Atlantic History Huguenots
by
Bertrand Van Ruymbeke
  • LAST REVIEWED: 03 August 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 25 October 2017
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199730414-0115

Introduction

The Huguenots are French Calvinists. The word “huguenot” is an adaptation from eidgenossen, a Swiss German term meaning “confederates,” which was applied to the Genevans who rebelled against their lord in the early 16th century. This term is rarely used in contemporary French, the generic word protestant being widely used. Other terms used over the centuries have been “Lutherans” (luthériens) in the 16th century, “members of the self-styled reformed religion” (membres de la religion prétendue réformée) in the 17th century, and “new converts” or “new Catholics” (nouveaux convertis, nouveaux catholiques, or simply NCs) in the 18th. There are five periods in the history of the Huguenots: the Reformation and the French Wars of Religion (c. 1530s–1598; see Reformation in France and the Wars of Religion); the 17th century (1598–1685; see 17th-Century French Protestantism); the refuge or diaspora (c. 1680–1760s; see the Post-Revocation Diaspora); the 18th century (1685–1787; see 18th-Century French Protestantism); and the contemporary era (since the Revolution; see Contemporary French Protestantism). The 1550s were the formative years of French Protestantism. Then began a series of eight Wars of Religion (1562–1598) that preserved the throne to a Catholic monarch and condemned French Protestantism to a peripheral role in the history of France. In 1598 Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes at the end of the wars. This highly significant document guaranteed the Huguenots religious, economic, educational, judicial, political, and military rights. In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes after decades of harassment followed by violent repression. This led to a major exodus—roughly 200,000 individuals—of Huguenots to northern Europe and to a lesser extent to British North America and Dutch South Africa. The period that extends from the revocation to the Edict of Toleration of 1787 is referred to as le désert. Following the dislocation brought about by the exodus and the War of the Cévennes (a localized Huguenot rebellion in a mountainous region of southern France), the 18th century was marked by sporadic and regional persecution interspersed by periods of calm. First the edict then the Revolution and the Napoleonic years opened a permanent era of toleration and acceptance for the Huguenots. In contemporary France, even if at times they could be victims of virulent attacks from Catholic extremist pamphleteers, the Huguenots have enjoyed peace and prosperity—some of them even reaching high positions in the state—and have remained a small religious minority in a country increasingly secular.

General Overviews

Relatively few surveys cover the entire history of French Protestantism from the Reformation to the contemporary era except Cabanel 2012; Léonard 1961–1964; Poton and Cabanel 1994; Augeron, et al. 2009; and Augeron, et al. 2012. Most focus on one period, such as the 16th century (Gray 1981 and Rothrock 1979), the 17th century (Ligou 1968), the moment of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 (Negroni 1996), or from the Reformation to the Revolution (Treasure 2013, Wolf 2001), even if their titles suggest a broader period.

  • Augeron, Mickaël, Didier Poton, and Bertrand Van Ruymbeke, eds. Les huguenots et l’Atlantique. Vol. 1, Pour Dieu, la cause et les affaires. Paris: Presses Universitaires Paris-Sorbonne/Les Indes Savantes, 2009.

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    Followed by the second volume Augeron, et al. 2012 on memory, this collective work (more than fifty authors from various countries) is a groundbreaking study of Huguenot history since the Reformation from an innovative Atlantic perspective.

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    • Augeron, Mickaël, Didier Poton, and Bertrand van Ruymbeke, eds. Les Huguenots et l’Atlantique. Vol. 2, Fidélités, racines et mémoires. Paris: Les Indes Savantes, 2012.

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      This abundantly illustrated large-format book, the second volume of the history of the Huguenots from an Atlantic perspective, is dedicated to the diaspora and its memory around the Atlantic basin from the 1680s to the present. This book is original in its conception and beautiful in its realization.

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      • Cabanel, Patrick. Histoire des protestants en France, XVIe–XXIe siècles. Paris: Fayard, 2012.

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        This monumental, well-written, and thorough survey of Huguenot history from the Reformation to the 21st century is destined to be a must in any Huguenot bibliography. The author has studied all aspects of Huguenot history inside and outside of France over five centuries.

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        • Carbonnier-Burkard, Marianne, et Jean Baubérot. Les protestants en France: Histoire d’une minorité, XVIème-XXIème siècle. Paris: Ellipses, 2016.

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          This book is the most recent French-language survey of Huguenot history from the Reformation through contemporary France. It covers the difficult but enthusing early years, life under the Edict of Nantes, the Revocation, the dispersion, the désert (i.e., Huguenots who remained in France after the Revocation), the Edict of Toleration under Louis XVI, the 19th century, and finally under republican regimes in the 20th century and the early years of the 21st century. It is a useful introduction to the topic.

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          • Gray, Janet G. The French Huguenots: Anatomy of Courage. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1981.

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            A highly readable survey of Huguenot history with an emphasis on the 16th century.

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            • Léonard, Émile G. Histoire générale du protestantisme. 3 vol. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1961–1964.

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              A classic of Huguenot literature that gives a panoramic vision of the history of French Protestantism from the Reformation era to the 19th century. Very well written although a bit outdated, this work (or parts of it) needs to be read. Volume 1, La Réformation; Volume 2, L’établissement (1564–1700); Volume 3, Déclin et renouveau, XVIIIe–XIXe siècle.

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              • Ligou, Daniel. Le protestantisme en France de 1598 à 1715. Paris: SEDES, 1968.

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                Textbook survey of French Protestantism from the Edict of Nantes to the death of Louis XIV.

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                • Negroni, Barbara de. Intolérances: Catholiques et protestants en France, 1560–1787. Paris: Hachette, 1996.

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                  Essay on the history of the Huguenots and their interaction with the Catholic majority and the state from the mid-16th century to the Edict of Toleration. Centered on the concept of toleration from a philosophical perspective.

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                  • Poton, Didier, and Patrick Cabanel. Les protestants français du XVIe au XXe siècle. Paris: Nathan, 1994.

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                    Brief and reliable textbook survey of Huguenot church organization and history from the Reformation to the 20th century.

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                    • Rothrock, George A. The Huguenots: A Biography of a Minority. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1979.

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                      Accessible and well-written narrative history of the Huguenots in France with an emphasis on the 16th century.

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                      • Treasure, Geoffrey. The Huguenots. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.

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                        In this book Treasure rigorously surveys the history of the Huguenots from Calvin’s time to the early years of the 18th century in placing it in a French and European context. A well-written and richly illustrated volume, The Huguenots is a welcome addition to the English-speaking literature on the topic.

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                        • Wolf, Philippe, ed. Histoire des protestants en France: De la réforme à la révolution. Toulouse, France: Privat, 2001.

