Criminology Sexual Revictimization
by
Leah Daigle, Andia Azimi
  • LAST REVIEWED: 26 June 2019
  • LAST MODIFIED: 31 August 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396607-0187

Introduction

It is well established that a portion of individuals are sexually victimized each year. More recently, it has been discovered that a subset of these victims experience multiple incidents of sexual victimization, often within a short period of time. This sexual revictimization has begun to be studied by academics in many fields including psychology, sociology, women studies, public health, and criminology. These researchers have identified the extent to which sexual revictimization occurs, the characteristics of sexual revictimization, the risk factors for sexual victimization, explanations for sexual victimization, the outcomes of sexual revictimization, and ways in which sexual revictimization may be prevented. Before discussing the many facets of sexual victimization, the terminology used within this area must be understood.

Terminology

The literature on recurring sexual victimization is becoming well developed. To understand these research findings, it is important to first be familiar with the different concepts and terms employed. Recurring victimization is a catchall term for when a person or place experiences more than one victimization incident of any type over any time period. Repeat victimization occurs when a person or place experiences the same type of victimization, generally within the same developmental time period. Farrell 1992 and Farrell and Pease 2001 use repeat as the catch-all term. Revictimization occurs when a person or place experiences more than one victimization incident, typically across developmental time periods (e.g., from childhood to adulthood). Finkelhor, et al. 2007a and Finkelhor, et al. 2007b identify polyvictimization as when a person or place experiences more than one different type of victimization, generally within the same developmental time period (e.g., rape and bullying during childhood). Listwan, et al. 2014 also examine poly-victimization in a study of parolees. A final type of recurring victimization is a near-repeat incident. Near-repeat incidents occur when a place is victimized after a location nearby has been targeted by a victimization. Townsley, et al. 2003 find that near repeats are likely for burglaries, in that a home is burglarized after their neighbor’s house was burglarized. Youstin, et al. 2011 establishe that near repeats also occur for shootings, robberies, and auto thefts. Bowers and Johnson 2004 note that near-repeat incidents are more likely to be similar in terms of modus operandi than other types of incidents.

  • Bowers, K. J., and S. D. Johnson. 2004. Who commits near repeats? A test of the boost explanation. Western Criminology Review 5.3: 12–24.

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    Findings from the study point to the dependency between events in terms of victimization risk. Specifically, crimes committed near each other in space and in time are more likely to be committed with similar modus operandi compared to other crimes.

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    • Farrell, G. 1992. Multiple victimization: Its extent and significance. International Review of Victimology 2:85–102.

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      Using data obtained from the British Crime Survey, the authors found that 70 percent of all victimization incidents were reported by 14 percent of respondents who were multiple victims. The study demonstrates the importance of accounting for multiple victimizations when studying victimization.

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      • Farrell, G., and K. Pease. 2001. Why repeat victimization matters. In Repeat victimization. Edited by G. Farrell and K. Pease, 1–4. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice.

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        This is the editors’ introduction to the text. The introduction discusses repeat victimization and hot spots, and discusses the phenomenon of repeat victimization and highlights its importance.

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        • Finkelhor, D., R. K. Ormrod, and H. A. Turner. 2007a. Poly-victimization: A neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect 31:7–26.

          DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.06.008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Using a national-level study of 2,030 children ages two to seventeen, poly-victims (children who experienced four or more different kinds of victimizations in a single year) were found to comprise 22 percent of the study sample. Poly-victimization was found to be highly predictive of trauma symptoms. When accounted for in the model, poly-victimization also greatly reduced the correlation between individual victimizations (e.g., sexual abuse) and symptomatology.

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          • Finkelhor, D., R. K. Ormrod, and H. A. Turner. 2007b. Polyvictimization and trauma in a national longitudinal cohort. Development and Psychopathology 19:149–166.

            DOI: 10.1017/S0954579407070083Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            This study is based on two waves of data from the Developmental Victimization Survey. The analysis revealed that 18 percent of the children experienced four or more different kinds of victimizations (poly-victims) in the most recent year. Poly-victimization was found to be predictive of trauma symptoms at the end of the year.

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            • Listwan, S. J., L. E. Daigle, J. L. Hartman, and W. P. Guastaferro. 2014. Poly-victimization risk in prison: The influence of individual and institutional factors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29.13: 2458–2481.

              DOI: 10.1177/0886260513518435Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              From a sample of 1,600 recently released inmates, the authors confirmed environmental and individual-level factors were related to poly-victimization in prison (experiencing more than one victimization type). Those inmates who perceived the prison environment as hostile were more likely to report multiple forms of victimization. Individual factors, such as race, age, and mental illness, were also significant in predicting a greater number of victimization types experienced in prison.

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              • Townsley, M., R. Homel, and J. Chaseling. 2003. Infectious burglaries: A test of the near repeat hypothesis. British Journal of Criminology 43.3: 615–633.

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                Near repeats were found more likely to occur in suburban areas with homogenous housing. The authors conclude that in areas with little housing diversity, the prevalence of victims should be higher compared with areas that have very diverse housing. Diverse areas allow offenders with a choice of targets, making near repeat less likely in these areas.

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                • Turner, H. A., D. Finkelhor, and R. Ormrod. 2010. Poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 38.3: 323–330.

                  DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.11.012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This study examined the relationship between poly-victimization and trauma symptomology among children and youth. Almost 66 percent of the sample experienced more than one type of victimization, 33 percent experienced more than five or more types, and 10 percent experienced more than eleven or more types. Poly-victimization was associated more with trauma symptoms compared to repeat victimization of a single type.

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                  • Youstin, T. J., M. R. Nobles, J. T. Ward, and C. L. Cook. 2011. Assessing the generalizability of the near repeat phenomenon. Criminal Justice and Behavior 38.10: 1042–1063.

                    DOI: 10.1177/0093854811417551Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    This study examined the extent to which the near-repeat phenomenon applies to shootings, robberies, and auto thefts. The results showed that near repeats occur within all crime types, but each type has its own distinct near-repeat pattern.

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                    Extent of Recurring Sexual Victimization

                    One way of examining recurring sexual victimization is to examine the extent to which persons who have been sexually victimized as children experience sexual victimization as adolescents or adults. Humphrey and White 2000; Roodman and Clum 2001; Barnes, et al. 2009; and Noll, et al. 2003 document the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent or adult sexual victimization. Fleming, et al. 1999 and Wyatt, et al. 1992 show that experiencing child sexual abuse (CSA) increases the likelihood of experiencing adult sexual victimization by two to three times. This phenomenon has also been shown to occur outside of the United States as well. De Haas, et al. 2012, in a national-level study of the Netherlands, finds that 50 percent of female victims of childhood sexual abuse and 30 percent of the male victims of childhood sexual abuse experienced sexual victimization as adults. Other research on recurring sexual victimization has focused on the extent to which persons have experienced multiple incidents of sexual victimization within the same developmental time period. The bulk of this research has focused on recurring sexual victimization among college women. Daigle, et al. 2008 find that college women are more likely to experience repeat sexual victimization than repeat nonsexual violent victimization. In addition, the authors’ research shows that repeat sexual victimization is somewhat common. In their study, of those college women who had been victimized, slightly less than half experienced more than one sexual victimization in an academic year. These recurring victims experienced, however, over 70 percent of all the sexual victimizations in the study sample. More recent work has examined the trajectories of sexual victimization of college women. Swartout, et al. 2011 identify that 6 percent of the sample was classified in a high-increasing latent class, suggesting that for some college women, they experience high rates of sexual victimization when first entering college and throughout their college tenure.

                    • Barnes, J. E., J. G. Noll, F. W. Putnam, and P. K. Trickett. 2009. Sexual and physical revictimization among victims of severe childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect 33.7: 412–420.

                      DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.09.013Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      This is a fifteen-year longitudinal study of sexual and physical revictimization among female victims of child sexual abuse. Victims of child sexual abuse were twice as likely to report sexual and physical revictimization compared to females who did not report child sexual abuse.

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                      • Daigle, L. E., B. S. Fisher, and F. T. Cullen. 2008. The violent and sexual victimization of college women: Is repeat victimization a problem? Journal of Interpersonal Violence 23.9: 1296–1313.

