journal of International Law 23:125–186.

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                                      Interpol represents perhaps the best-known and most functional example of international police cooperation. This legal analysis of Article 3 of the Interpol Constitution considers how boundaries have been drawn and interpreted to restrict that entity’s activities to a narrow set of cooperation tasks.

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                                      • Lay, Vicheka. 2010. Treaty on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters between ASEAN member states. Journal of East Asian & International Law 3:213–215.

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                                        An overview of a treaty intended to provide mutual legal assistance among members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. The document was written with the intent of providing stronger prevention, investigation, and prosecution options when criminal matters and enterprises cross the borders of ASEAN member states.

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                                        • Mitsilegas, Valsamis. 2003. The new EU-USA cooperation on extradition, mutual legal assistance and the exchange of police data. European Foreign Affairs Review 8:515–536.

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                                          An examination of how the 9/11 terror attacks served as an impetus for a renewed level of EU-US cooperation on matters of crime, terrorism, and national security. The author considers the legal mechanisms the respective parties implemented to improve cooperation and the efficacy of salient efforts.

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                                          • Mounier, Gregory. 2009. Europol: A new player in the EU external policy field? Perspectives on European Politics and Society 10:582–602.

                                            DOI: 10.1080/15705850903314841Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            EU politics and foreign policy are shaped by various considerations, not the least of which is the internal security objectives of the member states and the Union itself. This article considers how Europol has impacted the EU itself, including the attendant political and legal implications.

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                                            • Pawlak, Patryk. 2009. Network politics in transatlantic Homeland Security cooperation. Perspectives on European Politics and Society 10:560–581.

                                              DOI: 10.1080/15705850903314833Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              The permeability and processes of border security represent a fundamental challenge for police cooperation. Borders that are easy to traverse facilitate commerce and cooperation, yet complicate national security. This article examines the politics of border security both within the EU and between the EU and the United States.

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                                              • Wagner, Wolfgang. 2006. Guarding the guards: The European Convention and the communitization of police co-operation. Journal of European Public Policy 8:1230–1246.

                                                DOI: 10.1080/13501760600999540Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                A core precept of constitutional nations is that police should be subject to forms of legislative and legal controls in order to preserve accountability and the rights of citizens. The author provides a legal analysis of the historical development of Europol’s regulation in light of these political and judicial perspectives.

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                                                Theoretical Perspectives

                                                Various fields of social science inquiry provide insightful perspectives on when, where, and how international police cooperation emerges and the ways in which such collaborations function. These perspectives are helpful in providing context for the ways in which partnerships arise and exist not just on paper, but in the dynamics of the social and political world. Understanding the emergence of cooperation often requires a consideration of historical forces that have yielded such outcomes. Deflem 2000 explores how the bureaucratic tendencies of police organizations intersect with their mandate for social control to, at times, yield transnational cooperation. The seminal theoretical consideration of cooperation is Deflem 2002, a book that emphasizes how partnerships have arisen and functioned, particularly in the second half of the 20th century. Cooperation is a dynamic practices that waxes and wanes over time. Nations undergo shifts in political views, governance structures, ideologies of those in power, cultural values of their citizenry, the nature of perceived threats, and economic conditions allowing or impeding transnational partnerships. Friedrichs 2008 considers the conditions under which nations might relinquish some of their sovereignty by entering into partnerships intended to address crime and security matters. Demonstrating the dynamic nature of cooperation and partnership, Kaunert 2010 explores how the emergent focus on counterterrorism has shaped Europol’s structure and operations. More formalized and enduring forms of international police cooperation can, in time, derive influence over their sovereigns and destiny. Barnett and Coleman 2005 analyzes the ways in which Interpol has sought to initiate change in its structures, resources, and operations. Carrapico and Trauner 2013 offers a complimentary analysis of such dynamics within Europol and that entity’s influence on the organized crime policies of its member nations. Sheptycki 2004 offers a historical and legal analysis of Interpol’s classification and interactions with the United Nations. These theoretical perspectives are more than simply hollow academic consideration; Deflem 2006 characterizes how competing social and organizational dynamics might influence the counter-terrorism mandates being adopted by Europol.

                                                • Barnett, Michael, and Liv Coleman. 2005. Designing police: Interpol and the study of change in international organizations. International Studies Quarterly 49:593–619.

