Criminology Green Criminology
by
Nigel South, Avi Brisman, Bill McClanahan
  • LAST REVIEWED: 25 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 April 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396607-0161

Introduction

In recent years, a strand of criminology explicitly concerned with “green” or natural environmental issues has emerged, aiming to place a primary emphasis on the matter of harms and crimes affecting the environment and the planet, and addressing issues such as climate change; natural resource extraction and exploitation; pollution of air, land, and water; biodiversity loss; and wildlife trafficking. The case has been made for a “green perspective” within criminology—an approach that seeks neither to propose a definitive theory with respect to the causes of environmental crime or harm nor to offer a specific set of solutions, but more modestly sets forth an argument that criminology should be more sensitive to the extent and implications of these urgent and globally important matters. Arguably, this orientation for criminology reflects the times and in that sense there is a degree of inevitability about its arrival from the early 1990s onward. The development of a “green criminology” has led to an international community of common interest concerned with the biophysical and socioeconomic consequences of various sources of threat and damage to the environment. Major themes, topics, and problems that have been examined include pollution and its regulation; corporate criminality and its impact on the environment; health and safety in the workplace where breaches of regulations and law have environmentally damaging consequences; the involvement of organized crime and official corruption in the illegal disposal of toxic waste; the impact and legacy of law enforcement and military operations on air quality, landscapes, water supply, and living organisms inhabiting these areas; as well as forms of regulation, law enforcement, and prosecution relevant to such acts and omissions. Green criminological research, as it has developed, covers environmental damage and destruction (both as proscribed by law and defined as “crimes” and those harms that are not); environmental laws (i.e., administrative, criminal, and civil, applied via a governmental agency or the criminal justice system, and including enforcement measures and court proceedings, prosecution, and sentencing); and environmental regulation (e.g., systems and processes for purposes of protection and monitoring). As recognized in the natural sciences and most policy circles, the resources of the Earth are finite and this has implications that criminology is well-placed to examine in cases where problems such as abuse, conflict, corruption, exploitation, law-breaking, rule-avoidance, manslaughter, and murder can all be identified. In this article, we note (1) General Introductions and Overviews; (2) Early Contributions and Developments; (3) Conceptualizations and Alternative Formulations; (4) Topics of Study in Green Criminology; (5) Responses to Environmental Harm (2000–2005) and (2006–2011); and (6) Future Directions.

General Introductions and Overviews

Since the initial proposals for a green criminology in the 1990s, there have been a number of works published that represent efforts to introduce and provide general overviews of this emerging and growing field. These titles serve, then, as excellent resources for those seeking to understand broadly the developments made within green criminology in the roughly two decades since its inception, and include work focused on theoretical, methodological, and conceptual issues relevant to the field. Environmental Crime: Enforcement, Policy, and Social Responsibility (Clifford 1998) serves as an early introduction to green criminology, exploring topics related to environmental crime and enforcement. Beirne and South 2007 provides an expanded overview of the field, introducing readers to green criminology and devoting attention to animal rights and animal abuse (three chapters) and ecological systems and environmental harms (six chapters), while Sollund 2008 focuses on animal abuse, speciesism, and ecological harm. White 2008, the first monograph in green criminology, examines some of the underlying conceptual issues surrounding environmental crime and harm. South and Beirne 2006 and White 2010 bring together contributions from scholars from around the world, exploring the parameters of an emergent green criminology, and providing theoretical, methodological, and substantive insights into the nature and dynamics of environmental harm, such as climate change, wildlife crime, and the disposal of toxic waste. Meško, et al. 2011 considers environmental issues in southeastern Europe, incorporating perspectives from both natural and social scientists. Ellefsen, et al. 2012 is the first volume in Ashgate’s Green Criminology Series and one composed almost entirely of scholars in Scandinavia; it focuses on speciesism, animal abuse, and social movements (six chapters) and biodiversity and environmental and species justice (five chapters). The field was enriched by the publication of both South and Brisman 2013, which includes international perspectives on a wide range of historical, methodological, and theoretical issues relevant to green criminology, and Walters, et al. 2013, a volume exploring issues such as animal trafficking and abuse, organized crime in the carbon trading sector, e-waste disposal, and resource wealth and conflict. See also Burns, et al. 2008.

  • Beirne, Piers, and Nigel South, eds. 2007. Issues in green criminology: Confronting harms against environments, humanity and other animals. Cullompton, UK: Willan.

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    Twelve chapters with contributors providing a comprehensive overview of issues relevant to green criminology, including animal abuse, climate change, ecological and social justice, environmental regulation, and food crime. Provides an introductory overview of green criminology with advice for readers on how to best approach the field.

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    • Burns, Ronald G., Michael J. Lynch, and Paul Stretesky. 2008. Environmental law, crime, and justice. New York: LFB.

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      Created for classroom use, the nine chapters in this volume provide a thorough exploration of issues relating to environmental law and justice from a criminological perspective. Includes examples of how to best use federal crime databases to conduct criminological research into environmental crime and harm.

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      • Clifford, Mary, ed. 1998. Environmental crime: Enforcement, policy, and social responsibility. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.

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        Chapters by various authors present an introduction to the study of environmental crime, an interagency approach to the enforcement of environmental protection legislation, the identification of essential connections in addressing environmental crime, and case studies of environmental crime and efforts to counter it.

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        • Ellefsen, Rune, Ragnhild Sollund, and Guri Larsen, eds. 2012. Eco-global crimes: Contemporary problems and future challenges. Surrey, UK: Ashgate.

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          The fifteen chapters in this volume use empirical and theoretical arguments to discuss the multi-dimensional character of eco-global crime. Individual contributions deal with animal abuse, biodiversity, environmental activism, environmental justice, and speciesism.

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          • Meško, Gorazd, Dejana Dimitrijević, and Charles B. Fields, eds. 2011. Understanding and managing threats to the environment in south eastern Europe. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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            Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Managing Global Environmental Threats to Air, Water and Soil—Examples from South Eastern Europe, Ljubljana, Slovenia 28–30 June 2010. Focusing on southeastern Europe, this volume includes natural and social science perspectives on harms and threats to the environment. Examines a number of issues particularly relevant to the area, including environmental policy and enforcement, food safety, pollution, and waste trafficking and dumping.

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            • Sollund, Ragnhild, ed. 2008. Global harms: Ecological crime and speciesism. New York: Nova Science.

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              Explores the presence and prevalence of speciesism and its impact on activism, scholarship, and human/nonhuman animal interactions more generally. Examines the ways that speciesist attitudes are socially learned, and how those attitudes drive the exploitation of nature and animals. Links ecological exploitation to the Marxist concept of alienation.

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              • South, Nigel, and Piers Beirne, eds. 2006. Green criminology. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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                This book brings together criminological research on environmental issues from a diverse group of scholars, reflecting the global concerns of green and eco-global criminology. Chapters provide theoretical, methodological, and substantive insights into the nature and dynamics of environmental harm, such as animal abuse, rights, victims and regulation, organized crime, wildlife crime, and the future of green criminology.

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                • South, Nigel, and Avi Brisman, eds. 2013. Routledge international handbook of green criminology. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

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                  Twenty-six chapters from a wide range of international scholars demonstrate the breadth and depth of current green criminological scholarship. Chapters cover history, theory, and methods; region-specific issues (e.g., Africa, Amazon); international and transnational issues (e.g., climate change, air and water pollution); and relationships between environment and culture, environment and economy, and humans and nonhuman species.

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                  • Walters, Reece, Diane Solomon Westerhuis, and Tanya Wyatt, eds. 2013. Emerging issues in green criminology: Exploring power, justice and harm. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

                    DOI: 10.1057/9781137273994.0011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    Twelve chapters divided into three parts: Concepts, Perspectives, and Dimensions; Rights and Wrongs; and Policing, Regulation, Enforcement. Chapters explore such issues as animal trafficking; crime related to the commodification of carbon; environmental victimization and e-waste and natural resource wealth and conflict.

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                    • White, Rob. 2008. Crimes against nature: Environmental criminology and ecological justice. Cullompton, UK: Willan.

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                      Ten chapters exploring a wide range of concepts, theoretical frameworks, and responses to environmental crime. Utilizing various legal, political, social, as well as activist, frameworks, White describes the conceptual issues underlying environmental harm and crime, building the case for a robust green criminology.

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                      • White, Rob, ed. 2010. Global environmental harm: Criminological perspectives. Cullompton, UK: Willan.

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                        This book brings together criminological research on environmental issues from a diverse group of scholars, reflecting the global concerns of green and eco-global criminology. Chapters provide theoretical, methodological, and substantive insights into the nature and dynamics of environmental harm, such as climate change, wildlife crime, and the disposal of toxic waste.

