Atlantic History Gender in North America
by
Karin Wulf
  • LAST REVIEWED: 08 June 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 30 January 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199730414-0225

Introduction

Gender, in Joan Scott’s famous formulation, is “a constitutive element of social relationships based on perceived differences between the sexes, and gender is a primary way of signifying relationships of power (Joan Scott, “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,” American Historical Review 91.5 [December 1986]: 1067). Scholars who have taken issue with aspects of Scott’s definition include Jeanne Boydston, who noted the Eurocentric character of Scott’s depiction of gender and called for more scrutiny of the ways that using gender “as a category of historical analysis has stymied our efforts to write a history—or many histories—of gender as historical process” (Jeanne Boydston, “Gender as a Question of Historical Analysis,” Gender & History 20.3 (November 2008, p. 559). Nonetheless, key features of Scott’s theory about the place and function of gender remain central to historical writing about North America in the period c. 1400–1800. The scholarship focused on gender in North America c. 1400–1800 is primarily concerned with explaining the relationship of women to the societies and cultures in which they lived. Gender is a key component of that explanation, whether looking at labor, law, sexuality, religion, or politics—or even biography. A secondary thread is the impact of ideas about gender, mostly femininity but also masculinity and, more rarely, their mutual constitution in shaping those societies and cultures. Many of the works that have focused on women as subjects and have analyzed gender have looked primarily at the experiences of white women. These patterns reflect the relative dearth of textual sources written by and about women, but especially by and about women who were not middling or upper status and white. More recent studies look to Native American and African American women. Gender is also more recently analyzed as critically connected to race, class, and sexuality. In North American scholarship on the era of European colonization, these multiple elements of identity were ideological in that they were formed in the context of relations and exercise of power, whether through colonialism more broadly or slavery more specifically. The first generation of sustained attention to women in early America focused most heavily on European women in British America, but more recent scholarship is often formulated in an Atlantic context. Connections to Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean are regular features in this work. Topics such as labor, law, marriage, and religion have remained important in understanding the role and impact of gender, although many of the works listed here might reasonably fit into more than one category.

General Overviews

No one volume can tell, or tries to tell, the history of gender in early North America. Rather, the books and articles included here each try to give a sense of the diversity of women’s experiences, and the diversity of gender systems, in this place and time. There is a clear imbalance, with more attention paid to European women or women of European ancestry than to Native American or African American women, or women of mixed race. It is also the case that efforts to speak of “women” collectively or of gender singly must fail because of the complex diversity of women’s experiences and systems of gendered power. The two historiographical essays Haulman 2003 and Snyder 2012 survey the field of early American women’s history making clear connections between women’s and gender history. Texts with a sampling of the most recent and influential work in this field are Norton and Alexander 2007 and Kerber, et al. 2010. The edited collection Stoler 2006 indicates new directions in thinking about gender as it relates to the history of empires in North America. Stoler’s own scholarship, in this volume and elsewhere, on the making of gender and racial hierarchies with the intimate relationships of colonial households in the Dutch East Indies helped to stimulate thinking about how such domestic relationships, even as they were highly regulated, were central to the creation and perpetuation of status hierarchies beneficial to imperial aims. Brown 1996 is one of the most regularly cited examples of scholarship that analyzes the mutuality of race and gender as systems of power.

  • Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1996.

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    Brown’s book, though it focuses on Virginia, has become required reading for anyone interested in women, race, and gender in early America and well beyond. Articulating and demonstrating the connection between hierarchies of race, class, and gender, Brown’s reconceived the history not only of Virginia, but of early America.

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    • Haulman, Kate. “Room in Back: Before and beyond the Nation in Women’s and Gender History.” Journal of Women’s History 15.1 (2003): 167–171.

      DOI: 10.1353/jowh.2003.0026Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Haulman reflects on the small percentage of women’s and gender history devoted to the early period. Haulman suggests that, like other aspects of colonial history, women’s history is often tied to a narrative about the American nation and thus the earlier period is difficult to synthesize or connect with modern concerns.

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      • Kerber, Linda K., Jane Sherron De Hart, and Cornelia H. Dayton. Women’s America: Refocusing the Past. 7th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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        The first part (of four) includes excerpts from some classic and some newer scholarly books and articles as well as primary sources focused on women and gender in the 17th and 18th centuries.

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        • Norton, Mary Beth, and Ruth M. Alexander. Major Problems in American Women’s History. 7th ed. New York: Cenage, 2007.

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          The first five chapters (of sixteen) are a combination of essays, most excerpted from longer works, and primary documents.

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          • Snyder, Terri. “Refiguring Women in Early American History.” William and Mary Quarterly 69.3 (July 2012): 421–450.

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            This essay reviews papers delivered at a 2011 conference on the topic as well as surveys the field of early American women’s history, concluding that studies of women can and should contribute to the study of early America more generally. Snyder reiterates Boydston’s point that focusing on women as historical subjects is critical to understanding gender.

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            • Stoler, Ann Laura, ed. Haunted by Empire: Geographies of Intimacy in North American History. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

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              A set of essays that apply the insights of postcolonial theory to early America and the United States, including the ways that race, family, and sexuality were scrutinized by authorities within disparate but “intimate” settings and relationships. Maintaining cultural hierarchies led to the regulation, for example, of marriage across a range of American social and cultural contexts.

