International Relations Peacekeeping
by
Erik K. Rundquist
  • LAST REVIEWED: 15 August 2020
  • LAST MODIFIED: 02 March 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199743292-0005

Introduction

Although the term “peacekeeping” is not defined in the original 1945 United Nations (UN) Charter, the act of using civilian police and military forces to deter and halt conflict has been used on at least sixty-three major operations around the world since 1948. Chapter VI of the UN Charter covers the pacific settlement of disputes whereby the Security Council can decide to take action if a dispute is “likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security.” Likewise, Chapter VII of the UN Charter describes the Security Council’s activities concerning threats and breaches to the peace about which the UN may “take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.” To highlight the murkiness of peacekeeping, the second UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld is purported to have said that peace operations should fall under “Chapter Six and a Half” of the UN Charter. The goals of this bibliography are to familiarize readers and researchers on the evolution of peacekeeping operations using various works from the 1970s to 2010 in order to better understand the complex nature of these types of missions. The bibliography seeks to examine peacekeeping from multiple reference points to include time (Cold War vs. post–Cold War), geography (campaigns involving peacekeeping operations around the world), actor (perspectives of nations and non-UN coalitions that contribute to peacekeeping forces), activity (ranging from traditional peacekeeping to enforce cease-fire agreements and the use of lightly armed military observer teams, to more aggressive peace enforcement operations without consent of the belligerents), and operating environment (complex humanitarian relief operations conducted in the midst of intrastate conflict and civil war).

Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government or the Department of Defense.

General Overviews

Several texts provide a general overview of peacekeeping operations and introduce some of the problems inherent in multinational force missions in complex environments (e.g., lack of governance, racial and ethnic warfare, destroyed infrastructure, epidemics, and refugees). Fabian 1971, an introductory text, provides early perspectives on United Nations peacekeeping and introduces the basic problems of collective security and preparedness to conduct missions around the world. Diehl 2008 offers a more modern perspective on the same issues of collective security. MacQueen 2006 examines the peacekeeping and its role in collective security, even before the founding of the United Nations in 1948. Benton 1996 considers the blending of peacekeeping operations and humanitarian relief operations as well as determining mission success. Bellamy, et al. 2004 presents an overview to differentiate between different types of peacekeeping operations. Hillen 1998 examines peacekeeping and notes strategic and tactical differences between two distinct generations of peacekeeping. Thakur and Schnabel 2001 takes the generational divide further and demonstrates that the evolution of peace operations can be divided into six unique generations. Finally, Fortna 2008 provides a statistical analysis on the overall success of peacekeeping operations.

  • Bellamy, Alex J., Paul Williams, and Stuart Griffin. Understanding Peacekeeping. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell, 2004.

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    Overview of peacekeeping examines concepts and issues, historical development, types of peacekeeping (traditional, wider, peace enforcement, and peace support operations), and challenges. Notes blurring concepts of post–Cold War peacekeeping, the emergence of nonstate actors, and gaps between peacekeeping theories versus experiences. Suitable for undergraduate and graduate study. Extensive bibliography.

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  • Benton, Barbara, ed. Soldiers for Peace: Fifty Years of United Nations Peacekeeping. New York: Facts on File, 1996.

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    Multiple contributors cover a wide array of issues, including UN peacekeeping tactics and solving complex command and control issues within a multinational force. Contributors also examine the blending of humanitarian and peacekeeping missions, the future of UN peacekeeping, defining mission success/victory, and several historical case studies.

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  • Diehl, Paul. Peace Operations. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2008.

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    Solid introductory overview of peacekeeping operations that examines types of peacekeeping (traditional and military), and offers a detailed historical narrative of missions, how these are structured (UN, regional, multinational, and ad hoc), and an analysis of the effectiveness of such missions. General history is acceptable for undergraduate work. Extensive bibliography.

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  • Fabian, Larry L. Soldiers without Enemies: Preparing the United Nations for Peacekeeping. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1971.

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    Provides a broad overview of UN peacekeeping operations from a Cold War perspective. Examines initial questions on UN peacekeeping preparedness, former UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld’s perspective on collective security and force employment, national preparedness with supporting nations (mainly Nordic countries and Canada), and policy implications.