                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2478.2005.00380.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Relying on the sociological perspectives of institutional and resource dependence as drivers of change, this article considers how international organizations initiate change. In particular, the authors consider how Interpol seeks to achieve changes within the context of their political and bureaucratic environments.

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                                                  • Carrapico, Helena, and Florian Trauner. 2013. Europol and its influence on EU policy-making on organized crime: Analyzing governance dynamics and opportunities. Perspectives on European Politics & Society 14:357–371.

                                                    DOI: 10.1080/15705854.2013.817804Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    This article considers how Europol has influenced organized crime policies within EU member nations. Relying on an experimentalist governance framework, the authors consider how different legal and policing systems have complicated the ability of EU nations to find common ground in how to address organized crime.

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                                                    • Deflem, Mathieu. 2000. Bureaucratization and social control: Historical foundations of international police cooperation. Law & Society Review 34:739–778.

                                                      DOI: 10.2307/3115142Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      An insightful sociological analysis of when and how police cooperation historically emerges. The article examines how the bureaucratic state of police agencies and authorities have traditionally conditioned whether cooperation was pursued to amplify the efficacy of police efforts at social control, particularly of behaviors and offenders that span national boundaries.

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                                                      • Deflem, Mathieu. 2002. Policing world society: Historical foundations of international police cooperation. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                        A classic, yet still highly salient theoretical examination of international police cooperation in the second half of the 20th century. The author applies insightful sociological analysis to derive an understanding of the establishment of transnational partnerships, with a strong emphasis on Interpol.

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                                                        • Deflem, Mathieu. 2006. Europol and the policing of international terrorism: Counter-terrorism in a global perspective. Justice Quarterly 23:336–359.

                                                          DOI: 10.1080/07418820600869111Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          Europol was established to provide international police cooperation among members of the European Union in matters relating to serious international crimes, including terrorism. The article examines how the competing forces of political control and institutional autonomy might be expected to condition Europol’s ability to engage in counter-terrorism activities.

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                                                          • Friedrichs, Jörg. 2008. Fighting terrorism and drugs: Europe and international police cooperation. London: Routledge.

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                                                            An insightful consideration of when and why nations are willing to cede some control and autonomy to enter cooperative police relationships. Drawing on theories from political science and international relations, the book examines why four European nations (Britain, France, Germany, and Italy) have been willing to make such a trade-off.

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                                                            • Kaunert, Christian. 2010. Europol and EU counterterrorism: International security actorness in the external dimension. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 33:652–671.

                                                              DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2010.484041Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              The author uses the international actorness perspective to examine the role of Europol in ensuring national security, law enforcement, and counter-terrorism efforts on a regional and global level. The author analyzes the political, public impression, and legal issues contributing to this evolving role.

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                                                              • Sheptycki, James. 2004. The accountability of transnational policing institutions: The strange case of Interpol. The Canadian Journal of Law and Society 19:107–134.

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                                                                Sheptycki examines the evolving nature of the legal relationship between Interpol and the United Nations, demonstrating that organizations can leverage important pressures on external sovereigns to both legitimize their existence and affect their accountability mechanisms.

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                                                                Contemporary Cooperation Practices

                                                                The nature, form, and function of cooperation have manifest in a variety of structural and procedural outcomes. Some cooperation has yielded formalized and long-term entities, such as Interpol and Europol. At other times, cooperation is a temporary convenience that emerges to address a specific situation or for a finite period of time. Busuioc and Groenleer 2013 consider the formal side of cooperation practices in the context of Europol and Eurojust, and their respective developmental evolutions. Even formal and enduring entities can seek ways to improve practices and partnerships. Rozée, et al. 2013 provide a critical analysis of how Europol might improve its operations to achieve better outcomes. In some circumstances cooperation is a temporally finite situation, as evidenced in the perspective of Block 2007 on cooperation between the EU and the Russian Federation. The rising level of computer connectivity is creating new opportunities for criminal exploitation that might easily transcend national borders. Broadhurst 2006 considers the implications of this reality for major players in the realm of transnational cooperation, including the UN and Interpol. Contemporary cooperation continues to struggle with the tension found between nations having separate structures, cultures, priorities, and capacities. Gerspacher 2005, an examination of Interpol and Europol, is an insightful discussion of how intended objectives continue to be hampered by human factors emerging from participating nations. Varying legal systems that sometimes generate conflicts between nations, as detailed in Schalken and Pronk 2002, further complicate matters. The objectives of cooperation are always tempered by the need for entities and actors to operate with acceptable accountability and oversight. Den Boer 2002 articulates a cautionary perspective on how nations must not lose sight of accountability in the rush to respond to the rising global war on terror. Gerspacher and Dupont 2007 explore how technology is making it far easier to facilitate informal transnational cooperation, particularly partnerships that are more episodic. It is crucial to understand that the future of international police cooperation might rest not with bureaucratic monoliths driven by participating nations, but through the networked partnerships established by allied workers on an “as-needed” basis in response to specific cases and problems. Though such a future requires careful structure and accountability, it might be possible, if nationalism, egos, and the allure of power can be overcome, that such networked partnerships operating among front-line personnel might actually yield greater efficacy.

