Renaissance and Reformation Ruzante Angelo Beolco
by
Linda Carroll
  • LAST MODIFIED: 24 June 2020
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195399301-0443

Introduction

While much of the Italian literary world of the 16th century turned to measured Petrarchan modes expressed in stylized Tuscan, Angelo Beolco (b. c. 1494–d. 1542) (better known by his stage name Ruzante, Tuscanized by others as Ruzzante) wrote comic theatrical works of raw realism largely in regional dialects. Vaunting the “natural,” they featured the peasant Ruzante played by Beolco, the natural (illegitimate) son of a wealthy Paduan doctor and university administrator and probably a servant close to rural roots. Illegitimacy excluding him from heirship, Beolco joined the household of Alvise Cornaro, a wealthy non-patrician Venetian who lived in Padua and developed its farmlands while patronizing the arts. Beolco set some of his works in the country, peopled solely by peasants; others, set usually in Padua or Venice, add prosperous urbanites and play on differing social backgrounds and linguistic uses. Many questions concerning the works’ chronology remain, with several bearing signs of extensive rewriting. The Pastoral, which refers to the reopening of the University of Padua after the devastating wars of the League of Cambrai (1509–1517), is generally regarded as his first work. In 1521 and possibly 1518, he delivered a comic oration to Marco Cornaro as bishop of Padua. From 1520 to 1526, Venetian diarist Marin Sanudo (Marino Sanuto) recorded Beolco’s performances in Venice, usually together with his acting troupe. Invited by compagnie della calza, the societies of patrician youth that organized festivities, he enacted his plays at Carnival (Pastoral, Lettera giocosa, and others) and once even at a Ducal Palace wedding. Sanudo remarked on his facility with peasant dialect and on the inappropriate bawdiness and political insolence of some works and their staging. However, patrician interest was so great that one rehearsal caused important government committee meetings to be cancelled because their members were attending it (Betia?). While earlier research proposed that Alvise Cornaro’s patronage took Beolco to Venice, recent scholarship has demonstrated that the patrician families sponsoring and attending Beolco’s performances had conducted important financial transactions beginning in the 1460s with the Beolco family, which, as the richest family in Milan, financed the Sforza and sent members to conduct business in Venice; owned country property contiguous with theirs purchased with them; and had members who knew his father at the University of Padua. With the war, famine, and plague of the latter 1520s, Beolco’s works portrayed the sufferings of the peasants (Seconda oratione, Reduce, Bilora, and Dialogo facetissimo). From 1529 to 1532 he performed at the Este court in Ferrara and in 1533 in Padua (versions of the Moschetta, Fiorina, Piovana, Vacaria). His final works re-proposed the moral superiority of peasants (here urbanized servants) against the artifice and degeneracy of wealthy characters (Anconitana, 1534–1535?) and evoked the mythically peaceful farm of Lady Mirth (Lettera all’Alvaroto, 1536). He died in 1542 while rehearsing his friend Sperone Speroni’s Canace.

Biography

Lovarini 1965 initiates modern research with documentation of Beolco’s wealthy Milanese origins, his uncles’ participation in Padua’s 1509 anti-Venetian uprising, Sanudo’s records of his performances in Venice, and Alvise Cornaro’s patronage. Sambin 2002 and Menegazzo 2001 document the family’s establishment in the Venetian dominion and economic activities in the 1460s, the probable identities of Beolco’s mother and wife, additional information on Alvise Cornaro and on Beolco’s stage partner Marc’Aurelio Alvaroto, and the historical accuracy of the plays. Piovan 1998 sets Beolco’s probable birth year as 1494 and his early entry into Cornaro’s household. The saving of Venetian patrician investment in lucrative galley commerce by Beolco’s great-uncle Zuan de Beolco, the richest man in Milan and financier to Ludovico Sforza, and their co-investment of the gains in farm property near Montagnana and Pernumia (where the surname Ruzante was common) is established in Carroll 2016. A 1508 Dosso Dossi portrait may indicate early performances in Ferrara (Carroll 2003). Invitations to perform in Venice came during the years in which the Venetian Republic sought a modus vivendi with the new Holy Roman Emperor Charles V for economic reasons, but Menegazzo 2001 posits that Beolco joined the Venetian army against Charles in 1526. By 1528, as Ruzante returned from the battlefield in Reduce, Beolco returned to witness Alvise Cornaro and others purchasing the land rights from starving peasants (Sambin 2002), whose desperate poverty he enacted before aristocratic hunters in Dialogo facetissimo, pleading for help and a law on their side from Cardinal Francesco Cornaro (Seconda oratione). Beolco also performed in Ferrara in 1528 at the festivities for Ercole II d’Este’s marriage to a French princess. In his Bilora of about 1530, a peasant, named Bilora and played by another actor, kills the elderly Venetian who has seduced his wife. Possibly having performed in Ferrara in the intervening years, Beolco staged a play there for the Carnival of 1532. Schiavon 2010 theorizes that it was Piovana, his adaptation of Plautus’s Rudens, or it may have been Fiorina. Marin Sanudo makes the last known record of a Beolco performance, at Carnival 1533 in Padua of Vacaria, his adaptation of an Italian translation of Plautus’s Asinaria. Peasant values are vindicated in the Anconitana that Padoan 1978 dates to 1534–1535, while 1536 saw a final version of the Lettera all’Alvaroto with its mythic farm of Lady Mirth fencing in all happiness and fencing out all pain, especially pain caused by “Love.”