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              Native American Women

              The study of Native American women and gender in Early America shares some features with the field of gender studies more generally: while studies of women have tended to emphasize the experience and cultural significance of white, European women, Native American studies have tended to emphasize issues of cultural conflict, diplomacy, and war in which men were the primary actors. A vital field of Native American women’s history has developed, emphasizing the importance of women to the practices of cultural contact between European colonists and Native Americans, beginning in the English-claimed colonies with the much-storied Pocahontas (Townsend 2005). Van Kirk 1983, Anderson 1991, and Sleeper-Smith 2001 look at the interaction of Indian women and French men in New France, while Perdue 1998 and Duval 2008 look to the Southeast. Barr 2007 focuses on the Southwest and contact among native people and the Spanish explorers and colonizers; Shoemaker 1995 includes studies of across North America.

              • Anderson, Karen. Chain Her by One Foot: The Subjugation of Women in Seventeenth-Century France. New York: Routledge, 1991.

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                Anderson argues that the French Jesuits explicitly targeted the rearrangement of native gender relations as central to the Christianizing process. Based primarily on the Jesuit Relations, a problematic source, she shows that in some ways the Huron and Iroquois of New France become less equal in their understanding and treatment of women.

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                • Barr, Julianna. Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas Borderlands. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

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                  Barr demonstrates how Native American women were critical political and diplomatic actors in colonial Texas from the late 17th century to the late 18th century. For example, she examines the interactions between the Caddo and French and Spaniards, showing how the former were more successful because they were able to acknowledge the significance of women in Caddo culture.

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                  • Duval, Kathleen. “Indian Intermarriage and Metissage in Colonial Louisiana.” William and Mary Quarterly 65 (April 2008): 267–304.

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                    By comparing the experiences of women in different Native American groups in Louisiana, Duval shows that the practice of intermarrying with French men varied and was dependent on such factors as the political and economic stability of the Native Americans’ communities.

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                    • Perdue, Theda. Cherokee Women: Gender and Culture Change, 1700–1835. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

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                      Perdue works carefully with the dominant European and male-generated historical sources to place the culture and experiences of Cherokee women at the center of her analysis, showing how Cherokee women both retained aspects of their traditional life and adapted to European colonization.

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                      • Shoemaker, Nancy, ed. Negotiators of Change: Historical Perspectives on Native American Women. New York: Routledge, 1995.

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                        This volume of essays includes several important articles on Native American women in early America as well as a substantial introduction by Shoemaker surveying the field.

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                        • Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.

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                          In this important contribution to understanding how women were central to Native American strategies for responding to European colonization, Sleeper-Smith shows how Indian women, for example, carefully negotiated marriages with French traders and other adaptations of kin networks.

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                          • Townsend, Camilla. Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005.

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                            Townsend explores the Pocahantas myth to probe the impact of English colonization on native people in Virginia. She examines the evidence about Amonute (before she was dubbed Pocahantas), and the English notions of gender and sexuality that cast her as John Smith’s rescuer and John Rolfe’s Christianized wife.

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                            • Van Kirk, Sylvia. Many Tender Ties: Women in Fur Trade Society, 1670–1870. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983.

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                              An early effort to map the relationships between Indian women and French men in New France, Van Kirk emphasizes women’s role in the fur trade in terms of both labor and important access to kin, trade, and knowledge networks. The significance of the mixed-race population that developed is also discussed.

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                              African American Women

                              The adage that historical accounts tend to treat all women as white, and all slaves as men, is only a little less true in the early 21st century. Studies of African American women in early America are still too few, studies of women in early America still tend to focus on white women, and studies of slavery still tend to ignore enslaved women. The challenge of reading sources almost exclusively created by others about African American women is addressed directly by nearly all of the authors cited here. Their work ranges across women’s experiences in slavery and freedom, of family, labor, and violence. Readers may wish to consult the topics Work and Economy, Law, Sex and Sexuality, and Marriage, Family, and Reproduction for other works that address the history of African American women. While White 1999 is a classic study, works such as Gaspar and Hine 1996, Camp 2004, and Morgan 2004 have considered enslaved women’s experience within and response to the labor system of slavery itself. Morgan 2004, Miles 2005, Gordon-Reed 1997, and Gordon-Reed 2008 look at the issue of slavery of family; Sensbach 2005 is an example of work looking at the importance and function of religion.

                              • Camp, Stephanie. Closer to Freedom: Freedom and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

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                                Although Camp’s work is focused on the 19th century, her method and argument have powerful implications for the earlier period. Camp finds evidence of enslaved women’s resistance in everyday acts as well as in their very understanding of their enslaved bodies.

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                                • Gaspar, David Barry, and Darlene Clark Hine, eds. More than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1996.

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                                  This collection includes important work about enslaved women in early North America, including Robert Olwell’s essay about enslaved women in Charleston and the market they created and maintained to sell goods for small gains.

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                                  • Gordon-Reed, Annette. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1997.

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                                    An explication of the primary sources concerning the relationship between Hemings and Jefferson, long rumored to be sexual and to have produced four children. Gordon-Reed points to previous scholars’ presumptions about Jefferson, about the value of black Americans’ oral histories, and about sex in slave societies as accounting for their failure to fully consider this evidence.

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                                    • Gordon-Reed, Annette. The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family. New York: W. W. Norton, 2008.

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                                      This book offers a careful and lengthy consideration of the enslaved Hemings family, with the relationship between Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson that produced four children at its center. Sally Hemings was Jefferson’s wife’s half-sister, the child of Martha Jefferson’s planter father and Betty Hemings, a slave.