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                        Early Contributions and Developments

                        The first mention of a “green criminology” appeared in Lynch 1990. This was followed by a special issue on green criminology in the journal Theoretical Criminology in 1998, edited by Beirne and South. In this special issue, South 1998 proposed an explicitly “green” criminology, reviewing existing criminological work on environmental issues and outlining ten areas in which established criminological concerns intersected with the criminological study of environmental harm. Other articles within this special issue included work considering animal issues, such as Agnew 1998, an examination of animal abuse and its causes through the theoretical lens provided by strain theories, and Benton 1998, which explores the case for extending the scope of moral and legal rights granted to nonhuman animals. Lane 1998 examines symbolic lawbreaking from an ecofeminist perspective, while Groombridge 1998 contemplates relationships between masculinity and environmental harm. Del Olmo 1998 considers the need for criminological attention to the ecological harms attendant to drug eradication in Latin America. A stand-alone article, Halsey and White 1998, immediately followed the special issue, appearing in the next issue of Theoretical Criminology and providing a descriptive typology for three primary ecophilosophical perspectives—anthropocentric, biocentric, and ecocentric. Combined, these significant works helped form the foundation for more recent green criminological thought.

                        • Agnew, Robert. 1998. Special issue: The causes of animal abuse: A social-psychological analysis. Edited by Nigel South and Piers Beirne. Theoretical Criminology 2.2: 177–209.

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                          Examines the causes of animal abuse, with a focus on the psychological issues underlying human abuse of animals. Explores the common determinants of abuse—ignorance, justification, and perceived benefit—and expands to include a discussion of the effects strain, social position, and social control have on the individual abuser.

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                          • Benton, Ted. 1998. Special issue: Rights and justice on a shared planet: More rights or new relations? Edited by Nigel South and Piers Beirne. Theoretical Criminology 2.2: 149–175.

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                            Benton explores the case for extending the moral and legal scope of rights-based protection to nonhuman animals. Problematizes the discourse of “rights” as it relates to nature, arguing for a pluralistic approach that pursues legal reform and moral argument in the context of far-reaching structural change.

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                            • del Olmo, Rosa. 1998. Special issue: The ecological impact of illicit drug cultivation and crop eradication programmes in Latin America. Edited by Nigel South and Piers Beirne. Theoretical Criminology 2.2: 269–278.

                              DOI: 10.1177/1362480698002002007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Argues for the prioritization, within green criminology, of research into the ecological effects of the destruction of illicit drug crops. Considers the politics, history, and ecological impacts of chemical crop eradication, and includes suggestions for future research along these lines.

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                              • Groombridge, Nic. 1998. Special issue: Masculinities and crimes against the environment. Edited by Nigel South and Piers Beirne. Theoretical Criminology 2.2: 249–267.

                                DOI: 10.1177/1362480698002002006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Argues that criminology has failed to adequately consider and address both masculinities and the environment. Examines aspects of “car culture,” including joyriding, road rage, and resistance to road-building using methods commonly associated with cultural studies.

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                                • Halsey, Mark, and Rob White. 1998. Crime, ecophilosophy and environmental harm. Theoretical Criminology 2.3: 345–371.

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                                  Provides a descriptive typology for three primary ecophilosophical perspectives—anthropocentric, biocentric, and ecocentric. Argues that acknowledgement of these positions is essential to the study of environmental crime and harm. Each philosophy is explored through an examination of the regulation and use of old-growth forests.

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                                  • Lane, Pauline. 1998. Special issue: Ecofeminism meets criminology. Edited by Nigel South and Piers Beirne. Theoretical Criminology 2.2: 235–248.

                                    DOI: 10.1177/1362480698002002005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    Explores symbolic law-breaking within ecofeminism as a challenge to normative conceptualizations of human relationships with nature. Considers the potential in a shift from an anthropocentric philosophy to a more ecocentric philosophy reflected in reconceptualized normative values and laws.

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                                    • Lynch, Michael J. 1990. The greening of criminology: A perspective on the 1990s. Critical Criminologist 2.3: 1–4; 11–12.

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                                      Seminal piece frequently cited as the initial proposition for a green criminology. Details the development of broader “green movements”—both social and political—in the 1980s and 1990s and describes how they lay a foundation for a green criminology. Details the potential scope of a green criminology.

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                                      • South, Nigel. 1998. Special issue: A green field for criminology? A proposal for a perspective. Edited by Nigel South and Piers Beirne. Theoretical Criminology 2.2: 211–233.

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                                        South considers the significance of environmental issues for criminology and proposes the development of a green criminological theoretical perspective. Reviews existing scholarship that contributes to a green criminological perspective, and outlines ten areas showing intersections of green issues with established criminological concerns.

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                                        Conceptualizations and Alternative Formulations

                                        “Green criminology” can be defined as a framework of empirical, intellectual, political, and theoretical orientations toward harms and crimes that adversely impact the natural environment, diverse species, ecosystems, and the planet as a whole. The term has acquired salience as a “perspective” or “umbrella” category, but it is not subscribed to by all engaged in similar work, and other formulations have been offered. For example, Lynch and Stretesky 2003 considers the competing definitions of “green” provided by environmental justice movements and corporate redefinition, while White 2003 examines the ways criminological thought provides insight into environmental issues. Halsey 2004 has offered an exploration of the “green” framework that effectively problematized common conceptualizations within the field—an endeavor that the author continues in Halsey 2006, which challenges criminologists to rethink how they engage theoretically with environmental issues. White 2005 examines the theoretical complexities encountered in the study of environmental crime and harm, while Herbig and Joubert 2006 urges green criminologists to develop and adopt a new typology of “conservation crime.” Gibbs, et al. 2010 takes up the mantle left by Herbig and Joubert, promoting the development of a conservation criminology that engages with risk and environmental decision-making in the natural sciences. White 2011, offers an argument for the development of an “eco-global” criminology that can more effectively conceptualize and research the transnational nature of environmental harms. In his third monograph, White 2013, White builds on White 2008 (cited under General Introductions and Overviews) and White 2011 to call for an eco-justice perspective to reconcile the differences found in various interconnected approaches to the conceptualization of environmental harm and crime.

                                        • Gibbs, Carole, Meredith L. Gore, Edmund F. McCarrell, and Louie Rivers III. 2010. Introducing conservation criminology: Towards interdisciplinary scholarship on environmental crimes and risk. British Journal of Criminology 50.1: 124–144.

                                          DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azp045Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Offers a conceptual and theoretical framework, conservation criminology, promoting the integration of an environmentally concerned criminology with risk and decision sciences and natural resource disciplines. Discusses the implications a conservation criminology framework could have for criminological research.

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                                          • Halsey, Mark. 2004. Against “green” criminology. British Journal of Criminology 44.4: 833–853.

                                            DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azh068Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Offers an overview of scholarship on environmental crime. Problematizes common conceptualizations of the nature of harm and the regulatory structures best suited to mitigate harm. Suggests various theoretical tools that could aid future research that seeks to critically explore the relationships between humans and nature.

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                                            • Halsey, Mark. 2006. Deleuze and environmental damage: Violence of the text. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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                                              Provides a post-structuralist examination of environmental crime and harm centered on the work of French philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Pierre-Félix Guatarri. Using the conceptual devices of affect, lexicon, vision, and speed, this book challenges criminologists to rethink how we conceptualize, explore, and address environmental harm.

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                                              • Herbig, F. J. W., and S. J. Joubert. 2006. Criminological semantics: Conservation criminology—vision or vagary? Acta Criminologica 19.3: 88–103.

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                                                Problematizes the classification and categorization of crime within typologies traditionally favored by criminology, contending that contemporary crime categories leave little space for the full contextualization of environmental crime and harm. Authors argue for the rejection of these typologies, instead favoring the development of “conservation crime” as a viable crime category.

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                                                • Lynch, Michael J., and Paul B. Stretesky. 2003. The meaning of green: Contrasting criminological perspectives. Theoretical Criminology 7.2: 217–238.

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                                                  This piece explores concerns relating to criminological definitions of “green.” Two competing definitions are highlighted: one emerging from corporate redefinitions of “green,” the other aligned with the environmental justice movement. Argues that green criminology must adopt the latter in the interest of a commitment to intersectionality.

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                                                  • White, Rob. 2003. Environmental issues and the criminological imagination. Theoretical Criminology 7.4: 483–506.

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                                                    Examines ways in which the “criminological imagination” functions to provide insight into the nature of environmental issues through a case study focused on the provision of drinking water. Demonstrates complexities inherent in criminological research into environmental crime and harm. Explores competing approaches to the regulation and prevention of environmental harm.

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                                                    • White, Rob. 2005. Environmental crime in global context: Exploring the theoretical and empirical complexities. Current Issues in Criminal Justice 16.3: 271–285.

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                                                      Explores issues facing criminologists trying to conceptualize issues and actors central to environmental crime. Examines issues of ecophilosophy, geography, temporality, and social construction. Includes a brief case study of abalone poaching. Considers conceptual implications and suggestions for future research.

