Environmental Science Hazardous Waste
by
Matthias Beck
  • LAST MODIFIED: 11 January 2018
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199363445-0088

Introduction

Within the Western world, evidence of awareness of hazardous wastes dates back to antiquity, with Athenian law requiring that certain wastes be carried a distance outside city walls. Similarly, Roman authorities regulated the disposal of various waste products, usually requiring these to be disposed of outside urban centers. Similar legislative interventions are documented for Asian societies, again mostly in relation to densely populated areas. Although European cities of the 14th and 15th centuries created rudimentary regulatory frameworks, primarily in relation to potentially harmful biowastes, these interventions were frequently ignored to the level where, for many, city life was characterized by squalor and disease. These problems were amplified when industrialization caused mass migration to urban areas. The mid-19th century saw the creation of public health movements that encouraged the creation of dedicated institutions, such as London’s Metropolitan Commission of Sewers in 1848, headed by Sir Edwin Chadwick, and the Massachusetts State Board of Health in 1869. Moreover, legislative intervention such as the UK Nuisances Removal and Diseases Prevention Consolidation and Amendment Act of 1855 attempted to restrict pollution of the River Thames but proved largely ineffective due to a lack of enforcement mechanisms. In parallel with the focus on public health, increased attention to occupational illness began highlighting the fact that industrial processes frequently produced hazardous and toxic by-products. Overall, there is evidence that early interventions with regard to hazardous waste focused primarily on air and water pollution, while land disposal was largely unregulated. The start of modern hazardous waste regulation is associated with research into industrial pollutants, which was conducted largely after the Second World War and led, among other developments, to the creation of a sixty-four-chemical Priority Pollutant list by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This had been preceded by the influential 1960 MIT study on land disposal, commissioned by the US Housing Authority, which highlighted the extent of hazardous waste contamination from industrial landfill, together with the unsatisfactory state of knowledge with regard to permissible concentrations of contaminants in groundwater, migration of contaminants, the attenuation provided by soils, and the ability to predict contamination. This and similar reports created the background to the creation of national legislative frameworks for hazardous waste management, including the federal Waste Disposal Act of 1972 in Germany, the Control of Pollution Act of 1974 in the United Kingdom, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 in the United States, the Waste Substances Act of 1977 in The Netherlands, and the 1995 European Union directive on waste. Following a growth in the movement of waste to less developed countries, the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal of 1989 sought to regulate these movements, while the associated 1996 protocol aimed to prohibit the dumping of toxic waste at sea.

Historical Overviews

Although the study of environmental regulation and policymaking around hazardous waste is still underdeveloped, there are a number of relevant academic contributions that focus on the tensions arising around this issue in different environmental and political contexts. Many of these works, such as Shifrin 2014, Smith 2000, Wagner 2004, and Tarr 1996 focus on US experiences. Nonetheless, there is now an emerging literature, exemplified here by Selin and VanDeveer 2006, that looks at European policy developments and experiences. Studies exploring the recent history of environmental policymaking around toxic waste in central and eastern Europe are relatively rare, though works such as Peterson 1993 provide a useful account of environmental contamination during the Soviet period. Lastly, Little 2014 provides unique insights into the making of hazardous wastes in modern industry via a study of IBM’s main US factory.

  • Little, D. 2014. Toxic town: IBM, pollution, and industrial risks. New York: New York Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814760697.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book traces the history and effects of high-tech pollution by focusing on the experiences of residents of Endicott, New York, which had become the location of IBM’s first factory in 1924.

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    • Peterson, D. J. 1993. Troubled lands: The legacy of Soviet environmental destruction. Boulder, CO: Westview.

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      An account of the effects of toxic contamination in former Soviet states, discussing failures in environmental policy in these regions.

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      • Selin, H., and S. D. VanDeveer. 2006. Raising global standards: Hazardous substances and e-waste management in the European Union. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 48.10: 6–18.

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        This brief article discusses the evolution of the European framework for waste management toward a greater recognition of the harmful nature of waste exports.

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        • Shifrin, N. 2014. Environmental perspectives: A brief overview of selected topics. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International.

          DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-06278-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This useful book touches on a number of topics in relation to environmental pollution, with chapter 2 providing an insightful account of the evolution of US environmental policy on hazardous waste.

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          • Smith, J. K. 2000. Turning silk purses into sows’ ears: Environmental history and the chemical industry. Enterprise and Society 1.4: 785–812.

            DOI: 10.1093/es/1.4.785Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            This article examines how US chemical companies, pollution experts, and government agencies defined the problems of pollution prior to the introduction of federal regulation.

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            • Tarr, J. A. 1996. The search for the ultimate sink: Urban pollution in historical perspective. Akron, OH: Univ. of Akron Press.

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              Focusing on US cities, this insightful book explores the interaction of technical solutions to waste disposal with social and political factors.

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              • Wagner, T. 2004. Hazardous waste: Evolution of a national environmental problem. Journal of Policy History 16.4: 306–331.

                DOI: 10.1353/jph.2004.0024Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                A US-centered paper that investigates the evolution of hazardous waste into a national environmental problem in the late 1970s, with a focus on factors that explain its delayed recognition.

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                Management of Hazardous Waste

                There are a good number of books that focus on the practical aspects of managing hazardous waste, drawing on insights from toxicology, engineering, and the social sciences. These books typically relate to specific regulatory contexts, with many of the more extensive works being US-centered. Some of the more widely used general US-based works include Asante-Duah 1995 and Blackman 2001, with Pichtel 2005 making extensive reference to specific waste categories. LaGrega, et al. 2010 also provides a US-centered analysis at a technically more advanced level than the aforementioned books, as does Tedder and Pohland 2013, a compendium of hazardous waste management techniques.

                • Asante-Duah, K. 1995. Management of contaminated site problems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

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                  This is a well-known US textbook that discusses practical aspects of hazardous waste management, ranging from sources and types of contamination to diagnostic assessment. It discusses site characterization and investigation, corrective action assessments, risk assessment, and risk-based clean-up criteria and restoration methods.