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                                      • Miles, Tiya. Ties that Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

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                                        The family of Doll, an enslaved African American woman, and Shoe Boots, a Cherokee man, illuminates the interplay of race, gender, and status in Native American communities that included slaves. Miles follows the story of Doll, Shoe Boots, and their descendants from the late 18th to the mid-19th century.

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                                        • Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

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                                          A study that emphasizes enslaved women’s childbearing as a critical feature of their labor. Morgan looks at the history of black women’s enslaved bodies in the English colonies of the Caribbean and the North American mainland both in terms of what kinds of racist ideas and images circulated about them and also about how women physically experienced slavery.

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                                          • Sensbach, Jon. Rebecca’s Revival: Creating Black Christianity in the Atlantic World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005.

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                                            Rebecca Protten was a Moravian convert who lived and preached on St. Thomas. Sensbach’s reconstruction of her life and experiences suggests a method for understanding more about the spirituality of African American women who converted to Christianity, especially to those faiths with theologies that emphasized equality of spirit (if not of worldly life).

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                                            • White, Deborah Gray. Ar’n’t I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South. New York: W. W. Norton, 1999.

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                                              A classic since the first edition was published in 1985, White’s book reveals the “double burden” of blackness and femininity. She examines myths and typologies as well as women’s experience in slavery and freedom. A new introduction and chapter are included in this edition.

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                                              Comparative Colonial Contexts

                                              For decades the dominant scholarship on gender in North America focused on white women in the British colonies or early United States. Newer work looks at the significant role of gender, albeit primarily using the example of women and femaleness, in comparative colonial contexts in North America, including the Dutch-, French-, and Spanish-claimed territories. Many of these scholars highlight the role of gender in shaping contact between Europeans and Native Americans. Whereas Gutierrez 1991 emphasizes the ways that the Spanish interpreted native sexuality as crucial to their colonial encounters in New Spain, Barr 2007 emphasizes that Texas was still very much a native-controlled space in which women and gender played a key role. Duval 2008 and Sleeper-Smith 2001 emphasize the importance of women in creating kinship networks in different areas of New France. Clark 2007, Spear 2009, and White 2006 examine the different ways that gender, race, and sexuality influenced New Orleans through periods of French, Spanish, and American rule.

                                              • Barr, Julianna. Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas Borderlands. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

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                                                Barr looks at the ways that Indian women’s roles were central to continued Native American control in Texas, first in the context of French-Caddo contact, and then in the Spanish-claimed but largely Indian-controlled territories of Texas.

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                                                • Clark, Emily. Masterless Mistresses: The New Orleans Ursulines and the Development of a New World Society, 1727–1834. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2007.

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                                                  Clark examines the many generations of Ursuline nuns in a convent they first established in early-18th-century New Orleans, and how they provided education both to women who came from abroad, France and then Spanish colonies such as Cuba, and also to some local women.

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                                                  • Duval, Kathleen. “Indian Intermarriage and Metissage in Colonial Louisiana.” William and Mary Quarterly 65 (April 2008): 267–304.

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                                                    Looking at the broad swath of New France in the middle of the North American continent, Duval shows how the practices of intermarriage with the French varied in different areas and among different Native American groups and was largely driven not by European policies or interests, but by the situation of the native people.

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                                                    • Gutierrez, Ramon. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.

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                                                      A controversial book. Explores central cultural concepts of honor, virtue, shame, and sexual expression, in the pre- and postcontact eras, of the Pueblo Indians, Spanish explorers, and Franciscan friars.

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                                                      • Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.

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                                                        Sleeper-Smith examines the careful strategies employed by native women in New France to make alliances through marriage to French men. The resulting kinship networks were important sources of economic and political stability.

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                                                        • Spear, Jennifer. Race, Sex and Social Order in Early New Orleans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

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                                                          Spear examines the construction of race through the regulation of sex and sexuality in French-, Spanish-, and American-controlled New Orleans. She emphasizes both the interest of officials in enforcing these regulations, and the response of women and men living in New Orleans, often in defiance of these structures.

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                                                          • White, Sophie. “‘A Baser Commerce’: Retailing, Class and Gender in French Colonial New Orleans.” William and Mary Quarterly 63 (July 2006): 517–550.

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                                                            White looks at the complex regulation of women’s business in colonial New Orleans. Focusing on the officially banned mercantile activity of high-status women, including the governor’s wife, White shows both how sophisticated these women’s businesses were, and also how they subverted the regulations against their work.

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                                                            Work and Economy

                                                            The gender of labor was an essential facet of early North American cultures. The work presented here covers many different types of labor, free and unfree. Urban and rural labor differed, as did non-skilled and skilled, domestic and commercial. Historians have discovered more evidence of the range of work that women did but have also acknowledged that even as women worked within the interstices of the gendered systems of labor, their opportunities remained limited. While Miller 2006, Meacham 2009, and Ulrich 1991 look to specific trades, Crane 1998 and Hartigan-O’Connor 2010 look at women in urban commercial economies. Morgan 2004 and Brown 2009 examine how very different cultural attitudes produced gendered labor regimes.

                                                            • Brown, Kathleen. Foul Bodies: Cleanliness in Early America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009.

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                                                              Cleanliness was a cultural concept that developed meaning in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Bathing, regular laundry, and housecleaning all became labor associated with and largely performed by women, as cleanliness itself became associated with gentility and whiteness.

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                                                              • Crane, Elaine. Ebb Tide in New England: Women, Seaports, and Social Change: 1630–1800. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.

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                                                                A study of primarily European-American women in four New England seaport towns, Boston, Newport, Portsmouth, and Salem. Looking at economy, law, and religion, Crane argues that women’s status and opportunities declined over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries.