                        DOI: 10.1177/0886260508314293Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        A small proportion of college women experience a large proportion of all sexual and violent victimizations, with repeat sexual victimization being more likely to occur than violent repeat victimization. Repeat victimization usually occurs within a month of the initial incident, and the type of revictimization tends to be the same incident as the initial victimization.

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                        • de Haas, S., W. va Berlo, F. Bakker, and I. Vanwesenbeeck. 2012. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence in the Netherlands, the risk of revictimization and pregnancy: Results from a national population survey. Violence and Victims 27:592–608.

                          DOI: 10.1891/0886-6708.27.4.592Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          Study in the Netherlands found revictimization among victims of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). They found that both male and female victims of CSA were at risk of experiencing sexual victimization as adults.

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                          • Fleming, J., P. E. Mullen, B. Sibthorpe, and G. Bammer. 1999. The long-term impact of childhood sexual abuse in Australian women. Child Abuse & Neglect 23:145–159.

                            DOI: 10.1016/S0145-2134(98)00118-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            In a study of Australian women using retrospective data, it was discovered that experiencing CSA increased the likelihood of domestic violence and rape. The likelihood of experiencing negative problems was most pronounced for those who had experienced sexual victimizations during childhood involving intercourse.

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                            • Humphrey, J. A., and J. W. White. 2000. Women’s vulnerability to sexual assault from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health 27:419–424.

                              DOI: 10.1016/S1054-139X(00)00168-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              In their study of undergraduates at a southeastern university in the United States, Humphrey and White found victimization before the age of fourteen increased the risk of experiencing sexual victimization later during adolescence by more than twofold.

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                              • Noll, J. G., L. A. Horowitz, G. A. Bonanno, P. K. Trickett, and F. W. Putnam. 2003. Revictimization and self-harm in females who experienced childhood sexual abuse: Results from a prospective study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 18.12: 1452–1471.

                                DOI: 10.1177/0886260503258035Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Victims of child sexual abuse between the ages of six and sixteen (with abuse before age of fourteen) were two times as likely to indicate they had been revictimized (rape or sexual assault) compared with nonvictims over a seven-year period.

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                                • Roodman, A. A., and G. A. Clum. 2001. Revictimization rates and method variance: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 21:183–204.

                                  DOI: 10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00045-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  In this meta-analysis of nineteen studies of the link between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual victimization, the overall effect size for revictimization was .59. Effect size was influenced by the breadth of definition of abuse, with broader definitions yielding smaller effect sizes.

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                                  • Swartout, K. M., A. G. Swartout, and J. W. White. 2011. A person-centered, longitudinal approach to sexual victimization. Psychology of Violence 1:29–40.

                                    DOI: 10.1037/a0022069Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    This longitudinal study of 1,580 college women is innovative in that it uses latent class growth analysis to determine if college women can be grouped in different sexual victimization trajectories. In addition, the authors investigated potential factors to explain group membership. They found four distinct latent classes, with childhood sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and parental physical punishment, partially accounting for class membership.

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                                    • Wyatt, G. E., D. Guthrie, and C. M. Notgrass. 1992. Differential effects of women’s child sexual abuse and subsequent sexual revictimization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60:167–173.

                                      DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.60.2.167Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      Not only did the authors find that CSA increased the likelihood of sexual victimization in adulthood (ages eighteen to thirty-six), they also found that sexual revictimization was associated with unintended pregnancies and abortions. Other sexual-related outcomes of revictimization were having multiple partnerships and brief sexual relationships.

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                                      How Quickly Does Sexual Victimization Recur?

                                      When examining repeat sexual victimization, one of the features of its occurrence that has been studied beyond how much it occurs is when it occurs—called the time-course of revictimization. In this way, researchers have examined how close in time a subsequent sexual victimization incident occurs to the initial incident. Polvi, et al. 1991 along with Mawby 2001 and Mele 2009 provide findings in the repeat literature in general that have been found in the sexual victimization literature. Daigle, et al. 2008 find that repeat sexual victimization tends to recur quickly (cited under Extent of Recurring Sexual Victimization). Daigle and colleagues found that most incidents of repeat sexual victimization occur within one month of the initial incident, and the risk of a subsequent incident declines over time.

                                      • Mawby, R. I. 2001. Victimization on burglary victims in East and West Europe. Crime Prevention Studies 12:66–82.

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                                        The findings from this study show distinct differences between levels of repeat victimization in different cities and countries. In general, repeat victims were more likely to leave their home unoccupied during the day for more than six hours compared to first-time victims. Repeat victims were also more likely to be negative about their neighborhood, express a desire to move, and to be fearful of future victimization.

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                                        • Mele, M. 2009. The time course of repeat intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence 24:619–624.

                                          DOI: 10.1007/s10896-009-9260-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          The time course of repeat intimate partner violence (IPV) was examined by assessing whether opportunities for victim/offender contact influence subsequent IPV victimizations. The findings indicate that victim/offender contact only partially explains the time course of IPV.

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                                          • Polvi, N., T. Looman, C. Humphries, and K. Pease. 1991. The time course of repeat burglary victimisation. British Journal of Criminology 31:411–414.

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                                            The heightened risk for repeat burglary was found not to last over long time periods. After six months, the risk of repeat burglary is average and remains this way.

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                                            What Type of Incident Follows an Initial Sexual Victimization?

                                            Along with examining how quickly a recurring sexual victimization occurs, the type of subsequent victimization that is likely to occur has also been studied. That is, researchers have investigated what types of victimizations occur in sequence. This sequencing of victimization events is known as crime switching. Reiss 1980 was the first researcher to examine crime switching and found that for crimes that most frequently occur, when a subsequent victimization took place, it was likely to be of the same type (e.g., serious assault followed by a serious assault). The researcher found this pattern to be true for rape as well—for repeat victims, most rapes were followed by rapes. More recent research on crime -switching specific to sexual victimization found similar results. Daigle, et al. 2009 (cited under Prevention of Recurring Sexual Victimization) found that for college females who had experienced a rape, if they experienced a subsequent victimization, it was likely to be a rape. For those who had experienced sexual coercion, they were likely to experience a sexual coercion, if they experienced another sexual victimization.

                                            • Reiss, A. J., Jr. 1980. Victim proneness in repeat victimization by type of crime. In Indicators of crime and criminal justice: Quantitative studies. Edited by S. E. Fienberg and A. J. Reiss Jr., 41–53. NCJ-62349. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.

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                                              The vulnerability of victims and whether some people are more prone to be victims and to be repeat victims is investigated in this chapter. Reiss found that repeat victimization is not random and that repeat victimization tends to be of the same type as the preceding incident.

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                                              Risk Factors

                                              Beyond discovering characteristics of recurring sexual victimization incidents, researchers have also discovered factors that place individuals at risk of experiencing recurring sexual victimization. Although no single “cause” has been identified, several groups of risk factors have been identified that increase a person’s chances of experiencing a subsequent sexual victimization after an initial event. These factors can be grouped into several subcategories: prior victimization, behavioral risk factors, biological risk factors, and risk recognition.

                                              Prior Victimization

                                              For both personal and property victimization, prior victimization predicts future victimization risk by altering something about the individual and his or her propensity for victimization over time. Hope, et al. 2001 indicate that property and personal victimization are related, while Johnson, et al. 1997 show that experiencing a burglary heightens risk for a subsequent burglary event. The research in Lauritsen and Quinet 1995 shows that prior victimization is linked to future victimization for adolescents and young adults. Greene and Navarro 1998 and Messman and Long 1996, in terms of sexual revictimization, show that previous sexual victimization is linked with an increased risk of experiencing a subsequent sexual victimization. Gidycz, et al.’s 1995 research on college women indicate that the severity of an initial victimization increases risk of repeat victimization the greatest. Barnes, et al. 2009 (cited under Extent of Recurring Sexual Victimization); Desai, et al. 2002; Humphrey and White 2000 (cited under Extent of Recurring Sexual Victimization); Messman-Moore and Long 2000; Messman-Moore and Long 2003; Sandberg, et al. 1994; and Stathopoulos 2014 suggest that individuals who experience CSAare at greater risk for sexual revictimization in adulthood.