  • Carroll, Linda L. “‘Fools of the Dukes of Ferrara’: Dosso, Ruzante, and Changing Este Alliances.” MLN 18.1 (2003): 60–84.

    DOI: 10.1353/mln.2003.0023Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Reviews Este art patronage in the context of international alliances and hypothesizes the identities of some courtiers portrayed in Dossi paintings, including Beolco and Ludovico Ariosto.

    Find this resource:

    • Carroll, Linda L. Commerce, Peace and the Arts in Renaissance Venice: Ruzante and the Empire at Center Stage. London: Routledge, 2016.

      DOI: 10.4324/9781315572826Save Citation »Export Citation »

      Documents artistic patronage in the Basilica of the Frari (Venice) in the early 16th century as international factors catalyzed the patrician turn from commerce to agriculture; literary culture’s growth as leisure activity; deep Beolco financial ties to the Venetian patriciate, especially Frari patrons and including most families hosting Beolco’s Venetian performances; Beolco’s promotion of peace in the service of prosperity; the state lottery of Venice and Machiavelli’s visit there.

      Find this resource:

      • D’Onghia, Luca. “Introduzione.” In Moschetta. Edited by Angelo Beolco and Luca D’Onghia, 9–83. Venice: Marsilio. 2010.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »

        A summary of the play’s plot, its literary references, and its dating.

        Find this resource:

        • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Teatro. Edited by Ludovico Zorzi. Turin, Italy: Einaudi, 1967.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »

          The first complete edition of Beolco’s works, with Italian translation.

          Find this resource:

          • Lovarini, Emilio. Studi sul Ruzzante e sulla letteratura pavana. Edited by Gianfranco Folena. Padua, Italy: Antenore, 1965.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »

            A collection of pioneering articles on the life and family background of Beolco, his works and performances, the popular literature and song of his time, and his influence on other performers and writers in the 16th and 17th centuries.

            Find this resource:

            • Menegazzo, Emilio. Colonna, Folengo, Ruzante e Cornaro: Ricerche, testi e documenti. Edited by Andrea Canova. Rome: Antenore, 2001.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »

              A group of essays publishing and interpreting archival research on Beolco, the preceding generation of his family, the accuracy and sympathy of his plays’ depiction of rural life, and the self-representation of Alvise Cornaro.

              Find this resource:

              • Padoan, Giorgio. “Angelo Beolco da Ruzante a Perduoçimo.” In Momenti del Rinascimento Veneto. By Giorgio Padoan, 94–283. Medioevo e Umanesimo 31. Padua, Italy: Antenore, 1978.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                A review of the historical context of the plays and hypothesis about their chronology.

                Find this resource:

                • Piovan, Francesco. “Tre schede ruzantiane.” In Atti del convegno internazionale di studi per il 5º centenario della nascita di Angelo Beolco il Ruzante. Padova-Venezia, 5-6-7 giugno 1997. Edited by Piermario Vescovo, 93–105. Quaderni Veneti 27–28. Ravenna, Italy: Longo Editore, 1998.

                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                  Revises with new documentary information the likely years of Beolco’s birth, the death of his father, and his transition to the household of Alvise Cornaro.

                  Find this resource:

                  • Sambin, Paolo. Per le biografie di Angelo Beolco, il Ruzante, e di Alvise Cornaro. Edited by Francesco Piovan. Padua, Italy: Esedra, 2002.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                    A group of essays publishing and interpreting archival research on Beolco, the preceding two generations of his family, his marriage, and his patron Alvise Cornaro.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Schiavon, Chiara. Per l’edizione del Ruzante classicista: Testo e lingua di Piovana e Vaccaria. Padua, Italy: CLEUP, 2010.

                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                      A retranscription of the 1548 edition of the Piovana and the 1551 edition of the Vaccaria; introduction and notes cite a partial manuscript copy of Piovana and early editions and synthesize recent literary and linguistic scholarship. A bibliography of earlier scholarship is given but not its content; no mention is made of the finding in Barata 1972–1973 (cited under Early Criticism and Staging) that Beolco used a contemporary Tuscan translation of the Asinaria rather than the original.

                      Find this resource:

                      Manuscripts

                      Manuscript copies of many but not all of Beolco’s works made during his lifetime have been discovered in recent times, many of them by Lovarini 1965 (cited under Biography). With Beolco’s chief interest as a performer and director, his texts were copied by others; they often remained untitled, resulting in the appending of titles by others, sometimes several different ones to the same work. Because a complete edition of Beolco’s works with each manuscript transcribed integrally has yet to appear, it is important to provide information about the manuscripts. An overview of the manuscript sources is given in Zorzi 1967 (also see Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1967, cited under Biography).

                      • Zorzi, Ludovico. “Nota al testo.” In Teatro. By Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Edited by Ludovico Zorzi, 1604–1636. Turin, Italy: Einaudi, 1967.

                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                        A review of the manuscript and early printed editions of the works.