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                                                                • Hartigan-O’Connor, Ellen. The Ties that Buy: Women and Commerce in Revolutionary America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

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                                                                  A study of women in Newport, Rhode Island and Charleston, South Carolina suggests the extent to which they engaged in the complex commercial networks within their communities into the 19th century. As creditors, debtors, buyers, and sellers women were both essential to and vulnerable to the economic conditions of these 18th-century Atlantic urban places.

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                                                                  • Meacham, Sarah Hand. Every Home a Distillery: Alcohol, Gender, and Technology in the Colonial Chesapeake. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

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                                                                    Women were the primary producers and distributors of alcohol, which was largely consumed in a domestic setting. As new consumer beverages, namely, tea and coffee, became available, and as men began to distill hard alcohol, the small beer, cider, and wine that women made became less desirable.

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                                                                    • Miller, Marla R. The Needle’s Eye: Women and Work in the Age of Revolution. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2006.

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                                                                      A close look at skilled female artisans, particularly seamstresses and tailoresses, shows the complex division of gendered labor in the clothing trades but also class divisions within them. Female apprentices spent many years learning their trade, and some chose the emerging work of rapid readymade production rather than the traditional work for which they trained.

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                                                                      • Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

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                                                                        Morgan’s work, unlike other studies of enslaved African American women, emphasizes their reproductive labor as crucial to both their experience of slavery and their economic value to slaveowners.

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                                                                        • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785–1812. New York: Random House, 1991.

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                                                                          Martha Ballard, a Maine midwife, kept a careful diary of her daily life and work. Ulrich has reconstructed both to reveal the extent to which women’s labor was interwoven through the cash, credit, and barter economies of rural New England. Ballard’s work was also taking place in a period of transition as male doctors began to try to displace midwives by claiming educational expertise.

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                                                                          Education and Literacy

                                                                          Formal education and literacy were the purview of the middling and elites in most places in early North America, though in New England Bible reading and teaching made for more widespread literacy rates, and in some urban areas small schools taught young men and women from more modest backgrounds. A small movement to educate slaves resulted in such places as the Bray School in Williamsburg. Most scholars looking at issues of gender, education, and literacy have emphasized the increasing number of female readers and writers across the 18th century. Evidence of women’s engagement with print culture is evident in the source materials in Milcah Martha Moore’s Book (Blecki and Wulf 1997) and the sources used by the authors in the edited collection of essays Hackel and Kelley 2009. Kerrison 2005 and Kelley 2006 illustrate the importance of women’s schooling, reading, and writing in very different regional and thus cultural contexts: the colonial south and the early-Republic north. Stabile 2004 and Skemp 2009 highlight female authorship.

                                                                          • Blecki, Catherine La Courreye, and Karin Wulf. Milcah Martha Moore’s Book: A Commonplace Book from Revolutionary America. State College, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.

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                                                                            Milcah Martha Moore (b. 1740–d. 1829) collected and copied in her commonplace book, reflecting her intellectual interests and influences, the poetry and prose of friends and family, and items from print sources. The 126 works include important writing by Elizabeth Graeme Fergusson, Hannah Griffitts, and Susannah Wright.

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                                                                            • Hackel, Heidi Brayman, and Catherine E. Kelley, eds. Reading Women: Literacy, Authorship, and Culture in the Atlantic World, 1500–1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

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                                                                              The extraordinary expansion of literacy among white women in early modern England and English America helped to shape print culture. Biases against women reading and reading pervaded the period, but the essays show the range of subject matter literate women consumed.

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                                                                              • Kelley, Mary. Learning to Stand and Speak: Women, Education, and Public Life in America’s Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

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                                                                                Kelley looks at the impact of the (mostly northern) expansion in middling and elite women’s educational opportunities in the early years of the United States, finding that women understood their education could give them a new place, if modest, in the civic culture. Women participated in reading circles and literary societies as well as reform work.

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                                                                                • Kerrison, Catherine. Claiming the Pen: Women and Intellectual Life in the Early American South. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                  There were not female academies in the South in the same numbers as in the North, and white women’s reading preferences tended to novels and solitude rather than, as in the North, reading circles and literary clubs, but Kerrison argues that women’s reading and writing were important to them and to their societies.

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                                                                                  • Skemp, Sheila. First Lady of Letters: Judith Sargent Murray and the Struggle for Female Independence. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

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                                                                                    This biography of author and women’s rights advocate Judith Sargent Murray (b. 1751–d. 1820) relies on Murray’s writings as well as a trove of newly discovered papers and letters. Murray argued against the gendered ideas and practices of her era that emphasized women’s subordination to men, although she was ultimately constrained by them.

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                                                                                    • Stabile, Susan M. Memory’s Daughters: The Material Culture of Remembrance in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.

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                                                                                      Stabile focuses on the ways that women in and around 18th-century Philadelphia interacted with their material surroundings to experience and create memory. Through the private work of reading, writing, domestic arrangement, and collecting, women helped to create memories and histories for themselves, their families, and communities.

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                                                                                      Law

                                                                                      The creation and implementation of law offers a number of ways for historians to examine gender in early America. Court records are an important source, and one of the few public sources where women appear. Gender inhered in the civil and criminal law, as did race. In property law, as Salmon 1986 and Sturtz 2002 show, married women were constrained by the law of coverture. Coverture, the idea that married women were “covered” in law by their husbands, granted near-exclusive ownership or control of a married woman’s property to her husband. It also prevented her from appearing in court, as she was understood to be her husband’s dependent. Other specifically gendered aspects of law include issues of economy (Rosen 1997), regulation of speech (Kamensky 1998 and Snyder 2003), sexuality (Dayton 1995 and Pagan 2003), and rape (Block 2006). While scholars have closely examined these sorts of gendered aspects of the law, they have also looked at how the law treated men and women differently, and differently by race.