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  • Fortna, Virginia Page. Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents’ Choices after Civil War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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    Examines the effectiveness and implications of peacekeeping operations by addressing three major gaps: peacekeeper’s empirical contributions to lasting peace, causal mechanisms on how peacekeepers affect the peace, and perspectives on how the peace was kept after redeployment of forces. Quantitative analysis and case studies appropriate for graduate students and research analysts on the peacekeeping.

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  • Hillen, John. Blue Helmets: The Strategy of UN Military Operations. Washington, DC: Brassey’s, 1998.

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    Examines specific mission sets for peacekeeping activities and charts the complex command and control relationships involved in UN operations. Asserts that there are strategic and operational differences between traditional peacekeeping and military observer missions vs. second-generation peacekeeping. The second-generation missions involve operating in more dynamic environments with more ambitious end states.

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  • MacQueen, Norrie. Peacekeeping and the International System. New York: Routledge, 2006.

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    Contends peacekeeping is a useful international relations option and highlights that these efforts are not just a post–Cold War phenomenon, but have been active since the end of World War I. Examines the historical phases of peacekeeping to include operational employment before the formation of the United Nations, UN peacekeeping as a method of collective security following World War II, regional peacekeeping as an aid to decolonization, and finally post–Cold War activities.

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  • Thakur, Ramesh, and Albrecht Schnabel, eds. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Ad Hoc Missions, Permanent Engagement. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.

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    General overview on peacekeeping by multiple contributors, with special attention to the former Yugoslavia, Kosovo, Cambodia, and East Timor. Chapters focus on civilian police support to peace operations, the UN Secretariat’s focus on organizing peacekeeping, and potentially changing roles. Thakur and Schnabel’s chapter identifies six “generations” of peacekeeping: traditional, pending peace; non-UN peacekeeping; expanded peacekeeping, peace reinforcement; peace enforcement; peace restoration by partnership; and multinational peace restoration.

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Data Sources

The sites here offer a broad sampling of international, governmental, military, academic, and nongovernmental agency perspectives and give researchers everything from operational firsthand accounts and the tactical lessons learned to strategic policy recommendations and raw statistics. Although the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre is an educational site (includes for-fee classes), it provides a forum on various peacekeeping topics and links at the international policy level. The United Nations sites (both the United Nations Peacekeeping Resource Hub and that for the United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld Library) provide the “official” backdrop for researchers focusing on UN peacekeeping policies, with the Dag Hammarskjöld Library bibliography listing dozens of sources for researchers to get a start on various peacekeeping topics. Canada’s Pearson Peacekeeping Centre offers a forum for advanced discussion topics on peacekeeping, and the US Army War College bibliographyand US Naval Postgraduate School website both give extensive sources on peacekeeping doctrine, training, employment of forces, and critiques. Finally, academic institutes such as the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the United States Institute of Peace provide information and links on peace agreements, truth commissions, human rights, and humanitarian response.

  • Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre.

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    Offers research papers, occasional papers, and monographs as well as additional training topics concerning peacekeeping and humanitarian relief operations throughout the African continent. The KAIPTC site is maintained in English and French. In addition, the link section is very useful in that it covers various peacekeeping institutes in Sweden, Austria, United Kingdom, South Africa, Economic Community of West African States, and Canada, and United Nations sources. Particularly useful for gaining international policy perspectives at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

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  • Moyer, Janet M., ed. Peacekeeping: A Selected Bibliography.

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    Extensive digital bibliography lists books, documents, Internet resources, and digital collections. Site breaks down peacekeeping operations regionally and based on special topics such as economics, human rights, and the media.

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  • Pearson Peacekeeping Centre.

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    The Canadian armed forces are considered by many to be the world leader in the field of peacekeeping theory, planning, and force employment. This site (mostly a training forum) offers mostly graduate researchers the opportunity to discuss and contact peacekeeping experts in niche/topical areas, such as electoral security, women in peace operations, peacekeeping and justice, and capacity building. Extensive international peacekeeping resource link page. Site in English and French.