                                                                • Block, Ludo. 2007. International policing in Russia: Police co-operation between the European Union member states and the Russian Federation. Policing & Society 17:367–387.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/10439460701717957Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  An exploration of the emergence of police cooperation between the European Union and Russian Federation, including the challenges and barriers such cooperation encountered. The article highlights that creating a functional partnership on paper and in reality are two very different outcomes.

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                                                                  • Broadhurst, Roderick. 2006. Developments in the global law enforcement of cyber-crime. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 29:408–433.

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                                                                    An overview of emerging forms of crime facilitated by rising computer connectivity and increasing opportunities for security exploitation. The author connects these criminal opportunities with prescriptive steps nations and law enforcement agencies can take to mitigate such risks, including through the UN, Interpol, and other regional and transnational collaborations.

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                                                                    • Busuioc, Madalina, and Martijn Groenleer. 2013. Beyond design: The evolution of Europol and Eurojust. Perspectives on European Politics & Society 14:285–304.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/15705854.2013.817803Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      The establishment of transnational police and justice cooperation requires that nations grant agencies and actors a degree of autonomy, while also ensuring accountability structures keep operations within socially and legally acceptable parameters. The authors provide an overview of how Europol and Eurojust, through different developmental trajectories, have demonstrated this balance.

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                                                                      • Den Boer, Monica. 2002. Towards an accountability regime for an emerging European policing governance. Policing & Society 12:279–289.

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                                                                        The author examines the need for the EU to ensure the post-9/11 rush to implement new police and judicial cooperation does not overlook the need to ensure accountability. The article considers how existing accountability systems can be enhanced to safeguard internal and external accountability without sacrificing national security.

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                                                                        • Gerspacher, Nadia. 2005. The roles of international police cooperation organizations: Beyond mandates, toward unintended roles. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 13:413–434.

                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/1571817054604100Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          International cooperation of all types face a tension between national sovereignty and the pursuit of intended objectives. This article considers how Interpol and Europol demonstrate this tension in the context of information sharing. Participating nations frequently exhibit variation in levels of commitment and engagement, limiting the achievement of targeted outcomes.

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                                                                          • Gerspacher, Nadia, and Benoît Dupont. 2007. The nodal structure of international police cooperation: An exploration of transnational security networks. Global Governance 3:347–364.

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                                                                            Cooperation has historically been a formal relationship between nations. Technology makes it easier for individuals to establish informal global networks for a variety of purposes. The authors provide a provocative argument for granting law enforcement personnel the authority to establish informal partnerships in the pursuit of global crime and criminals.

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                                                                            • Rozée, Stephen, Christian Kaunert, and Sarah Léonard. 2013. Is Europol a comprehensive policing actor? Perspectives on European Politics & Society 14:372–387.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/15705854.2013.817808Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Despite facing early obstacles regarding trust, cooperation, and conflict, the authors argue Europol has become an important force in providing for security within the EU. Despite many advances, the authors identify areas where Europol still needs to develop in order to more fully realize its crime-fighting mandate.

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                                                                              • Schalken, Tom, and Maarten Pronk. 2002. On joint investigation teams, Europol and supervision of their joint actions. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 10:70–82.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1163/15718170220519551Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                This paper considers the role of joint investigation teams, both operating within and outside the European Union, as examples of international police cooperation. The authors suggest that while successes are achieved, conflicts and challenges persist, such as opposing structures and requirements imposed by the legal systems of participating countries.