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                                                      • White, Rob. 2011. Transnational environmental crime: Toward an eco-global criminology. London: Routledge.

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                                                        Provides an argument for the development of an eco-global criminology that can adequately address global concerns over environmental harm and crime. Includes explorations of harms resulting from climate change, pollution, and wildlife crimes. Offers insights on how to best conceptualize, research, and address environmental crime and harm.

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                                                        • White, Rob. 2013. Environmental harm: An eco-justice perspective. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.

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                                                          This book identifies and systematically analyzes three interconnected approaches to environmental harm: environmental justice, ecological justice, and species justice. White describes the tensions between the three approaches and calls for a new eco-justice framework that will allow for the reconciliation of these differences.

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                                                          Topics of Study in Green Criminology

                                                          As noted previously, green criminology connects in an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary manner with other theories and bodies of empirical work, from within criminology and from other areas such as economics, political science, psychology, and organizational theory, as well as conservation and environmental sciences. Nonetheless, green criminology shares the classic characteristics that have defined the criminological task, addressing several simple but clear questions: Why and how are laws made? Why and how are they broken? What should be done in response? There are various ways of differentiating and highlighting themes for green criminological inquiry. For example, South, Brisman, and Beirne in “A Guide to a Green Criminology” in the Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology (South and Brisman 2013, cited under General Introductions and Overviews) distinguish between what can be called “primary green crimes” (reflecting the destruction and degradation of the earth’s resources) and “secondary green crimes” (crimes or harms that are symbiotic with or dependent upon such destruction and efforts made to regulate or prevent it, which can include the exploitation of conditions that follow after environmental damage or crisis [e.g., illegal markets for food, medicine, water]); they subsequently suggest four broad categories of primary green crimes or harms: crimes and harm of air pollution, of deforestation and spoilage of land, of water pollution, and against nonhuman species. White 2008, cited under General Introductions and Overviews (pp. 98–99) has developed a threefold typology of “brown,” “green,” and “white” issues: “brown” defined in terms of urban life and pollution; “green” meaning conservation and “wilderness” concerns; and “white” referring to the impact of new technologies and various laboratory practices. Lynch and Stretesky, in their chapter, “Green Criminology in the United States” in Issues in Green Criminology (Beirne and South 2007, cited under General Introductions and Overviews), provide a different set of priority questions: the critical examination of environmental policies—strengths, weaknesses, and alternatives where appropriate (p. 251); environmental justice and the “unequal distribution of environmental hazards across diverse races and classes” (p. 256); the “health impacts of exposure to environmental toxins”; and links between toxic exposure and criminal behavior (p. 261). Other important dimensions include gender, ethnicity, rights, and questions related to anthropocentrism and speciesism. For the purposes of this bibliography, we find it most helpful to organize green criminological inquiry by specific topic: (1) climate change; (2) economy, consumption, and waste; (3) environmental justice and environmental victims/victimization; (4) food; (5) nonhuman animal abuse; and (6) poaching, trafficking, and trading.

                                                          Climate Change

                                                          Climate change and its causes remain contested by some, but the evidence that energy consumption is the principal cause is overwhelming. Rich consumer societies disproportionately contribute to a problem that will impose particularly high social and economic burdens on already poor and newly developing nations. Both international and domestic inequalities will follow, and a number of criminologists have suggested that climate change will stimulate a number of deeply criminogenic forces. Whereas Agnew 2012 considers the linkages between climate change and crime through the lenses of micro- and mezzo-level criminological theories, such as strain and social control, Kramer 2013 argues for the conceptualization of climate change as state-corporate crime. In other words, while the focus of Agnew 2012 is on how climate change will create “new” reasons for individuals to commit crime(s)—or will exacerbate “old” ones (e.g., strains and stressors)—Kramer 2013 contends that climate change denial and regulatory failure constitute state-corporate crime. Two edited volumes further explore current and anticipated connections between climate change and crime: Farrall, et al. 2012 presents and discusses emerging legal issues pertaining to climate change, while White 2012 contemplates and investigates climate change as both a potential cause and a result of crime.

                                                          • Agnew, Robert. 2012. Dire forecast: A theoretical model of the impact of climate change on crime. Theoretical Criminology 16.1: 21–42.

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                                                            This important work, exploring linkages between climate change and crime, employs elements of traditional criminological theoretical perspectives to examine the real and potential effects of global climate change on crime. Criminological impacts of climate change are discussed in relation to strain, social control, and offender opportunity.

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                                                            • Farrall, Stephen, Tawhida Ahmed, and Duncan French, eds. 2012. Criminological and legal consequences of climate change. Onati International Series in Law and Society. Oxford: Hart.

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                                                              Edited collection exploring the criminological effects and legal implications of climate change. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this work identifies emerging issues and makes suggestions for future research. The volume presents criminological, ecological, legal, and social perspectives on climate change.

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                                                              • Kramer, Ronald C. 2013. Carbon in the atmosphere and power in America: Climate change as state-corporate crime. Journal of Crime and Justice 36.2: 153–170.

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                                                                Argues for the conceptualization of climate change as state-corporate crime. Considers organized climate change denial and regulatory failure as constitutive of crime. Employs theories of political economy to analyze political regulatory failure and denial.

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                                                                • White, Rob, ed. 2012. Climate change from a criminological perspective. New York: Springer.

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                                                                  The twelve chapters in this book bring together criminological research into the causes, harms, and representations of climate change. Considers climate change as both a potential cause and result of crime. Represents recent criminological attention paid to climate change while providing theoretical models to inform and guide future research.

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                                                                  Economy, Consumption, and Waste

                                                                  This section includes both broad discussions of economic systems and processes that facilitate/contribute to environmental harm, as well as a group of articles focusing on e-waste. Works are grouped into categories of: (a) state-corporate crime, (b) organized crime, and (c) e-waste. As noted previously, not all these works are from an explicitly articulated “green” criminology perspective, but they are certainly indicative of issues of concern to a green criminology.

                                                                  State-Corporate Crime

                                                                  Green criminology has been particularly concerned with identifying the perpetrators of environmental harm and processes by which it occurs. States and corporations have been particularly blameworthy, and green criminologists have illuminated a range of their acts and omissions that have resulted in ecological degradation and environmental harm and disaster. In an early contribution, Pearce and Tombs 1998 describes and analyzes the environmental crimes of the chemical industry, conceptualizing a “toxic capitalism,” as well as problematizing and exploring the differential distribution of both the benefits and harms associated with the chemical industry and the focus traditional criminology places on street and financial crimes. In a similar spirit, Lynch, et al. 2002 presents a definition of “toxic crime,” provides examples of this form of crime, reviews the general rules that apply to these offenses and to the punishments provided to those guilty thereof, and reviews evidence of the biases contained in the pattern of toxic crimes evident in the United States. In a different vein, White 2002 attributes regulatory limitations and environmental harm to the capitalist political economy; in so doing, the author discusses theoretical complexities within criminology, relationships between production and consumption, and consumerism in capitalist society. Friedrichs and Friedrichs 2002, through a case study contextualizing the practices of the World Bank in Thailand as a form of crime, considers strategies and actions available as a response to environmental harms caused by globalization and offers a brief history on the criminogenic role of the World Bank in the developing world. Ruggiero 2002, through an examination of Melville’s Moby Dick, explores deviant behaviors that accompany economic activity, as well as the themes of accumulation, power, and hierarchy, and the exploitation of nature. In subsequent works, Ruggiero and South 2010, Ruggiero and South 2013a, and Ruggiero and South 2013b consider the environmental crimes and harms associated with crimes of the economy—in particular, those associated with the oil industry, such as the 2010 BP disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Katz 2010 deals primarily with environmental crime caused by corporate actors and the ways that state agencies fail to properly mitigate the environmental crimes of the corporate state; the author’s case study examines the failure of the Environmental Protection Agency to address environmental harms caused by Dow Chemical, which, she argues, has created a criminogenic corporate-state. Finally, Barrett 2013 offers a case study of the complicity between New York’s Bethlehem Steel and the Atomic Energy Commission; the author considers the role of political economy in state-corporate environmental crimes—what is sure to be an ongoing theme in green criminological research in the coming years.

                                                                  • Barrett, Kimberly L. 2013. Bethlehem Steel at Lackawanna: The state-corporate crimes that continue to victimize the residents and environment of western New York. Journal of Crime and Justice 36.2: 262–282.

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                                                                    Case study examining complicity between New York’s Bethlehem Steel and the Atomic Energy Commission. Government reports, media reports, and employee statements are analyzed to explore the repercussions of collusion. The article considers the role of political economy in state-corporate environmental crimes.

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                                                                    • Friedrichs, David O., and Jessica Friedrichs. 2002. The World Bank and crimes of globalization: A case study. Social Justice 29.1–2: 13–36.