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                  • Blackman, W. C., Jr. 2001. Basic hazardous waste management. 3d ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

                    DOI: 10.1201/9781420032604Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    More detailed than Asante-Duah 1995, this US-based work presents a broad overview of hazardous waste management as a discipline. It includes an introductory chapter on history, followed by chapters on pathways and disposition of hazardous waste releases, toxicology, and standard setting. Also included are sections on US-based regulations on waste generators/sources, transportation, treatment, and disposal.

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                    • LaGrega, M. D., P. L. Buckingham, and J. C. Evans. 2010. Hazardous waste management. Long Grove, IL: Waveland.

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                      This is an up-to-date US-focused book, written for students with some background in engineering. The section on fundamentals covers history, legal frameworks, process basics, fate and transport of contaminants, and toxicology. Also discussed are environmental audits, pollution prevention, facility development, and operations. A section on treatment covers physicochemical processes, biological methods, stabilization and solidification, thermal methods, and land disposal.

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                      • Pichtel, J. 2005. Waste management practices: Municipal, hazardous, and industrial. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

                        DOI: 10.1201/9781420037517Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        As a broad, practical guide, this book provides a US-centered overview of the historical and regulatory development of waste management. The book discusses the management of hazardous wastes, including identification, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Disposal via incineration, chemical treatment, and land disposal are covered. The final section explores special categories of waste such as oil, construction and demolition debris, and electronic waste.

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                        • Tedder, D. W., and F. G. Pohland, eds. 2013. Emerging technologies in hazardous waste management 8. Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany: Springer International. ISBN: 9781475786774]

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                          A recent compendium of methods for the treatment of hazardous waste. As a part of a technical series, this book is structured into sections on chemical and thermal treatment, biochemical treatment, separation techniques, and radioactive waste treatment.

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                          Disposal and Containment

                          Approaches to the disposal and containment of hazardous waste have changed over time, as knowledge about the potential adverse environmental implications of previously established techniques has increased. This brief and necessarily incomplete list includes some key general textbooks as well as relevant discussions of specific containment methods. Regarding textbooks, Daniel 1993 and Yong, et al. 2014 provide overviews of what has become known as geotechnology or geoenvironmental engineering. Pusch 2013, an article in the Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, focuses on conventional landfills in general, while Albright, et al. 2010 discusses nonconventional alternative approaches that are aimed at minimizing the percolation of rainwater through soils. Pusch 1994 and Pusch, et al. 2012 discuss the properties of rock as a means of isolating hazardous waste, with Popov and Pusch 2006 looking specifically into the use of underground mines, while Donald 2010 discusses the use of glass- and ceramic-based hosts.

                          • Albright, W. H., C. H. Benson, and W. J. Waugh. 2010. Water balance covers for waste containment: Principles and practice. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.

                            DOI: 10.1061/9780784410707Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            Presents research regarding water balance covers for solid waste sites, along with case studies drawn from current field testing.

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                            • Daniel, D. E., ed. 1993. Geotechnical practice for waste disposal. London and New York: Chapman & Hall.

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                              An assessment of the current state of practice in the field of environmental geotechnology. It discusses aspects of hydrogeology, geochemistry, and contaminant transport in soil and rock. It further describes principles for the design of waste disposal facilities. Concluding chapters cover techniques for site remediation and monitoring of waste sites.

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                              • Donald, I. W. 2010. Waste immobilization in glass and ceramic based hosts: Radioactive, toxic and hazardous wastes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

                                DOI: 10.1002/9781444319354Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                This book focuses on the storage of both radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous wastes in glass-based materials. The chapters include sections on sources of wastes, materials toxicity and biological effects, glass- and ceramic-based systems, and general processing methods.

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                                • Popov, V., and R. Pusch, eds. 2006. Disposal of hazardous waste in underground mines. Southampton, UK: WIT.

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                                  Summarizes results from a three-year research program by a European team. The main focus of the research is the use of abandoned underground mines for the disposal of hazardous chemical waste.

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                                  • Pusch, R. 1994. Waste disposal in rock. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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                                    Focuses on the selection of suitable sites, design, and construction methods for preparing repositories for hazardous waste in crystalline rock, with some emphasis being placed on radioactive materials.

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                                    • Pusch, R. 2013. Principles of locating, designing and constructing landfills of hazardous waste. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering 3.3: 215–221.

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                                      This useful article discusses the desirable characteristics of landfills and compares aboveground and belowground designs.

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                                      • Pusch, R., S. Knutsson, and M. Hatem. 2012. Isolation of hazardous waste in crystalline rock. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering 2.3: 57–75.

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                                        This article focuses on the use of crystalline rock as part of multi-barrier systems for the containment of hazardous wastes.

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                                        • Yong, R. N., C. N. Mulligan, and M. Fukue. 2014. Sustainable practices in geoenvironmental engineering. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

                                          DOI: 10.1201/b17443Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          This US-based textbook focuses on the broader topic of geoenvironmental engineering, and in so doing helps contextualize the issue of waste management within broader environmental management considerations.

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                                          Treatment

                                          Rooted in engineering disciplines, technical approaches to hazardous waste processing develop continuously. This section lists both introductory overviews, such as Maczulak 2009 and Maczulak 2010, and intermediate and advanced textbooks, such as Oh 2001; Wang, et al. 2009; and Wang, et al. 2006. Tang 2004 focuses on physiochemical aspects, and Santoleri, et al. 2000 discusses incineration-based techniques. Williams 2005 is unique in that it discusses treatment aspects in relation to EU policy.

                                          • Maczulak, A. E. 2009. Cleaning up the environment: Hazardous waste technology. Vol. 2. New York: Facts on File.

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                                            This is a broad, introductory, US-based textbook on waste management techniques. It includes sections on measuring contamination, excavation of contaminated sites, the use of microbes and plants, oxidation technology, remediating water supplies, and US regulations with regard to superfund sites.

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                                            • Maczulak, A. E. 2010. Waste treatment: Reducing global waste. Vol. 2. New York: Facts on File.

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                                              An introductory US-based book that gives a broad overview of waste management techniques, focusing on the global waste problem, electronic waste and metals, and techniques such as incineration, vitrification, solidification and stabilization, and reduction and compaction.