                        Find this resource:

                        Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana

                        The most numerous group of works is found in the large miscellany of the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, ital. XI, 66 [=6096], described and inventoried in Cristofari 1937. It consists of La oration de Ruzante al Cardinal Cornaro (Prima oratione), Comedia del ditto (L’Anconitana), Parlamento de Ruzante qual era stato in campo cum Menato e la Gnua (Primo dialogo, Reduce), Egloga de ruzante nominata la moschetta (Moscheta; Prologue with marginal additions and initial paragraph of Act I only), Seconda oratione (untitled initial segment), Una lettera qual scrive ruzante a una so morosa (Lettera giocosa), Betia (untitled, with only “pavana” prologue and missing the second half of Act I and all of Act II). Discussions of specific works in the manuscript are found in Padoan 1978 (Prima oratione, Lettera giocosa), Padoan 1981 (Seconda oratione, Reduce, fragment of Moscheta), Carroll 2009, and D’Onghia 2010. The Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana also possesses the sole known copy of Beolco’s Pastoral, now part of the manuscript Ital. IX, 288 [=6072], whose complex history is described in Padoan 1978 and Carroll 2016. Comedia di Ruzante chiamata piovana (a fragment of the Piovana) and Litera de Ruzante (Lettera all’Alvaroto) are held in Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana Ital. IX, 309 [=6079], described in Schiavon 2010 and Carroll 1997. Zorzi 1967 (cited under Manuscripts) publishes several songs of Beolco that the author discovered in Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Ital. IX, 271 [=6096].

                        • Carroll, Linda L. “Il contadino e il filoimperialismo: Una canzone inedita in stile ruzantiano.” In Angelo Beolco detto Ruzante. Atti del convegno di studi e programma generale 1995. Edited by Filippo Crispo, 51–67. Padua, Italy: Edizioni Papergraf, 1997.

                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                          Description of the manuscript ital. IX, 309 [=6079] and first publication of some works in Ruzantine style that it contains.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Carroll, Linda L. “Introduction.” In La prima oratione. Edited by Angelo Beolco and Linda L. Carroll, 5–74. London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2009.

                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                            Description of the three manuscript copies of the Prima oratione and hypotheses about their chronology.

                            Find this resource:

                            • Carroll, Linda L. “Magno as Compiler of Texts.” In Commerce, Peace and the Arts in Renaissance Venice: Ruzante and the Empire at Center Stage. By Linda L. Carroll, 100–105. London: Routledge, 2016.

                              DOI: 10.4324/9781315572826Save Citation »Export Citation »

                              Details of the manuscript history of the Pastoral.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Cristofari, Maria. Il codice Marciano It. XI, 66. Padua, Italy: CEDAM, 1937.

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                An annotated inventory of the works contained in the manuscript.

                                Find this resource:

                                • D’Onghia, Luca. “Nota al testo.” In Moschetta. Edited by Luca D’Onghia, 304–307. Venice: Marsilio, 2010.

                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                  Description of the partial manuscript of Moscheta in XI, 66.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • Padoan, Giorgio. “Nota ai testi.” In La pastoral. La prima oratione. Una lettera giocosa. Edited and translated by Giorgio Padoan, 48–51. Medioevo e Umanesimo 32. Padua, Italy: Antenore, 1978.

                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                    Review of the manuscript sources of these works.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    • Padoan, Giorgio. “Nota ai testi.” In I Dialoghi. La seconda oratione. I prologhi alla Moschetta. Edited and translated by Giorgio Padoan, 26–28. Medioevo e Umanesimo 43. Padua, Italy: Antenore, 1981.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                      Review of the manuscript sources of these works.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • Schiavon, Chiara, ed. Per l’edizione del Ruzante classicista: Testo e lingua di Piovana e Vaccaria. 45–47. Padua, Italy: CLEUP, 2010.

                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                        Description of the manuscript fragment of the Piovana.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        Venice, Biblioteca del Museo Civico Correr

                                        Ms. Grimani-Morosini 4 is identified in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1894 as a freestanding presentation copy of Betia (untitled). Ms. Cicogna 691 (3085) contains the 1536 variant of La vita humana de Ruzante (Lettera all’Alvaroto).

                                        • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Betia. In Antichi testi di letteratura pavana. Edited by Emilio Lovarini, 209–363. Bologna, Italy: Romagnoli Dall’Acqua, 1894.

                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                          Describes and transcribes the Correr manuscript of Betia, with a hypothesis about its origin.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          Verona, Biblioteca Civica

                                          Ms. 36 (B. Lett. 82.1) holds the second-largest number of Beolco works, including Comedia de Ruzante (L’Anconitana), Oration de Ruzante recitata al cardinale Cornaro al barcho soto asolo, in trivisana (Prima oratione), Parlamento de Ruzante qual giera sta in campo a menato e a la sua Gnua (Primo dialogo, Reduce), Insonio de missier Marcho (Lettera all’Alvaroto). Ms. 1635–1636 (Poligr. 168.2. 55a/10) holds Sopra la Caccia (Lettera all’Alvaroto), Intermedio d’una comedia de Ruzante alla Pavana (Prologo of Moscheta), S Prolico de Ruzante fatto al Cardinale Cornaro nella Inclyta Citta di vinegia (Prima oratione). The manuscripts are first described in Wendriner 1890 and Biadego 1892 and, more recently, in Carroll 2009 and D’Onghia 2010.

                                          • Biadego, Giuseppe. Catalogo descrittivo dei manoscritti della Biblioteca Comunale di Verona. Verona, Italy: G. Civelli, 1892.

                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                            See pp. 138–139, 174. A description of ms. 1635–1636; a description of ms. 36.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Carroll, Linda L. “Introduction.” In La prima oratione/The First Oration. By Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Edited and translated by Linda L. Carroll, 5–74. London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2009.