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                          First published in 1977. This classic work of French historiography offers a panoramic vision of Huguenot history from the Reformation to the Revolution. With essays by the most distinguished historians on the subject.

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                          Reference Works

                          Reference works in Huguenot history are rare. The most explicitly concerned with French Protestantism (although it covers all forms of Protestantism) is Gisel and Kaennel 2006.

                          • Gisel, Pierre, and Lucie Kaennel, eds. Encyclopédie du protestantisme. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2006.

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                            First published in 1995. This encyclopedia on Protestantism in general (not just French Protestantism) is a useful tool that offers many entries on nearly all aspects of the subject.

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                            • Mentzer, Raymond A., and Bertrand van Ruymbeke. A Companion to the Huguenots, Brill’s Companions to the Christian Tradition. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2016.

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                              This edited volume contains sixteen topical and historiographical essays written by American, Israeli, English, German, Dutch, and French historians that cover Huguenot history, culture, religion, politics, and society from the Reformation through the diaspora (Refuge). The contributions both take stock of familiar issues in Huguenot history and break new grounds.

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                              Primary Sources

                              Primary sources in Huguenot history consist mainly of editions of foundational texts, such as the Confession of Faith, the Discipline, and John (Jean) Calvin’s works, and editions of the most important edicts, such as the Edict of Nantes (1598) and the Edict of Alès (1630). Escape accounts of refugees also represent key sources. Sources on the Huguenots in the Atlantic world are documents related to French Florida (1562–1565) and to post-revocation Huguenot settlements in North America, especially Virginia.

                              French Protestantism and Refugees’ Accounts

                              Documents marking the origins and development of French Protestantism are essential sources for historians. Among them stand Jean (John) Calvin’s work (Calvin 2008), the Confession of Faith and the Discipline (Pannier 1936), the Edict of Nantes (Bergeal and Durrleman 1985, Goodbar 1998) and the Edict of Alès (Hubac 2010). Refugee’s accounts are the best qualitative sources historians have about the exodus: for such accounts, consult Poton and van Ruymbeke 2014, Dumont de Bostaquet 2005, Fontaine 1992, and Dauphiné 1932.

                              • Bergeal, Catherine, and André Durrleman, eds. Éloge et condamnation de la révocation de l’Édit de Nantes. Carrières-sous-Poissy, France: La Cause, 1985.

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                                Useful collection of opinions, both favorable and unfavorable, to the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Opinions cover several centuries.

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                                • Calvin, Jean. Institution de la religion chrétienne. Vol. 1. Edited by Olivier Millet. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 2008.

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                                  Originally published in 1541. This is a new edition, with an introduction and notes, of a seminal work that influenced Reformed churches of the Calvinist tradition.

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                                  • Dauphiné, Durand de. Voyages d’un François exilé pour la religion avec une description de la Virgine & Marilan dans l’Amérique. Edited by Gilbert Chinard. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1932.

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                                    First published in 1687. Fascinating account of a refugee from Dauphiné, who spent time in Virginia and Maryland after a stay in London and before returning to Europe. Edited by a specialist of the Huguenot settlement in British North America.

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                                    • Dumont de Bostaquet, Isaac. Memoirs of Isaac Dumont de Bostaquet, a Gentleman from Normandy: Before and after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Edited by Dianne W. Ressinger. London: Huguenot Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 2005.

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                                      Well-footnoted English edition of the Bostaquet account, first published in 1968. Essential account of a Huguenot refugee from Normandy who settled in the United Provinces and then took part in William of Orange’s 1688–1690 expeditions in England and Ireland.

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                                      • Fontaine, Jacques. Memoirs of the Reverend Jaques Fontaine, 1658–1728: The Complete English Text. Edited by Dianne W. Ressinger. London: Huguenot Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1992.

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                                        Recent English edition of Fontaine’s memoirs. Jacques Fontaine was a Huguenot pastor from Saintonge in western France who fled first to England and then to Ireland. His lively and informative memoirs, also published in French (with an illuminating postface by Bernard Cottret) under the title Mémoires d’une famille huguenote: Victime de la révocation de l’Édit de Nantes (Paris: Éditions de Paris, 2003), are a classic of Huguenot refugee literature.

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                                        • Goodbar, Richard L., ed. The Edict of Nantes: Five Essays and a New Translation. Bloomington, MN: National Huguenot Society, 1998.

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                                          English translation of the Edict of Nantes along with enlightening essays on its meaning and contents as well as the context of its drawing.

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                                          • Hubac, Jean, ed. La paix d’Alès. Paris: Éditions de Paris, 2010.

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                                            Known as “Rohan’s wars” (named after the Huguenot leader Duc de Rohan), the last Huguenot rebellion (1621–1629), principally remembered for the fall of La Rochelle in 1628, was punctuated by the Edict of Alès (a Languedoc town). This work is a new edition of this lesser-known yet essential royal edict, which stripped the Huguenots of their right of holding political assemblies (distinct from the synods) and of maintaining garrisoned towns, both obtained in 1598.

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                                            • Pannier, Jacques. Les origines de la Confession de foi et la Discipline des églises réformées de France: Étude historique. Paris: Librairie Félix Alcan, 1936.

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                                              Useful introduction to two foundational documents of French Protestantism (Confession of Faith and Discipline). Contextualizes these documents in their time period.

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                                              • Poton, Didier, and Bertrand van Ruymbeke, eds. Histoire des souffrances du sieur Élie Neau sur les galères et dans les cachots de Marseille. Paris: Les Indes savantes, 2014.

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                                                Based on a series of letters collected and assembled by a pastor who was a refugee in the Netherlands at the turn of the 18th century, this book tells the edifying story of Élie Neau, a Huguenot merchant turned martyr and catechist to Native and African slaves, from La Rochelle to New York via Louis XIV’s galleys and goals in Marseille.

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                                                French Florida and Huguenot Settlement in Virginia

                                                Primary sources on the Huguenots in early America are rare. See Bennett 2001 and Lussagnet 1958 for documents on French Florida. Brock 2007 and King William Parish 1988 are sources relating to Huguenot settlements in Virginia, and Young 1981 is a Huguenot narrative associated with Kentucky.

                                                • Bennett, Charles E. Laudonnière & Fort Caroline: History and Documents. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2001.

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                                                  Charles E. Bennett was a Florida senator and a history buff who was instrumental in founding the Fort Caroline Memorial, near Jacksonville, in memory of the 1564–1565 Huguenot settlement. This book is a summary of the story as well as a useful collection of documents. Foreword by Gerald T. Milanich.

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                                                  • Brock, R. A., ed. Documents Chiefly Unpublished Relating to the Huguenot Emigration to Virginia. Baltimore: Clearfield, 2007.