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                                              • Oh, C. H., ed. 2001. Hazardous and radioactive waste treatment technologies handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

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                                                An intermediate to advanced US-based book focusing on the technologies, characteristics, and regulation of both hazardous chemical wastes and radioactive wastes.

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                                                • Santoleri, J. J., L. Theodore, and J. Reynolds. 2000. Introduction to hazardous waste incineration. 2d ed. New York: John Wiley.

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                                                  A US-centered book aimed at intermediate and advanced technical readers, providing an overview of regulatory standards, the principles of incineration, equipment types, and design principles.

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                                                  • Tang, W. Z. 2004. Physicochemical treatment of hazardous wastes. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

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                                                    Provides an advanced technical examination of the treatability of hazardous wastes via different physicochemical treatment processes.

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                                                    • Wang, L. K., Y. T. Hung, H. H. Lo, and C. Yapijakis. 2006. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

                                                      DOI: 10.1201/9780849375750Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      A companion volume to Wang, et al. 2009. A US-based advanced textbook, it includes chapters on industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods, as well as sections on monitoring, pollution prevention, and site remediation.

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                                                      • Wang, L. K., Y. T. Hung, and N. K. Shammas, eds. 2009. Handbook of advanced industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

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                                                        An advanced US-based textbook covering the principles and applications of contemporary hazardous and industrial waste treatment; it explores new methods of clean production, waste minimization, and the treatment of landfills and storage tanks.

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                                                        • Williams, P. T. 2005. Waste treatment and disposal. 2d ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

                                                          DOI: 10.1002/0470012668Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          This textbook provides a broad overview of waste treatment and disposal, with particular emphasis on Europe. Chapters include a historical overview and definitions of waste, waste reduction, waste landfill, and incineration.

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                                                          Avoidance of Hazardous Waste

                                                          There is now a growing literature focusing on the avoidance of hazardous materials in production processes or, alternatively, the use of recycling as a means of reducing toxic waste creation. The following list presents a small sample of this growing literature, with Geiser 2001 providing a broad overview of hazardous waste reduction measures, and Chaaban 2001 giving a concise summary of such strategies in relation to processing technologies. Nowosielski, et al. 2008, meanwhile, provides a general framework for integrating recycling into technological processes.

                                                          • Chaaban, M. A. 2001. Hazardous waste source reduction in materials and processing technologies. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 119.1: 336–343.

                                                            DOI: 10.1016/S0924-0136(01)00920-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            A very short overview article on the development of industrial processes that reduce hazardous wastes and pollution.

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                                                            • Geiser, K. G. K. 2001. Materials matter. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

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                                                              Written by one of the authors of the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act, this classic contribution argues that the best point at which to avoid environmental damage is when materials are first designed and selected for use in production.

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                                                              • Nowosielski, R., A. Kania, and M. Spilka. 2008. Integrated recycling technology as a candidate for best available techniques. Archives of Materials Science and Engineering 32.1: 49–52.

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                                                                This brief overview paper describes integrated recycling technology models and relates them to the integrated pollution prevention and control directive of the European Union.

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                                                                Remediation of Hazardous Waste

                                                                The issue of remediation of hazardous wastes and waste sites is a growing area of research. The section below lists a number of recent research contributions. These range from general works on remediation techniques, such as Khan, et al. 2004 and Meuser 2013, to specific works on bioremediation, such as Brar, et al. 2006 and Kumar, et al. 2011. Chen 2012 and Chen, et al. 2016 focus on the specific problems posed by metal contamination, with Dermont, et al. 2008 discussing the role of soil washing techniques in this context. Pavel and Gavrilescu 2008, meanwhile, provides a brief comparative summary of ex situ as compared to on-site approaches.

                                                                • Brar, S. K., M. Verma, R. Y. Surampalli, et al. 2006. Bioremediation of hazardous wastes—a review. Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management 10.2: 59–72.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-025X(2006)10:2(59)Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  This paper provides a useful overview of the use of recombinant microorganisms to break down toxic and hazardous substances. It also discusses the key factors affecting bioremediation, such as availability of microbes, accessibility of contaminants, and a conducive environment.

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                                                                  • Chen, J. P. 2012. Decontamination of heavy metals: Processes, mechanisms, and applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1201/b12672Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    This US-based textbook focuses on heavy metals and their impact on the environment. It includes a discussion of concepts and technologies of pollution prevention and technologies for metal decontamination.

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                                                                    • Chen, J. P., L. K. Wang, M. H. S. Wang, Y. T. Hung, and N. K. Shammas, eds. 2016. Remediation of heavy metals in the environment. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

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                                                                      Broader than the earlier book on heavy metals, this work outlines methodologies, technologies, and regional/global effects of important pollution control practices.

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                                                                      • Dermont, G., M. Bergeron, G. Mercier, and M. Richer-Lafleche. 2008. Soil washing for metal removal: A review of physical/chemical technologies and field applications. Journal of Hazardous Materials 152.1: 1–31.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.10.043Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        This informative paper reviews the various technology types and pilot/full-scale field applications of soil washing applicable to soils highly contaminated with heavy metals.

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                                                                        • Khan, F. I., T. Husain, and R. Hejazi. 2004. An overview and analysis of site remediation technologies. Journal of Environmental Management 71.2: 95–122.

                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.02.003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          Providing an overview of site restoration techniques, this paper discusses parameters that can aid the selection and implementation of remediation technologies.

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                                                                          • Kumar, A., B. S. Bisht, V. D. Joshi, and T. Dhewa. 2011. Review on bioremediation of polluted environment: A management tool. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 1.6: 1079–1092.

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                                                                            This paper provides an updated overview of the use of recombinant microorganisms in treating contaminated groundwater and soil.

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                                                                            • Meuser, H. 2013. Soil remediation and rehabilitation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-5751-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Gives a broad overview of remediation and rehabilitation techniques for contaminated and anthropogenically disturbed land, with a focus on former mining or natural-resource extraction areas.