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                                                                                Contemporary Threats

                                                                                An appreciable force conditioning the nature and scope of international police cooperation is the number of discrete, though sometimes complementary, criminal threats. Since the 9/11 attacks transnational partnerships have shifted to emphasize terrorism and counterterrorism. Lavranos 2003 explores how, in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, the emerging war on terror necessitated a shift in priorities and operations within Europol, while also balancing core principles of democracy and accountability. As nations have sought to enhance operations and information sharing in the furtherance of counter-terrorism efforts, they have also endeavored to maintain a focus on traditional concerns such as organized crime and firearms violence, as characterized in Gagliardi 2012. Similarly, partnerships have sought to address new forms (methamphetamine) of old problems (drug trafficking and use), as detailed in the report from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction 2010. Shifting global economic and political forces are transforming legal and illegal immigration patterns, creating emergent problems some nations have not had to confront in recent decades, as accounted for in Tryfon 2012. The World Health Organization 2006 describes efforts to create a response to the new phenomenon of counterfeit pharmaceuticals. This discussion highlights that many contemporary threats are not neatly compartmentalized responsibilities for the police or, at first glance, might not even appear to be policing matters. Leman-Langlois’s edited volume examines myriad technologies that simultaneously make life more convenient (and ostensibly secure) for citizens, while also enabling surveillance and social control in new and unexplored ways.

                                                                                • European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. 2010. Methamphetamine: A European Union perspective in the global context. Trends in Organized Crime 13:240–248.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/s12117-010-9104-ySave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Methamphetamine production and use is a growing threat throughout much of Europe and currently accounts for some of the most prolific drug problems confronted by members of the European Union. This article examines the scope of the problem, as well as current associated trends in transnational trafficking and organized crime.

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                                                                                  • Gagliardi, Pete. 2012. Transnational organized crime and gun violence. A case for firearm forensic intelligence sharing. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology 26:83–95.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/13600869.2012.646801Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Firearms are common tools in violent crime, terrorism, and threats to national security. Trafficking and use is often linked with organized crime operating on an international level. This article considers how to build on current successful cooperative efforts to improve the ability to conduct successful firearms forensics and tracking.

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                                                                                    • Lavranos, Nikolaos. 2003. Europol and the fight against terrorism. European Foreign Affairs Review 8:259–275.

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                                                                                      An insightful analysis of the legal structures that define and condition how Europol operates to further international police cooperation to address crime and terrorism. The author emphasizes how democratic principles and judicial control are integrated into Europol’s framework.

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                                                                                      • Leman-Langlois, Stéphane. 2012. Technocrime: Policing and surveillance. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                        Technology transforms many aspects of citizen’s lives, including how they interact with institutions seeking to leverage social control. This edited work examines various technologies that both simplify everyday life and create new ways to provide surveillance and social control over citizens.

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                                                                                        • Tryfon, Korontzis. 2012. The contribution of EUROPOL and FRONTEX in combatting the phenomenon of illegal immigration in Hellas. Review of European Studies 4:188–202.

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                                                                                          Members of the EU seek to ensure easier movement across borders for citizens, while also needing to ensure border integrity to prevent illegal entry by noncitizens. The author analyzes how two entities have worked to combat illegal immigration and documents needed policy and procedural changes within the EU.

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                                                                                          • World Health Organization. 2006. Anticounterfeiting taskforce develops strategy. WHO Drug Information 20:268–270.

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                                                                                            Crime-reduction cooperation is not the sole responsibility of formal police officials. Increasingly other government and corporate entities with regulatory and enforcement responsibilities are entering into mutually beneficial trans-border partnerships. This brief report summarizes the World Health Organization’s IMPACT project to address trafficking of counterfeit pharmaceuticals.