                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                              An interpretation of the assembling of the manuscripts and relationship to performances.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • D’Onghia, Luca. “Nota al testo.” In Moschetta. By Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Edited by Luca D’Onghia, 304–307. Venice: Marsilio, 2010.

                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                A detailed description of the Intermedio of ms. 1635–1636.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • Wendriner, R. “Un codice di Ruzante nella Comunale di Verona.” Giornale Storico della Letteratura Italiana 16 (1890): 436–437.

                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                  Sees the manuscript copy of Comedia (Anconitana) as originally freestanding.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  Modena, Archivio di Stato

                                                  The only known potentially autograph Beolco manuscript, the letter describes his preparations for an upcoming performance in Ferrara to his host, the heir apparent.

                                                  • Lovarini, Emilio. Studi sul Ruzzante e sulla letteratura pavana. Edited by Gianfranco Folena. Padua, Italy: Antenore, 1965.

                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                    Reproduces the manuscript at Tavole VI–VII.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    Editions and Textual Studies

                                                    The numerous difficulties presented by the manuscripts and early printed texts; the linguistic ones posed by the16th-century dialects, especially pavan and bergamasco, in which the texts or large portions of them were written; the necessity of providing a modern translation; and the sheer abundance of Beolco’s works have posed numerous and ongoing difficulties with their publication. The Correr Betia is first published in 1894 (Lovarini). Lovarini subsequently published a number of the plays in separate volumes: Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1940 includes Reduce, Bilora, and Dialogo facetissimo; Moscheta and Fiorina are published in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1941; and the Pastoral is published in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1951. Zorzi 1967 (cited under Manuscripts) presents the annotated opera omnia with facing-page translation in standard Italian, which was quickly reprinted. A desire for full accounting for editorial interventions and the publication of the complete texts of all manuscript versions and collated editions of early printings has resulted in further efforts. Giorgio Padoan began a new opera omnia but completed only a small number of plays, Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1978 and Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1981. A transcription of all three manuscript versions of the Prima oratione by Carroll is published in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 2009. Scholars under the direction of Ivano Paccagnella have initiated the publication of retranscriptions of the early sources with linguistic notes and cross-references to contemporary texts. The Moscheta (Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 2010a) has appeared as edited by Luca D’Onghia, with line-by-line translation in the footnotes, and the Piovana (Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 2010b) and Vacaria (Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 2010c), as edited by Chiara Schiavon, giving the original texts without translation.

                                                    • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Betia. In Antichi testi di letteratura pavana. Edited by Emilio Lovarini, 209–363. Bologna, Italy: Romagnoli Dall’Acqua, 1894.

                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                      The first printed edition of the work, drawn from the manuscript in the Biblioteca del Museo Civico Correr.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Il reduce, Bilora, Menego. Edited by Emilio Lovarini. Rome: Edizioni Universitarie, 1940.

                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                        The first modern printing of the three works.

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Moschetta, Fiorina. Edited by Emilio Lovarini. Rome: Edizioni Italiane, 1941.

                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                          The first modern printings of the plays.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. La Pastorale. Edited by Emilio Lovarini. Filologia Italiana e Romanza. Biblioteca di Studi Superiori 14. Florence: La Nuova Italia, 1951.

                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                            The first printing of the play.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Teatro. Edited and translated by Ludovico Zorzi. Turin, Italy: Einaudi, 1967.

                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                              The first complete edition of the texts of all known Beolco plays, annotated and translated into modern Italian, with an ample introduction and notes.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. La Pastoral. La Prima Oratione. Edited and translated by Giorgio Padoan, 48–51. Medioevo e Umanesimo 32. Padua, Italy: Antenore, 1978.

                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                Ample information on the historical context of the works. See also Una lettera giocosa (pp. 193–226).

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. I Dialoghi. La seconda oratione. I prologhi alla Moschetta. Edited and translated by Giorgio Padoan. Medioevo e Umanesimo 43. Padua, Italy: Antenore, 1981.

                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                  The Parlamento (Primo dialogo) is given in the version found in Biblioteca Marciana XI, 66 with variants of Biblioteca Civica Verona 36 in footnotes. Gives Biblioteca Civica Verona 1636 and Biblioteca Marciana XI, 66 fragments of Moscheta but does not include the marginal additions to the latter. Includes pastiche probably created by others known as Rasonamento.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. La prima oratione/The First Oration. Edited and translated by Linda L. Carroll, 77–126. London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2009.

                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                    First publication of all three manuscript variants, facing page translation of Biblioteca Civica Verona 36 copy, first in English.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Moschetta. Edited by Luca D’Onghia. Venice: Marsilio, 2010a.

                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                      Edition produced through the collation of copies of the editio princeps, with reference to subsequent Renaissance editions, and an account of the two partial manuscript versions. The footnotes provide linguistic and literary contextualization and a segmented translation.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Piovana. In Per l’edizione del Ruzante classicista: Testo e lingua di Piovana e Vaccaria. Edited by Chiara Schiavon, 115–175. Padua, Italy: CLEUP, 2010b.