                                                                                      • Block, Sharon. Rape and Sexual Power in Early America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2006.

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                                                                                        In early North America sexual violence was pervasive, rarely reported, varied little by region or over time, and firmly connected to privileges of race and gender and to cultural ideas about femininity, masculinity, and sexual access.

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                                                                                        • Dayton, Cornelia H. Women before the Bar: Gender, Law, and Society in Connecticut, 1639–1789. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1995.

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                                                                                          Dayton emphasizes how gender worked through the law in two phases of Connecticut’s history. In the 17th century Puritan legal practice prized truth and salvation; women’s testimony was allowed and valued in court although women were subordinated within the religion. In the 18th century, English legal procedure was prized and women’s voices almost disappeared from court.

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                                                                                          • Kamensky, Jane. Governing the Tongue: The Politics of Speech in Early New England. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                            Aspects of this work look at the legal regulation of speech among Puritans which, like other ways of defining and shaping appropriate speech, clearly reflected gendered expectations of men’s and women’s behavior.

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                                                                                            • Pagan, John. Anne Orthwood’s Bastard: Sex and Law in Early Virginia. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                              A study of the multiple court proceedings that ensued when a young servant girl became pregnant by a higher-status man, and died in childbirth. The cases about who owed what to whom for her lost labor and her child’s support illustrate the intersections of gender, sexuality, economics, and law.

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                                                                                              • Rosen, Deborah A. Courts and Commerce: Gender, Law, and the Market Economy in Colonial New York. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                Rosen’s analysis of New York confirms some of Cornelia Hughes Dayton’s findings for Connecticut: as the market expanded and the law formalized, women were increasingly excluded from the debt and credit relationships that drove the economy.

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                                                                                                • Salmon, Marylynn. Women and the Law of Property in Early America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                  Still the most comprehensive treatment of women’s access to and role within the laws governing property. Salmon surveys how coverture, which largely reserved married women’s property for their husbands’ ownership and use, was implemented across the British North American colonies.

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                                                                                                  • Snyder, Terri. Brabbling Women: Disorderly Speech and the Law in Early Virginia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                    Women’s public speech was seen as problematic, and resulted in court actions, but women continued to try to use their words and their voices to gain leverage. Rape cases are a particular example of how women’s speech was both discouraged and could be powerful when used informally.

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                                                                                                    • Sturtz, Linda. Within Her Power: Propertied Women in Colonial Virginia. New York: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                                      Like Cornelia Dayton’s study of Connecticut, Sturtz finds more flexibility in women’s relationship to the law in the 17th century, and more rigid application of English law in the 18th. Examples in both centuries show propertied women who were able to carve out a legal and economic role for themselves.

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                                                                                                      Sex and Sexuality

                                                                                                      Since the publication of Foucault’s History of Sexuality (in trans. Foucault 1978), historians have engaged in a discussion about his contention that modern notions of sexual identity began to emerge only in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Block and Brown 2003 and Godbeer 2002 offer a useful introduction to these themes. Another key issue in the history of sexuality in early North American, taken up by Fischer 2002, Burnard 2004, and Lyons 2006, is the role of power, particularly gender and racial hierarchies, in facilitating or guaranteeing through law white men’s access to women’s bodies. Dayton 1991 deals with abortion politics, while Godbeer 2002 and Foster 2006 addresses homosexuality. Readers may also want to consult the section of this article on Marriage, Family, and Reproduction.

                                                                                                      • Block, Sharon, and Kathleen M. Brown. “Clio in Search of Eros: Redefining Sexualities in Early America.” William and Mary Quarterly 60.1 (January 2003): 5–12.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/3491493Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        This essay introduces a special issue of the journal, the articles drawn from a 2001 conference. Block and Brown discuss the development of the history and scholarship on sexuality generally, pointing to Michel Foucault’s History of Sexuality (trans. Foucault 1978) as a turning point, and for the early American field.

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                                                                                                        • Burnard, Trevor. Mastery, Tyranny, and Desire: Thomas Thistlewood and His Slaves in the Anglo-Jamaican World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                          Thomas Thistlewood kept a detailed diary of his brutality as a slave master and of his sex life—often overlapping spheres. This microhistory uses Thistlewood to examine the cultivation and use of gendered and racial power in the slave societies of the early modern Caribbean.

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                                                                                                          • Dayton, Cornelia Hughes. “Taking the Trade: Abortion and Gender Relations in an Eighteenth-Century New England Village.” William and Mary Quarterly 48.1 (January 1991): 19–49.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/2937996Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            In 1742 a young women had a botched abortion and died. The aftermath of the case included the prosecution of the doctor for her death, and reveals the ambivalence in early New England about premarital sex and abortion, but also the strict sexual double standard applied to men and women.

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                                                                                                            • Fischer, Kirsten. Suspect Relations: Sex, Race and Resistance in Colonial North Carolina. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                              Reviews the many ways that hierarchies of race were, over time, increasingly instituted and policed through the regulation of interracial relationships and mixed-race children, and through the selective use and enforcement of laws about sexual violence.

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                                                                                                              • Foster, Thomas. Sex and the Eighteenth-Century Man: Massachusetts and the History of Sexuality in America. Boston: Beacon, 2006.