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  • Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

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    The SIPRI multilateral peace operations database provides information on international relations and security trends, and maintains a large multilateral peace operations database covering over six hundred peace operations from 2000 to 2009. Useful links to various international think tanks (most English-language) concerning peacekeeping operations. Site is partnered with the Center on International Cooperation’s Annual Review of Global Peace Operations, which is suitable for graduate-level analysis of academic and policy discussions related to peacekeeping, peace building, economic development, and other global security issues. Site is in English.

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  • United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld Library. Peace-Keeping Operations: A Bibliography.

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    Extensive list of primary and secondary sources concerning peacekeeping operations from the UN library. Represents a good starting point for undergraduate initial research on peacekeeping topics (primarily books), especially on UN peacekeeping history (1940s to 1990s) and policy development of peacekeeping. Lists both English and French sources.

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  • United Nations Peacekeeping Resource Hub.

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    UN-sponsored site provides policy, primary reference analysis, and historical data on peacekeeping. Site is in both English and French. Useful for undergraduate and graduate research on peacekeeping operations.

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  • United States Institute of Peace. Margarita S. Studemeister Digital Collections in International Conflict Management.

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    Maintains an extensive collection of full-text international peace agreements, reports of truth commissions, and oral histories concerning stability operations. Although the site is suitable for undergraduate students, offering some introductory links, the site provides specialized research suited for graduate research, with field interviews and policy opinions on topics such as rule of law, religion and peacekeeping, economics and conflict, gender and human rights, and counterproliferation, among others. Site is primarily in English.

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  • United States Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library.

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    Provides extensive bibliographical data, primary sources, publications, research, Internet sites, and doctrine for ethnic conflict, peacekeeping, and postconflict reconstruction.

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United Nations Perspectives on Peacekeeping

The UN is a highly experienced international body in terms of peacekeeping missions. United Nations 2008 is a capstone document along with United Nations 1996, the “Blue Helmets” report, both of which provide a detailed analysis of peacekeeping doctrine, mandates, history, and evolving roles in peacekeeping. Hammarskjöld 1959 and Boutros-Ghali 1992 are particularly useful speeches that help us understand the executive body’s perspective and the intellectual framework for conducting peacekeeping operations in both a Cold War and post–Cold War setting. With the rapid expansion of peacekeeping operations along with some failures during the 1990s, the UN asked Lakhdar Brahimi to develop a plan for structural changes to peacekeeping operations (Brahimi 2000), and Durch, et al. 2003 addresses the status of these reforms.

  • Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. “An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping.” 17 June 1992.

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    The former UN secretary-general defines peacemaking and peacekeeping, discusses the nature of these types of missions, frames the concept of peace building in a postconflict environment, and identifies proposals for financial reform. Baseline document on peacekeeping appropriate for undergraduate and graduate study.

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  • Brahimi, Lakhdar. “Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations.” New York: United Nations General Assembly Security Council, 56th Session, 21 August 2000.

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    UN panel chairman’s in-depth report, offering recommendations and describing implications for peacekeeping operations. Report discusses the use of forces for preventive and peace-building actions, strategy, doctrine, capacity to deploy rapidly, information operations, and structural changes required for UN peacekeeping operations.

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  • Durch, William J., Victoria K. Holt, Caroline R. Earle, and Moira K. Shanahan. The Brahimi Report and the Future of UN Peace Operations. Washington, DC: Henry L. Stimson Center, 2003.

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    Contributors analyze the reform recommendations in the August 2000 “Brahimi Report” that offered an in-depth critique of UN peacekeeping operations. Addresses the status of the UN’s reform efforts and examines doctrine, strategy, capacity for operations, and rapid and effective deployment. Analysis of baseline reforms to the UN. Appropriate for undergraduate and graduate study.

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  • Hammarskjöld, Dag. “Do We Need the United Nations?” 2 May 1959.

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    Speech from the former United Nations secretary-general on the role of the UN as a negotiating and executive organization and its connection to international security. Historically important baseline document to understanding peacekeeping operations at both the undergraduate and graduate level of study.