                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                        A retranscription of the text from the 1548 edition of Piovana with references to the partial manuscript version, other editions, and contemporary literature.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Vaccaria. In Per l’edizione del Ruzante classicista: Testo e lingua di Piovana e Vaccaria. Edited by Chiara Schiavon, 177–233. Padua, Italy: CLEUP, 2010c.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                          A retranscription of the 1551 edition with reference to other editions and to Plautus’s original Asinaria rather than to the contemporary translation on which Beolco based his play.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          Translations

                                                                          Beolco’s pavan requires translation into standard Italian for contemporary Italian readers; those will not be included here but only translations into other languages. The first translation of Beolco works, into French, by Mortier in 1926. The first widely available English translation of a work, the Reduce or Primo dialogo, is found in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1958, followed by Bilora or Secondo dialogo in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1968. The translation of the painfully conflicted full-length Moscheta is published in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1993 and of the full-length Anconitana or Woman from Ancona in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1994. The two dialogues appear again in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1995. The only English translation of the Lettera giocosa is given in Carroll 2004. The translation of the Biblioteca Civica Verona 36 version of the Prima oratione or First Oration appears in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 2009.

                                                                          • Carroll, Linda L. “‘I have a good set of tools’: The Shared Interests of Peasants and Patricians in Beolco’s Lettera giocosa.” In Theatre, Opera, and Performance in Italy from the Fifteenth Century to the Present: Essays in Honour of Richard Andrews. Edited by Brian Richardson, Simon Gilson, and Catherine Keen, 83–98. Occasional Papers 6. Egham, UK: Society for Italian Studies, 2004.

                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                            The first translation of the Lettera giocosa into English, accompanied by a study of its historical context.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Oeuvres completes: Traduites pour la première fois de l’ancient dialect padouan rustique. Vol. 2. Edited and translated by Alfred Mortier. Paris: Peyronnet, 1926.

                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                              A translation into French, the first non-Italian translation, of most of Beolco’s works.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. “Ruzzante Returns from the Wars.” In The Classic Theater. Vol. 1, Six Italian Plays. Edited by Eric Bentley, 59–78. Translated by Angela Ingold and Theodore Hoffman. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1958.

                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                The first widely available translation of the work into English.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Bilora. In Masterworks of World Drama. Edited and translated by Anthony Caputi, 36–47. Boston: Heath, 1968.

                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                  The first translation of the work into English.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. La Moschetta. Translated by Antonio Franceschetti and Kenneth R. Bartlett. Ottawa, ON: Dovehouse, 1993.

                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                    Translation of the Paduan text as published by Zorzi in Ruzante [Angelo Beolco] 1967 (cited under Biography). The translators interpret the selfishness of the play’s recently urbanized peasant characters as resulting from their harsh treatment by the wealthy, the brutal war and famine of the late 1520s, and human defects.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. L’Anconitana/The Woman from Ancona. Edited and translated by Nancy Dersofi. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                      Facing-page translation, first of this play in English. Introduction gives succinct overview of life and works.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. The Veteran (Parlamento de Ruzante) and Weasel (Bilora). Translated by Ronnie Ferguson. New York: P. Lang, 1995.

                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                        A rendition of the works into contemporary British slang.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. La prima oratione/The First Oration. Edited and translated by Linda L. Carroll, 78–101. London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2009.

                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                          The first translation of the work into English.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          Linguistic Studies

                                                                                          Beolco’s use of various contemporary dialects, including rural Paduan, Bergamasque, and Venetian, has necessitated studies elucidating the morphology, syntax, and semantics of the dialects as he used them. Wendriner 1889 constitutes the first systematic study of pavan in Beolco’s works. Gurian 1948 provides a systematic description the morphology of his pavan. Carroll 1981 gives a synthesis in English of Italian studies. Paccagnella 1988 describes Beolco’s use of Bergamasque and finds it realistic. While Marisa Milani did not publish her long-awaited dictionary of Ruzantine usage, Milani 2000 provides a collection of her linguistic studies that especially concern linguistic distortion. Fine-grained accounts of Beolco’s pavan are included in Schiavon 2010 and D’Onghia 2010. Paccagnella 2012 provides a dictionary of pavan of the Early Modern period.

                                                                                          • Carroll, Linda L. Language and Dialect in Ruzante and Goldoni. Ravenna, Italy: Longo, 1981.

                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                            See pp. 34–100. A synthesis in English of Italian studies of the Paduan dialect.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • D’Onghia, Luca. “Nota al testo.” In Moschetta. By Ruzante [Angelo Beolco]. Edited by Luca D’Onghia, 263–361. Venice: Marsilio, 2010.

                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                              The notes to the text provide extensive linguistic information about the use of pavan and related dialects by Beolco and other contemporary authors.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              • Gurian, Albertina. “Il dialetto padovano presso Ruzante: Morfologia.” Diploma di perfezionamento. Università di Padova, 1948.

                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                A thorough cataloguing of the morphology of the Paduan dialect as found in Beolco’s texts.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Milani, Marisa. “El pì bel parlare del mondo”: Saggi ruzzantiani. Edited by Ivano Paccagnella. Padua, Italy: Esedra, 2000.

                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                  A collection of studies that focus on the playwright’s linguistic uses and connections with contemporary folk uses and popular literature and propose some revisions to the chronology of the plays.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Paccagnella, Ivano. “Insir fuora de la so buona lengua”: Il bergamasco di Ruzzante. Padua, Italy: Editoriale Programma, 1988.

                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                    A review of Beolco’s use of the dialect of Bergamo, finding it realistic.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    • Paccagnella, Ivano. Vocabolario del pavano (XIV–XVII secolo). Padua, Italy: Esedra, 2012.