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                                                                              • Pavel, L. V., and M. Gavrilescu. 2008. Overview of ex situ decontamination techniques for soil cleanup. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 7.6: 815–834.

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                                                                                A concise overview of ex situ soil decontamination techniques is provided, together with an assessment of their relative advantages and disadvantages.

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                                                                                Public Policy, Regulatory Interventions, and Compliance

                                                                                The following citations explore various policy-relevant aspects of hazardous waste regulation. The focus is on research relating to the effectiveness of different approaches to policymaking and regulation. Kopp and Smith 1993 provides useful background information to policymaking by discussing how environmental resources can be valued. Blackman 2008; Dasgupta, et al. 2000; Gray and Shimshack 2011; and Stafford 2007 discuss the efficacy of various approaches to the enforcement of environmental regulation. This is complemented by Sigman and Stafford 2011, which compares US and European approaches, as well as Koenig and Rustad 2004, which discusses the implications of a weakening of regulatory enforcement in the United States. Taking an international perspective, Hall 2014 analyzes notions of environmental crime, while Rucevska, et al. 2015 provides concrete evidence of the extent to which poor countries in particular fall victim to hazardous waste crimes. Complementing this broad analysis, Rebovich 2015 provides a detailed analysis of waste crime in the United States. Williams 2014, meanwhile, looks into environmental problems, including hazardous waste, occurring in various domains of industrial activity from the perspective of the victims.

                                                                                • Blackman, A. 2008. Can voluntary environmental regulation work in developing countries? Lessons from case studies. Policy Studies Journal 36.1: 119–141.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.2007.00256.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Based on case studies from an industrial city in Mexico, this paper argues that voluntary approaches to environmental regulation can work, but should be avoided where regulatory and nonregulatory pressures for improved environmental performance are weak and where polluters can block quantified targets.

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                                                                                  • Dasgupta, S., H. Hettige, and D. Wheeler. 2000. What improves environmental compliance? Evidence from Mexican industry. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 39.1: 39–66.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1006/jeem.1999.1090Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Utilizing survey evidence, this article suggests that in developing countries with weak regulation, subsidized environmental management training may provide a useful complement to enforcement measures.

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                                                                                    • Gray, W. B., and J. P. Shimshack. 2011. The effectiveness of environmental monitoring and enforcement: A review of the empirical evidence. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 5.1: 3–24.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/reep/req017Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      This paper reviews empirical US-based evidence on impacts of environmental monitoring and enforcement on subsequent pollution discharges, concluding that these measures generate compliance and reduce violations.

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                                                                                      • Hall, M. 2014. Victims of environmental harm: Rights, recognition and redress under national and international law. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

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                                                                                        Drawing on critical criminological arguments, this excellent book attempts to substantively conceptualize and examine the place of such “environmental victims” in criminal justice systems, both nationally and internationally.

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                                                                                        • Koenig, T. H., and M. L. Rustad. 2004. Toxic torts, politics, and environmental justice: The case for crimtorts. Law & Policy 26.2: 189–207.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.0265-8240.2004.00009.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          This useful article documents the ongoing assault by neoconservatives on punitive damages, multiple damages, and related penalties offered by the contemporary US legal system, and discusses the potential implications of this for the enforcement of hazardous waste regulations.

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                                                                                          • Kopp, R. J., and V. K. Smith, eds. 1993. Valuing natural assets: The economics of natural resource damage assessment. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

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                                                                                            This collection of articles describes how policymakers can assess the value of the damage caused by pollution with reference to losses that people experience because of damage to natural resources.

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                                                                                            • Rebovich, D. J. 2015. Dangerous ground: The world of hazardous waste crime. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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                                                                                              An assessment of the nature and extent of hazardous waste crime in the United States, arguing that these problems cannot be resolved through law enforcement alone. First published 1992.

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                                                                                              • Rucevska, I., C. Nellemann, N. Isarin, et al. 2015. Waste crime—Waste risks: Gaps in meeting the global waste challenge. A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.

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                                                                                                This is an important and timely assessment of the extent of illegal waste shipments across the globe, highlighting the inadequacy of resources for monitoring and enforcement. Copublished by GRID-Arendal.

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                                                                                                • Sigman, H., and S. Stafford. 2011. Management of hazardous waste and contaminated land. Annual Review of Resource Economics 3.1: 255–275.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1146/annurev-resource-083110-120011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  This useful paper reviews the literature on hazardous waste regulations, focusing on a comparison of US approaches relying on legal liability, as opposed to the government-financed enforcement common to Europe.

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                                                                                                  • Stafford, S. L. 2007. Can consumers enforce environmental regulations? The role of the market in hazardous waste compliance. Journal of Regulatory Economics 31.1: 83–107.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s11149-006-9006-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Using US data, this paper suggests that noncompliance affects consumer demand for a firm’s products, especially where there is strong local competition.

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                                                                                                    • Williams, C., ed. 2014. Environmental victims. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                      This edited book includes a number of conceptual chapters on environmental victimology, together with sector-specific chapters on environmental harm. The final chapters discuss potential victim-centered solutions. First published in 1998 by Earthscan (London).

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                                                                                                      Toxic Exposures

                                                                                                      Toxicology provides an underpinning to the understanding of wastes as environmental hazards. This section presents a small number of recent contributions that describe some of the key toxic exposures associated with hazardous wastes. It includes the detailed listing of relevant toxins provided by Pohanish 2008; the comparison of toxins found in the United States and Poland provided by Pohl, et al. 2008; and, lastly, the important and timely discussion of e-waste in Tsydenova and Bengtsson 2011.

                                                                                                      • Pohanish, R. P. 2008. Sittig’s handbook of toxic and hazardous chemicals and carcinogens. Norwich, NY: William Andrew.

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                                                                                                        While not specifically focused on hazardous wastes, this classic work provides a detailed overview of hazardous materials and their toxicity.

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                                                                                                        • Pohl, H. R., S. Tarkowski, A. Buczynska, M. Fay, and C. T. De Rosa. 2008. Chemical exposures at hazardous waste sites: Experiences from the United States and Poland. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 25.3: 283–291.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2007.12.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Examines the scope of hazardous chemical exposure in the United States and Poland, with a focus on priority chemicals and mixtures.