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                                                                      Case study contextualizing the practices of the World Bank in Thailand as a form of crime. Considers strategies and actions available as a response to environmental harms caused by globalization and offers a brief history on the criminogenic role of the World Bank in the developing world.

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                                                                      • Katz, Rebecca. 2010. The corporate crimes of Dow Chemical and the failure to regulate environmental pollution. Critical Criminology 18:295–306.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1007/s10612-010-9117-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Case study examining the failure of the Environmental Protection Agency to address environmental harms caused by Dow Chemical, creating a criminogenic corporate-state. This article deals primarily with environmental crime caused by corporate actors and the ways that state agencies fail to properly mitigate the environmental crimes of the corporate state.

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                                                                        • Lynch, Michael J., Paul B. Stretesky, and Danielle McGurrin. 2002. Toxic crimes and environmental justice: Examining the hidden dangers of hazardous waste. In Controversies in white-collar crime. Edited by Gary W. Potter, 109–136. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.

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                                                                          Presents a definition of toxic crime, provides examples of this form of crime, reviews the general rules that apply to these offenses and to the punishments provided to those guilty thereof, reviews evidence of the biases contained in the pattern of toxic crimes evident in the United States. Employs case studies to illustrate.

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                                                                          • Pearce, Frank, and Steve Tombs. 1998. Toxic capitalism: Corporate crime and the chemical industry. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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                                                                            Details and analyzes the environmental crimes of the chemical industry. Conceptualizes a “toxic capitalism,” problematizing and exploring the differential distribution of both the benefits and harms associated with the chemical industry and the focus traditional criminology places on street and financial crimes.

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                                                                            • Ruggiero, Vincenzo. 2002. Moby Dick and the crimes of the economy. British Journal of Criminology 42:96–108.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/bjc/42.1.96Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Through an examination of Melville’s Moby Dick, Ruggiero explores deviant behaviors that accompany economic activity, as well as the themes of accumulation, power, and hierarchy, and the exploitation of nature. Considers intrinsic, extrinsic, and organizational crimes.

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                                                                              • Ruggiero, Vincenzo, and Nigel South. 2010. Critical criminology and crimes against the environment. Critical Criminology 18:245–250.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1007/s10612-010-9121-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Considers several points of concern for critical green criminologists in the context of the 2010 BP disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, including the difficulty of defining harm, the socioeconomic status of powerful offenders, and some of the impediments to the promotion of environmental justice and production of legislative tools to combat environmental harms.

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                                                                                • Ruggiero, Vincenzo, and Nigel South. 2013a. Green criminology and crimes of the economy: Theory, research and praxis. Critical Criminology 21:359–373.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/s10612-013-9191-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Examines developments within green criminology and their attendant debates and controversies. Through a case study of the oil industry, this article considers the environmental crimes and harms associated with crimes of the economy. Offers observations on the future directions of theory, policy, and practice.

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                                                                                  • Ruggiero, Vincenzo, and Nigel South. 2013b. Toxic state-corporate crimes, neo-liberalism and green criminology: The hazards and legacies of the oil, chemical and mineral industries. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy 2.2: 12–26.

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                                                                                    Through an examination of the history and practices of multinational oil and chemical industries, this article explores harms related to those industrial actors. Drawing on state crime literature, considers measures that may potentially mitigate harm. Critiques GDP model of economic health and its impact on the environment.

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                                                                                    • White, Rob. 2002. Environmental harm and the political economy of consumption. Social Justice 29:82–102.

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                                                                                      Constructs regulatory limitations and environmental harm as a result of capitalist political economy. Discusses theoretical complexities within criminology, relationships between production and consumption, and consumerism in capitalist society.

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                                                                                      Organized Crime

                                                                                      Where there is a legal market, there is often an illegal one. This is true for drugs and guns, as well as Food and nonhuman animals and wildlife (see Nonhuman Animal Abuse and Poaching, Trafficking, and Trading). It is also the case for waste, and a number of commentators have explored the role of organized crime in waste disposal. For example, Szasz 1986 investigates the relationships between legal industries that produce toxic waste and the organized crime elements those corporations engage with to facilitate the illegal disposal of waste; Szasz argues that corporate actors benefit, knowingly or otherwise, from their relationships to organized crime, refuting the common explanations of “ignorance” and “powerlessness.” Block 2002 uses routine activity theories to examine the involvement of organized crime in illegal waste disposal in New York and Haiti, and, in so doing, describes regulatory difficulties and failures relating to the regulation of waste disposal enterprises—difficulties and failures that open the door for and exacerbate organized crime. Dorn, et al. 2007 considers vulnerabilities caused by harmful waste management practices in Europe, thereby demonstrating that organized crime’s contribution to environmental harm is a problem of international dimensions. More recently, Ruggiero and South 2010 brings together the study of organized and corporate crime with the study of environmental crime. Focusing on crimes and public health impacts of the Naples garbage crisis that peaked in the summer of 2008, Ruggiero and South describe the opportunities found by criminogenic corporate actors and organized crime in the vacuum left by the inability of consumer society to handle massive waste production.

                                                                                      • Block, Alan A. 2002. Environmental crime and pollution: Wasteful reflections. Social Justice 29.1–2: 61–81.

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                                                                                        Uses routine activities theories to examine the involvement of organized crime in illegal waste disposal. Includes case study of organized crime’s involvement in waste disposal in New York and Haiti. Describes regulatory difficulties and failures relating to the regulation of waste disposal enterprises.

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                                                                                        • Dorn, Nicholas, Stijn Van Daele, Tom Vander Beken. 2007. Reducing vulnerabilities to crime of the European waste management industry. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 15.1: 23–36.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/092895607X193524Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          Considers vulnerabilities caused by harmful waste management practices in Europe. Includes examinations of waste dumping, trafficking, and economic practices. Explores involvement of organized crime in waste management. Concludes with an exploration of the benefits of vulnerability studies.

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                                                                                          • Ruggiero, Vincenzo, and Nigel South. 2010. Green criminology and dirty collar crime. Critical Criminology 18:251–262.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/s10612-010-9122-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Brings together the study of organized and corporate crime with the study of environmental crime. Case study examining crimes and public health impacts of the Naples garbage crisis. Explores opportunities found by criminogenic corporate actors and organized crime in the vacuum left by the inability of consumer society to handle massive waste production.

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                                                                                            • Szasz, Andrew. 1986. Corporations, organized crime, and the disposal of hazardous waste: An examination of the making of a criminogenic regulatory structure. Criminology 24:1–27.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1986.tb00374.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              Explores the relationships between legal industries that produce toxic waste and the organized crime elements those corporations engage with to facilitate the illegal disposal of waste. Argues that corporate actors benefit, knowingly or otherwise, from their relationships to organized crime, refuting the common explanations of “ignorance” and “powerlessness.”

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                                                                                              E-Waste

                                                                                              White 2002 (cited under State-Corporate Crime) (p. 87) outlines a Marxist political economy perspective that argues that, “[s]ince consumption plays a vital role in the realization of surplus value, the quantities of consumer goods and services are continuously expanded by creating new needs and ensuring the rapid turnover of commodities through planned obsolescence, fashion trends, or accelerated technical innovation.” Thus, while contemporary human lives and livelihoods have been enhanced through various electronic technologies, the disposal of these nondurable electronic goods can harm the air, water, and the Earth as a whole, including ourselves and our fellow living creatures, threatening long-term survival. Gibbs, et al. 2010 considers white-collar crimes stemming from the global trade in electronic waste disposal and argues for the development of responsive regulation, including prevention, third-party and self-regulation, and the potential for strong state intervention. Rothe 2010, in the same issue of Criminology and Public Policy, explores factors that contribute to organizational criminality in corporate settings and calls for responsive regulation, concluding that responsive regulatory schemes will only be successful if they address individuals as well as organizational culture. Snider 2010, also in the same issue, engages the work by Gibbs and colleagues on e-waste regulation, considers differential power structures in relation to suggestions of “smart” or responsive regulation schemes, and concludes that those differential relations of power will ultimately work to impede responsive regulation. Van Erp and Huisman 2010 also examines the idea of “smart” regulation and considers the promise of recycling markets. Most recently, Bisschop 2012 offers a case study examining the transnational disposal of by-products of consumer waste in European markets. In so doing the author seeks to determine the legality of e-waste disposal in transnational legal environments, with particular focus on the motivations pulling toward—and the social and legal controls pushing against—legally questionable disposal of e-waste, thereby demonstrating how the disposal of e-waste will continue to vex regulators and will continue to be a ripe area of study for green criminologists.

                                                                                              • Bisschop, Lieselot. 2012. Is it all going to waste? Illegal transports of e-waste in a European hub. Crime, Law and Social Change 58.3: 221–249.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1007/s10611-012-9383-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                Case study examining the transnational disposal of by-products of consumer waste in European markets. Seeks to determine the legality of e-waste disposal in transnational legal environments, with particular focus on the motivations pulling toward—and the social and legal controls pushing against—legally questionable disposal of e-waste.