                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                      A concordance of early modern texts in pavan, although not all instances of all lexical items are captured.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Schiavon, Chiara. “Appunti linguistici.” In Per l’edizione del Ruzante classicista: Testo e lingua di Piovana e Vaccaria. By Chiara Schiavon, 235–336. Padua, Italy: CLEUP, 2010.

                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                        The essays provide extensive information on the Paduan dialect as it was used by Beolco, although the findings of the latter chapter are undermined by the author’s ignoring of the syntax of the Tuscan translation of the Asinaria that Beolco used and by her exclusion of a number of his works as not comedies.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        • Wendriner, Richard. Die paduanische Mundart bei Ruzante. Breslau, Germany: Koebner, 1889.

                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                          The first systematic description of the Paduan dialect as used by Beolco.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          Overviews

                                                                                                          Beolco and his works are still the subject of relatively few monographs, which often synthesize information and opinions on his life and his treatment of contemporary social, political, and religious issues in his works rather than traditional literary themes. The spelling with single (Paduan dialect) or double (Tuscan) consonants of Beolco’s stage name and the titles of several works has evolved. Scholars in the wake of the national unity movement from Lovarini through Grabher used the Tuscan form. The Paduan form assumed prevalence with increasing documentation that it was Beolco’s own choice, which occurred contemporaneously with the youth movement of the 1960s and 1970s, a period that also emphasized naturalness and equality. Some of the scholars around Gianfranco Folena at the University of Padua continued to use the spelling “Ruzzante,” including Marisa Milani, despite her research in local dialect use. The first monograph on Beolco, Mortier 1925, provides an overview of the playwright’s life largely based on Lovarini’s research, together with extensive plot summaries and discussion of the plays. In the aftermath of the intense suffering inflicted on Italians by World War II, Carlo Grabher wrote a comprehensive account of the works that drew attention to Beolco’s empathy with the sufferings of the peasants rooted in an imposed inferiority of social status and extending to the extraction of the fruits of their labor by landlords and the Venetian state and the infliction of deprivations and sufferings by their wars. Prosperi 1970 provides an extensive analysis of Beolco’s inclusion of contemporary religious themes and references to other authors and to religious leaders in his work. Dersofi 1978 constitutes the first monograph on Beolco in English, detailing the literary conventions that surrounded the playwright and emphasizing harmony in his approach. The experience of a seasoned theater professional forms the basis for Calendoli 1985, which includes insightful readings of the plays and theories about their staging. Although not monographs, the proceedings of the conferences organized by Giovanni Calendoli and published in Calendoli and Vellucci 1987, Calendoli 1989, Calendoli 1993, and Crispo 1997 represent the participants’ wide range of fields to form stimulating overviews of many aspects of Beolco’s work and life and the world that surrounded him, as well as information about the staging of his works. Carroll 1990 follows the Twayne World Authors format in providing an overview of life and works. A synthesis of some recent Italian research is presented in Ferguson 2000.

                                                                                                          • Calendoli, Giovanni. Ruzante. Venice: Corbo e Fiore, 1985.

                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                            An overview of Beolco’s works that emphasizes his innovative move away from literary tradition and toward personal creativity, evoking both Beolco’s connectedness with the peasants and his ability to work with Alvise Cornaro. Insights into staging practice include the possible recitation of the Prima oratione outdoors at the Barco of Asolo where local peasants could join the audience.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Calendoli, Giovanni, ed. II Convegno internazionale di studi sul Ruzante. Padova, 27/28/29 maggio 1987. Venice: Corbo e Fiore, 1989.

                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                              Essays on numerous features of Beolco’s works, especially linguistic and performative, by scholars including G. B. Pellegrini, R. Alonge, G. Ulisse, R. Guarino, K. Richards, A. Zamboni, I. Paccagnella, M. Milani, and L. Carroll.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • Calendoli, Giovanni, ed. III Convegno internazionale di studi sul Ruzante. Padova, 24/25/26 maggio 1990. Padua, Italy: Società Cooperativa Tipografica, 1993.

                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                Essays on linguistic, literary, and performative aspects of Beolco’s works and of their influence by scholars including A. Calore, M. Cortelazzo, G. Padoan, G. Ulysse, C. M. Pensa, M. Berti, A. Romanò, and L. Carroll.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Calendoli, Giovanni, and Giuseppe Vellucci, eds. Convegno internazionale di studi sul Ruzante. Padova, 26/27/28 maggio 1983. Venice: Corbo e Fiore, 1987.

                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                  Wide-ranging essays on literary and historical features of Beolco’s works and on their contemporary publication and staging in Italy and abroad by scholars including J. O. Barata, G. Padoan, G. Ulysse, R. Alonge, M. Milani, M. Baratto, P. Sambin, G. De Bosio, F. Fido, and A. Calore.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  • Carroll, Linda L. Angelo Beolco (Il Ruzante). Twayne’s World Authors. Boston: Twayne, 1990.

                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                    Provides an overview of the life and works.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    • Crispo, Filippo, ed. Angelo Beolco detto Ruzante. Atti del convegno di studi e programma generale 1995. Padua, Italy: Edizioni Papergraf, 1997.