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  • United Nations. The Blue Helmets: A Review of United Nations Peace-Keeping. New York: United Nations, 1996.

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    Official detailed accounting of all UN peacekeeping actions through 1996. Reviews the background description of each crisis, UN Security Council resolutions, strength and organization of the peacekeeping force, its objectives, and activities during key phases of the mandate. Solid undergraduate-level introduction to peacekeeping history.

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  • United Nations. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Principles and Guidelines. New York: UN Secretariat, 2008.

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    Capstone document to define the “nature, scope, and core business” of contemporary peacekeeping operations. Provides the doctrine on planning peacekeeping missions, successfully implementing mandates, managing and sustaining peacekeeping operations, and evolving roles in multinational peacekeeping forces.

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Collective Security and the Use of Force

Within the United Nations Charter, the use of force is described in Chapter VI, which calls for the “pacific settlement of disputes,” and Chapter VII identifies “action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression.” Rostow 1994 examines history dating back to the Concert of Europe and contends with the ideas of the United Nations Charter, arguing specifically that Chapters VI and VII are becoming blurred. Pugh 1997 provides a historical overview of United Nations peacekeepers using force in order to intervene in humanitarian disasters. In addition, MacFarlane and Khong 2006 examines the history of collective security and how the definitions of threats in the United Nations Charter have evolved to affect current peacekeeping operational doctrine. Findlay 2002 also looks at using lethal force from a peacekeeper’s perspective and how these forces can better defend themselves and ultimately ensure mission success. Last 1997 differentiates between various uses of force models and compares different national approaches to deescalating tensions in a conflict environment. Frederking 2007 notes that when using force to protect human rights, this effort is best accomplished multilaterally, and Miller 1993 addresses the ideas of an international teaming concept in order to facilitate rapid response. Blum 2005 discusses collective security and suggests that the United Nations Security Council needs to be expanded both in size and operational scope to address issues such as counternarcotics and combating crime.

  • Blum, Yehuda Z. “Proposals for UN Security Council Reform.” American Journal of International Law 99.3 (July 2005): 632–649.

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    Provides insight on two recommendations submitted to then Secretary-General Kofi Annan to expand the size of the UN Security Council in order to better address international issues such as peacekeeping, peace enforcement, combating organized crime, and the counterproliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

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  • Findlay, Trevor. The Use of Force in UN Peace Operations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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    Examines the history of peacekeeping and peace enforcement activities and pays close attention to rules of engagement and the evolution of doctrine whereby forces protect themselves, protect the mission, and ensure compliance with peace accords. Conducts a comparative analysis of six national approaches to peacekeeping, examines UN lessons learned, and makes recommendations for future operations. Appropriate for undergraduate- and graduate-level study. Extensive bibliography.

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  • Frederking, Brian. The United States and the Security Council: Collective Security since the Cold War. New York: Routledge, 2007.

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    Reviews collective security disputes between the US and the UN concerning Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, Haiti, Bosnia, and other nations. Argues that the events of 9/11 did not change world politics, but only exacerbated existing problems. Frederking examines peacekeeping, use of force, legal issues, human rights, and terrorism to demonstrate that the United States must act multilaterally to achieve collective security.

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  • Last, David M. Theory, Doctrine and Practice of Conflict De-Escalation in Peacekeeping Operations. Clementsport, NS: Canadian Peacekeeping Press, 1997.

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    Introduces relationships between peacekeeping, peace pushing, peace building, peacemaking, and postconflict resolution along a spectrum of conflict deescalation. Compares peacekeeping approaches between nations with regard to the use of force models and develops strategies for future employment. Good undergraduate-level overview for understanding peacekeeping theory.

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  • MacFarlane, Neil S., and Yuen Foong Khong. Human Security and the UN: A Critical History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

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    Traces the emergence and concept of human security and their impact on UN operations. The history of security is examined from pre– and post–Cold War perspectives, as well as the evolution of the UN Security Council’s definition of “threats to international peace and security” and its ultimate impact on UN peacekeeping forces.

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  • Miller, Admiral Paul David. Leadership in a Transnational World: The Challenge of Keeping the Peace. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, 1993.