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                                                                                                          • Tsydenova, O., and M. Bengtsson. 2011. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste Management 31.1: 45–58.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.08.014Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            A useful review paper discussing the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatments of electrical and electronic waste.

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                                                                                                            Health Risks and Health Effects

                                                                                                            The literature on adverse health effects of hazardous waste is vast. The sources listed below have been selected with a view to giving readers from various backgrounds a broad idea about research that has been conducted relatively recently in this area. The literature has been split into a general section and two subsections, one specifically focusing on Effects on Children’s Health and Birth Outcomes, and one on Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety. Regarding health risks and health effects in general, De Rosa, et al. 1996 provides a now classic and concise overview of research in the field. This is complemented by more recent works, namely Adeola 2012, Vrijheid 2000, Rushton 2003, and Giusti 2009. Two areas have attracted the particular attention of researchers: the link between exposure or proximity to hazardous waste sites and the incidence of various cancers (exemplified here by Martuzzi, et al. 2009), and links to chronic disease such as diabetes (exemplified here by Kouznetsova, et al. 2007). Grant, et al. 2013 provides an important overview of the health hazards associate with e-waste, which is of particular relevance for the developing countries to which these wastes are frequently shipped.

                                                                                                            • Adeola, F. O. 2012. Industrial disasters, toxic waste, and community impact: Health effects and environmental justice struggles around the globe. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

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                                                                                                              Integrating sociological perspectives with technical analyses, this book provides insightful case studies on the health effects of hazardous waste in the United States and across the globe.

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                                                                                                              • De Rosa, C. T., B. L. Johnson, M. Fay, H. Hansen, and M. M. Mumtaz. 1996. Public health implications of hazardous waste sites: Findings, assessment and research. Food and Chemical Toxicology 34.11: 1131–1138.

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                                                                                                                Although written two decades ago, this paper continues to present a useful and concise overview of chemicals released from hazardous waste sites and the risks they present to public health.

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                                                                                                                • Giusti, L. 2009. A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health. Waste Management 29.8: 2227–2239.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.03.028Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Reviews information on hazardous and general wastes and waste management practices across the world, with a focus on potential indirect effects on human health.

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                                                                                                                  • Grant, K., F. C. Goldizen, P. D. Sly, et al. 2013. Health consequences of exposure to e-waste: A systematic review. Lancet Global Health 1.6: e350–e361.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70101-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    This important review article records actual and potential health hazards associated with exposure to electrical and electronic waste.

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                                                                                                                    • Kouznetsova, M., X. Huang, J. Ma, L. Lessner, and D. O. Carpenter. 2007. Increased rate of hospitalization for diabetes and residential proximity of hazardous waste sites. Environmental Health Perspectives 115.1: 75–79.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1289/ehp.9223Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Credibly documents a statistically significant increase in adverse health indicators—in this case diabetes-related hospitalizations—among populations residing at or near toxic waste sites.

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                                                                                                                      • Martuzzi, M., F. Mitis, F. Bianchi, F. Minichilli, P. Comba, and L. Fazzo. 2009. Cancer mortality and congenital anomalies in a region of Italy with intense environmental pressure due to waste. BMJ Occupational and Environmental Medicine 66.11: 725–732.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1136/oem.2008.044115Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        A study of the Campania region of Italy that found significant excess risks of exposed municipalities for a number of cancers as compared to unexposed municipalities.

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                                                                                                                        • Rushton, L. 2003. Health hazards and waste management. British Medical Bulletin 68.1: 183–197.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldg034Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          This review article notes that the inherent latency of diseases and the migration of populations are likely to hamper the detection of some of the adverse health effects of proximity to waste management facilities.

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                                                                                                                          • Vrijheid, M. 2000. Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: A review of epidemiologic literature. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(Suppl. 1): 101.

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                                                                                                                            Reviewing studies on the health impact of landfill sites, this paper notes that there is a lack of direct exposure data, which could be overcome through a design of interdisciplinary studies incorporating epidemiological and toxicological studies on individual chemicals and chemical mixtures and sites.

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                                                                                                                            Effects on Children’s Health and Birth Outcomes

                                                                                                                            Within the literature on health effects of hazardous waste, significant efforts have been made to clarify impacts on children and birth outcomes. Again, only a fraction of recent works is listed below, primarily with the aim of illustrating the breadth of these studies. General studies investigating adverse effects on birth outcomes include the UK-based study Elliott, et al. 2001; Palmer, et al. 2005, a study of Welsh sites; Vrijheid, et al. 2002, a large-scale European study; Kuehn, et al. 2007, a study of Washington State; and Dodds and Seviour 2001, which looks into a specific site in Sydney, Nova Scotia. Orr, et al. 2002, a US-based study, finds these factors particularly pronounced among minority children. In terms of specific birth outcomes in relation to toxins, Baibergenova, et al. 2003 identifies low birth weight in relation to PCB-contaminated sites. Regarding effects on children more generally, Wright, et al. 2006 finds effects on the IQ of school children, while Hu, et al. 2007 explores a host of pediatric effects in relation to the notorious Tar Creek site in Oklahoma.

                                                                                                                            • Baibergenova, A., R. Kudyakov, M. Zdeb, and D. O. Carpenter. 2003. Low birth weight and residential proximity to PCB-contaminated waste sites. Environmental Health Perspectives 111.10: 1352.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1289/ehp.6053Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              This study found that women living in postal codes located near PCB-contaminated sites had a higher risk of giving birth to infants with low birth weight.

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                                                                                                                              • Dodds, L., and R. Seviour. 2001. Congenital anomalies and other birth outcomes among infants born to women living near a hazardous waste site in Sydney, Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Public Health 92.5: 331.

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                                                                                                                                This study found a small but statistically significant increase in congenital anomalies in Sydney—the location of a tar ponds waste site—compared to the rest of Nova Scotia.

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                                                                                                                                • Elliott, P., D. Briggs, S. Morris, et al. 2001. Risk of adverse birth outcomes in populations living near landfill sites. British Medical Journal 323.7309: 363–368.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1136/bmj.323.7309.363Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  An important UK study that found small excess risks of congenital anomalies and low and very low birth weight in populations living near landfill sites.