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                                                                                                                Foster argues against French theorist Michel Foucault’s important formulation that early modern ideas about sexuality were attached to behaviors, not to sexuality as identity. In early Massachusetts, sexuality was understood to be a combination of specific behaviors, preferences, and identity.

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                                                                                                                • Foucault, Michel. History of Sexuality. Vol. 1. Translated by Robert Hurley. New York: Pantheon, 1978.

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                                                                                                                  Foucault’s argument that sexuality as an identity was both created and began to be policed by governments and other cultural forces in the modern era has been enormously influential among scholars.

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                                                                                                                  • Godbeer, Richard. Sexual Revolution in Early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                    Sex in early America was understood in terms of behaviors rather than identities. Godbeer looks at sexual behavior and official efforts to regulate that behavior, particularly along lines of religious prescription (particularly in the 17th century), racial hierarchy (particularly in the South), and among youth (particularly in urban centers).

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                                                                                                                    • Lyons, Clare. Sex among the Rabble: An Intimate History of Gender and Power in the Age of Revolution, Philadelphia, 1730–1830. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2006.

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                                                                                                                      Lyons contends that the evidence of births to single mothers, prostitution, and a sexualized print culture constituted a “pleasure culture” in one of North America’s largest 18th-century port cities.

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                                                                                                                      • Taking the Trade.

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                                                                                                                        A website complementing Dayton 1991, an article of the same name about a young woman’s abortion and death in mid-18th-century Connecticut. Includes a timeline of events, court records, material on the central characters, a map, and photographs of extant buildings.

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                                                                                                                        Marriage, Family, and Reproduction

                                                                                                                        Marriage, family, and reproduction were key places where ideas about gender were expressed and enacted both within intimate relationships and also by officials who wanted to regulate sex, marriage, and legitimacy. Historians have shown that the social expectations of husbands and wives reflected deeply held beliefs about how individuals should behave within marriages, what kinds of activities they should perform within the household, and the relative value of that behavior and those activities for their families and their communities (Wilson 1999). For women, gendered expectations centered on reproduction and the care of children (Klepp 2009 and Wulf 2000). The social and economic connection of reproduction to labor was very different for enslaved women than for free, white women; Morgan 2004 shows how their reproduction was a form of labor that enhanced the wealth of their owners. British, French, Spanish colonial authorities all legislated the status of children depending on the race of their parents, though somewhat differently within each colonial context and in different eras (Gutierrez 1991 and Plane 2000). Likewise, mixed-race couples faced varied regulation of marriage and differing forms of punishment for sexual relationships depending on the region and era, issues addressed by Fischer 2002 and Spear 2009. These regulations that colonial and then national officials imposed on domestic lives reveal the complex interplay of gender with race and sexuality. Readers may also want to consult the section of this article on Sex and Sexuality.

                                                                                                                        • Fischer, Kirsten. Suspect Relations: Sex, Race and Resistance in Colonial North Carolina. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                          A close analysis of the construction of racial hierarchy in North Carolina through the regulation of marriage and sexuality, and through the evolution of laws concerning sexual violence.

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                                                                                                                          • Gutierrez, Ramon. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                            A controversial book emphasizing how ideas about family, sexuality, gender, and honor were important in the pre- and postcontact interactions among the Pueblo Indians, Spanish explorers, and Franciscan friars.

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                                                                                                                            • Klepp, Susan E. Revolutionary Conceptions: Women, Fertility and Family Limitation in America, 1760–1820. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2009.

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                                                                                                                              The number of children born by women, especially middling and elite white women, has been declining since the middle of the 18th century. Klepp stresses women’s active role in limiting their fertility, and the connection to the American Revolution’s promotion of new ways of thinking about individualism, childrearing, personal satisfaction.

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                                                                                                                              • Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                Morgan argues that the body and reproduction were key both to European men and slaveowners’ views of African women, as well as their economic value, and to the experience of enslaved women.

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                                                                                                                                • Plane, Ann Marie. Colonial Intimacies: Indian Marriage in Early New England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                  In an effort to “civilize” Indians, 17th-century New England authorities increasingly required that native families conform to the colonial laws of marriage and property. A case study of the Nantucket courts shows how, even for Native Americans, inheritance became entwined with European-style understanding of property and family relations.

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                                                                                                                                  • Spear, Jennifer. Race, Sex and Social Order in Early New Orleans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                    New Orleans’ population included Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans through periods of control by the French, Spanish, and then Americans. While people created intimate connections across racial lines, under each regime sex and marriage across racial lines was regulated albeit somewhat differently in each.

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                                                                                                                                    • Wilson, Lisa. Ye Heart of a Man: The Domestic Life of Men in Colonial New England. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                      An emphasis on life course, and the many roles men were expected to fill during their lives, as sons, husbands, and providers. There were tensions within these expectations, as well as within the system of gender hierarchy which gave adult white men authority over dependents within their households.

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                                                                                                                                      • Wulf, Karin. Not All Wives: Women of Colonial Philadelphia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                        Unmarried women were not subject to the same cultural and legal constraints as wives. In Philadelphia a large population of unmarried women (never married as well as widows) headed households, managed businesses, and played an important social and religious role.