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                                                    First published in 1886. Useful if not exhaustive compilation of documents (passenger and tax lists, church records, correspondence, and genealogical tables) regarding the Huguenot settlement of Manakintown (near Richmond), Virginia.

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                                                    • King William Parish. Vestry Book of King William Parish, Virginia, 1707–1750. Midlothian, VA: Huguenot Society of the Founders of Manakin in the Colony of Virginia, 1988.

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                                                      North American Huguenot parish records are extremely rare. This almost unique volume contains the records of King William Parish of the Manakintown settlement, founded in 1701 near Richmond, Virginia. A fascinating document that sheds light on the daily life of a Huguenot community overseas and the problems it faced.

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                                                      • Lestringant, Frank. Le théâtre de la Floride: Autour de la brève narration des événements qui arrivèrent aux Français en Floride, province d’Amérique, de Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues (1591). Paris: Presses de l’Université Paris-Sorbonne, 2017.

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                                                        Beautifully illustrated edition of one of the key accounts of “French Florida” written by the Huguenot court cartographer Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues and included in De Bry’s Grands Voyages published in Frankfurt (Germany) in 1591. The account is preceded by a series of essays written by French foremost expert on “Huguenot Florida” Frank Lestringant that place the text in an editorial and historical perspective.

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                                                        • Lussagnet, Susanne, ed. Les français en Amérique pendant la deuxième moitié du XVIe siècle. Vol. 2, Les français en Floride. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1958.

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                                                          This is a priceless collection of accounts by Huguenot captains and explorers who were involved in the 1562–1565 Florida episode. With ample notes.

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                                                          • Mentzer, Raymond A., ed. Les registres des consistoires des églises réformées de France, XVIe–XVIIe siècles. Un inventaire, Archives des églises réformées de France, n. IV. Geneva, Switzerland: Librairie Droz, 2014.

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                                                            Fruit of many years of work in church, municipal, departmental, and national archival repositories as well as in the manuscript collections of the Bibliothèque de la Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français (Paris) this book will be extremely useful to scholars of French Protestantism and genealogists. After a series of chapters on the Huguenot consistoires and their archives as well as on the historiography of the Huguenot churches and institutions, the book lists all the Huguenot churches throughout the kingdom of France with the location of their archives and with bibliographical references when available.

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                                                            • Young, Chester R., ed. Westward into Kentucky: The Narrative of Daniel Trabue. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1981.

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                                                              Interesting narrative of Daniel Trabue, a Huguenot from Manakintown, Virginia, who settled in Kentucky. A moment at the crossroads between Huguenot history and accounts of the frontier.

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                                                              Journals

                                                              Journals in Huguenot history are issued by Huguenot societies. Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français, a quarterly since 1852, is published in Paris by the Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français. Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of Great Britain and Ireland has been published annually since 1885 in London by the Huguenot Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Huguenot Society of London until 1986). Transactions of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina has been published annually since 1889 in Charleston, South Carolina, by the Huguenot Society of South Carolina. Of varying editorial value, these nonetheless publish useful articles on genealogies and edited documents.

                                                              Reformation in France

                                                              Along with the post-revocation diaspora, the Reformation period and John (Jean) Calvin’s life (Cottret 2000) and work have garnered much attention from historians. Works such as Crouzet 1996, Garrisson 1988, and Greengrass 1987 typically focus on the causes and characteristics of the French Reformation, and Calvin’s decisive influence on the French Reformed churches is covered in Cottret and Millet 2009 and Kingdon 1967.

                                                              • Cottret, Bernard. Calvin: A Biography. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000.

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                                                                Thorough and highly readable biography of the French reformer who eventually settled in Geneva and shaped the French Protestant churches.

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                                                                • Cottret, Bernard, and Olivier Millet, eds. Special Issue: Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français 155 (January–March 2009).

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                                                                  This special issue of the bulletin presents various articles by foremost historians of the French and Genevan Reformation as well as by biographers of Calvin that shed light on the reformer’s influence on French society, history, and language.

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                                                                  • Crouzet, Denis. La genèse de la réforme française, 1520–1560. Paris: SEDES, 1996.

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                                                                    Detailed survey of the first decades of the French Reformation and early growth of the French Reformed churches.

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                                                                    • Garrisson, Jeanine. Les protestants au XVIe siècle. Paris: Fayard, 1988.

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                                                                      Highly readable sociocultural study of the Huguenots in the 16th century by a renowned French historian. Good introduction to the period.

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                                                                      • Greengrass, Mark. The French Reformation. Oxford: Blackwell, 1987.

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                                                                        Brief yet clear survey of the French Reformation. Very useful to English-speaking students as an introduction to the causes, characteristics, and consequences of the French Reformation.

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                                                                        • Kingdon, Robert M. Geneva and the Consolidation of the French Protestant Movement, 1564–1572. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 1967.

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                                                                          An essential study on Geneva’s role in shaping the French Protestant churches by a foremost specialist of the Genevan and French Reformation.

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                                                                          The Wars of Religion

                                                                          The Wars of Religion (1562–1598) constitute a key event in the history of French Protestantism. Lasting over thirty-five years, with short periods of peace marked by the issuing of edicts, they devastated vast regions of France and eventually condemned the Huguenots to a minor role in France’s history with the conversion to Catholicism of the Huguenot Henry of Navarre in order to become king. Works are either surveys of the wars (Holt 1995) or focus on specific locales, such as Paris (Diefendorf 1991) and the southern provinces (Garrisson 1991).

                                                                          • Diefendorf, Barbara B. Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in Sixteenth-Century Paris. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

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                                                                            Thorough and well-written study of Huguenot and Catholic interaction in Paris at the time of the Reformation and the Wars of Religion.

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                                                                            • Garrisson, Jeanine. Les protestants du Midi, 1559–1598. Toulouse, France: Privat, 1991.

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                                                                              First published in 1980. Religious, political, and sociocultural study of Huguenots of southern France (Languedoc principally) at the time of the Wars of Religion.

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                                                                              • Holt, Mack P. The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

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                                                                                A thorough and clearly written study of the Wars of Religion with the historiographic particularity to join the 1621–1629 rebellion to the 16th-century conflicts.

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                                                                                Huguenot Florida

                                                                                The French attempt to found a settlement in northeastern Florida (near Jacksonville) and lower South Carolina (near Beaufort), known as Huguenot Florida, (1562–1565) constitutes an Atlantic episode of the rivalry between France and Spain. Studies have focused on protagonists, such as Gaspard II de Coligny (Acerra and Martinière 1997, Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français 1974, Crété 1985), Jean Ribaut (Grassière 1971), René Goulaine de Laudonnière, and Jacques Le Moyne (Hulton 1977), and the reasons for this failure (McGrath 2000). Lestringant 2004 covers Huguenot influence on English expansion in the Atlantic, and the Huguenots’ literary legacy is studied in Carile 2001. Augeron, et al. 2012 offers an overview of this episode and its legacy.