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                                                                                                                                  • Hu, H., J. Shine, and R. O. Wright. 2007. The challenge posed to children’s health by mixtures of toxic waste: The Tar Creek superfund site as a case-study. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54.1: 155–175.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2006.11.009Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    This important review looks into research on chemical mixtures and pediatric health outcomes, and links its observations to a large-scale hazardous waste disposal site.

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                                                                                                                                    • Kuehn, C. M., B. A. Mueller, H. Checkoway, and M. Williams. 2007. Risk of malformations associated with residential proximity to hazardous waste sites in Washington State. Environmental Research 103.3: 405–412.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.08.008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Using linked birth-hospital discharge and hazardous sites data for Washington State, the authors found that, relative to living more than five miles from a site, living less than five miles away was associated with increased risk of malformations in offspring.

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                                                                                                                                      • Orr, M., F. Bove, W. Kaye, and M. Stone. 2002. Elevated birth defects in racial or ethnic minority children of women living near hazardous waste sites. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 205.1–2: 19–27.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1078/1438-4639-00126Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        This case control study evaluated the relationship between birth defects in racial or ethnic minority children born between 1983 and 1988 and the potential exposure of their mothers to contaminants at hazardous waste sites in California, finding a tentative link between these environmental risk factors and birth defects.

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                                                                                                                                        • Palmer, S. R., F. D. Dunstan, H. Fielder, D. L. Fone, G. Higgs, and M. L. Senior. 2005. Risk of congenital anomalies after the opening of landfill sites. Environmental Health Perspectives 113.10: 1362–1365.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1289/ehp.7487Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Based on an examination of landfill sites in Wales, this study observes a statistically significant increase in the rate of congenital anomalies following the opening of landfill sites.

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                                                                                                                                          • Vrijheid, M., H. Dolk, B. Armstrong, et al. 2002. Chromosomal congenital anomalies and residence near hazardous waste landfill sites. The Lancet 359.9303: 320–322.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07531-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Using a large European database, this important early study observes an increase in the risk of chromosomal anomalies similar to that found for nonchromosomal anomalies for persons living near hazardous waste landfill sites.

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                                                                                                                                            • Wright, R. O., C. Amarasiriwardena, A. D. Woolf, R. Jim, and D. C. Bellinger. 2006. Neuropsychological correlates of hair arsenic, manganese, and cadmium levels in school-age children residing near a hazardous waste site. Neurotoxicology 27.2: 210–216.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2005.10.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              This pioneering study found lowered IQ scores among children with elevated arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) levels in their hair.

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                                                                                                                                              Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety

                                                                                                                                              The health and safety problems affecting those working with hazardous wastes continue to be a matter of interest, and a number of textbooks provide detailed guidance on protective measures and regulatory compliance. Barth, et al. 2002 and Florczak and Roughton 2001 are management orientated, while Martin, et al. 2000 emphasizes regulatory compliance within the US context.

                                                                                                                                              • Barth, R. C., P. D. George, and R. H. Hill, eds. 2002. Environmental health and safety for hazardous waste sites. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association.

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                                                                                                                                                A US-focused textbook, it is a practice-orientated, detailed guide for those responsible for managing health and safety at hazardous waste sites.

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                                                                                                                                                • Florczak, C. M., and J. E. Roughton. 2001. Hazardous waste compliance. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

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                                                                                                                                                  This US-centered book focuses on measures aimed at reducing worker injury and illness.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Martin, W. F., J. M. Lippitt, and T. G. Prothero. 2000. Hazardous waste handbook for health and safety. 3d ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

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                                                                                                                                                    This US-based handbook provides detailed guidance on compliance with health safety laws and requirements at hazardous waste sites. E-book edition published 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                    Specific Regions

                                                                                                                                                    There is an extensive literature that discusses how specific regions are affected by problems in managing hazardous waste. This literature includes some international/comparative analyses, such as Orloff and Falk 2003, while Stirling 2009 focuses on North America more specifically. In parallel, an expanding literature is developing that explores problems associated with hazardous waste in areas of rapid population and industrial growth, which is represented here by Duan, et al. 2008 and Xu, et al. 2013 on China; Misra and Pandey 2005 and Wath, et al. 2011 on India; and Salihoglu 2010 on Turkey. Further studies concern the particular problems associated with hazardous wastes in developing countries, with Sangodoyin and Ipadeola 2000 examining policies in Nigeria, and Haylamicheal and Dalvie 2009 studying pesticides in Ethopia. Al-Taie, et al. 2013, on Iraq, exemplifies the developing research on hazardous waste in former conflict environments.