                                              • Desai, S., I. Arias, M. P. Thompson, and K. C. Basile. 2002. Childhood victimization and subsequent adult revictimization assessed in a nationally representative sample of women and men. Violence and Victims 17:639–653.

                                                DOI: 10.1891/vivi.17.6.639.33725Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                For both males and females, experiencing abuse as a child (either physical or sexual), increases the likelihood of experiencing victimization as an adult. In this study, the type of perpetrator was examined in adulthood. The researchers found that this risk was present for any perpetrator for both women and men, and for an intimate partner perpetrator for females. For both males and females, the risk of revictimization is greatest for nonintimate partners.

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                                                • Gidycz, C. A., K. Hanson, and M. J. Layman. 1995. A prospective analysis of the relationships among sexual assault experiences: An extension of previous findings. Psychology of Women Quarterly 19:5–29.

                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1995.tb00276.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  The purpose of this study was to extend the findings in Gidycz, et al. 1993 (cited under What Is the Link between Prior Victimization and Future Victimization?) in examining repeat sexual victimization. The sample of college women were evaluated for child and adolescent sexual victimization, family adjustment, alcohol use, psychological adjustment, interpersonal functioning, and sexual behavior. Results indicate that the more severe an initial sexual victimization experience, the greater the risk of experiencing repeat sexual victimization.

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                                                  • Greene, D. M., and R. L. Navarro. 1998. Situation-specific assertiveness in the epidemiology of sexual victimization among university women. Psychology of Women Quarterly 22:589–604.

                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1998.tb00179.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    In this study of undergraduate women, protective and risk factors of sexual victimization across the life course were examined. Prior victimization, alcohol use, poor adjustment (anxiety and depression), multiple sex partners, and insecurity about relationships with the opposite gender were risk factors for sexual victimization during adulthood.

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                                                    • Hope, T., J. Bryan, A. Trickett, and D. R. Osborn. 2001. The phenomena of multiple victimization: The relationship between personal and property crime risk. British Journal of Criminology 41:595–617.

                                                      DOI: 10.1093/bjc/41.4.595Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      This paper examined multiple crime-type victimization (MCV), which is the experience of more than one kind of victimization over a given period of time. Property and personal victimization were positively correlated with one another. Large concentrations of MCVs were found in socially disadvantaged areas.

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                                                      • Johnson, S. D., K. Bowers, and A. Hirschfield. 1997. New insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of repeat victimization. British Journal of Criminology 37.2: 224–241.

                                                        DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjc.a014156Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        This study examines the timeline of repeat victimization. Findings show an elevated risk for burglary after an initial incident, with the greatest risk immediately after the incident. Risk is also attributable due to increased vulnerability prior to installation of security devices.

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                                                        • Lauritsen, J. L., and K. F. D. Quinet. 1995. Repeat victimization among adolescents and young adults. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 11.2: 143–166.

                                                          DOI: 10.1007/BF02221121Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          The results show prior victimization predicts future risk in part because it alters something about the individual and propensity for victimization that continues over time. There was also evidence for both state dependence and risk heterogeneity playing a role in repeat victimization.

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                                                          • Messman, T. L., and P. J. Long. 1996. Child sexual abuse and its relationship to revictimization in adult women: A review. Clinical Psychology Review 16:397–420.

                                                            DOI: 10.1016/0272-7358(96)00019-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            This review discusses the theoretical frameworks that have been formulated to explain revictimization, the literature surrounding revictimization for adult sexual and physical assault, and the impact of revictimization on later adjustment. The research shows that women who are sexually abused as children are significantly more likely to experience either a sexual or physical assault in adulthood compared with women who do not have such an experience in childhood.

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                                                            • Messman-Moore, T. L., and P. J. Long. 2000. Child sexual abuse and revictimization in the form of adult sexual abuse, adult physical abuse, and adult psychological maltreatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 15:489–502.

                                                              DOI: 10.1177/088626000015005003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              Individuals who report CSA were more likely to experience unwanted, forced sexual intercourse; unwanted fondling; and oral-genital contact. Also, compared to nonvictims, individuals who reported CSA also reported more experiences of physical abuse and psychological maltreatment during adulthood.

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                                                              • Messman-Moore, T. L., and P. J. Long. 2003. The role of childhood sexual abuse sequelae in the sexual revictimization of women: An empirical review and theoretical reformulation. Clinical Psychology Review 23:537–571.

                                                                DOI: 10.1016/S0272-7358(02)00203-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                An empirical review of the research on CSA shows several negative psychological outcomes that are associated with type of victimization. These outcomes include alcohol and drug use, sexual behavior, dissociation, posttraumatic symptomology, poor risk recognition, and interpersonal difficulties. There is some support for the role of these factors in sexual revictimization among women.

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                                                                • Sandberg, D., S. J. Lynn, and J. P. Green. 1994. Sexual abuse and revictimization: Mastery, dysfunctional learning, and dissociation. In Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives. Edited by S. J. Lynn and J. W. Rhue, 242–268. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                  This chapter examines the evidence that a sexual victimization experience increases the risk for subsequent sexual victimization. Theories of mastery and meaning are discussed, which posit that individuals who have been sexually victimized are driven to repeat the experience in order to gain mastery and meaning from their initial victimization. The authors also discuss various explanations for repeat sexual victimization, including repetition compulsion, posttraumatic symptomatology, relational disturbances, inappropriate state-dependent learning, physiological addiction to trauma, and cognitive distortion.

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                                                                  • Stathopoulos, M. 2014. Sexual revictimization: Individual, interpersonal and contextual factors. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

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                                                                    This study was conducted by the Australian Center for the Study of Sexual Assault. Findings show several risk factors that are related to sexual revictimization. For instance, individuals who have been sexually abused are two to three times more likely to experience a subsequent sexual victimization during adolescence or adulthood. This study also examines other risk factors that are tied to sexual revictimization, such as community and organizational norms. These contextual factors are explored with focus given to minority groups, people with disability, gay and lesbian people, and indigenous people. Follow this link for the report.

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                                                                    What Is the Link between Prior Victimization and Future Victimization?

                                                                    Although it is well established that prior victimization is linked to subsequent victimizations, the potential mechanisms linking them together are many. Classen, et al. 2005 explore the link between sexual victimization at one point in time and another. In the researchers’ review piece, it is noted that prior victimization experiences can influence the development of behavior and individual-level variables tied to risky behavior. Ellis, et al. 1982 find that dysfunctional adjustment was more likely to be found among repeat victims of sexual assault than single-incident victims. Gidycz, et al. 1993 find that psychological functioning mediated the relationship between early sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization.

                                                                    • Classen, C. C., O. G. Palesh, and R. Aggarwal. 2005. Sexual revictimization: A review of the empirical literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 6.2: 103–129.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/1524838005275087Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      This summary of the literature focuses on the risk factors of sexual revictimization. Childhood sexual abuse and severity are consistent predictors of sexual revictimization in the literature. Multiple traumas and recency of sexual victimization elevate risk of sexual revictimization. Some evidence suggests that coming from a dysfunctional family places a person at risk. The research on ethnic group membership and revictimization is limited, and it is likely that there is a third intervening variable driving the relationship between ethnicity and repeat sexual victimization.

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                                                                      • Ellis, E. M., B. M. Atkeson, and K. S. Calhoun. 1982. An examination of differences between multiple- and single-incident victims of sexual assault. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 91.3: 221–224.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.91.3.221Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Victims of multiple- versus single-incident victimization were compared in this study. Multiple-incident victims were more likely to be poor and more transient than single-incident victims. Repeat victims were also more likely to have a history of more frequent victimization and dysfunctional adjustment compared to single-incident victims.

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                                                                        • Gidycz, C. A., C. N. Coble, L. Latham, and M. J. Layman. 1993. Sexual assault experience in adulthood and prior victimization experiences: A prospective analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly 17:151–168.

                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00441.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          This study examined sexual assault among college women in order to understand how repeat victimization occurs. Results show that sexual victimization early in life is a risk factor for adult sexual victimization. This relationship was found to be mediated by psychological functioning. An early victimization experience was found to lead to negative psychological sequelae for some individuals, which predicted an adult victimization experience.