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                                                                                                • Gibbs, Carole, Edmund F. McGarrell, and Mark Axelrod. 2010. Transnational white-collar crime and risk: Lessons from the global trade in electronic waste. Criminology and Public Policy 9.3: 543–560.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2010.00649.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Considers white-collar crimes stemming from the global trade in electronic waste disposal. Argues for the development of responsive regulation, including prevention, third-party and self-regulation, and the potential for strong state intervention. Concludes with suggestions and implications for future research.

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                                                                                                  • Rothe, Dawn L. 2010. Global e-waste trade: The need for formal regulation and accountability beyond the organization. Criminology and Public Policy 9.3: 561–567.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2010.00650.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Using the global trade in e-waste as a wide case study, Rothe explores factors that contribute to organizational criminality in corporate settings. Examines calls for responsive regulation, concluding that responsive regulatory schemes will only be successful if they address individuals as well as organizational culture.

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                                                                                                    • Snider, Laureen. 2010. Framing e-waste regulation: The obfuscating role of power. Criminology and Public Policy 9.3: 569–577.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2010.00651.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Engages the work by Gibbs, McGarrell, and Axelrod (Gibbs, et al. 2010) on e-waste regulation. Considers differential power structures in relation to suggestions of “smart” or responsive regulation schemes, arguing that those differential relations of power will ultimately work to impede responsive regulation.

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                                                                                                      • van Erp, Judith, and Wim Huisman. 2010. Smart regulation and enforcement of illegal disposal of electronic waste. Criminology & Public Policy 9.3: 579–590.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2010.00652.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Engages the work by Gibbs, McGarrell, and Axelrod (Gibbs, et al. 2010) on the illegal disposal of electronic waste. Examines the likely efficacy of responsive regulation, arguing that the solution to the problems associated with e-waste disposal lies in the regulation of recycling markets rather than shipping chains.

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                                                                                                        Environmental Justice and Environmental Victims/Victimization

                                                                                                        While some of the focus of green criminology has followed the tradition of critical criminology in studying the powerful as offenders and the offenses committed, it is necessarily the case that a green criminology is concerned with differential impacts on the environment and hence with environmental, nonhuman and human victims. Two overlapping bodies of research are identified here: (a) environmental justice and resistance to disproportionate impacts of environmental harms on poor communities and communities of color and (b) environmental victims, victimization, and victimology, including critiques of the environmental justice framework.

                                                                                                        Environmental Justice and Resistance

                                                                                                        While environmental justice has a lengthy history and literature outside of criminology, a number of pieces are relevant to and have been incorporated into the green criminological canon. For example, Pinderhughes 1996 explores the ways in which race and class affect environmental inequality and differential toxic siting, discusses the social and public health effects of environmental racism, and concludes with a consideration of “environmental equity.” Brook 1998 focuses on the disparate impact of environmental harms borne by Native American populations, arguing that such environmental harms constitute a form of physical and cultural genocide. Brook 1998 concludes with a description of the growing environmental resistance movements within the Native American community—a discussion that resonates with Santana 2002, a case study of resistance to military operations on the Puerto Rican island of Vieques and the difficulties inherent in opposing military practices and militarism. Whereas Santana 2002 unpacks intersectional issues of race and class in resistance to environmental harms caused by militarism, Simon 2000 explores patterns of environmental crime among large multinational corporations in an effort to both globalize research into environmental crime and justice, and to imbue research with an exploration of the role of class power. Pellow 2004 is a case study of illegal dumping in Chicago that demonstrates the complex decision-making patterns that can lead to environmental inequity and racism—and thus echoes some of the observations in Santana 2002—and provides an analysis of the role of power in creating and perpetuating (environmental) racism and inequality, which speaks to the assessment in Simon 2000 of the myriad ways in which environmental crimes reveal a pattern of criminal activity within a political economy dominated by wealthy corporate interests. While much research in/on environmental (in)justice focuses on communities of color, some of it pays particular attention to the disproportionate impact of environmental harms on low-income communities. For example, Saha and Mohai 2005 uses quantitative and longitudinal methods in “Historical context and hazardous waste facility siting: understanding temporal patterns in Michigan” to analyze the ways that waste facilities are disparately sited in low-income areas; taking a case study approach similar to that of Pellow, the authors explore NIMBY-driven siting schemes, the legal context in which such siting occurs, and the temporal patterns in siting trends. Finally, Brisman 2008, written for an audience that includes lawyers and criminologists, as well as those interested in social justice more generally, explores competing social and legal conceptualizations of environmental harm and the relationship between crime and the environment, and makes a case for a broader and more capacious understanding of environmental justice.

                                                                                                        • Brisman, Avi. 2008. Crime-environment relationships and environmental justice. Seattle Journal for Social Justice 6.2: 727–817.

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                                                                                                          This work makes a case for a broader and capacious understanding of environmental justice. Explores competing social and legal conceptualizations of environmental harm and the relationship between crime and the environment. Concludes with a call for interdisciplinary research and activism exploring the crime/environment relationship.

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                                                                                                          • Brook, Daniel. 1998. Environmental genocide: Native Americans and toxic waste. American Journal of Economics and Sociology 57.1: 105–113.

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                                                                                                            This research considers modern forms of physical and cultural genocide against Native Americans through environmental harm. Considers forms of genocide perpetrated by both government and corporate actors. Describes growing environmental resistance movements within the Native American community.

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                                                                                                            • Pellow, David N. 2004. The politics of illegal dumping: An environmental justice framework. Qualitative Sociology 27.4: 511–525.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1023/B:QUAS.0000049245.55208.4bSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              Examines the complex decision-making patterns that lead to environmental inequality and racism. Includes a case study of dumping in Chicago, demonstrating environmental inequality. Considers the roles of power and institutional racism in environmental racism and inequality.

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                                                                                                              • Pinderhughes, Raquel. 1996. The impact of race on environmental quality: An empirical and theoretical discussion. Sociological Perspectives 39.2: 231–248.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/1389310Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Explores the ways in which race and class affect environmental inequality and differential toxic siting. Discusses social and public health effects of environmental racism. Concludes with a consideration of “environmental equity” and the growing environmental justice movement, and suggestions for future research.

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                                                                                                                • Saha, Robin, and Mohai, Paul. 2005. Historical context and hazardous waste facility siting: Understanding temporal patterns in Michigan. Social Problems 52.4: 618–648.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1525/sp.2005.52.4.618Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Uses quantitative and longitudinal methods to analyze the ways that waste facilities are disparately sited in low-income areas. Explores NIMBY-driven siting schemes, the legal context in which they occur, and the temporal patterns in siting trends. Includes a case study of facility siting in Michigan.

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                                                                                                                  • Santana, Deborah Berman. 2002. Resisting toxic militarism. Social Justice 29.2: 37–47.

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                                                                                                                    Case study of resistance to military operations on the Puerto Rican island of Vieques. Details the grassroots struggle for justice and peace in Vieques, exploring the difficulties inherent in opposing military practices and militarism. Considers intersectional issues of race and class in resistance to environmental harms caused by militarism.

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                                                                                                                    • Simon, David R. 2000. Corporate environmental crimes and social inequality: New directions for environmental justice research. American Behavioral Scientist 43.4: 633–645.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/00027640021955469Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Examines patterns of environmental crime among large multinational corporations in an effort to both globalize research into environmental crime and justice, and to imbue research with an exploration of the role of class power. Details myriad ways in which environmental crimes reveal a pattern of criminal activity within a political economy dominated by wealthy corporate interests.

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                                                                                                                      Environmental Victims, Victimization, and Victimology

                                                                                                                      Williams 1996 is a pathbreaking work in the development of an “environmental victimology” as a discrete area of study distinct from an environmental justice approach. It describes limitations to the environmental justice movement, particularly its subjective definitions of victimization, its assumptions about power, and its taken-for-granted notions of group identity. Stephens 1996, written in the same year as Williams’s piece, also contemplates the problems and limitations with the environmental justice framework. Stephens 1996 criticizes the Western orientation of the environmental justice movement and examines the presence of children and children’s narratives—or lack thereof—in the global environmental justice movement. Two subsequent works demonstrate the range of research that can be conducted on environmental victimization: Lynch and Stretesky 2001 studies the impact of corporate and industrial practices on minority health through an examination of medical and epidemiological evidence, while Jarrell and Ozymy 2012 considers the United States’ Crime Victims’ Rights Act (CVRA) and its use in providing legal redress for victims of environmental crimes.

                                                                                                                      • Jarrell, Melissa L., and Joshua Ozymy. 2012. Real crime, real victims: Environmental crime victims and the Crime Victims’ Rights Act (CVRA). Crime, Law and Social Change 58.4: 373–389.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1007/s10611-012-9394-xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Considers the United States’ Crime Victims’ Rights Act (CVRA) and its use in providing legal redress for victims of environmental crimes. Examines environmental cases that have addressed the CVRA. Considers the criticism of the inclusion, under the CVRA, of victims of environmental crime, arguing that victim recognition in environmental crime is proper and necessary.