                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                      Contributors include G. Carbonara and M. Berti, L. Carroll, N. Dersofi, G. Origlia, and S. Termanini.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Dersofi, Nancy. Arcadia and the Stage: An Introduction to the Dramatic Art of Angelo Beolco called Ruzante. Madrid: Studia Humanitas, 1978.

                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                        The first monograph on Beolco in English, it provides detailed plot summaries and extensive considerations on contemporary literary conventions, stressing the importance of harmony in Beolco’s approach.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        • Ferguson, Ronnie F. The Theatre of Angelo Beolco (Ruzante): Text, Context, and Performance. Ravenna, Italy: Longo Editore, 2000.

                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                          Synthesizes research by Italian scholars, especially the group around Gianfranco Folena and Giorgio Padoan, and develops insights concerning performance.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • Grabher, Carlo. Ruzzante. Messina, Italy: Principato, 1953.

                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                            Considers Beolco’s work in the context of contemporary literature about peasant life in detailed discussions of the plays. Emphasizes Beolco’s independence of thought and form yet notes his ability to acquit himself honorably in the world of conventional literature. Discerns Beolco’s authentic sympathy for the sufferings and problems that historical circumstances and corrupt justice inflicted on peasants and also his recognition of their vitality and joys as reflected in the plays.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            • Mortier, Alfred. Ruzzante, 1502–1542: Un Dramaturge populaire de la Renaissance italienne. Vol. 1. Paris: Peyronnet, 1925.

                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                              Provides biographical information and extensive discussion and summaries of the plots.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Prosperi, Mario. Angelo Beolco nominato Ruzante. Padua, Italy: Liviana, 1970.

                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                The first in-depth study of the religious issues that animated the early 16th century in Beolco’s works, in Betia the influence of More’s Utopia, in Betia and other works the influence of Erasmus’s Praise of Folly, and in Moscheta the conflict between Catholicism’s free will and Lutheranism’s enslaved will in the speeches of Ruzante and Menato.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                Early Criticism and Staging

                                                                                                                                The first revival of Beolco’s works came on the heels of the French Revolution, with George Sand’s staging of Bilora in her home theater. Interested in its status as precursor to the commedia dell’arte, her son Maurice wrote the first assessment of Beolco’s theater (Sand 1860). Modern staging of the plays in Italy was guided by the great director Gianfranco De Bosio (De Bosio 1987). The connections of the plays with popular literature and song are explored in Lovarini 1965. Baratto 1968 perceives the gratitude that the Venetian patriciate felt for peasants on the mainland whose loyal service had helped them regain the mainland dominion lost at the outset of the wars of the League of Cambrai and links it to their invitations to Beolco to perform plays about peasants in Venice. Baratto 1969 extends those insights into the relationship between Beolco and Alvise Cornaro. Beolco’s adaptations from Plautus have attracted much scholarly attention. A significant contribution is made by Barata 1972–1973 in recognizing that Beolco based his Vacaria not on the original Latin text of Plautus’s Asinaria but on a contemporary Tuscan translation. Nardo 1984, while noting allusions to and elements from additional Plautine plays and several by Terence, praises the freshness and comic spirit with which Beolco adapted the Plautine works and recognizes that he introduced into them a revolt against imposed artifice. Savarese 1976 provides a sensitive reading of Beolco’s preparation for performing the Canace with the Accademia of the Infiammati as his last theatrical act. The body of Beolco criticism has grown sufficiently so as to allow a review (Lippi 1985).

                                                                                                                                • Barata, Jose Oliveira. “Sulla cultura del Ruzante.” Atti dell’Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere, ed Arti 131 (1972–1973): 101–137.

                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Compares Beolco’s Prima oratione with the official oration to Cardinal Bishop Marco Cornaro; demonstrates Beolco’s use of a volgarizzamento of Plautus’s Asinaria rather than the original in his adaptation Vacaria.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  • Baratto, Mario. “L’esordio del Ruzante.” In Tre studi sul teatro. By Mario Baratto, 11–68. Vicenza, Italy: Neri Pozza, 1968.

                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Observations chiefly on La Pastoral and Venetian patricians’ positive attitude toward peasants who helped them regain their mainland dominion in the wars of the League of Cambrai.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Baratto, Mario. “Da Ruzante al Beolco: Per la storia di un autore.” In La poesia rusticana nel Rinascimento. Atti del convegno. Roma, 10–13 ottobre 1968. Edited by Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 83–109. Quaderni 129. Rome: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1969.

                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Reviews the dating of the works, ascertains both empathetic and satirical attitudes toward peasant characters due in part to their usefulness to the agricultural program of patron Alvise Cornaro.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      • De Bosio, Gianfranco. “Un trentennio di lavoro sul Ruzante.” In Convegno internazionale di studi sul Ruzante. Padova, 26/27/28 maggio 1983. Edited by Giovanni Calendoli and Giuseppe Vellucci, 211–219. Venice: Corbo e Fiore, 1987.

                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                        See also “Un trentennio di lavoro sul Ruzante e Ludovico Zorzi” (pp. 221–236). Describes his and others’ revival of staging of Ruzante’s plays in Italy in the postwar period and subsequent to the publication of the complete works.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        • Lippi, Emilio. “Vent’anni di critica ruzantesca, 1965–1985.” Quaderni Veneti 2 (1985): 95–114.