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                                                                          Prior Victimization and Risky Sex

                                                                          One reason that prior sexual victimization is linked to subsequent sexual victimization is through engagement in risky sexual activities. Messman-Moore and Long 2000 (cited under Prior Victimization) discuss how individuals who report CSA are more likely to report unwanted sexual intercourse, fondling, and oral-genital contact during adulthood compared to those who do not report CSA. Simons and Whitbeck 1991 report that CSA is related to participation in risky activities such as prostitution and substance abuse among homeless adolescent and adult women. These factors can increase the risk of repeat sexual victimization.

                                                                          • Simons, R., and L. B. Whitbeck. 1991. Sexual abuse as a precursor to prostitution and victimization among adolescent and adult homeless women. Journal of Family Issues 112:361–379.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/019251391012003007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            Among adolescents, early sexual abuse increases the risk of involvement in prostitution independent of running away from home, substance abuse, and other deviant activities. These findings suggest that early sexual abuse indirectly affects the risk of revictimization by increasing the risk of involvement in risky activities.

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                                                                            Prior Victimization and Mental Health

                                                                            Arata 2000 and Casey and Nurius 2005 show that severe prior victimization experiences can elevate the risk of revictimization as a function of developing mental health issues. Rodriguez, et al. 1997 as well as Messman-Moore, et al. 2005 have linked posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with repeat sexual victimization. The research in Messman-Moore, et al. 2005 also identifies self-dysfunction as a predictor of sexual revictimization. Raghavan, et al. 2004 find emotional distress to be a risk factor for repeat sexual victimization. Other research has investigated the moderating influence of mental health on the risk of sexual revictimization. Sandberg, et al. 1999 show that CSA and adolescent sexual victimization have stronger ties to subsequent sexual victimization for college women when those women score higher on posttraumatic symptomatology.

                                                                            • Arata, C. M. 2000. From child victim to adult victim: A model for predicting sexual revictimization. Child Maltreatment 5:28–38.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/1077559500005001004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              The study surveyed women with histories of child sexual abuse in order to test a model for predicting adult and adolescent sexual revictimization and postassault functioning. Repeated victimization (CSA and either adolescent or adult victimization) was correlated with CSA that involved physical contact, including intercourse and/or penetration.

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                                                                              • Casey, E. A., and P. S. Nurius. 2005. Trauma exposure and sexual revictimization risk comparisons across single, multiple incident, and multiple perpetrator victimizations. Violence against Women 11.4: 505–530.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/1077801204274339Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                This study compared experience and outcome differences between single-assault victims, victims of ongoing abuse by a single offender, and victims of multiple assaults by different offenders. The results indicate that revictimization by new offenders was more likely with earlier age during first sexual assault and nonsexual trauma in childhood.

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                                                                                • Messman-Moore, T. L., A. L. Brown, and L. E. Koelsch. 2005. Posttraumatic symptoms and self-dysfunction as consequences and predictors of sexual revictimization. Journal of Traumatic Stress 18.3: 253–261.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1002/jts.20023Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  This is a prospective study of college women’s experiences with repeat sexual victimization. Posttraumatic symptomatology (PTS) and self-dysfunction (SD) were both correlated with a history of child and adult sexual victimization. PTS and SD were also found to predict sexual revictimization.

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                                                                                  • Raghavan, R., L. M. Bogart, M. N. Elliot, K. D. Vestal, and M. A. Schuster. 2004. Sexual victimization among a national probability sample of adolescent women. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 36.6: 225–232.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1363/3622504Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    This is a longitudinal study of adolescent females using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Risk factors for repeat sexual victimization in the study were sexual intercourse at Wave 1 of the study, alcohol use, recent cocaine use, increasing levels of emotional distress, and genital touching within a romantic relationship.

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                                                                                    • Rodriguez, N., S. W. Ryan, H. Vande Kemp, and D. W. Foy. 1997. Posttraumatic stress disorder in adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse: A comparison study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 65:53–59.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.65.1.53Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      About 87 percent of the adult women in the CSA group met criteria for PTSD. Also, 89 percent of the CSA group reported experiencing childhood physical assault.

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                                                                                      • Sandberg, D. A., A. I. Matorin, and S. J. Lynn. 1999. Dissociation, posttraumatic symptomology, and sexual revictimization: A prospective examination of mediator and moderator effects. Journal of Traumatic Stress 12:127–138.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1023/A:1024702501224Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        This study of 323 college students examined the mediating and moderating effects of dissociation and PTS on sexual revictimization. The authors found that dissociation was neither a mediator nor a moderator, but PTS moderated the effects of previous sexual victimization. Specifically, those with early experiences and who had greater levels of PTS were more likely to experience subsequent sexual victimization during a ten-week academic quarter.

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                                                                                        Behavioral Risk Factors

                                                                                        In a review of sexual revictimization, Breitenbecher 2001 identifies many behavioral risk factors that place persons at increased risk for sexual revictimization. Messman-Moore and Long 2002; Greene and Navarro 1998 (cited under Prior Victimization); and Raghavan, et al. 2004 (cited under Prior Victimization and Mental Health) identify alcohol use as a risk factor for repeat sexual victimization. Messman-Moore and Long 2002 also identify substance use disorders as being predictive of sexual revictimization. Bramsen, et al. 2013 examine child sexual abuse and sexual victimization, finding that the link between the two was mediated by the number of sexual partners and sexual risk behavior. Messman-Moore and Long 2002 and Raghavan, et al. 2004 find that the consumption of alcohol increases the risk of sexual victimization among adolescents and adults. Larimer, et al. 1999 and Parks, et al. 2008 find that men and women who are heavy drinkers report more unwanted sexual contact and sexual assault compared to their peers who do not drink alcohol in excess. In relation, about half of all sexual assaults are associated with the perpetrator’s alcohol consumption, the victim’s alcohol consumption, or both. Abbey, et al. 2004 note alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills increase the risk of sexual assault due to the effects on the perpetrators’ and victims’ abilities to process social cues in the environment. If this behavior is not altered after an initial sexual victimization, it may contribute to the risk of experiencing repeat sexual victimization. Situational and environmental risk factors also play a role in increasing the risk of repeat sexual victimization. The research in Classen, et al. 2005 (cited under What Is the Link between Prior Victimization and Future Victimization?) reveals that individuals who come from a dysfunctional family are at an increased risk of repeat sexual victimization. Breitenbecher 2001; Ellis, et al. 1982 (cited under What Is the Link between Prior Victimization and Future Victimization?); and Hope, et al. 2001 (cited under Prior Victimization) find that those who have low socioeconomic statuses have a higher risk of experiencing repeat sexual victimization compared to individuals with a higher socioeconomic statuses. Gabor and Mata 2004 find that factors such as age, residence, and education were important for the risk for repeat sexual victimization. In Fisher, et al.’s 2010 work of college women, they find that a lack of self-protective action during the incident increased risk of subsequent sexual victimization incidents.

                                                                                        • Abbey, A., T. Zawacki, P. O. Buck, A. M. Clinton, and P. McAuslan. 2004. Sexual assault and alcohol consumption: What do we know about their relationship and what types of research are still needed? Aggression and Violent Behavior 9:271–303.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/S1359-1789(03)00011-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          This study reviews the literature on alcohol-involved sexual assaults and compares them to other types of sexual assault.

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                                                                                          • Bramsen, R. H., M. Lasgaard, M. P. Koss, M. Shevlin, A. Elkit, and J. Banner. 2013. Testing a multiple mediator model of the effect of childhood sexual abuse on adolescent sexual victimization. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 83:47–54.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/ajop.12011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Using data from 327 Danish female adolescents, it was discovered that there is no direct relationship between childhood sexual assault and adolescent sexual victimization perpetrated by peers. Instead, this relationship was mediated by risky sexual behaviors and the number of sexual partners. These findings suggest points of intervention after an initial childhood sexual abuse incident.

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                                                                                            • Breitenbecher, K. H. 2001. Sexual revictimization among women: A review of the literature focusing on empirical investigations. Aggression and Violent Behavior 6:415–432.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/S1359-1789(00)00014-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              This is a helpful summary piece for sexual victimization. The literature on sexual revictimization among women is reviewed, with particular attention given to empirical evaluations of theories of revictimization. The author categorizes theories of revictimization into eight major categories: spurious factors, situational or environmental variables, disrupted interpersonal relationships, cognitive attributions, self-blame and self-esteem, coping skills, perception of threat and trauma-related symptomatology, and general psychological adjustment.