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                                                                                                                        • Lynch, Michael J., and Paul Stretesky. 2001. Toxic crimes: Examining corporate victimization of the general public employing medical and epidemiological evidence. Critical Criminology 10:153–172.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1023/A:1015743420678Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Examines corporate harm and violence through evidence from medical literature. Explores impact of corporate and industrial practices on minority health. Considers alternatives to current methods of production.

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                                                                                                                          • Stephens, Sharon. 1996. Reflections on environmental justice: Children as victims and actors. Social Justice 23.4: 62–86.

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                                                                                                                            Article problematizes Western conceptualizations of environmental justice. Describes environmental racism, ecofeminism, and other dimensions of environmental justice. Examines the presence of children and children’s narratives—or lack thereof—in the global environmental justice movement.

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                                                                                                                            • Williams, Christopher. 1996. An environmental victimology. Social Justice 23.4: 16–40.

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                                                                                                                              Describes limitations to the environmental justice movement, particularly subjective definitions of victimization, assumptions about power, and group identity by drawing on victimology scholarship. Works to define victimization in the context of environmental harms. Details problems associated with “environmental blackmail,” spirals of violence, and victim response.

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                                                                                                                              Food

                                                                                                                              Like air and water, food is an essential for life. Like other precious goods, it has value in illegal, as well as legal, markets. The ways in which food is grown, manufactured, processed, and produced, as well as marketed and sold (in various sizes and forms), attract different types of crime and harmful activity, such as food fraud, food poisoning, violations of food labeling laws, illegal trade and pricing practices, food labor exploitation, and financial crime involving food. The vitality and criminogenic potential of food and food production, marketing, and sale makes its study by criminologists essential, and authors informed by green criminology have made significant contributions to the criminological study of food. Walters 2004 employs a case-study approach, examining the social, economic, and ecological risks of genetically modified foods and considering issues of potential exploitation of the developing world relating to genetic modification. Walters’s subsequent piece, Walters 2006, is a case study in which he considers monopolies within the biotechnology industries, state-corporate collusion in food market control schemes, and the potential harms stemming from corporate control of food. Croall 2007 and Croall 2011 provide two comprehensive examinations of various forms of food crime and their impacts on consumers and other victims. Walters again applies green criminological thought to the potential problems stemming from the genetic modification of food crops in Walters 2011—the first monograph in green criminology devoted to issues of food. In this work, he examines cultural, economic, ecological, and social concerns surrounding genetically modified foods and concludes that those potential harms must be addressed before embracing and adopting genetically modified foods.

                                                                                                                              • Croall, Hazel. 2007. Food crime. In Issues in green criminology: Confronting harms against environments, humanity and other animals. Edited by P. Beirne and N. South, 206–229. Cullompton, UK: Willan.

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                                                                                                                                Explores food issues relevant to green criminology, including problems arising from production, manufacture, distribution, preparation, and marketing of food. Considers social, economic, and environmental harms attendant to modern food chains.

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                                                                                                                                • Croall, Hazel. 2011. Food crime: A green criminology perspective. In Routledge international handbook of green criminology. Edited by N. South and A. Brisman. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                  A comprehensive discussion of various forms of food crime and impacts on consumers and other victims.

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                                                                                                                                  • Walters, Reece. 2004. Criminology and genetically modified food. British Journal of Criminology 44:151–167.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1093/bjc/44.2.151Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Explores findings of a report, commissioned in New Zealand, on genetic modification. Details the social, economic, and ecological risks of genetically modified foods, arguing that risks constitute a need for further criminological examination. Concludes with an examination of hegemonic free-market ideology and the potential exploitation of the developing world.

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                                                                                                                                    • Walters, Reece. 2006. Crime, bio-agriculture and the exploitation of hunger. British Journal of Criminology 46.1: 26–45.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azi049Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Considers monopolies in the biotechnology industry and the myriad ways agricultural monopolies collude with governments to control food markets through a case study of Zambia. Examines eco-crime within the theoretical context of state and corporate crime, international environmental law, and green criminology.

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                                                                                                                                      • Walters, Reece. 2011. Eco crime and genetically modified food. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                        A criminological engagement with the growing global debate over GMO food production. Addresses cultural, ecological, economic, political, and social concerns over genetically modified foods, concluding that potential harms must be addressed before embracing genetically modified food crops.

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                                                                                                                                        Nonhuman Animal Abuse

                                                                                                                                        One central theme in the development of a green perspective for criminology has been the call for greater awareness of harms and criminal acts committed against nonhuman species. The concept of “speciesism” has been developed to describe the humans’ devaluing and prejudicial treatment of nonhuman species, as well as humans’ perception of nonhuman animals as less worthy of concern, compassion, or justice than humans. Reflecting human society more broadly, criminology tends to be anthropocentric in its approach and orientation, positioning and privileging human beings as the central and most significant species. A critique of “speciesism” questions this privileging and the concomitant denial of the extension of rights to other nonhuman species. Beirne 1995, exploring several dimensions of criminological engagement with animals, represents an early effort to examine issues arising from speciesism. Beirne 1997 focuses attention on developing criminological conceptualizations of interspecies sexual assault, while Beirne 1999 further argues for the rejection of speciesism in criminology. Cazaux 1999 also calls for criminology to adopt a non-speciesist perspective, while the Yates, et al. 2001 case study examines social responses to a series of publicized horse maimings in England. In the years since these articles, issues of nonhuman animal abuse and animal rights have been the subject of both standalone monographs and chapter contributions to edited volumes. For example, Beirne 2009 provides a comprehensive and historical examination of human-animal relationships, while Gaarder 2011 considers the importance and impact of gender in intersections with social movements for animal rights. Sollund 2013 considers trafficking and trade in women, children, and animals from an ecofeminist perspective. Most recently, Nurse 2013 offers an international exploration of the moral, legal, and cultural dimensions of animal abuse and harm.

                                                                                                                                        • Beirne, Piers. 1995. The use and abuse of animals in criminology: A brief history and current review. Social Justice 22.1: 5–31.

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                                                                                                                                          This work represents an early criminological foray into the study of animal abuse and its use in—and implications for—criminology. Explores animals as objects of human agency, animals as criminals, legislation involving animal abuse, and sociological and criminological concerns involving animal abuse.

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                                                                                                                                          • Beirne, Piers. 1997. Rethinking bestiality: Towards a concept of interspecies sexual assault. Theoretical Criminology 1:317–340.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/1362480697001003003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Presents challenges to anthropocentric conceptualizations of the causes and harms associated with sexual abuse of animals. Explores eco-philosophy as it relates to sexual abuse of animals, arguing for the reframing of interspecies sexual intimacy as interspecies sexual assault. Provides a simple typology for understanding various forms of interspecies sexual relations.

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                                                                                                                                            • Beirne, Piers. 1999. For a nonspeciesist criminology: Animal abuse as an object of study. Criminology 37.1:117–147.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00481.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Argues for the development of criminological theory and research focusing on animal abuse. Considers arguments legitimizing the study of animal abuse through the framing of abuse as a predictor of interhuman violence, as a violation of utilitarian calculus, as indicative of intersectional oppression, as violation of rights, and as violation of existing law.

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                                                                                                                                              • Beirne, Piers. 2009. Confronting animal abuse: Law, criminology, and human-animal relationships. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

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                                                                                                                                                Five chapters exploring green criminological theoretical frameworks and their potential to inform discussions of animal abuse. Includes discussion of historic prosecutions of animal abuse and the sociological and psychological effects and causes of animal abuse, and critically explores common conceptualizations of the linkages between interspecies abuse and interhuman violence.

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                                                                                                                                                • Cazaux, Geertrui. 1999. Beauty and the beast: Animal abuse from a non-speciesist criminological perspective. Crime, Law and Social Change 31:105–126.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1023/A:1008347609286Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Examines speciesist attitudes/practices prevalent in human/animal interaction through a non-speciesist criminological exploration of animal abuse. Reviews literature dealing with potential linkages between animal and child abuse, problematizing the tendency of criminologists to ignore the harms associated with institutionalized forms of animal abuse. Argues for development of a non-speciesist green criminology.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Gaarder, Emily. 2011. Women and the animal rights movement. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                    Seven chapters exploring the importance and impact of gender within the animal rights movement. Employs participant observation and interviews the author conducted with twenty-seven women active in the movement for animal rights to show intersectional linkages between the movement for animal rights and other social justice movements.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Nurse, Angus. 2013. Animal harm: Perspectives on why people harm and kill animals. Surrey, UK: Ashgate.