                                                                                                                                                    • Duan, H., Q. Huang, Q. Wang, B. Zhou, and J. Li. 2008. Hazardous waste generation and management in China: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials 158.2: 221–227.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.106Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Discusses the challenges faced by China in managing increasing volumes of hazardous waste and points to the discrepancy in the waste volumes that were recycled or managed with pollution control as compared to waste volumes actually generated.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Haylamicheal, I. D., and M. A. Dalvie. 2009. Disposal of obsolete pesticides, the case of Ethiopia. Environment International 35.3: 667–673.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.11.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        This article describes the accumulation and disposal of obsolete pesticides in Ethiopia, highlighting the need for a coordinated management policy with regard to these sources of hazardous waste.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Misra, V., and S. D. Pandey. 2005. Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India. Environment International 31.3: 417–431.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2004.08.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Examines various options for the cost-effective management of hazardous waste in India.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Orloff, K., and H. Falk. 2003. An international perspective on hazardous waste practices. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 206.4–5: 291–302.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1078/1438-4639-00225Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            A brief article highlighting the dangers posed to public health by air and water contamination by hazardous substances.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Salihoglu, G. 2010. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: Current state of the field and primary challenges. Journal of Hazardous Materials 177.1: 42–56.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.096Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              A critical evaluation of current hazardous waste management practices in Turkey, highlighting the insufficiency of past regulatory frameworks.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Sangodoyin, A. Y., and S. F. Ipadeola. 2000. Hazardous wastes: Assessing the efficacy of structures and approaches to management in Nigeria. Environmental Management and Health 11.1: 39–46.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1108/09566160010314170Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                This paper investigates households, commercial undertakings, and industrial enterprises as sources of hazardous waste, and notes that many parameters detected in this study exceed WHO recommended levels for safe disposal.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Stirling, D. A. 2009. A bibliographic guide to North American industry: History, health, and hazardous waste. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Organized by industry codes, this bibliography focuses on historical and contemporary literature related to the origins of specific industries, key health and safety issues, and waste management and pollution prevention.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • al-Taie, L., N. al-Ansari, S. Knutsson, and R. Pusch. 2013. Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq: A suggestion for an environmental solution. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering 3.3: 81–91.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This paper discusses, with reference to US EPA and German recommendations, how post-conflict hazardous waste problems—including depleted uranium—could be addressed via landfills.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Wath, S. B., P. S. Dutt, and T. Chakrabarti. 2011. E-waste scenario in India, its management and implications. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 172.1: 249–262.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1331-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Focusing on electrical and electronic waste, this paper highlights the challenges presented by the growing waste category, with a specific focus on the Indian context.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Xu, G., S. Zhou, H. Hu, and Z. Xu. 2013. Generation and management: A general industrial hazardous waste survey in China. Asian Journal of Chemistry 25.1: 6601–6608.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Based on research conducted in Guangdong province, this paper notes the lack of an independent reporting and monitoring system to track hazardous wastes from generation to disposal.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Siting

                                                                                                                                                                        The recognition that the proximity of hazardous waste could adversely affect individual and community health led to the creation of grassroots opposition movements, which, starting in the 1960s, sought to challenge the siting of facilities in their locality. Although the term NIMBY—standing for Not In My Back Yard—has been used to question the importance of such movements, there is ample research that confirms the legitimacy of many of these organizations in terms of the role they play in addressing potential problems associated with toxic exposure. Historically, the majority of research conducted in the area has focused on experiences in individual Western developed countries, with Ibitayo 2002 examining a US case study, McClymont and O’Hare 2008 looking into UK grassroots groups, and Sjöberg and Drottz-Sjöberg 2001 examining opposition to a nuclear waste site in Sweden. In addition, there is now a growing literature that compares experiences cross-nationally, which is exemplified here by Lesbirel and Shaw 2005 and Huitema 2002. A more recent area of study concerns grassroots movement in newly democratized countries, such as the Taiwan study Hsu 2006.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Hsu, S. H. 2006. NIMBY opposition and solid waste incinerator siting in democratizing Taiwan. Social Science Journal 43.3: 453–459.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.soscij.2006.04.018Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Describes how democratization in Taiwan has been accompanied by growing local opposition to the siting of incinerators, which could be overcome by a combination of compensation and local political and government support.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Huitema, D. 2002. Hazardous decisions: Hazardous waste siting in the UK, the Netherlands, and Canada; Institutions and discourses. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, and Boston: Kluwer Academic.

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                                                                                                                                                                            A detailed analysis of policy decision processes in three countries, with a focus on the role of discourse and discourse dynamics.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Ibitayo, O. O. 2002. Public-private partnerships in the siting of hazardous waste facilities: The importance of trust. Waste Management & Research 20.3: 212–222.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0734242X0202000302Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              This paper uses a US case study and argues that the perceived competence of the developer and the adequacy of technical processes is a prerequisite to the efficacy of public-private partnership in this area.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Lesbirel, S. H., and D. Shaw, eds. 2005. Managing conflict in facility siting: An international comparison. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Provides a comparative study of siting controversies and policies in North America, Asia, Europe, and Australia, with a view to identifying potential policy solutions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • McClymont, K., and P. O’Hare. 2008. “We’re not NIMBYs!” Contrasting local protest groups with idealised conceptions of sustainable communities. Local Environment 13.4: 321–335.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/13549830701803273Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  Based on two UK case studies, this article questions the dichotomy between “good” and “bad” participation, where community participation is encouraged but opposition to specific facilities is seen as questionable.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sjöberg, L., and B. M. Drottz-Sjöberg. 2001. Fairness, risk and risk tolerance in the siting of a nuclear waste repository. Journal of Risk Research 4.1: 75–101.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/136698701456040Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Questions the validity of previous surveys showing approval for the siting of a local high-level nuclear waste repository in Sweden.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Environmental Justice