                                                                                • Acerra, Martine, and Guy Martinière, eds. Coligny, les protestants et la mer. Papers presented at a conference held in La Rochelle, France, on 3–4 October 1996. Paris: Presses Universitaires de Paris-Sorbonne, 1997.

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                                                                                  Proceedings of a conference on Gaspard II de Coligny’s Atlantic policy and issues surrounding Huguenot Florida and the memory of this colonization episode.

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                                                                                  • Augeron, Mickaël, John de Bry, and Annick Notter, eds. Floride: Un rêve français, 1562–1565. La Rochelle, France: Musée du Nouveau Monde, 2012.

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                                                                                    This illustrated, large-format edited volume offers a series of interpretive and innovative essays on Huguenot Florida and its memory from a variety of perspectives.

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                                                                                    • Carile, Paolo. Huguenots sans frontières: Voyage et écriture à la renaissance et à l’âge classique. Paris: Honoré Champion, 2001.

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                                                                                      Not strictly about Huguenot Florida, this work discusses Huguenot travel literature in the 16th and 17th centuries. It sheds useful light on the Huguenot perception of maritime spaces as well as their continuous interest and involvement in exploration and colonization projects.

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                                                                                      • Crété, Liliane. Coligny. Paris: Fayard, 1985.

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                                                                                        Well-written contextualized biography of Gaspard II de Coligny, a major political and military figure of French Protestantism in the second half of the 16th century. Its focus is on the domestic French context.

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                                                                                        • Grassière, Paul Bertrand de la. Jean Ribault, marin dieppois et lieutenant du roi en Neuve-France, Floride française en 1565. Paris: La Pensée Universelle, 1971.

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                                                                                          Concise biography of Jean Ribault: navy captain, explorer, privateer, and founder of Charlesfort in present-day South Carolina in 1562.

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                                                                                          • Hulton, Paul. The Work of Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues: A Huguenot Artist in France, Florida, and England. 2 vols. London: British Museum, 1977.

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                                                                                            A beautifully made scholarly edition of Le Moyne’s sketches. Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues, Charles IX’s cartographer, went to Florida to draw maps and sketches of the lives and rituals of the Timucuas. This work also includes sketches made in England and France of flowers and plants.

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                                                                                            • Lestringant, Frank. Le huguenot et le sauvage: La controverse coloniale en France au temps des Guerres de Religion, 1555–1589. 2d ed. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 2004.

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                                                                                              Key study of the French involvement in Brazil (1550–1555) and Florida (1562–1565) placed in an Atlantic context and with a thorough analysis of the sources by the foremost specialist on the subject. First published in 1990 (Paris: Aux Amateurs du Livre-Klincksieck).

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                                                                                              • McGrath, John T. The French in Early Florida: In the Eye of the Hurricane. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000.

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                                                                                                Based on a dissertation, this detailed study explains the failure of Huguenot Florida while interestingly emphasizing the much-neglected possibility of success.

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                                                                                                • Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français. Actes du Colloque “L’Amiral de Coligny et son temps,” Paris, 18–24 Octobre 1972. Paris: Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français, 1974.

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                                                                                                  Proceedings of an older conference on Coligny, this time without the Atlantic dimension and more focused on the admiral himself and the context of the Wars of Religion (Coligny having been assassinated on Saint Bartholomew’s Day, 1572).

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                                                                                                  The Edict of Nantes

                                                                                                  Issued in 1598 by Henry IV after months of negotiations at the conclusion of the Wars of Religion, the Edict of Nantes is a foundational document in Huguenot history. Studies published for the tercentenary of its promulgation in 1998 have adroitly shown that this edict was not as favorable to the Huguenots as previous authors had written (Roussel 1998) and that it contained the seeds of its revocation in its formulation and in the process of ratification by the regional parlements (assemblies): this aspect is covered in Cottret 1998 and Garrisson 1998. Other works, such as Wanegffelen 1998 and Christin 1997, have innovatively placed the edict in its European context.

                                                                                                  • Christin, Olivier. La paix de religion: L’autonomisation de la raison politique au XVIe siècle. Paris: Le Seuil, 1997.

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                                                                                                    The Edict of Nantes is here usefully placed in its European context to better understand to what extent it was original.

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                                                                                                    • Cottret, Bernard. 1598. L’Édit de Nantes: Pour en finir avec les Guerres de Religion. Paris: Perrin, 1998.

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                                                                                                      In-depth study of the meaning, contents, and purpose of the Edict of Nantes, the Wars of Religion, and Henry IV’s domestic policies. New revised paperback edition (2016) with a new introduction entitled “La laïcité peut-elle mourir?”

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                                                                                                      • Garrisson, Janine. L’Édit de Nantes: Chronique d’une paix attendue. Paris: Fayard, 1998.

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                                                                                                        Study of the Edict of Nantes in the political context of the Wars of Religion.

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                                                                                                        • Roussel, Bernard, ed. Special Issue: Coexister dans l’Intolérance; L’Édit de Nantes (1598). Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français 144 (1998).

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                                                                                                          This issue discusses the implications of the Edict of Nantes and how French Protestantism developed following its promulgation. High-level collection of essays by respected specialists.

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                                                                                                          • Wanegffelen, Thierry. L’Édit de Nantes: Une histoire européenne de la tolérance du XVIe au XXe siècle. Paris: Le Livre de Poche, 1998.

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                                                                                                            A remarkable study of the Edict of Nantes in its European context and of the emergence and history of the key concept of toleration.

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                                                                                                            17th-Century French Protestantism

                                                                                                            Squeezed between the Edict of Nantes and its revocation, this period had long been neglected by historians until recent commemorations led to a renewal of the historiography. Apart from regional studies, works such as Benedict 1991 and Mours 1966 tend to stress the decline of French Protestantism following the Edict of Alès (1629) and the conversion of its leadership to Catholicism until the monarchy, after 1680, decided to force things to a conclusion with a policy of mass conversion through military intimidation and at times violence, known as the dragonnades. Others, such as Chevalier 1994 and Dunan-Page 2006, have focused on the religious aspects. Political and cultural aspects of 17th-century Protestantism are taken up in Deyon 1976, Margolf 2003, Mentzer and Spicer 2002, and Richard 1994. The Catholic perception of the Huguenots is covered in Dompnier 1985.

                                                                                                            • Benedict, Philip. The Huguenot Population of France, 1600–1685: The Demographic Fate and Customs of a Religious Minority. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 81. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1991.

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                                                                                                              In-depth regional demographic portrait of the 17th-century Huguenots. Extremely useful for understanding pre-revocation French Protestantism.