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    Addresses the development of a continuous process to build coalitions in order to successfully address conflict resolution. Recommends establishment of “capabilities teams” in order to pool international assets and implementation of an “enabling network” to coordinate national and international responses. Basic organizational problems highlighted at the end of the Cold War appropriate for undergraduate study.

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  • Pugh, Michael, ed. The UN, Peace and Force. London: Frank Cass, 1997.

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    Multiple contributors analyze the future of United Nations peacekeeping and use of force. Examines peacekeeping after the Cold War, humanitarian intervention, and the practicality of a permanent UN military volunteer force.

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  • Rostow, Eugene V. “Is U.N. Peacekeeping a Growth Industry?” Joint Forces Quarterly (Spring 1994): 100–105.

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    Studies the origins of peacekeeping operations, to include using the Concert of Europe as a foundational model. Contends that the United Nations Charter, specifically, Chapters VI and VII, are becoming blurred. Quick overview at the undergraduate level, highlighting the complexities of peacekeeping policy.

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Peacekeeping Operations: Select Campaigns

Listed here are select works covering major United Nations peacekeeping operations since 1948. Harbottle 1972 provides an exhaustive early campaign history of the first four major UN peacekeeping operations in Egypt (Sinai), Congo, Cyprus, and Korea. Moskos 1976 offers a full accounting and examines the UN peacekeeping mission in Cyprus, which began in 1964 and is still ongoing. McDermott and Skjelsbaek 1991 studies the UN multinational peacekeeping force in Beirut during the early 1980s, which resulted in the death of more than three hundred US and French peacekeepers and ultimately mission failure. This case study exemplifies the idea of an expanding mission, restricted rules of engagement, and a complex operating environment. Hirsch and Oakley 1995 examines the post–Cold War attempt at peacekeeping in war-torn Somalia in 1993 and demonstrates a blending of humanitarian relief, peacekeeping, and peace enforcement (direct action combat) in a chaotic environment. Bellamy 1996 also looks at Somalia and expands the post–Cold War discussion on peacekeeping to Kurdistan, Congo, Rwanda, and the former Yugoslavia. Heininger 1994 and Lehmann 1998 provide insight into the peacekeeping operations in Cambodia and Haiti during the 1990s, with a focus on the dynamics of humanitarian relief that characterize modern peacekeeping.

  • Bellamy, Christopher. Knights in White Armour: the New Art of War and Peace. London: Hutchinson, 1996.

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    Examines low-intensity conflict, revolutionary and guerilla warfare, peacekeeping, peace enforcement, and the possibility of a standing UN peacekeeping force. Looks at causes of conflict in the post–Cold War world and provides intervention case studies on Kurdistan, Somalia, Congo, Rwanda, Cambodia, and the former Yugoslavia.

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  • Harbottle, Michael. The Blue Berets. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1972.

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    The author (a former United Nations peacekeeper and retired brigadier general) provides an overview of the first several major UN peacekeeping operations, with special attention paid to Egypt, Congo, Cyprus, Korea, and military observer missions. He examines the causes of the conflicts, UN peacekeeping response, tasks performed, and command issues. Extensive bibliography.

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  • Heininger, Janet E. Peacekeeping in Transition: The United Nations in Cambodia. New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1994.

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    Using Cambodia as a “diplomatically aggressive, militarily passive” case study, the author provides broad background on the diplomatic peace process for the United Nations Transition Group in Cambodia. Particular attention is focused on rebuilding processes, the return of refugees, training Cambodia’s police and military forces, dealing with slow deployments and de-mining efforts, and ultimately the future of Cambodia as an example of what the author terms “peace-building.”

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  • Hirsch, John L., and Robert B. Oakley. Somalia and Operation Restore Hope: Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995.

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    Authors (both senior political advisors in Somalia) provide a firsthand account of the rapid evolution of peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions in Somalia from 1992 to 1994. Examines the political framework for key decisions.

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  • Lehmann, Ingrid A. Public Information Campaigns in Peacekeeping: The UN Experience in Haiti. Clementsport, NS: Canadian Peacekeeping Press, 1998.