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                                                                                                                                                      The eight chapters in this book explore animal abuse and abusers in an international context, situating animal abuse in the larger spectrum of ecological concerns. Explores cultural, gendered, legal, and moral elements of animal abuse, concluding with an exploration of how to best address animal abuse and harm.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Sollund, Ragnhild. 2013. The victimization of women, children and non-human species through trafficking and trade: Crimes understood through an ecofeminist perspective. In Routledge international handbook of green criminology. Edited by Nigel South and Avi Brisman, 317–330. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                        Considers trafficking and trade in animals, women, and children from an ecofeminist theoretical orientation. Explores human-nonhuman relationships, ecophilosophical concerns, and discursive framings of animals as “resources.” Problematizes androcentric power structures and their environmental impact.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Yates, Roger, Chris Powell, and Piers Beirne. 2001. Horse maiming in the English countryside: Moral panic, human deviance, and the social construction of victimhood. Society and Animals 9:1–23.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1163/156853001300108964Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Case study examining social, legal, and media responses to a string of assaults on horses in England during the 1990s. Considers how and when victimhood is ascribed to nonhuman animals and the ways in which the routine abuse of animals is obscured in moral panics surrounding news-making cases of criminal abuse.

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                                                                                                                                                          Poaching, Trafficking, and Trading

                                                                                                                                                          While poaching has long been a subject of study in criminology and the sociology of deviance, historically, the emphasis has been on poaching as a form of rule-breaking in the context of hunting and other leisure activities, rather than as a concern for conservation, ecosystem, or environmental reasons. Until recently, the international trade in wildlife as live bodies or as harvested “parts and products” was largely overlooked, but as the scope, extent, and geographical range of illegal trade in wildlife has grown and expanded, so too has criminological attention to trafficking and related animal abuse. McMullan and Perrier 2002 explores lobster poaching from a legal perspective, while Tailby and Gant 2002 considers illegal abalone markets in Australia using case studies and market analysis. Schneider 2008 contemplates market-reduction regulatory schemes to curb the illicit trade in wildlife, while Lemieux and Clarke 2009 examines the effect of international ivory bans on elephant poaching in Africa. Wyatt has published two monographs on wildlife trafficking. Wyatt 2012 challenges speciesism within criminology from an ecocentric perspective through the study of animal harm and trafficking in Russia. Wyatt continues her criminological examination of this subject in Wyatt 2013, which investigates the social, economic, and environmental threats posed by wildlife trafficking, as well as the efforts to curb illegal trafficking and trade in animals.

                                                                                                                                                          • Lemieux, Andrew M., and Ronald V. Clarke. 2009. The international ban on ivory sales and its effects on elephant poaching in Africa. British Journal of Criminology 49.4: 451–471.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azp030Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Case study of the effect of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) agreements to ban international trade in ivory. Considers the still-declining elephant populations in many African countries and the impact domestic ivory markets have on elephant populations across the African continent.

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                                                                                                                                                            • McMullan, John L., and David C. Perrier. 2002. Lobster poaching and the ironies of law enforcement. Law & Society Review 36.4: 679–720.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/1512168Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              This work uses legal analysis to explore lobster poaching in Canada. Examines relationship patterns that work to constitute poaching as “business.” Argues that poachers use regulatory structures and law to enable poaching. Theorizes poaching as a form of workplace crime.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Schneider, Jacqueline L. 2008. Reducing the illicit trade in endangered wildlife: The market reduction approach. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 24.3: 274–295.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/1043986208318226Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Examines the illegal trade of endangered flora and fauna to explore how market reduction regulatory approaches might curb black markets. Considers activities, individuals, and markets. Establishes differences and similarities in traditional and exotic markets.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Tailby, Rebecca, and Frances Gant. 2002. The illegal market in Australian abalone. Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice 225. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Explores the illegal market for abalone and its attendant harms to both the environment and legitimate trade in Australia via case studies, definitional typologies, an examination of regulatory action, and market analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Wyatt, Tanya. 2012. Green criminology & wildlife trafficking: The illegal fur and falcon trades in Russia Far East. Saarbrücken, Germany: Lambert.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This book seeks to challenge speciesism in green criminology through case studies of fur and falcon trafficking in Russia. Explores harm to animals, dangers to the environment, and security issues from an ecocentric perspective. Offers typologies to inform and guide future research.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Wyatt, Tanya. 2013. Wildlife trafficking: A deconstruction of the crime, the victims, and the offenders. Critical Criminological Perspectives. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1057/9781137269249Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Explores the illegal wildlife trade and the economic, social, and environmental threats posed by wildlife trafficking. Examines efforts to curb wildlife trafficking.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Responses to Environmental Harm (2000–2005)

                                                                                                                                                                      Since its inception, green criminology has engaged in the examination of various responses to environmental harm and crime. Early works (2000–2005) include studies of law enforcement/policing and prosecution, as well as analyses of regulatory structures (e.g., the potential and limitations of such regulatory regimes). More recent works, discussed in Responses to Environmental Harm (2006–2011), extend discussion to include resistance, dissent, and shaming. In an early contribution, de Prez 2000 considers the creation of specialist courts to deal with environmental crimes and the ways in which prosecution of environmental crime may be trivialized by various courtroom factors. Situ and Emmons 2000 examines the role of criminal justice systems in protecting the environment, while du Rées 2001 questions the efficacy of criminal law and courts in protecting the environment. Brack 2002 explores various practices used to combat transnational environmental crime, while Hayman and Brack 2002 offers definitions and typologies for the categorization of transboundary environmental crime. Schmidt 2004 details shortcomings in environmental treaties, whereas Bartel 2005 considers human-nature interactions through an examination of satellite imaging. Tompkins 2005, in step with the other articles from this period (2000–2005), investigates the role of law enforcement agencies and actors in preventing and prosecuting environmental crime and harm.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Bartel, Robyn Luise. 2005. When the heavenly gaze criminalises: Satellite surveillance, land clearance regulation and the human-nature relationship. Current Issues in Criminal Justice 16.3: 322–339.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Explores human-nature interactions and highlights the problems of utilitarian perspectives. Examines the use of satellite imaging technology to “see” human-nature divisions and the effect of satellite imaging on conceptualizations of nature as a usable commodity.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Brack, Duncan. 2002. Combatting international environmental crime. Global Environmental Change 12:142–147.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Considers practices used to combat transnational environmental crime and harm. Explores causes of black markets, extent of harm, and issues of supply and demand related to trafficking, logging, and pollution. Examines policy options to combat environmental crime and harm.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • de Prez, Paula. 2000. Excuses, excuses: The ritual trivialization of environmental prosecutions. Journal of Environmental Law 12.1: 65–77.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/jel/12.1.65Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Considers ways in which the prosecution of environmental crimes is trivialized by denial, blame, claims of unreasonable restriction, and semantics. Contemplates the social construction of environmental harms as not serious offenses. Explores the creation of specialist courts to deal with environmental crime.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • du Rées, Helena. 2001. Can criminal law protect the environment? Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention 2:109–126.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/140438501753737606Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Quantitative study utilizing survey research to determine the efficacy of criminal law in combating environmental crime. Considers unclear roles, competing interests, and competency issues, concluding that each contributes to problems in enforcement.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Hayman, Gavin, and Duncan Brack. 2002. International environmental crime: The nature and control of environmental black markets. London: Chatham House.

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                                                                                                                                                                                This report seeks to define and categorize transnational and transboundary environmental crimes and criminal actors involved in the illegal trafficking and sale of environmental goods. Provides insight into the global nature of environmental black markets and the control of same.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Schmidt, Charles W. 2004. Environmental crimes: Profiting at the earth’s expense. Environmental Health Perspectives 112.2: A96–A103.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Examines international and transboundary environmental crimes and their differential effects. Describes the shortcomings in international treaties designed to combat environmental crime and the role of “transit nations,” recycling schemes, and diplomacy problems in creating a criminogenic business environment. Advocates international networks of regulatory and nongovernmental actors to fight environmental crime.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Situ, Yingyi, and David Emmons. 2000. Environmental crime: The criminal justice system’s role in protecting the environment. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Text explores causes, prosecution, prevention, and mitigation of environmental crimes. Designed for classroom use, this work includes a comprehensive overview of environmental law and the role of criminal justice systems in addressing harm from a global perspective, with an emphasis on economic, legal, political, and social impacts of environmental crime.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tompkins, Kevin. 2005. Police, law enforcement and the environment. Current Issues in Criminal Justice 16.3: 294–306.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Explores the role of law enforcement in instances of environmental crime. Examines similarities and differences in agencies combating environmental crime using several case examples. Makes suggestions for how agencies can be better equipped to fight environmental crime.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Responses to Environmental Harm (2006–2011)