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                                                                                                              • Chevalier, Françoise. Prêcher sous l’Édit de Nantes: La prédication réformée au XVIIe siècle en France. Geneva, Switzerland: Labor et Fides, 1994.

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                                                                                                                Thorough analysis of the structure and contents of 17th-century Huguenot sermons and the various messages they conveyed.

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                                                                                                                • Deyon, Solange. Du loyalisme au refus: Les protestants français et leur député général entre la fronde et la revocation. Villeneuve-D’Ascq, France: Presses Universitaires de Lille, 1976.

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                                                                                                                  A thorough analysis of the 17th-century Huguenots through a study of their representative at the court.

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                                                                                                                  • Dompnier, Bernard. Le venin de l’hérésie: Image du protestantisme et combat catholique au XVIIe siècle. Paris: Le Centurion, 1985.

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                                                                                                                    Fine study of the Catholic perception of the Huguenots. Helps one understand why the revocation was supported in Catholic circles.

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                                                                                                                    • Dunan-Page, Anne, ed. The Religious Culture of the Huguenots, 1660–1750. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006.

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                                                                                                                      Partially based on a conference held in Montpellier, France, in 2004, this collection of essays discusses the evolution of Huguenot religious practices in late-17th-century France and in the diaspora.

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                                                                                                                      • Margolf, Diane C. Religion and Royal Justice in Early Modern France: The Paris Chambre de l’Édit, 1598–1665. Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies 67. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                        Remarkable and thoroughly researched legal and historical study of the special courts of justice composed of Huguenot and Catholic judges. An essential privilege granted by the Edict of Nantes.

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                                                                                                                        • Mentzer, Raymond, and Andrew Spicer, eds. Society and Culture in the Huguenot World, 1559–1685. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                          Excellent socioreligious study of the Huguenots from the first national synod (1559) through the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). The essays by a panel of specialists cover a wide range of topics.

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                                                                                                                          • Mours, Samuel. Essai sommaire de géographie du protestantisme réformé français au XVIIe siècle. Paris: Librairie Protestante, 1966.

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                                                                                                                            Older yet reliable in-depth regional demographic survey of French Protestantism. To be read along with Benedict 1991.

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                                                                                                                            • Richard, Michel-Edmond. La vie des protestants français de l’Édit de Nantes à la revolution, 1598–1789. Paris: Les Éditions de Paris, 1994.

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                                                                                                                              First published in 1966. Older study of Huguenot daily lives from birth to death in early modern France. Complements usefully most other works that deal with large religious and political issues.

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                                                                                                                              The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

                                                                                                                              The revocation of the nearly a century-old Edict of Nantes in 1685 and the issuing of the much-shorter Edict of Fontainebleau in its stead by Louis XIV constitutes a traumatic event and a pivotal moment of wide-ranging consequences in Huguenot, French, and even European history. The revocation banned Protestantism and forced a population of roughly 800,000 people to either convert or resist. While most Huguenots converted, about a quarter clandestinely left the kingdom. A few hundred rebelled in the Cévennes, others were imprisoned (men put in jail, women put in convents), some were sent to the infamous galleys, and a few were transported to the Caribbean and later to Louisiana. The revocation has traditionally divided historians, some emphasize its inevitability, while others see it as a political mistake, but all have agreed on its crucial importance in France’s political and religious history. Works have focused on the religious and political rationale for the revocation (Labrousse 1990, Armogathe 1985, Zuber and Theis 1986, Golden 1988), its economic impact (Jahan 1959, Scoville 1960), and the galley slaves (see Zysberg 1987).

                                                                                                                              • Armogathe, Jean-Robert. Croire en la liberté: L’église catholique et la révocation de l’Édit de Nantes. Paris: OEIL, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                The Edict of Nantes seen from the Catholic point of view. Useful as an alternative take on the traditional perspective.

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                                                                                                                                • Golden, R. M., ed. The Huguenot Connection: The Edict of Nantes, Its Revocation, and Early French Migration to South Carolina. Boston: Kluwer, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                  This compilation contains essays on the Edict of Nantes, the causes and consequences of its revocation, and the Huguenot settlement in proprietary South Carolina by renowned historians.

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                                                                                                                                  • Jahan, Emmanuel. La confiscation des biens des religionnaires fugitifs de la révocation de l’Édit de Nantes à la revolution. Paris: R. Pichon and R. Durand-Auzias, 1959.

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                                                                                                                                    Older yet reliable study on an essential if little-studied consequence of the revocation: the escheating and administering of Huguenot refugees’ properties by the monarchy.

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                                                                                                                                    • Labrousse, Elisabeth. La révocation de l’Édit de Nantes: Une foi, une loi, un roi? Paris: Éditions Payot, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                      This well-written short book by a renowned French historian sheds light on the causes and consequences of the revocation. Stands out for its clear and insightful interpretations.

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                                                                                                                                      • Lougee, Carolyn Chappell. Facing the Revocation: Huguenot Families, Faith, and the King’s Will. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

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                                                                                                                                        This beautifully written book based on impressive research offers a rare look into a provincial Huguenot aristocratic family (Champagné) from western France before the revocation of the Edict of Nantes and into the diaspora (Refuge). This is quite an achievement as it is very difficult to follow a family and its many branches once they spread throughout northern Europe. A must read for anyone who wants to see ancien régime Huguenot life and the Refuge from within and through the trials and travails of a single family.

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                                                                                                                                        • Scoville, Warren C. The Persecution of Huguenots and French Economic Development, 1680–1720. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960.

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                                                                                                                                          Solid study of Louis XIV’s religious policy and the economic impact of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes nationally as well as by region and by sector.

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                                                                                                                                          • Zuber, Roger, and Laurent Theis, eds. La révocation de l’Édit de Nantes et le protestantisme français en 1685. Paris: Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                            This special issue of the bulletin discusses the revocation process and the political national and international context of this decision as well as the state of French Protestantism at this crucial moment in history.

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                                                                                                                                            • Zysberg, André. Les galeriens: Vies et destins de 60,000 forçats sur les galères de France, 1680–1748. Paris: Seuil, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                              Impressive and thorough maritime, sociocultural, and demographic study of the galley slaves over a period of sixty years with chapters on Huguenot prisoners, who overall constituted a minority (most galley slaves were salt smugglers and vagabonds). Supersedes all older studies specifically devoted to the Huguenot galley slaves.