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                                                                                            Current and Future Challenges

                                                                                            The fluid nature of transnational partnerships results in a variety of emerging and future challenges that nations and law enforcement officials will have to confront. Some challenges are simply evolving forms of persistent barriers that have plagued effective cooperation for decades. Others are previously unmet obstacles created by shifting mandates, evolving technologies, and emerging expectations. An edited volume in Lemieux 2010 provides a highly salient overview of the barriers arising for international police cooperation in the modern era. Tak 2000 offers a concise and comprehensive discussion of the various problems that confront transnational cooperative efforts. Anderson, et al. 1996 provides a discerning assessment of new ways that officials must seek to more effectively police the EU, offering a number of important prescriptions. For the past twenty years there has been a growing trend to dissolve nationalism and geopolitical boundaries through regional partnerships and collaborations across all sectors of government. As this trend continues, existing partnerships such as the EU confront fresh complications with the introduction of new nations into its list of members. Storbeck 2003 considers how the growth of the EU has generated complexities, specifically to Europol. Shifting social views and expectations have created pressures on nations to address matters of human rights and previously unrecognized forms of crime. Kinzelbach and Kozma 2009 articulate the need for the EU to place greater emphasis on human rights throughout aspects of government operations in member nations. This includes efforts to protect citizens from one another, as well as a renewed focus on protecting citizens from the actions of government. Nations have begun to acknowledge crimes, such as human trafficking, as threats to citizens, human rights, and national security, a problem Brown 2004 considers within the context of the EU. Throughout all of this, nations must continue to ensure technology, new mandates, and shifting public expectations are appropriately reflected in accountability systems. Bruggeman 2002 offers implications for how international police cooperation can be pursued in a way that preserves accountability while acknowledging variation in the cultural standards of participating nations.

                                                                                            • Anderson, Malcolm, Monica Den Boer, Peter Cullen, William Gilmore, Charles Raab, and Neil Walker. 1996. Policing the European Union. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                              A range of factors can complicate cooperation among police agencies and officials. This book provides an excellent summary of the various legislative and legal barriers that preclude seamless cooperation across borders and legal systems. The authors offer prescriptive recommendations on how cooperation could be improved through legal and organizational changes.

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                                                                                              • Brown, David. 2004. Defending the fortress? Assessing the European Union’s response to trafficking. European Security 13:95–116.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/09662830490484827Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                The establishment of transnational border security plans represents an important but deeply challenging aspect of international cooperation. The author examines how nations in the European Union have sought to establish uniform levels of protection, while struggling with the varying capacity and inclination of members to meet those standards.

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                                                                                                • Bruggeman, W. 2002. Policing and accountability in a dynamic European context. Policing & Society 12:259–263.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/1043946022000046694Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  The creation of international police cooperation requires innovative thought on how to ensure accountability is preserved. The author examines how Europol established an accountability system that provided appropriate monitoring and control within the context of competing national standards and policing cultures.

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                                                                                                  • Kinzelbach, Katrin, and Julia Kozma. 2009. Portraying normative legitimacy: The EU in need of institutional safeguards for human rights. Perspectives on European Politics and Society 10:603–620.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/15705850903314874Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Human rights safeguards remain a controversial issue for members of the EU. This is a matter protecting the rights of citizens from other citizens, as well as other nations. The authors argue current practices are dominated by political considerations among member nations, rather than a rational human rights policy.

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                                                                                                    • Lemieux, Frédéric. 2010. International police cooperation: Emerging issues, theory, and practice. Devon, UK: Willan.

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                                                                                                      An excellent edited volume examining the complexities associated with contemporary cooperative efforts across borders, including competing agendas, limited resources, and varied rules for information sharing. Contributors draw from examples that span the globe in their scope and focus.

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                                                                                                      • Storbeck, Jürgen. 2003. The European Union and enlargement: Challenge and opportunity for Europol in the fight against international crime. European Foreign Affairs Review 8:283–288.

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                                                                                                        The author examines how early expansions of the EU created complexities for law enforcement efforts. Though the emphasis is specifically on the growth of the EU, as nations move toward greater regional collaboration, similar implications will emerge.

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                                                                                                        • Tak, Peter J. P. 2000. Bottlenecks in international police and judicial cooperations in the EU. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 8:343–360.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/15718170020519238Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          International cooperation can be stymied by a variety of problems. This article considers three specific roadblocks: investigating crimes across borders and legal systems; variation in procedural laws that regulate how crimes are investigated and adjudicated; and, variation in the structure and culture of legal systems that complicate prosecution.

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