                                                                                                                                                                                      In 2006–2011, green criminologists further explored responses—both social and legal—to environmental crime and harm. The works represented in this section continue with the themes of transnational and transboundary environmental crime, legal analysis, social resistance, and regulation and regulatory approaches. Stretesky 2006 examines the efficacy of corporate self-regulation in preventing and regulating environmental crimes through a quantitative analysis of corporate actors, while Elliott 2007 considers transnational crime in the Asia Pacific—including wildlife trafficking, illegal logging, and pollution—from a theoretical perspective of securitization. Logging again appears as a theme in Green, et al. 2007, a consideration of dichotomic definitions of “legal” and “illegal,” and the ways that definitions and sanctions relating to environmental crime frequently flow from civil society rather than the state. Mares 2010 identifies similarities between the environmental crimes and harms frequently studied within green criminology and the “street crimes” examined by traditional criminologies and argues for an increased emphasis on social control mechanisms to prevent and mitigate environmental harm. Walters 2010 examines toxic air pollution, identifying and exploring various shortcomings and failures of current regulatory frameworks and arguing for the increased globalization of green criminology, while Brisman 2011 uses the work of artist Damien Hirst as a case study to illustrate the ways that art criticism can be used as a tool of dissent in engaging with environmentally harmful artistic production.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brisman, Avi. 2011. “Green harms” as art crime, art criticism as environmental dissent. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 27.4: 465–499.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Using the work of artist Damien Hirst as a case study, this article argues that criminologists and art crime scholars regularly conceptualize art crime narrowly. Employs a harm-based approach to illustrate how art criticism can be used as a tool of dissent in cases involving environmentally harmful artistic production.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Elliott, Lorraine. 2007. Transnational environmental crime in the Asia Pacific: An “un(der)securitized” security problem? Pacific Review 20.4: 499–522.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/09512740701671995Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Presents wildlife trafficking, illegal logging, and pollution in the Asia Pacific from a securitization theoretical perspective. Considers the regional failure to understand environmental harm and crime as security issues.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Green, Penny, Tony Ward, and Kirsten McConnachie. 2007. Logging and legality: Environmental crime, civil society and the state. Social Justice 34:94–110.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Considers problems arising from dichotomic definitions of “legal” and “illegal” in the study of harmful logging practices. Using the legal practices of the Tasmanian logging trade as a case study, authors argue that the definitions and sanctions provided by civil society are often more comprehensive and valuable than those of the state.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mares, Dennis. 2010. Criminalizing ecological harm: Crimes against carrying capacity and the criminalization of eco-sinners. Critical Criminology 18:279–293.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1007/s10612-010-9118-4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Argues that many forms of environmental harm and crime are similar to other types of crime, such as street crime. Rejects legalistic calls for increased criminalization of harmful behaviors, instead making the case for a criminological emphasis on social control mechanisms using shaming and reward systems to regulate environmentally harmful behavior.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Stretesky, Paul B. 2006. Corporate self-policing and the environment. Criminology 44.3: 671–708.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2006.00060.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Explores self-regulatory schemes designed to protect the environment using quantitative analysis. Considers the efficacy of self-policing within a corporate context. Concludes that regulatory agencies face difficulty in efforts to increase levels of self-policing.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Walters, Reece. 2010. Toxic atmospheres air pollution, trade and the politics of regulation. Critical Criminology 18:307–323.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/s10612-010-9119-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Examines toxic air pollution from a green criminological perspective. Identifies and explores shortcomings and failures of current regulatory frameworks. Illustrates how criminology must continue to develop and expand green perspectives in order to engage with emerging forms of harm in a global context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Future Directions

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Future concerns of green criminology will include themes of rights and neglect(s), protections and harms, representations and denials. While green criminology is still developing, the works annotated here demonstrate that its concerns are not alien to traditional criminology and that there is a considerable amount of research and theory to build upon in the future. Some of the directions that may be pursued are indicated here. “Green” and “cultural” criminologies share an interest at the point where environmental harms follow from the production and disposal of consumer products. Their focus may, for example, be on waste and obsolescence as corollary products of the consumption-driven nature of late-modern economies, shaped and fueled by cultural forces such as marketing and media images. More broadly, media images and representations are the windows through which most people see the planet they live on, and this also applies to their knowledge of their more immediate environments, nationally and locally. The role of media in presenting, reporting, and imagining environmental harms and crimes is therefore hugely important. Jarrell 2007, for example, considers the role of media coverage of environmental crime in the context of the petroleum refining industry, arguing for the development of a public criminology engaged with environmental harm, while Fitzgerald and Baralt 2010 examines media constructions of responsibility through a case study of mercury contamination in fish. Although much of the work represented in this section focuses on intersections of culture and environmental harm, Lynch and Stretesky 2011 proposes a green typology for criminology informed by the natural sciences, while Brisman and South 2013b situates green criminology within critical criminology by outlining issues of exploitation, corporate environmental crime, and inequality. Here, South and Brisman 2012 reviews ways in which natural resources can be a source of conflict and power, can fuel or fund existing conflicts, and can be a casualty of conflict, and the authors argue that in current global economic conditions, there will be limits to the impact of democratic development in resource-producer nations unless Western production practices and exploitative patterns of consumption are addressed. Brisman and South 2013a also contemplate issues of production and consumption, this time through the lens of cultural criminology, and proposes the integration of green and cultural criminologies. Brisman 2013 argues that limitations on public access to information creates cultures of silence that contribute to environmental crime and harm, while Higgins, et al. 2013 proposes an international law of ecocide. Certainly a green criminology for the future must engage with science in a knowledgeable and critical fashion. The state of the environment affects populations today and into the future; hence, a concern with the promises and threats of scientific response is important, but so too is the matter of responsibility and rights—individual responsibility for the harms done to the environment, as well as the rights of those affected.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Brisman, Avi. 2013. The violence of silence: Some reflections on access to information, public participation in decision-making, and access to justice in matters concerning the environment. Crime, Law and Social Change 59.3: 291–303.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s10611-013-9416-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Proposes that identification, mitigation, prevention, and resistance to environmental harm is linked to public access to information. Argues that limitations on public access to information create “cultures of silence” that reduce future generations’ ability to combat and contest environmental harm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Brisman, Avi, and Nigel South. 2013a. A green-cultural criminology: An exploratory outline. Crime Media Culture 9.2: 115–135.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/1741659012467026Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Promulgates an integration of green and cultural criminologies. Notes existing green scholarship within cultural criminology, highlighting how various concepts unique to cultural criminology can be useful to green criminologists and vice versa. Explores media construction, contested space, resistance, and patterns of constructed consumerism from a green criminological perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brisman, Avi, and Nigel South. 2013b. Resource wealth, power, crime and conflict. In Debates in green criminology: Power, justice and environmental harm. Edited by R. Walters, D. Westerhuis, and T. Wyatt, 57–71. London: Palgrave.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Describes linkages between environmental wealth and illegal trade in minerals, timber, and wildlife, and the internal conflicts, corruption, and flow of profits to external locations that can leave resource-rich countries with a poor return. Reviews ways in which natural resources can be a source of conflict and power, can fuel or fund existing conflicts, and can be a casualty of conflict.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fitzgerald, Amy, and Lori B. Baralt. 2010. Media constructions of responsibility for the production and mitigation of environmental harms: The case of mercury-contaminated fish. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 52.4: 341–368.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.3138/cjccj.52.4.341Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Examines media constructions of environmental crimes through analysis of media coverage of rising mercury levels in fish. Considers the tendencies of media-constructed narratives to blame state regulators for environmental crimes while ignoring the role of polluting industries, construct environmental crimes as inevitable, and place onus of action on the individual.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Higgins, P., D. Short, and N. South. 2013. Protecting the planet: A proposal for a law of ecocide. Crime, Law and Social Change 59.3: 251–266.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/s10611-013-9413-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Argues the need for an international crime of ecocide and outlines the history of discussion of such a proposal in international policy circles. Situates the argument within the literature on green criminology and forms of environmental justice.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jarrell, Melissa L. 2007. Environmental crime and the media: News coverage of petroleum refining industry violations. New York: LFB Scholarly.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Analyzes media coverage of legal penalties levied against the petroleum industry, noting that only a small percentage of such cases receive media attention. Jarrell argues for the development of a public/news-making criminology involved in public and activist discourses via the mass media.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lynch, Michael J., and Paul B. Stretesky. 2011. Similarities between green criminology and green science: Toward a typology of green criminology. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 35.4: 293–306.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/01924036.2011.625233Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Proposes a green criminological typology; draws upon divisions established in the natural sciences literatures in the fields of ecotoxicology, environmental toxicology, and green chemistry; presents eco-approaches, enviro-approaches, and policy-oriented approaches. The framework is applied to green criminology while recognizing the need for a fourth area that addresses economic, social, political, and philosophical theories.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • South, Nigel, and Avi Brisman. 2012. Critical green criminology, environmental rights and crimes of exploitation. In New directions in crime and deviancy. Edited by Simon Winlow and Rowland Atkinson, 99–110. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Outlines issues relating to resource exploitation, global inequalities, transnational corporate crime, and human and environmental rights.

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