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                                                                                              • Fisher, B. S., L. E. Daigle, and F. T. Cullen. 2010. What distinguishes single from recurrent sexual victims? The role of lifestyle‐routine activities and first‐incident characteristics. Justice Quarterly 27.1: 102–129.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/07418820902763061Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                This study is based off the National College Women Sexual Victimization Study. Lifestyle-routine activities and first-incident characteristics that place women at risk of repeat sexual victimization were examined. The only variable that was able to distinguish single and repeat victims was self-protective action. Specifically, those women who used self-protective action at first incident were less likely to experience a repeat sexual victimization compared to women who did not use such actions.

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                                                                                                • Gabor, T., and F. Mata. 2004. Victimization and repeat victimization over the life span: A predictive study and implications for policy. International Review of Victimology 10.3: 193–216.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/026975800401000301Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  The findings from this study are based on the 1999 General Society Social Survey, a national Canadian survey of criminal victimization. Thirteen percent of the respondents were victimized more than once, and these individuals experienced over half (54 percent) of all offenses. The variables that predicted repeat victimization were age, province of residence, and education.

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                                                                                                  • Larimer, M. E., A. R. Lydum, B. K. Anderson, and A. P. Turner. 1999. Male and female recipients of unwanted sexual contact in a college student sample: Prevalence rates, alcohol use, and depression symptoms. Sex Roles 40:295–308.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1023/A:1018807223378Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Both men and women in the sample who reported unwanted sexual contact were more likely to be heavier drinkers compared to those who did not report such unwanted sexual contact.

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                                                                                                    • Messman-Moore, T. L., and P. J. Long. 2002. Alcohol and substance use disorders as predictors of child to adult sexual revictimization in a sample of community women. Violence and Victims 17:319–340.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1891/vivi.17.3.319.33662Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      In this study, alcohol- and substance-related diagnoses were examined in relation to child to adult sexual revictimization. Substance use disorders were predictive of adult sexual revictimization. Alcohol- and substance-use disorders predicted rape by husbands, acquaintances, and strangers. Moreover, alcohol- and substance-use disorders were predictive of coerced intercourse by acquaintances and strangers.

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                                                                                                      • Parks, K. A., A. M. Romosz, C. M. Bradizza, and Y. Hsieh. 2008. A dangerous transition: Women’s drinking and related victimization from high school to the first year at college. Journal of the Study of Alcohol and Drugs 69:65–74.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.15288/jsad.2008.69.65Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Data for this study were obtained from women at a New York state university. Results show that abstainers were significantly less likely to report sexual victimization during the first year at college compared with drinkers. The number of current psychological symptoms, sexual partners, and increasing weekly drinking increased the odds of sexual victimization during the first year at college.

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                                                                                                        Biological Risk Factors

                                                                                                        A number of biological factors have also been linked to victimization in general. Beaver, et al. 2007 find that DRD2 (a variant of the dopamine receptor gene) interacts with delinquent peers to predict victimization. Genetic factors have also been found to explain 40 percent to 45 percent of the variance in victimization. Beaver, et al. 2009 determined that in terms of repeat victimization, 64 percent of the variance is found to be explained by genetic factors. Another variant of the dopamine receptor gene is linked to repeat violent victimization. Daigle 2010 finds that the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene distinguishes people who have been victimized once from those who have been victimized multiple times. Faraone, et al. 2001 note the coding for the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 produces less efficient receptors and is linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The research in Benjamin, et al. 1996 also identifies a link between DRD4 and novelty seeking. Schmidt, et al. 2002 find DRD4 to be related to aggression in children. Individuals who possess these characteristics may be less attuned to risk in their environment, which can increase the risk of victimization. Although not studied in humans specifically related to sexual revictimization, it is possible that genetic factors such as DRD4 and DRD2 may also be playing a role.

                                                                                                        • Beaver, K. M., B. B. Boutwell, J. C. Barnes, and J. A. Cooper. 2009. The biosocial underpinnings to adolescent victimization: Results from a longitudinal sample of twins. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 7.3: 223–238.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/1541204009333830Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          A sample of twin pairs was analyzed in order to examine genetic factors related to adolescent victimization. Genetic factors explained about 40 percent to 45 percent of the variance in adolescent victimization, with the remaining variance explained by the nonshared environment. Moreover, 64 percent of the variance in repeat victimization was linked to genetic factors.

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                                                                                                          • Beaver, K. M., J. P. Wright, M. deLisi, L. E. Daigle, M. L. Swatt, and C. L. Gibson. 2007. Evidence of a gene X environment interaction in creation of victimization: Results from a longitudinal sample of adolescents. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 51:620–645.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0306624X07304157Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            The results showed a significant gene X environment interaction for victimization among white males. A variant of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) interacted with delinquent peers to predict victimization—those with few delinquent peers and with the risk allele were more likely to be victimized.

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                                                                                                            • Benjamin, J., L. Li, C. Patterson, B. D. Greenberg, D. L. Murphy, and D. H. Hamer. 1996. Population and familial associations between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics 12:81–84.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1038/ng0196-81Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              The results showed an association between DRD4 and novelty seeking. Examination of family studies showed that this association is through genetic transmission instead of population stratification.

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                                                                                                              • Daigle, L. E. 2010. Risk heterogeneity and recurrent violent victimization: The role of DRD4. Biodemography and Social Biology 56:137–149.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/19485565.2010.524095Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                This study examined genetic factors that are linked to repeat victimization. The findings show that the 7R allele of the DRD4 gene differentiates individuals who have been victimized once from those who have experienced more than one victimization.

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                                                                                                                • Faraone, S. V., A. E. Doyle, E. Mick, and J. Biederman. 2001. Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:1052–1057.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.7.1052Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  A meta-analysis was applied to case-control and family-based studies of the relationship between ADHD and DRD4. There was an association found between ADHD and DRD4 among both types of studies included.

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                                                                                                                  • Schmidt, L. A., N. A. Fox, K. H. Rubin, S. Hu, and D. H. Hamer. 2002. Molecular genetics of shyness and aggression in preschoolers. Personality and Individual Differences 33:227–238.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00147-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    The association of DRD4 with shyness and aggression were examined. Children with the long versus the short repeat alleles of the DRD4 gene were reported by their mothers to have significantly more problems with aggression at age four.

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                                                                                                                    Risk Recognition

                                                                                                                    It is possible that one reason people experience sexual revictimization is they are less likely to identify situations as risky or, when they do, it is at a point that makes it unlikely for them to avoid victimization. Gidycz, et al. 2006, in their review piece on risk perception and sexual victimization, discuss evidence that women with a history of victimization have difficulty identifying risk in potentially dangerous situations. The research in Soler-Baillo, et al. 2005 indicates that sexually victimized women display longer response latencies when asked to identify risky situations compared with nonvictims. Rinehart and Yeater 2015 note studies using written vignettes in which women indicate when they feel uncomfortable and when they would leave reveal that victimized women take longer to leave a risky situation. Deficits in risk recognition play a role in sexual revictimization as well. Wilson, et al. 1999 used audiotaped vignettes in which participants were asked to stop the tape when things had gone “too far.” The results showed that multiple-incident victims had longer response latencies than single-incident victims or nonvictims. Gidycz, et al. 2006; Messman-Moore and Brown 2006; and Wilson, et al. 1999 also find that revictimized women have significantly longer response latencies compared to single-incident victims or nonvictims. Gidycz, et al. 2006 theorize when a person’s psychological functioning is impaired, it may be difficult to recognize risk in a given situation. Impaired psychological functioning can be a result of an initial sexual victimization experience and can contribute to sexual revictimization through the inability to recognize risk. Wilson, et al. 1999 suggest, however, that revictimized women with lower levels of PTSD symptoms have longer response latencies, and those with higher levels of PTSD symptoms showed latencies similar to nonvictims. Gidycz, et al. 2006, on the other hand, find that revictimized women do not have longer response latencies, while the work in Yeater and O’Donohue 2002 shows that revictimized women do not take longer to learn program material (e.g., learning to identify behaviors as risky and/or response strategies). Noll and Grych 2011 (cited under Read/React/Respond Model), in the researchers’ extension of work in the area of risk recognition, propose a model for understanding sexual revictimization that incorporates risk recognition, reaction to risk, and responses to risk. Specifically, the researchers argue that women are differentially able to recognize cues in their environment as risky and prioritize their safety based on individual factors such as sexual attitudes, attachment style, emotion decoding, and substance use. These individual factors are tied to previous abuse histories. Even when reading situations as risky, women must react to situations in order to make the final step in protection, which is to respond—either through defensive resistance or to escape.