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                                                                                                                                        Religion

                                                                                                                                        Despite the fact that women were (and continue to be) the majority filling the pews in any congregation, in histories of religion, as in histories of other major structures and institutions, such as politics and economics, histories of women and gender tend not to be treated within general works, but in distinct and separate scholarship (Lindman 2010). The scholarship that treats gender and early American religion has tended to focus on women, and on women in Christian denominations. As in other areas of early America, work on African American and Native American women has emerged more fully beginning in the 1990s. On women’s spiritual and organizational leadership, see Brekus 1998, Clark 2007, and Greer 2005. The imposition of gender hierarchy within radical Protestant groups is treated in Juster 1996 and Lindman 2008, while the gendered aspects of theology are subjects of Ulrich 1982 and Fogelman 2007.

                                                                                                                                        • Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740–1845. New York: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                          Although many denominations discouraged or even forbade women from preaching, evangelical women worked to make space for themselves and their message of spiritual equality. These women, many of them itinerants, have been largely overlooked or forgotten by historians.

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                                                                                                                                          • Clark, Emily. Masterless Mistresses: The New Orleans Ursulines and the Development of a New World Society, 1727–1834. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                            A study of a convent of Ursulines in New Orleans over the period it shifted from French to Spanish and then American control, this book shows how nuns managed their property, including slaves, and their religious life in tension with the changes around them.

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                                                                                                                                            • Fogelman, Aaron. Jesus Is Female: Moravians and the Challenge of Radical Religion in Early America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                              The Moravians emphasized gender equality in both earthly and spiritual matters, which drew the antagonism of other groups. Moravian teachings also emphasized the feminine qualities of the divine, including some highly sexualized images of Jesus’ “side wound” that resembled female genitalia.

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                                                                                                                                              • Greer, Allan. Mohawk Saint: Catherine Tekakwitha and the Jesuits. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                The most fully fleshed-out portrait of a Native American convert to Catholicism. Kateri Tekakwitha, canonized in 2012, was a 17th-century Iroquois. Because of the sources Greer spends more time on her contemporary Jesuit hagiographers, but is able to invoke the spiritual and material worlds in which Tekakwitha lived.

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                                                                                                                                                • Juster, Susan. Disorderly Women: Sexual Politics and Evangelicalism in Revolutionary New England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                  In the early years of the evangelical movement, women were allowed positions of some authority. In the years of the American Revolution a more conservative and masculine style pervaded denominations such as the Baptists, the focus of this book, and moved women to the margins.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Lindman, Janet Moore. Bodies of Belief: Baptist Community in Early America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                    Looking at the Delaware Valley and Virginia, Lindman shows how the Baptists reflected traditional gendered values and practices even while their theology emphasized spiritual equality between men and women.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Lindman, Janet Moore. “Women, Gender and Religion in the Early Americas.” History Compass 8.2 (February 2010): 197–211.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00665.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      A review of recent scholarship on women, religion, and the conflicts their spiritual experiences and ambitions for leadership posed for the societies and cultures in which they lived. Covers Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish women as well as Native American women’s spirituality in British, French, and Spanish colonial America.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Ulrich, Laurel. Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, 1650–1750. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                        An important book in the first wave of histories of women in early America, focused on Puritan women and how their lives can be described as contained within particular roles pertaining to household, family, and faith.

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                                                                                                                                                        Witchcraft

                                                                                                                                                        The witchcraft cases that developed in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 have long intrigued both scholars and the public. The connection of witchcraft to women was long assumed without being carefully analyzed. Scholars such as Carol Karlsen and Elizabeth Reis began to look more closely at why and how women were the predominant targets of witchcraft accusations (see Karlsen 1987 and Reis 1997). Other work, exemplified by Games 2010, is staring to examine other cultural contexts and episodes of witchcraft in North America.

                                                                                                                                                        • Games, Alison. Witchcraft in Early North America. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                          A comparative look at different witchcraft beliefs in different North American contexts: African, European, and Native American. The gender of witches, so strongly associated with women and femininity in the European tradition and in British America, shifted in colonial contexts. Includes essays as well as transcriptions of primary source material.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Karlsen, Carol. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman. New York: W. W. Norton, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                            A close analysis of the economic situation of accused witches and their accusers suggests that the Salem outbreak of witchcraft may have been connected to fears about unmarried women’s exercise of property and economic power.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Reis, Elizabeth. Damned Women: Sinners and Witches in Puritan New England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                              Reis argues that the reason that witchcraft was so overwhelmingly associated with women was because of gendered ideas about the devil and men’s and women’s distinctive experiences of, and vulnerability to, diabolical evil.

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                                                                                                                                                              Politics

                                                                                                                                                              Some of the earliest scholarship on women and gender in early North America was focused on the role of women in the turbulent political era of the American Revolution. Kerber 1980 and Norton 1980 are both foundational books that explored how and when women were permitted to dabble in public life. Norton 1980 finds that the upheavals of the Revolution offered women an opportunity to act in ways, especially economically, that they might not have otherwise, while Kerber 1980 finds that the political ideology of the period confined women to a domestic sphere of influence. Their work helped inspire decades of discussion about the relationship of women and gender to the division of public and private spheres, including Norton 1996. More recent work, including Allgor 2000, Zagarri 2007, and Smith-Rosenberg 2010, discerns a more complicated picture, in which women participated in political realms quite actively and openly during the early Republic. Haulman 2010 explores fashion as an aspect of Revolutionary political culture.