                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                          A review of twenty years of literary criticism of Beolco’s works. See also Quaderni Veneti article.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          • Lovarini, Emilio. “Le canzoni popolari in Ruzzante e in altri scrittori alla pavana del secolo XVI.” In Studi sul Ruzzante e sulla letteratura pavana. Edited by Gianfranco Folena, 165–236. Padua, Italy: Antenore, 1965.

                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Analyzes the use of popular songs in the works of Ruzante and his contemporaries.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Nardo, Dante. Modelli e messaggi. Bologna, Italy: Patron, 1984.

                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Includes several essays on Ruzante’s use of Plautine plays, discerns references to additional plays by Plautus and to plays by Terence, praises Beolco’s creativity in adapting Roman works.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              • Sand, Maurice. Masques et bouffons (comédie italienne): Texte et dessins. Paris: Michel Lévy Frères, 1860.

                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Assessment of Beolco’s comic theater as precursor to or foundation of the commedia dell’arte.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                • Savarese, Nicola. “In morte di Angelo Beolco detto Ruzante: La Canace dello Speroni.” Biblioteca Teatrale 15–16 (1976): 170–191.

                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Discusses the staging of Sperone Speroni’s Canace by Beolco and other members of the Accademia degli Infiammati as his final theatrical act at the time of the rise of the tragedy.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  Recent Criticism

                                                                                                                                                  The group founded by Gianfranco Folena and continued by his affiliates focuses on Beolco’s dealings with the literary conventions that surrounded him and cast him as serving social authority figures by mocking the peasants in his plays. They have organized several conferences with published acts and other collective volumes, including Folena, et al. 1988; Vescovo 1998; Schiavon 2005; and Cecchinato 2012. The works tend to focus on specific features of language use and performativity or intertextual relations with preceding or succeeding literary or theatrical traditions and works. Scholars in other areas have made important finds: Favaretto 1998 documents the institutional situation of Padua’s peasants as accurately portrayed by Beolco, Caracciolo Aricò 2008 finds evidence of Beolco as a visitor to Sanudo’s library, Gullino 2000 includes a curious extra-theatrical episode involving Beolco and his Venetian supporters, and Pazzaglia 2014 identifies possible substantial influence of Beolco in Shakespeare.

                                                                                                                                                  • Caracciolo Aricò, Angela. “Inattesi incontri di una visita alla biblioteca di Marin Sanudo il Giovane.” In Humanistica Marciana. Saggi offerti a Marino Zorzi. Edited by Simonetta Pelusi and Alessandro Scarsella, 79–92. Milan: Biblion Edizioni, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    New material on Beolco’s extra-theatrical contacts with mainland nobles and Venetian patricians.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Cecchinato, Andrea C., ed. “Molte cose stanno bene nella penna, che ne la scena starebben male.” Teatro e lingua in Ruzante. Padua, Italy: CLEUP, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Essays especially on linguistic and performative aspects of Beolco’s works by I. Paccagnella, A. Cecchinato, L. D’Onghia, M. Pieri, R. Alonge, R. Guarino, and others.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      • Favaretto, Lorena. L’istituzione informale: Il Territorio padovano dal Quattrocento al Cinquecento. Milan: Edizioni Unicopli, 1998.

                                                                                                                                                        Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Describes the legal status of the territorio as civic governing entity and delineates efforts of patricians and urban dwellers to move the tax burden onto the rural population.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        • Folena, Gianfranco, Dennis E. Rhodes, Antonio Daniele, et al. Ruzzante. Filologia Veneta 1. Padua, Italy: Editoriale Programma, 1988.

                                                                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          A monographic issue on Beolco; contributors include Gianfranco Folena, Dennis E. Rhodes, Antonio Daniele, M. Milani, M. Chiesa, and I. Paccagnella.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Gullino, Giuseppe. Marco Foscari (1477–1551): L’attività politica e diplomatica tra Venezia, Roma, e Firenze. Milan: Franco Angeli, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                            Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Details of a curious extra-theatrical episode involving Beolco and his Venetian hosts.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            • Pazzaglia, Nicoletta. “Ruzantine Influences on the Theater of Shakespeare: Launce and Launcelot Inspired by Ruzante’s Peasant?” Italica 91.2 (2014): 145–165.

                                                                                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Hypothesizes that Ruzante’s peasant character inspired Shakespeare’s characters Launce and Launcelot, connecting them with the actor Will Kemp and his familiarity with the commedia tradition.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              • Schiavon, Chiara, ed. “In lengua grossa, in lengua sutile”: Studi su Angelo Beolco, il Ruzante. Padua, Italy: Esedra, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Contributors include G. Benzoni, A. Olivieri, I. Paccagnella, L. Favaretto, R. Guarino, A. Cecchinato, R. De Martin, M. Canova, and G. De Bosio.

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                • Vescovo, Piermario, ed. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi per il 5º centenario della nascita di Angelo Beolco il Ruzante: Padova-Venezia, 5-6-7 giugno 1997. Quaderni Veneti 27–28. Ravenna, Italy: Longo Editore, 1998.

                                                                                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  A monographic issue on Beolco with essays on various aspects of his works; contributors include Gino Benzoni, Loreno Favaretto, Achille Olivieri, Francesco Piovan, Giorgio Padoan, Piermario Vescovo, Georges Ulysse, Andrea Bombi, Franco Fido, Raimondo Guarino, Ivano Paccagnella, and Elisabetta Selmi.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  back to top

                                                                                                                                                                  Article

                                                                                                                                                                  Up

                                                                                                                                                                  Down