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                                                                                                                                              The Post-revocation Diaspora

                                                                                                                                              With the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes, French Protestantism lost its official status: in the eyes of the monarchy it had suddenly ceased to exist. This is what Pierre Bayle dubbed “la France toute catholique” (all Catholic France). Although Protestantism had always been a minority religion, often under severe pressure and Huguenots had left France since the days of John (Jean) Calvin in the 1530s to settle in Geneva, the Rhineland, and England, the revocation created a totally new situation. In 1685 all Huguenots, or a population of roughly 800,000, had to make a choice: convert, resist, or flee. Roughly a quarter of them clandestinely (emigration was prohibited) left the kingdom to settle in the Swiss cantons (mainly Geneva), the German states (Brandenburg in particular), the United Provinces, and the British Isles. A few thousand went as far as Russia, Scandinavia, the Cape Colony (South Africa), and British North America (New England, New York, Virginia, and South Carolina). Historians have focused on the number of refugees and the geographic dispersion, but most importantly historians have studied the factors that led to these refugees’ integration into the various host societies they encountered. More recently, good studies on the memory of the diaspora have appeared. Surveys of the diaspora (French historians prefer the term “refuge”) are few (Yardeni 1985 is one), and most of them are edited volumes, such as Birnstiel 2001, Magdelaine and Thadden 1985, and van Ruymbeke and Sparks 2003, as for obvious reasons the topic requires a good knowledge of sources and histories in various countries far away from one another. After pioneering work was done in the mid-19th century (Weiss 1854), a long silence followed until the late 1960s (Special Issue: Le refuge huguenot). Then the anniversaries of the revocation in 1985 and of the Edict of Nantes in 1998 led to a renewal of interest in the topic.

                                                                                                                                              • Birnstiel, Eckart, ed. La diaspora des huguenots: Les réfugiés protestants de France et leur dispersion dans le monde, XVIe–XVIIIe siècles. Paris: Honoré Champion, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                Compilation of essays on the migration and settlement of Huguenot refugees throughout Europe and the Atlantic basin by authors at the time, mostly graduate students. Of unequal value and a bit dated in its approach of the diaspora despite its daring title. Contains a vast bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                • Magdelaine, Michèle, and Rudolf von Thadden, eds. Le refuge huguenot. Paris: Armand Colin, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                  Wide-ranging collection of (short) essays on the diaspora with an emphasis on the German states. German edition: Die Hugenotten, 1685–1985 (Munich: Beck, 1985).

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                                                                                                                                                  • Special Issue: Le refuge huguenot. Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français 115 (1969).

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                                                                                                                                                    Older special issue of the bulletin devoted to the diaspora. Useful from a historiographic perspective before the flurry of publications that came with the 1985 tercentenary, which changed the course of the historiography.

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                                                                                                                                                    • van Ruymbeke, Bertrand, and Randy J. Sparks, eds. Memory and Identity: The Huguenots in France and in the Atlantic Diaspora. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                      Partly based on a 1997 conference held in Charleston, South Carolina, this collection of essays comparatively discusses the Huguenot experience in France and around the Atlantic basin.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Weiss, M. Charles. History of the French Protestant Refugees from the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes to Our Own Days. 2 vols. Translated by Henry W. Herbert. New York: Stringer and Townsend, 1854.

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                                                                                                                                                        Translated from the French Histoire des réfugiés protestants de France depuis la révocation de l’Édit de Nantes jusqu’à nos jours (2 vols., Paris: Charpentier Libraire-Éditeur, 1853). Seminal 19th-century study of the diaspora published just a year after the foundation of the Paris-based Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français. Essential for understanding the origins of Huguenot diasporic studies in France and elsewhere.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Yardeni, Myriam. Le refuge protestant. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                          Highly readable survey of the diaspora by one of the subject’s foremost specialists. A good place to start reading on the diaspora.

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                                                                                                                                                          Intellectual, Cultural, and Military Aspects

                                                                                                                                                          Traditionally the diaspora has been studied from the perspective of intellectual history, as in Häseler and McKenna 1999. Exiled Huguenot pastors, theologians, and thinkers (Bost 2006), especially those settled in the United Provinces, were instrumental in spreading French language and culture and actively participated in the république des lettres, as can be found in Cerny 1987 and Yardeni 2002. Other works, such as Glozier and Onnekink 2007, focus on the military role played by the Huguenots in William of Orange’s campaigns.

                                                                                                                                                          • Bost, Hubert. Pierre Bayle. Paris: Fayard, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                            A fine biography of a prominent Huguenot philosopher who settled in Rotterdam and whose seminal writings are surprisingly modern.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Cerny, Gerald. Theology, Politics, and Letters at the Crossroads of European Civilization: Jacques Basnage and the Baylean Huguenot Refugees in the Dutch Republic. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                              In-depth study of the refugee communities in the United Provinces through the person of Jacques Basnage, their correspondence, and their intellectual networks. Highlights the place of Huguenot refugees within the république des lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Glozier, Matthew, and David Onnekink, eds. War, Religion, and Service: Huguenot Soldiering, 1685–1713. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                This book discusses the Huguenots’ strong military tradition and the refugees’ involvement in British and Dutch armies during the War of the League of Augsburg (1689–1697) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1713), an essential yet understudied dimension of the diaspora.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Häseler, Jens, and Antony McKenna, eds. La vie intellectuelle aux refuges protestants. Paris: Honoré Champion, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Intellectual exchanges through correspondence, translation, treatises, and pamphlets are an essential aspect of the Huguenot diaspora. Even if recent historiography has rightfully highlighted other aspects of the question, this dimension must not be neglected.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Yardeni, Miriam. Le refuge huguenot: Assimilation et culture. Paris: Honoré Champion, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A useful, insightful collection of essays on the diaspora from the complex perspective of assimilation.

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                                                                                                                                                                    The Diaspora in Europe

                                                                                                                                                                    Most Huguenot refugees relocated to northern Europe. Therefore many works have studied refugee communities in the United Provinces (Bots and Posthumus Meyjès 1986), Britain (Cottret 1991, Dunan-Page and Munoz-Teullié 2008, Gwynn 2001, Scouloudi 1987, Smiles 1972), Ireland (Hylton 2005), and Switzerland (Ducommin and Quadroni 1991).