                                                                                                                                                              • Allgor, Catherine. Parlor Politics: In Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build a City and a Government. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                In the early years of Washington, DC, women such as Dolley Madison and Louisa Catherine Adams became arbiters of political manners and often of political policies through the creation of salons and entertaining protocol.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Haulman, Kate. The Politics of Fashion in Eighteenth-Century America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                  In British American cities men and women debated the meaning and value of fashions, whether from abroad or homegrown. As amply demonstrated through the contemporary print culture, hair, clothing, and accessories could all convey political sympathies or antipathies and were thus carefully chosen and parsed.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Kerber, Linda K. Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Kerber’s book helped mark a turning point in early American history toward an interest in women, and in women’s history toward the earlier period of American history. Kerber argued that the political ideology of the Revolution could only see women’s civic participation as “Republican Mothers”—an important, but exclusively domestic role.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Norton, Mary Beth. Liberty’s Daughter: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750–1800. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                      During the Revolution women who remained at home while their husbands were at war had new experiences as they managed farms and businesses. Based largely on women’s writings of the period.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Norton, Mary Beth. Founding Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                        A comparative interpretation of social and political development in the 17th-century Chesapeake and New England regions. Norton argues that a Lockean view of society emerged and explains the more limited role of women moving into the 18th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Norton, Mary Beth. Separated by Their Sex: Women in Public and Private in the Colonial Atlantic World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Norton describes this as the second in her trilogy about women and Anglo-American politics. She seeks to show how gender became the paramount requirement for political participation, and how “public” and “private” emerged as gendered spheres of activity and influence.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. This Violent Empire: The Birth of an American National Identity. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Drawing on the deep recent scholarship on gender, culture, literature, and nationalism, as well as her own close readings of key early national texts, Smith-Rosenberg argues that the American nation was forged in the effort to make citizens of some, privileged by their gender and race (white males), while civically disabling others (all women, and any nonwhite men).

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Zagarri, Rosemarie. Revolutionary Backlash: Women and Politics in the Early American Republic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Energized by Revolutionary ideas and rhetoric, women, mostly elite women, wrote and spoke about politics; in one New Jersey township, they even voted, briefly. Women’s role as hostesses/arbiters of political parties and issues was shut down by the Jacksonian era in part through the emphasis on universal manhood suffrage.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Masculinity

                                                                                                                                                                              Although most work on gender in early North America has focused on women, the growth of work explicitly attentive to men and masculinity has raised important theoretical, methodological, and political questions about the relationship of gender history to women’s history. Does a history of men and/or masculinity simply repeat the focus of older, more traditional historical work? For the most part, the answer is no (Ditz 2004). Historical scholarship focused on the ways that ideas about masculinity developed in relation to particular economic and political contexts, such as Ditz 1994 for example, have illuminated important features of the early American past. Other scholarship has looked at the role of men within households and communities (Lockridge 1994, Lombard 2003, Foster 2006) and the kinds of gendered power they exercised there as well as in public venues such as politics, diplomacy, and war (Little 2006, Godbeer 2009, McCurdy 2009).

                                                                                                                                                                              • Ditz, Toby L. “Shipwrecked; Or, Masculinity Imperiled: Mercantile Representations of Failure and the Gendered Self in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia.” Journal of American History 81.1 (June 1994): 51–80.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/2080993Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                Eighteenth-century Philadelphia merchant’s letters reveals how carefully they narrated both their private and their business lives in concert with the expectations of masculine behavior in each sphere. It also reveals the precariousness of that identity, subject to the extraordinary (merchant goods lost to shipwreck) and the ordinary (courtship spurned).

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Ditz, Toby L. “The New Men’s History and the Peculiar Absence of Gendered Power: Some Remedies from Early American Gender History.” Gender and History 16.1 (April 2004): 1–35.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.0953-5233.2004.324_1.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  Ditz argues that the emergence of historical studies focused explicitly, rather than implicitly as most previous historical work, on men, has also been marked by a lack of attention to the relationship of gender to social and cultural power imbalances.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Foster, Thomas. Sex and the Eighteenth-Century Man: Massachusetts and the History of Sexuality in America. Boston: Beacon, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Sexuality was an essential quality and expression of masculinity. In three sections, on household, community, and sexualities, Foster explores how men were expected to behave sexually, and the challenges when their behavior or affect was nonconforming.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Godbeer, Richard. The Overflowing of Friendship: Love between Men and the Creation of the American Republic. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      White, literate, middling and upper-class men expected to enjoy and experience intense bonds of friendship. Their letters reveal the depth of emotion, bordering on the romantic, in these relationships.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Little, Ann M. Abraham in Arms: War and Gender in Colonial New England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        New England’s European settlers and Native Americans shared some key assumptions about gender. In both cultures men were empowered to act politically, diplomatically, and militarily (unlike some other native cultures in which women had some sway in the first two). Masculinity was connected to mastery, and any insult to masculinity was serious.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lockridge, Kenneth A. On the Sources of Patriarchal Rage: The Commonplace Books of Thomas Jefferson and William Byrd and the Gendering of Power in the Eighteenth Century. New York: New York University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Close readings of the private writings of these two 18th-century Virginia elites reveal the gendered (patriarchal) privileges they were accorded, but also their ambivalent, tending toward misogynistic, attitudes toward women.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lombard, Ann. Making Manhood: Growing Up Male in Colonial New England. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Males in New England spent most of their time with other males of different ages. Taking a life cycle approach, Lombard shows how middling white males at different ages were socialized largely by these other males rather than by women or by their peer group.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • McCurdy, John. Citizen Bachelors: Manhood and the Creation of the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              In New England bachelors were required to join a household and in many parts of Anglo-America they were singled out for burdensome taxation. Literary treatments suggested suspicion of bachelors, but beginning in the Revolutionary era it was their race and property ownership, rather than marital status, that gave them rights as voting citizens.

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