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    Shows how media and public opinion can shape peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance, with the crisis in Haiti during the 1990s as a backdrop. Makes clear that public information campaigns are both critical to mission success and military, civil, and police components must be fully integrated. Niche area for graduate study or detailed research.

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  • McDermott, Anthony, and Kjell Skjelsbaek, eds. The Multinational Force in Beirut: 1982–1984. Miami: Florida International University Press, 1991.

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    Multiple contributors provide insight into all facets of the failed UN peacekeeping effort in Lebanon during the 1980s. They analyze US, French, Italian, and British forces, and discuss the rules of engagement, relationships with Lebanese forces, and ultimately what went wrong with this peacekeeping operation. Appropriate for undergraduate and graduate study.

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  • Moskos, Charles C. Jr., Peace Soldiers: The Sociology of a United Nations Military Force. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

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    The author provides a detailed analysis of the third UN peacekeeping operation tasked with peacekeeping in Cyprus, containing the tensions between the Turks and Greeks, in 1964. Covers the UN mandate, force organization, peacekeeping doctrine, use of force, and the typical “attitudes” of a peacekeeper.

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National Military Perspectives on Peackeeping

Peacekeeping operations are generally multinational efforts. These forces deploy to crises where military and civilian forces often find themselves operating under dissimilar rules of engagement, incompatible equipment, training and doctrine, and potentially divergent national objectives. Of special note, the Canadian military has devoted much energy to the study, doctrine development, employment, and command of peacekeeping forces and is considered to be one of the international leaders in this field. The sources listed here provide tactical and operational insight into peacekeeping forces belonging to Canada (Granatstein and Lavender 1992), the United Kingdom (Cassidy 2004 and Lovelock 2002), Russia (Raevsky and Vorob’ev 1994), France (Stern 1998), Japan (Morrison and Kiras 1996), and Nigeria (Leatherwood 2001–2002). In addition, regional research is provided by the Western Hemisphere’s response to the humanitarian crisis in Haiti (Fishel and Sáenz 2007) and Asian perspectives (mainly China, India, and South Korea) on supporting peacekeeping and humanitarian response intervention (Kōbi 2003).

  • Cassidy, Robert M. Peacekeeping in the Abyss: British and American Peacekeeping Doctrine and Practice after the Cold War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

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    Author examines two distinct approaches to peacekeeping operations in the early 1990s when British forces operated in Bosnia and US forces operated in Somalia. Links consent and use of force to demonstrate the application of different doctrine and perspectives. Cassidy contends that while the US Army fights large conventional wars well, there is room for improvement regarding its handling of smaller conflicts, such as peacekeeping and counterinsurgency operations.

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  • Fishel, John T., and Andrés Sáenz. Capacity Building for Peacekeeping: The Case of Haiti. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 2007.

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    Scholars, political advisors, and senior military officers provide Western Hemisphere perspectives on peacekeeping and humanitarian operations in Haiti. Contributors from Brazil, Canada, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Guatemala, Peru, and the United States offer insight into regional crisis response, doctrine, and multinational operations. Undergraduate-level introduction to Western Hemisphere regional response.

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  • Granatstein, J. L., and Douglas Lavender. Shadows of War, Faces of Peace: Canada’s Peacekeepers. Toronto: Key Porter, 1992.

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    Offers extensive firsthand accounts from Canadian officers and soldiers involved in peacekeeping activities in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, South America, and Cyprus. Primarily undergraduate introduction of peacekeeping at the tactical (soldier) level.

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  • Kobi, Watanabe, ed. Humanitarian Intervention: The Evolving Asian Debate. Tokyo: Japan Center for International Exchange, 2003.

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    Multiple academic and military contributors examine peacekeeping from an Asian perspective. Contributors provide articles concerning China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations with regard to peacekeeping and humanitarian intervention.

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  • Leatherwood, David E. “Peacekeeping in West Africa.” Joint Forces Quarterly (Autumn/Winter 2001–2002): 76–81.

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    Article presents the crises in Liberia and Sierra Leone, and covers the roles and capabilities of Nigeria to promote regional stability and peacekeeping efforts. Highlights peacekeeping intervention and effects on local/state politics.