                                                                                                                                                                    • Bots, J. A. H., and G. H. M. Posthumus Meyjès, eds. La révocation de l’Édit de Nantes et les Provinces-Unies. Papers presented at the international congress of the tricentennial, Leyde, 1–3 April 1985. Amsterdam: Holland University Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Collection of essays on the Huguenot refugees in the United Provinces (a major destination for Huguenot exiles) from various angles, including, originally, literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Cottret, Bernard. The Huguenots in England: Immigration and Settlement, c. 1550–1700. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Originally published in French, Terre d’exil: L’Angleterre et ses réfugiés 16e–17e siècles (Paris: Aubier, 1985). Masterful contextual study of the Huguenot and Walloon refugee communities in early modern England from demographic, socioeconomic, religious, and political perspectives.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Ducommin, Marie-Jeanne, and Dominique Quadroni. Le refuge protestant dans le Pays de Vaud (Fin XVIIe–début XVIIIe s.): Aspects d’une migration. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                          In-depth study of the Huguenot refugees in the Pays de Vaud, Switzerland, which was an essential stop on a major highway from France to the German states at the time of the diaspora.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Dunan-Page, Anne, and Marie-Christine Munoz-Teullié, eds. Les Huguenots dans les Îles Britanniques de la renaissance aux lumières. Écrits religieux et représentations. Paris: Honoré Champion, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Based on a conference held in Montpellier, France, in 2004, this collection of essays discusses religious aspects of the Huguenot settlement in the British Isles from the early years of the migration in the 16th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Gwynn, Robin D. Huguenot Heritage: The History and Contribution of the Huguenots in Britain. 2d ed. Brighton, UK: Sussex Academic, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Classic study of the Huguenot migration to Britain, particularly useful from the perspective of refugee demographics. First published in 1985 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Hylton, Raymond. Ireland’s Huguenots and Their Refuge, 1662–1745: An Unlikely Haven. Brighton, UK: Sussex Academic, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Catholic Ireland would not seem an ideal place for Huguenot refugees, even if their settlement was supported by England’s highest political and religious authorities. Yet a few thousand Huguenots relocated to Ireland. Based on a dissertation, this study sheds new light on this little-known community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Scouloudi, Irene, ed. Huguenots in Britain and Their French Background, 1550–1800: Contributions to the Historical Conference of the Huguenot Society of London, 24–25 September 1985. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Based on a 1985 conference held in London, this collection of essays discusses the Huguenots prior to their migration to Britain (notably and most interestingly their perception of British society and politics) and their settlement across the English Channel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Smiles, Samuel. The Huguenots: Their Settlements, Churches, and Industries in England and Ireland with an Appendix Relating to the Huguenots in America. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    First published in 1868. Detailed 19th-century study of the Huguenot refugee communities in the British Isles from a British point of view. Not always reliable but some essential information here.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    The Diaspora in America and South Africa

                                                                                                                                                                                    Long neglected by historians, Huguenot refugee communities in North America and South Africa were the bastion of genealogists and local amateur history buffs. Except for the pioneering and archival-based work of Charles W. Baird (Baird 1885), works by historians tended to lack scholarly thoroughness. The 1985 anniversary of the revocation, however, led to a gradual increase of valuable and solid studies. Except for Butler 1992, works have focused on one colony: New York (Carlo 2005), South Carolina (van Ruymbeke 2006), and Virginia (Lambert 2010). Kamil 2005 stands apart, as it covers the birth of French Protestantism, the Wars of Religion, and the post-revocation migration of Huguenot refugees to New York. For South Africa, works such as Boucher 1981 and Coertzen and Fensham 1988 have discussed the number of refugees, their origins in France, their migration by way of the Netherlands, how they were instrumental in the early years of the Dutch Cape Colony, and their contemporary legacy. Lachenicht 2010 studies Huguenot refugee communities and questions their integration into host societies.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Baird, Charles W. History of the Huguenot Emigration to America. 2 vols. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1885.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Old yet reliable in-depth (at times individualized) study of the Huguenots in British North America, particularly New England.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Boucher, Maurice. French Speakers at the Cape in the First Hundred Years of Dutch East India Company Rule: The European Background. Pretoria, South Africa: University of South Africa Press, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        After outlining the context of the Huguenot migration to the Cape Colony, this work identifies the refugees and traces their origins in France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Butler, Jon. The Huguenots in America: A Refugee People in New World Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          First published in 1983. Seminal and wide-ranging study of the migration and settlement of the Huguenots in New England, New York, and South Carolina.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Carlo, Paula. Huguenot Refugees in Colonial New York: Becoming American in the Hudson Valley. Brighton, UK: Sussex Academic, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Based on a dissertation, this study does a comparative analysis of the Huguenot-Walloon towns of New Paltz and New Rochelle in the colony of New York from the perspective of demographics, religion, slavery, and education.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Coertzen, Pieter, and Charles Fensham. The Huguenots of South Africa, 1688–1988. Cape Town: Tafelberg, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Published on the tercentenary of the arrival of the first Huguenot refugees at the Cape Colony, this survey covers the history and the legacy of the South African Huguenots from the very early years through the 1980s.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Garcia-Chapleau, Marilyn. Le Refuge huguenot du cap de Bonne-Espérance. Genèse, assimilation, héritage. Paris: Honoré Champion, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Based on a doctoral dissertation this book is a long overdue, well-documented and well-written study of the migration and settlement of the Huguenots in the Cape Colony following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes as well as their legacy—for better and for worse—through time in South Africa. The book also contains biographical vignettes of the early Huguenot settlers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kamil, Neil. Fortress of Soul: Violence, Metaphysics, and Material Life in the Huguenots’ New World, 1517–1751. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detailed, ambitious, and original (especially for its broad time span) study of early modern Huguenot cultural and religious identity and resistance through material culture. The author also studies the transfer of Huguenot artisanal techniques across the Atlantic through migration and trade.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lachenicht, Suzanne. Huguenotten in Europa und Nordamerika: Migration und Integration in der Frühen Neuzeit. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Thorough comparative study of the Huguenot migration and refugee communities in the Anglo-American world mostly seen from the difficult yet essential question of integration into the host societies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lambert, David E. The Protestant International and the Huguenot Migration to Virginia. New York: Peter Lang, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Based on a dissertation, this work is a thorough study of the lesser-known yet essential Huguenot settlement of Manakintown in Virginia placed in an enlightening Atlantic context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Rocher, Marie-Claude, et al. Huguenots et protestants francophones au Québec: Fragments d’histoire. Montreal: Les Éditions Novalis, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        This beautifully illustrated book, based on a 2008 conference and exhibition, tackles the little-studied topic of the Francophone Protestants in Quebec. The title “Fragments d’histoire” says it all as sources on this discreet not to say clandestine presence are fragmentary at best since Huguenots were prohibited from settling in New France after 1627 but tolerated as temporary migrants. Many though remained. The originality of the book is also to study the legacy of this presence in present-day Quebec.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rossignol, Marie-Jeanne, and Bertrand van Ruymbeke, eds. The Atlantic World of Anthony Benezet, 1713–1784: From French Reformation to North American Quaker Antislavery Activism. Early American History Series. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Huguenot-born Philadelphia Quaker Anthony Benezet is a well-known figure of 18th-century abolitionism and philanthropy but this edited volume fills a void in studying his French familial background, his life in Philadelphia, and his writings and legacy through an Atlantic lens. Essays written by renowned American, Canadian, British, and French historians focus on his family history in France, the migration to Pennsylvania via Rotterdam and London, his life and writing as a Quaker, and his editorial as well as intellectual influence beyond Philadelphia in Great Britain and France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • van Ruymbeke, Bertrand. From New Babylon to Eden: The Huguenots and Their Migration to Colonial South Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thorough demographic, social, religious, and political study of the Huguenot migration and settlement in early South Carolina (1660–1740) placed in an Atlantic context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            18th-Century French Protestantism