                                                                                                                    • Gidycz, C. A., J. R. McNamara, and K. M. Edwards. 2006. Women’s risk perception and sexual victimization: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior 11.5: 441–456.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2006.01.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      This article reviews the literature on the relationship between risk perception and sexual victimization in women. The evidence surrounding risk perception deficits’ role in sexual victimization is discussed along with theoretical explanations of risk recognition and sexual assault.

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                                                                                                                      • Messman-Moore, T. L., and A. L. Brown. 2006. Risk perception, rape, and sexual revictimization: A prospective study of college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly 30.2: 159–172.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00279.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        This study examined risk perception and sexual victimization among 262 college women. Women were asked to make a hypothetical decision to leave a potentially dangerous situation. Revictimized women had significantly delayed responses compared to single-incident victims.

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                                                                                                                        • Rinehart, J. K., and E. A. Yeater. 2015. Using cognitive theory and methodology to inform the study of sexual victimization. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 16.1: 3–15.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/1524838013515761Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          In this review piece, the literature on perception and cognitive processes that underlie sexual victimization is discussed. In particular, risk perception difficulties are identified as a key source of sexual victimization risk. Risk perception is discussed within a broader cognitive model, and recommendations for theory and method are provided.

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                                                                                                                          • Soler-Baillo, J. M., B. P. Marx, and D. M. Sloan. 2005. The psychophysiological correlates of risk recognition among victims and non-victims of sexual assault. Behaviour Research and Therapy 43.2: 169–181.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.01.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            The psychophysiological correlates of risk recognition in sexual victimization are examined in this study. Compared to nonvictims, victims of sexual assault demonstrated significant differences in risk recognition.

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                                                                                                                            • Wilson, A. E., K. S. Calhoun, and J. A. Bernat. 1999. Risk recognition and trauma-related symptoms among sexually revictimized women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67.5: 705–710.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.67.5.705Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Revictimized women with higher levels of PTSD symptoms, especially arousal symptoms, displayed response latencies similar to nonvictims. Revictimized women with lower levels of PTSD symptoms, however, displayed significantly longer response latencies compared to the other two groups.

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                                                                                                                              • Yeater, E. A., and W. O’Donohue. 2002. Sexual revictimization: The relationship among knowledge, risk perception, and ability to respond to high-risk situations. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 17:1135–1144.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/088626002237398Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                In this study of three hundred undergraduate college women, the relationship between sexual revictimization, knowledge regarding sexual assault, ability to identify behaviors as risky, and ability to identify behaviors that are likely able to reduce risk of sexual victimization were examined. The authors found that revictimized women took fewer trials to reach criterion than did single-incident victims. Revictimized women, single-victimized women, and nonvictimized women did not differ on knowledge.

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                                                                                                                                Read/React/Respond Model

                                                                                                                                Noll and Grych 2011, in the researchers’ extension of work in the area of risk recognition, propose a model for understanding sexual revictimization that incorporates risk recognition, reaction to risk, and responses to risk. Specifically, the researchers argue that women are differentially able to recognize cues in their environment as risky and prioritize their safety based on individual factors such as sexual attitudes, attachment style, emotion decoding, and substance use. These individual factors are tied to previous abuse histories. Even when reading situations as risky, women must react to situations in order to make the final step in protection, which is to respond—either through defensive resistance or to escape. The ability to react, they argue, is physiological in nature and that women with previous abuse histories are likely to have hyper- or hypo-arousal stress response systems. In this way, they incorporate both biological risk factors and previous victimization as well as risk recognition into their model of sexual revictimization.

                                                                                                                                • Noll, J. G., and J. H. Grych. 2011. Read-react-respond: An integrative model for understanding sexual revictimization. Psychology of Violence 1.3: 202–215.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1037/a0023962Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  In this paper, the authors present a model for understanding the process that links previous sexual victimization to subsequent sexual victimization. They present a model that incorporates previous victimization histories and the consequences that arise from that experience with a person’s ability to recognize situations as risky and physiological stress response to explain how a person responds to subsequent events.

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                                                                                                                                  Explanations of Recurring Sexual Victimization

                                                                                                                                  Beyond simply identifying the extent to which people experience recurring sexual victimization or the risk factors for this recurrence, others have proffered specific theoretical reasons for recurring victimization that may apply to recurring sexual victimization as well. In general, the recurring victimization literature suggests two key theoretical perspectives—risk heterogeneity and state (or event) dependence. In addition to these perspectives, others argue that routine activities and lifestyles theory can explain why people are sexually victimized more than once.

                                                                                                                                  Risk Heterogeneity

                                                                                                                                  Often a concept used to explain continuity in offending as done by Gottfredson and Hirschi (see Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990), according to Farrell, et al. 1995, recurring victimization occurs because risk factors that are in place for an initial victimization will keep a person at risk for a subsequent victimization if left unchanged. Tseloni and Pease 2003 call these risk factors “flags.” These factors are generally considered to be individual-level factors, but they may also be macrolevel factors such as living in a crime-ridden neighborhood. Regarding sexual victimization, any factor that places an individual at risk for an initial incident will keep him or her at risk for additional sexual victimizations, if those factors are not changed. Fisher, et al. 2010 (cited under Behavioral Risk Factors) find factors such as propensity to be in places exclusively male (e.g., fraternity house, all-male dorm), propensity to be in places with alcohol, and propensity to use alcohol to be related to both being sexually victimized and experiencing sexual recurring victimization among college students.

                                                                                                                                  • Farrell, G., C. Phillips, and K. Pease. 1995. Like taking candy: Why does repeat victimization occur? British Journal of Criminology 35:384–399.

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                                                                                                                                    In this study, the authors examine repeat victimization and argue that risk heterogeneity and event-dependence can both be useful in its understanding. The repeat crimes examined include domestic violence, racial attacks, CSA, fights, burglary, car theft, shop theft, credit card fraud, and robbery.

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                                                                                                                                    • Gottfredson, M. R., and T. Hirschi. 1990. A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                      Seminal work in criminology in which the authors present a theory of criminality arguing that people engage in crime because they are low in self-control. This individual-level characteristic is presented as being relatively stable and accounting for maladaptive behavior across the life course.

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                                                                                                                                      • Tseloni, A., and K. Pease. 2003. Repeat personal victimization: “Boosts” or “flags”? British Journal of Criminology 43.1: 196–212.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/bjc/43.1.196Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Article in which the two main competing perspectives for recurring victimization are presented—flags (risk heterogeneity) and boosts (state dependence). Using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey, they find evidence for both risk heterogeneity and state dependence.

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                                                                                                                                        State Dependence

                                                                                                                                        Unlike risk heterogeneity, a state dependence explanation of recurring sexual victimization centers on what transpires before, during, and after an incident that serves to influence risk of a subsequent. Offenders and victims learn information about each other and about the event that shapes the likelihood of another incident occurring. Laub and Sampson 1993 use the concept of state dependence in criminological theory to explain change in behavior, if victims do certain things or learn certain things, they may be less likely to be victimized again. Conversely, if offenders learn certain things during an incident, they may be more likely to target a particular person or place again. Fisher, et al. 2010 (cited under Behavioral Risk Factors), for example, in the authors’ research on college women, shows that those who engage in self-protective action during a sexual victimization incident are less likely than college women who do not engage in self-protective action to be revictimized. Daigle, et al. 2008 (cited under Extent of Recurring Sexual Victimization) similarly find that single incidents of sexual victimization were more likely to involve the use of self-protective action than repeat incidents of sexual victimization. Among adolescents, the state dependence process is found to motivate revenge behaviors that increase the risk of future victimization. Lauritsen and Quinet 1995 (cited under Prior Victimization) find that self-reported delinquency after an initial victimization is related to repeat victimization.