                                                                                                                                                                                    The environmental justice movement traces its origins to Green grassroots activism that emerged in the late 1960s and 1970s in North America. As one of its core ideas, this movement highlighted the interconnection of environmental and social problems, emphasizing the disproportional burden placed on poor and minority communities in terms of exposure to pollutants. Over recent decades, the idea of environmental justice has been expanded to global contexts and issues such as the export of hazardous wastes to developing countries. Studies documenting patterns of environmental injustice have mostly focused on the United States, primarily on account of available data and preexisting patterns of socioeconomic discrimination. These works include Allen 2001, Evans and Kantrowitz 2002, and Mohai and Saha 2007, with Bullard 2000 investigating southern states, Bolin, et al. 2000 focusing on Arizona, Faber and Krieg 2002 on Massachusetts, and Saha and Mohai 2005 on Michigan. Regarding the dynamics of these patterns, Bullard and Johnson 2000 provides a useful account of the strengthening of the environmental movements in the United States, with Fletcher 2003 examining cross-border discourses arising in connection with the Love Canal fiasco. Adeola 2000 makes an important contribution by highlighting the global dimension of environmental justice issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Adeola, F. O. 2000. Cross-national environmental injustice and human rights issues: A review of evidence in the developing world. American Behavioral Scientist 43.4: 686–706.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/00027640021955496Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      Using existing cross-national studies, this paper notes how transnational waste dumping contributes to environmental injustices, which affect poor and indigenous minorities in particular.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Allen, D. W. 2001. Social class, race, and toxic releases in American counties, 1995. Social Science Journal 38.1: 13–25.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/S0362-3319(00)00109-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Based on data from 2,083 US counties in 1995, this paper concludes that race and class are relevant predictors of exposure to toxic substances, with the share of exposure of African Americans being more pronounced in the sunbelt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bolin, B., E. Matranga, E. J. Hackett, et al. 2000. Environmental equity in a sunbelt city: The spatial distribution of toxic hazards in Phoenix, Arizona. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 2.1: 11–24.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/S1464-2867(00)00010-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          This paper utilizes geographic information system–based mapping of hazardous facilities listed in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxic Release Inventory to find patterns of environmental inequity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bullard, R. D. 2000. Dumping in Dixie: Race, class, and environmental quality. Boulder, CO: Westview.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            This classic contribution explores the disproportionate amount of pollution and other environmental stressors found in black neighborhoods in the South, focusing on five case studies of what it describes as environmental racism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bullard, R. D., and G. S. Johnson. 2000. Environmental justice: Grassroots activism and its impact on public policy decision making. Journal of Social Issues 56.3: 555–578.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/0022-4537.00184Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              This useful article examines the evolution of the US environmental justice movement in response to the unequal protection provided in this political context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Evans, G. W., and E. Kantrowitz. 2002. Socioeconomic status and health: The potential role of environmental risk exposure. Annual Review of Public Health 23.1: 303–331.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.23.112001.112349Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                This US-based paper documents an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and environmental risk factors, and argues that the health consequences relate to exposure to multiple environmental risk factors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Faber, D. R., and E. J. Krieg. 2002. Unequal exposure to ecological hazards: Environmental injustices in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Environmental Health Perspectives 110.2: 277.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Focusing on the social and geographic distribution of ecological hazards across 368 communities, this paper finds that ecologically hazardous sites and facilities are concentrated in communities of working-class and colored citizens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fletcher, T. H. 2003. From Love Canal to environmental justice: The politics of hazardous waste on the Canada-US Border. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tracing the history of environmental policy and politics from the seminal moments of 1978 at Love Canal to current disputes, this in-depth study offers a cross-border analysis of the modern environmental movement.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mohai, P., and R. Saha. 2007. Racial inequality in the distribution of hazardous waste: A national-level reassessment. Social Problems 54.3: 343–370.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1525/sp.2007.54.3.343Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Using GPS-based technology, this US-based paper finds that racial disparities persist even when controlling for economic and sociopolitical variables.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Saha, R., and P. Mohai. 2005. Historical context and hazardous waste facility siting: Understanding temporal patterns in Michigan. Social Problems 52.4: 618–648.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/sp.2005.52.4.618Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Using a longitudinal analysis, this paper argues that the siting of hazardous waste facilities post-1970 followed a path of least resistance, which exacerbated patterns of environmental injustice.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Trade Export

                                                                                                                                                                                                        The transnational flow of hazardous waste from developed to developing nations has become a major problem in recent decades. Although industries growing around these waste imports can provide income in poor regions, it is clear that activities such as the recycling of electrical and electronic waste and ship breaking can have a significant adverse impact on the health of workers and the communities in which they work. General works discussing the extent and nature of hazardous waste exports include Ajibo 2016, Clapp 2001, Frey 2003, and Asante-Duah and Nagy 1998, with Albers 2015, Fagbohun 2007, and Sonak, et al. 2008 examining regulatory aspects. Heacock, et al. 2016 and Widmer, et al. 2005, meanwhile, focus on the growing problem of e-waste exports.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ajibo, K. I. 2016. Transboundary hazardous wastes and environmental justice: Implications for economically developing countries. Environmental Law Review 18.4: 267–283.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/1461452916675538Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reviewing the extent of international waste movements, this article argues that some of the provisions of the Basel Convention require tightening, including measures to allow importing countries to make informed decisions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Albers, J. 2015. Responsibility and liability in the context of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes by sea: Existing rules and the 1999 Liability Protocol to the Basel Convention. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-43349-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Focusing on transboundary movements of hazardous waste, this book provides a summary of existing legal provisions as well as an assessment of their strength and shortcomings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Asante-Duah, D. K., and I. V. Nagy. 1998. International trade in hazardous wastes. London and New York: E. & F.N. Spon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              This useful book discusses and evaluates the nature of the waste trade and argues in favor of global environmental policymaking.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clapp, J. 2001. Toxic exports: The transfer of hazardous wastes from rich to poor countries. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                This classic book examines the transfer of hazardous wastes to developing countries and its social and environmental implications, with a focus on Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fagbohun, O. A. 2007. The regulation of transboundary shipments of hazardous waste: A case study of the dumping of toxic waste in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. Hong Kong Law Journal 37.3: 831–858.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Focusing on incidents of waste dumping in Cote d’Ivoire, this paper questions the efficacy of prevalent control and remedial systems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Frey, R. S. 2003. The transfer of core-based hazardous production processes to the export processing zones of the periphery: The Maquiladora centers of northern Mexico. Journal of World-Systems Research 9.2: 317–354.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.5195/JWSR.2003.236Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This insightful paper discusses the export of hazardous production processes to Mexico, with reference to world systems theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Heacock, M., C. B. Kelly, K. A. Asante, et al. 2016. E-Waste and harm to vulnerable populations: A growing global problem. Environmental Health Perspectives 124.5: 550–555.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An important paper providing an overview of the scale and health risks associated with the export of electronic waste to low- to middle-income countries, where recycling provides income but often results in substantial harmful chemical exposures among vulnerable populations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sonak, S., M. Sonak, and A. Giriyan. 2008. Shipping hazardous waste: Implications for economically developing countries. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 8.2: 143–159.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1007/s10784-008-9069-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Focusing on the case of the French aircraft carrier Clemenceau, which was rejected for scrapping in Alang, India, this paper assesses the socioeconomic implications of shipping hazardous waste to developing countries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Widmer, R., H. Oswald-Krapf, D. Sinha-Khetriwal, M. Schnellmann, and H. Böni. 2005. Global perspectives on e-waste. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25.5: 436–458.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.eiar.2005.04.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This paper discusses the attempt of European directives to reduce electronic waste by requiring manufacturers and importers to take back their products from consumers and ensure environmentally sound disposal.

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