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Known in Huguenot history as le désert, the period between the 1685 revocation and the 1787 Edict of Toleration (or Edict of Versailles) stands in the shadow of diasporic studies, as it has been the object of much less study. Apart from regional studies, such as Krumenacker 1998, authors focus on the gradual construction of the concept of toleration in ancien régime France under the influence of the philosophes (Adams 1991)—Voltaire’s personal involvement in what is known as “l’affaire Calas” in 1761–1762 being a well-known moment in this evolution (Garrisson 2004)—or the Edict of Toleration (Encrevé and Lauriol 1988). Chabrol 1999 discusses the birth of Huguenot prophetism in post-revocation Languedoc. This legacy in England through the so-called French prophets is covered in Schwartz 1978 and Schwartz 1980.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Adams, Geoffrey. The Huguenots and French Opinion, 1685–1787: The Enlightenment Debate on Toleration. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              This study shows how public opinion gradually evolved from total approval of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes to a willingness to grant Huguenots toleration in the space of a century and highlight the role of the philosophes in this decisive evolution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Chabrol, Jean-Paul. Élie Marion, le vagabond de Dieu, 1687–1713: Prophétisme et millénarisme protestants en Europe à l’aube des lumières. Aix-en-Provence, France: Edisud, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fascinating biography on a Camisard leader turned prophet that highlights his role in founding the French prophet group and discusses what the author originally calls his “itinéraire géo-prophétique” in England and northern Europe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Encrevé, André, and Claude Lauriol, eds. Special Issue: L’Édit de Tolérance (1987). Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français 134.2 (1988).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Discusses the emergence and meaning of the concept of toleration in the second half of the 18th century and the contents and regional enforcement of the 1787 Edict of Toleration.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Garrioch, David. The Huguenots of Paris and the Coming of Religious Freedom, 1685–1789. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781107252769Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is a novel study of the Huguenots of Paris from the revocation of the Edict of Nantes to the Revolution. In this well-written and thoroughly researched book, David Garrioch tells us who the Parisian Huguenots were, where they lived in the city, and, most importantly, how they collectively survived the revocation and evolved religiously and culturally through the 18th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Garrisson, Janine. L’affaire Calas: Miroir des passions françaises. Paris: Fayard, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This work is the first to recapitulate the events known as “l’affaire Calas” (1761–1762), the story of a Huguenot father, Jean Calas, who was wrongly accused, tortured, and eventually executed for having murdered his son, who intended to convert to Catholicism. The book follows the story’s many renderings through French history. The case is well known because of Voltaire’s campaign to successfully rehabilitate Calas’s memory, which led him to write his famed Traité sur la tolérance (1763).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Krumenacker, Yves. Les protestants du Poitou au XVIIIe siècle, 1681–1789. Paris: Honoré Champion, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Thorough and well-written regional study of 18th-century Protestantism focusing on Poitou. Helps nuance the national perspective with local policies, collective, and individual behaviors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Schwartz, Hillel. Knaves, Fools, Madmen, and That Subtile Effluvium: A Study of the Opposition to the French Prophets in England, 1706–1710. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This study by a specialist of the “French prophets” focuses on the early history of this radical sect and the vehement opposition it provoked, particularly in mainstream Huguenot refugee circles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Schwartz, Hillel. The French Prophets: The History of a Millenarian Group in Eighteenth-Century England. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Discusses many aspects of the prophetic movement known as the “French prophets” (although apart from its founders most of its members were English). A must-read volume on the fascinating English ramifications of the revocation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Contemporary French Protestantism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Edict of Nantes and the revocation stand as towering events in Huguenot historiography. Therefore historians have tended to neglect the relatively peaceful contemporary period. Brought back into the French history master narrative in the mid-19th century by the monumental work of Jules Michelet, the Huguenots gradually became a discreet religious minority in an increasingly secular country. Apart from surveys such as Encrevé 1985, studies, sometimes by sociologists, focus on the difficult years at the end of the 19th century, when the Huguenots were the target of discrimination (Baubérot and Zuber 2000), their collective and individual contributions to the ideals of the French Republic (Cabanel 2000, Encrevé 1986), their interaction with the Jews (Cabanel 2004, Hallie 1994), their involvement in World War II (Encrevé and Poujol 1994), and their gradual secularization (Baubérot 1988).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Baubérot, Jean. Le protestantisme doit-il mourir? Paris: Seuil, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Original essay (with a provocative title) by a renowned French sociologist on the meaning and necessity of being Protestant in a thoroughly secular nation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Baubérot, Jean, and Valentine Zuber. Une haine oubliée: L’antiprotestantisme avant le “pacte laïque,” 1870–1905. Paris: Albin Michel, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fascinating study on the now-forgotten hatred of Huguenots by the Catholic establishment in late-19th-century France. This was before the 1905 foundational law on the separation of church and state blurred the lines between religious groups in France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cabanel, Patrick. Les protestants et la République de 1870 à nos jours. Brussels: Éditions Complexe, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  What role have the Huguenots played in the establishment and development of republican rule in France? This is the question that this work brilliantly answers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Cabanel, Patrick. Juifs et protestants en France: Les affinités electives. Paris: Fayard, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Original work on the interaction between two religious minorities in France, the Huguenots and the Jews. Study covers the post-Reformation period but with a specific focus on the 19th and 20th centuries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Encrevé, André. Les protestants en France de 1800 à nos jours. Paris: Stock, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Highly readable survey of the Huguenots since 1800. Very useful to understand the evolution of this religious minority and its gradual absorption into the nation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Encrevé, André. Les protestants français au milieu du XIXe siècle: Les réformés de 1848 à 1870. Geneva, Switzerland: Labor and Fides, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of the Huguenots in the mid-19th century, a crucial moment when their story was reintegrated into mainstream French history while the Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français was founded to preserve their specific past.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Encrevé, André, and Jacques Poujol, eds. Special Issue: Les protestants et la IIe Guerre Mondiale. Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français 140.5 (1994).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This special issue discusses the obscure Protestantism of the 1930s and 1940s from a theological, sociological, and political perspective. An important aspect remains the interaction of the Huguenots with the Jews during this difficult period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hallie, Philip P. Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed: The Story of the Village of Le Chambon and How Goodness Happened There. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This book recognizes the collective and discreet heroism of the inhabitants of the small village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, in south central France, who, led by the determination of their pastor, saved at least three thousand (possibly up to five thousand) Jews from capture and deportation during World War II. First published in 1979 (New York: Harper & Row).

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