                                                                                                                                        • Laub, J. H., and R. J. Sampson. 1993. Turning points in the life course: Why change matters to the study of crime. Criminology 31.3: 301–325.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01132.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          The authors discuss conceptual issues related to continuity and change in crime across the life course. Adult crime seems to be connected to childhood behavior, but slow and fast changes in behavior are structured by changes in adult social bonds. Therefore, specific events in life have the potential to be turning points away from criminal behavior.

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                                                                                                                                          Routine Activities/Lifestyles Theory

                                                                                                                                          Originally conceived as a macrolevel theory to explain changes in patterns of crime over time, the routine activities theory proposed by Cohen and Felson 1979 has been used to explain victimization and recurring victimization. Used in this way, victimization is likely to occur when motivated offenders, suitable targets, and a lack of capable guardianship converge in time and space. Recurring sexual victimization may occur, then, when these three elements converge in time and space as well, for the initial incident and subsequent incidents. The lifestyles theory developed by Hindelang, et al. 1978 is often discussed in accordance with routine activities theory. This theory is a microlevel explanation of victimization. Victimization is likely for those individuals whose lifestyles are characterized by routines and activities that place them in contact with offenders. These lifestyles are structured by demographics—with people who share similar demographic profiles of offenders at greatest risk of being victimized since they are likely to spend time with these would-be offenders.

                                                                                                                                          • Cohen, L. E., and M. Felson. 1979. Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review 44.4: 588–608.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/2094589Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            In this article, the authors introduce a routine activity approach to examining crime rate trends and cycles. Instead of focusing on the offenders’ characteristics, they argue focus should be given to the circumstances in which predatory criminal acts occur. Specifically, the distribution of activities outside of the home and family context increases the opportunity for crime.

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                                                                                                                                            • Hindelang, M. J., M. R. Gottfredson, and J. Garofalo. 1978. Victims of personal crime: An empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

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                                                                                                                                              Using data from victimization surveys conducted by the Census Bureau, the authors provide empirical evidence for a theory of personal victimization. The importance of lifestyle in this theory is a function of exposure to risky situations and individual encounters. Many factors impact lifestyle, such as age, gender, marital status, and socioeconomic status. These factors are important in that they condition the opportunity for a motivated offender to commit a crime.

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                                                                                                                                              Consequences of Recurring Sexual Victimization

                                                                                                                                              Of particular concern are the effects of experiencing multiple incidents of sexual victimization. Numerous psychosocial responses have been identified. Casey and Nurius 2005 (cited under Prior Victimization and Mental Health) and Messman-Moore, et al. 2000 link depression to experiencing multiple incidents of sexual victimization. Filipas and Ullman 2006 find that revictimized individuals had more self-blame than others, while Messman-Moore, et al. 2000 find that women who had been sexually abused as children and as adults suffered more anxiety than those with adult-only victimization histories. Jozkowski and Sanders 2012 and West, et al. 2000 reveal that negative sexual outcomes are linked to repeat sexual victimization. Walsh, et al. 2012 find that women with revictimization histories suffer greater levels of PTSD than nonvictimized or single-victim women, and the work in Najdowski and Ullman 2009 reveals a link between revictimization and PTSD. Casey and Nurius 2005 note that binge drinking has been linked to experiencing recurring sexual victimization. The research in Snyder, et al. 2012 on poly-sexual victimization shows that for persons enrolled in the military academies, experiencing multiple forms of sexual victimization is related to negative perceptions of leadership. The experience of multiple victimizations may also have consequences for how victims engage with the criminal justice system. Van Dijk 2001 find that victims who experienced more than one vicitmization incident utilized criminal justice resources at greater rates than single victims (within the general literature on recurring victimization). In particular, repeat victims contacted the police more often than single victims. Also important, the researcher found that repeat victims report less satisfaction with the police.

                                                                                                                                              • Filipas, H. H., and S. E. Ullman. 2006. Child sexual abuse, coping responses, self-blame, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adult sexual revictimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 21.5: 652–672.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0886260506286879Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Individuals who reported child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault had more PTSD symptoms and were more likely to use drugs and alcohol, to engage in risky sexual practices, to withdraw from people, and to seek counseling services. Revictimized individuals also reported more self-blame compared to individuals who were not revictimized. The number of maladaptive coping strategies was the only variable that predicted revictimization in the study.

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                                                                                                                                                • Jozkowski, K. N., and S. A. Sanders. 2012. Health and sexual outcomes of women who have experienced forced or coercive sex. Women & Health 52:101–118.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2011.649397Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Women who experienced forced or coercive sex were more likely to report negative health outcomes and some negative sexual outcomes compared to women without such a history. Negative health and sexual outcomes were even more likely among women who reported repeat victimization by multiple perpetrators.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Messman-Moore, T. L., P. J. Long, and N. J. Siegfried. 2000. The revictimization of child sexual abuse survivors: An examination of the adjustment of college women with child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and adult physical abuse. Child Maltreatment 5.1: 18–27.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/1077559500005001003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    Revictimized women reported greater problems with somatization and anxiety, whereas women with multiple adult assaults had greater problems with depression, hostility, and PTSD-related symptomology. Nevertheless, both groups of women do report more difficulties across a number of areas of functioning compared to women with only one form of adult victimization or women with no victimization history.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Najdowski, C. J., and S. E. Ullman. 2009. Prospective effects of sexual victimization on PTSD and problem drinking. Addictive Behaviors 34.11: 965–968.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.05.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      In this prospective study, CSA was related to greater PTSD symptomology and problem drinking. Further, revictimization was found to predict PTSD and symptoms of problem drinking.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Snyder, J. A., B. S. Fisher, H. L. Scherer, and L. E. Daigle. 2012. Unsafe in the camouflage tower: Sexual victimization and perceptions of military academy leadership. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 27:3171–3194.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0886260512441252Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Sexual victimization is problematic in the military and also among students enrolled in the nation’s military academies. Research on experiencing multiple forms of sexual victimization shows that those who experience more than one form of sexual victimization (called polysexual victimization) perceived the leadership within the academy of having more tolerant views toward sexual victimization and being less moral than single-type victims.

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                                                                                                                                                        • van Dijk, J. J. M. 2001. Attitudes of victims and repeat victims toward the police: Results of the International Crime Victims Survey. In Repeat victimization. Edited by G. Farrell and K. Pease, 27–52. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice.

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                                                                                                                                                          The results of the survey show reporting patterns of repeat victims in the West are similar to victims in poorer countries. As with victims in poorer countries, repeat victims in the West are less likely to report their victimization to the police. This lack of reporting is mostly due to feelings of uncertainty in law enforcement’s ability to help.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Walsh, K., C. K. Danielson, J. L. McCauley, B. E. Saunders, D. G. Kilpatrick, and H. S. Resnick. 2012. National prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among sexually revictimization adolescent, college, and adult household-residing women. Archives of General Psychiatry 69:935–942.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.132Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Walsh and colleagues established the prevalence of PTSD and sexual revictimization among three national samples of females. They found that about 53 percent of adolescents, 50 percent of college women, and 59 percent of household-residing women who had experienced a sexual victimization were revictimized (experienced 2+ incidents). They also found that past six-month PTSD was higher for revictimized women than single victims and nonvictims.

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                                                                                                                                                            • West, C. M., L. M. Williams, and J. A. Siegel. 2000. Adult sexual revictimization among black women sexually abused in childhood: A prospective examination of serious consequences of abuse. Child Maltreatment 5:49–57.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/1077559500005001006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Revictimization processes and consequences may be unique for black women. Of the 113 black women studied, 30 percent who had experienced CSA were sexually revictimized as adults. Those women were more likely than the CSA-only group to report problems conceiving, to have sexually transmitted diseases, to have painful intercourse, and to have repeated vaginal infections.

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                                                                                                                                                              Prevention of Recurring Sexual Victimization

                                                                                                                                                              In recent years, attention has been given to addressing the problem of sexual victimization. Coker, et al. 2011 indicate that rape reduction programs can be effective in the short term in increasing protective behaviors and changing attitudes. Daigle, et al. 2009, however, note that these programs do not seem to affect rates of sexual violence. DeGue, et al. 2014 affirm this conclusion in a review article after systematically reviewing 140 outcome evaluations of primary preventions for sexual violence perpetration, concluding that those focusing on increasing knowledge and changing attitudes are ineffective at reducing sexually violent behavior. Coker, et al. 2011 note that these findings have led researchers to begin to refocus their attention on prevention rather than risk reduction. Nevertheless, this research area is still in its infancy in terms of the knowledge about how to prevent sexual victimization. Several aspects of successful programming have been identified within the literature. Daigle, et al. 2009 and Fisher, et al. 2008 specifically suggest that sexual victimization prevention programs should measure variables associated with an increased risk of victimization, such as lifestyle and alcohol and drug use. Other important factors for program effectiveness are program length, audience composition, and type of program facilitators. Anderson and Whiston 2005 reveal, in a meta-analysis, that prevention programs with longer interventions are associated with greater effect sizes compared with shorter interventions. Daigle, et al. 2009 also indicate that mixed-gender programs are not successful in changing beliefs and attitudes for the long term, and professional facilitators rather than graduate students or peer leaders produce larger changes in rape-related attitudes and behaviors. Daigle, et al. 2008 (cited under Extent of Recurring Sexual Victimization) further note that the presence of capable guardians has been shown to significantly reduce opportunities for victimization.

                                                                                                                                                              • Anderson, L. A., and S. C. Whiston. 2005. Sexual assault education programs: A meta‐analytic examination of their effectiveness. Psychology of Women Quarterly 29:374–388.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2005.00237.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                This article discusses the findings from a meta-analysis on sexual assault education programs. The average effect sizes for the following outcome variables were significant: rape attitudes, rape-related attitudes, rape knowledge, behavioral intent, and incidence of sexual assault.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Coker, A. L., P. G. Cook-Craig, C. M. Williams, et al. 2011. Evaluation of Green Dot: An active bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence on college campuses. Violence against Women 17.6: 777–796.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/1077801211410264Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  This study evaluates Green Dot, a bystander intervention program on college campuses. The findings show that trained students had significantly lower rape myth acceptance scores than students with no training. Trained students also reported more bystander behaviors and observed more self-reported bystander behaviors when compared to nontrained students.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Daigle, L. E., B. S. Fisher, and M. Stewart. 2009. The effectiveness of sexual victimization prevention among college students: A summary of what works. Victims and Offenders 4:398–404.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/15564880903227529Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    This summary article reviews evaluations of college-based prevention programs for sexual victimization and discusses most promising practices.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • deGue, S., L. A. Valle, M. K. Holt, G. M. Massetti, J. L. Matjasko, and A. T. Tharp. 2014. A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. Aggression and Violent Behavior 19:346–362.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2014.05.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      In this systematic review of 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration, the authors describe the quality, breadth, and evolution of prevention programs. Further, they summarize what works, what needs further evaluation, and what does not seem to be working in the field. They conclude that only three programs are effective at reducing sexually violent behavior.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Fisher, B. S., L. E. Daigle, and F. T. Cullen. 2008. Rape against women: What can research offer to guide the development of prevention programs and risk reduction interventions? Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 24:163–177.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/1043986208315482Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        The authors suggest ways to improve prevention and risk-reduction programs for sexual victimization according to the current body of knowledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Bystander Intervention

                                                                                                                                                                        A type of prevention program that builds on this is bystander intervention. Fisher, et al. 2010 (cited under Behavioral Risk Factors) describe bystander intervention as a community approach to guardianship with the goal of involving men and women in altering norms and beliefs that are supportive of sexual violence and also providing people with the tools to effectively intervene when they see dangerous situations unfolding. Evaluation studies show support for bystander intervention in reducing outcomes related to sexual violence. Banyard, et al. 2007 use an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program through bystander education. The program considered both men and women undergraduates as potential bystanders to behaviors related to sexual violence. Participants in the treatment groups improved across measures of attitudes, knowledge, and behavior while the control group showed no improvements in these measures. Other evaluation studies also show support for bystander intervention in reducing outcomes related to sexual violence. The evaluation of Green Dot—a sexual violence prevention program based on bystander intervention—in Coker, et al. 2011 (cited under Prevention of Recurring Sexual Victimization) shows that individuals who receive bystander training have lower rape myth acceptance scores and report engaging in more bystander behaviors compared to nontrained individuals. Bystander intervention education also lowers self-reported sexual aggression and positive reinforcement for engaging in sexually aggressive behaviors among men. Gidycz, et al. 2011 find that men who undergo bystander training report less associations with sexually aggressive peers and indicate less exposure to sexually explicit media. Bohner, et al. 2006 argue that the finding that bystander intervention education can affect men’s peer networks is of particular importance since peer norms are found to be an important factor in rape myth acceptance and rape proclivity among men. Schwartz, et al. 2001, in support of this relationship, show that for college men, those who have friends who give them support for both emotional and physical abuse against a partner are significantly more likely to report perpetrating sexual abuse compared to men without such peers.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Banyard, V. L., M. M. Moynihan, and E. G. Plante. 2007. Sexual violence prevention through bystander education: An experimental evaluation. Journal of Community Psychology 35.4: 463–481.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1002/jcop.20159Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Using an experimental design, participants in the treatment conditions showed improvements up to two months after training across measures of attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to sexual violence while the control group did not.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Bohner, G., F. Siebler, and J. Schmelcher. 2006. Social norms and the likelihood of raping: Perceived rape myth acceptance of others affects men’s rape proclivity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 32.3: 286–297.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0146167205280912Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Rape myth acceptance was found to be positively related to rape proclivity among men. Also of note, feedback about alleged responses of other students to rape myth acceptance items was related to rape proclivity, suggesting that believing that others endorse rape myths increases the proclivity of men to rape.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Gidycz, C. A., L. M. Orchowski, and A. D. Berkowitz. 2011. Preventing sexual aggression among college men: An evaluation of a social norms and bystander intervention program. Violence against Women 17.6: 720–742.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/1077801211409727Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Bystander intervention education lowered self-reported sexual aggression and positive reinforcement for engaging in sexually aggressive behaviors among men. These men also reported fewer associations with sexually aggressive peers and indicated less exposure to sexual explicit media.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Schwartz, M. D., W. S. deKeseredy, D. Tait, and S. Alvi. 2001. Male peer support and a feminist routing activities theory: Understanding sexual assault on the college campus. Justice Quarterly 18.3: 623–649.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/07418820100095041Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                Men who drink more than once a week and have male peers who support emotional and physical violence are almost ten times more likely to report sexual aggression compared to men who do not have these traits. Also, men who drink heavily are more likely to be offenders compared to men who do not drink heavily, and women who drink heavily are more likely to be victims compared to women who do not drink heavily.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Limitations of Prevention Programs

                                                                                                                                                                                Although all these prevention efforts are valuable and show promise, there are several limitations with evaluation research in this area. Banyard 2014 and Fisher, et al. 2008 (cited under Prevention of Recurring Sexual Victimization) suggest developing new behavioral outcomes measures and examining prevention tools that may be more important for change in order to improve prevention programs. Another missing component to prevention efforts may be the failure to acknowledge that those who have been sexually victimized are at an elevated risk for revictimization. The research by Ullman 2010 shows that most women disclose their victimization to someone, even if not to formal authorities. This disclosure implies that the role of bystanders can also be important for preventing repeat sexual victimization. Prevention efforts, especially bystander interventions, may benefit by incorporating information on repeat sexual victimization in the program.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Banyard, V. L. 2014. Improving college campus–based prevention of violence against women: A strategic plan for research built on multipronged practices and policies. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 15.4: 339–351.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/1524838014521027Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  This review summarizes the current literature on prevention programs for violence against women, including bystander intervention programs. In this review, avenues for future research and prevention are addressed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ullman, S. E. 2010. Talking about sexual assault: Society’s response to survivors. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1037/12083-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    In this book that covers disclosure of sexual assault, Ullman provides a comprehensive discussion as to the extent to which persons disclose their sexual assault experiences to law enforcement, formal authorities, other resources, and their friends and families. In addition, how people react to disclosure and the ways in which these reactions influence victims are discussed. In it, Ullman’s groundbreaking work in this area is discussed, along with other sexual assault researchers’ studies on disclosure.

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