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  • Lovelock, Lieutenant Colonel Richard B. “The Evolution of Peace Operations Doctrine.” Joint Forces Quarterly (Spring 2002): 67–73.

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    Discusses British peacekeeping doctrine in Kosovo and Northern Ireland, and examines the lessons and similarities of these types of missions to successful counterinsurgency efforts. Undergraduate-level tactical study from a British perspective.

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  • Morrison, Alex, and James Kiras, eds. UN Peace Operations and the Role of Japan. Papers presented at the “United Nations Peace Operations: Role of Japan” conference held in Tokyo, November 1994. Clementsport, NS: Canadian International Peacekeeping Press, 1996.

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    Discusses the lessons learned from Cambodia, Somalia, and the former Yugoslavia. Moreover, it provides political and academic viewpoints from British, Canadian, and Australian perspectives on Japan as it emerges from its self-defense force role.

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  • Raevsky, A., and I. N. Vorob’ev. Russian Approaches to Peacekeeping Operations. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 1994.

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    United Nations research paper offers Russian operational and tactical perspectives on peacekeeping to include experiences in the near-abroad missions, and conflict prevention methodology. Authors call for the establishment of a joint US-Russian relationship for doctrine development and employment of peacekeeping forces.

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  • Stern, Brigitte, ed. United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations: A Guide to French Policies. New York: United Nations University Press, 1998.

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    Three contributors examine the French approach to peacekeeping missions through the lens of political, legal, financial, military, and civilian perspectives. They identify military lessons learned from peacekeeping operations in Somalia and the Balkans as well as civil-military relationships while supporting humanitarian relief efforts in Rwanda.

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Peacekeeping in a Unipolar World: US Perspectives

At the end of the Cold War, there were debates on how the United States and its allies could reap the benefits from the “peace dividend.” The 1990s were marked by troop and installation drawdowns, while simultaneously supporting increasing expeditionary demands to bolster deteriorating situations around the globe. Snow 1993, and Woodcock and Davis 1998 cover US policy and military organizational and training shifts to effectively deal with the peace dividend. Daniel and Hayes 1995 examines the pros and cons of US involvement in peacekeeping operations, including potential infringement on national sovereignty and force readiness. MacKinnon 2000 expands on the issue of US global engagement and the evolution of peacekeeping policy under the Clinton administration, and contends that the lack of focus on peacekeeping led to weaker responses to emerging humanitarian crises. Durch 1996 looks at contingency operations and their effects on US peacekeeping policy, with the realization that a unipolar world still requires a multilateral approach. Fishel 1998 examines various models in order to establish a framework for future US peacekeeping efforts, and Smith 2010 focuses on the US interagency approach to peacekeeping and conflict resolution.

  • Daniel, Donald C. F., and Bradd C. Hayes, eds. Beyond Traditional Peacekeeping. New York: St. Martin’s, 1995.

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    Provides a wide array of policy and employment issues germane to peacekeeping operations and covers topics such as national sovereignty and direct intervention on humanitarian crises and civil wars. Examines the pros and cons of US support in terms of peacekeeping, issues involving multilateral operations, improving the efficiency and structure of UN peacekeeping operations, and civil-military relations. In addition, several case studies discuss operations in the Congo, the former Yugoslavia, Cambodia, and Somalia.

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  • Durch, William J., ed. UN Peacekeeping, American Politics, and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s. New York: St. Martin’s, 1996.

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    Examines multiple peacekeeping operations, including missions in El Salvador, Angola, Cambodia, Rwanda, and Mozambique. A key theme is the development of US engagement policy for peacekeeping, peace enforcement, and multilateral humanitarian responses.

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  • Fishel, John T, ed. The Savage Wars of Peace: Toward a New Paradigm of Peace Operations. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998.

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    Multiple authors provide historical case studies of peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations and look at them through the prism of US military doctrine. In particular, a model is applied whereby factors such as unity of effort, legitimacy, support to belligerents, and support to peace forces offer a framework for understanding future missions.

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  • MacKinnon, Michael G. The Evolution of US Peacekeeping Policy under Clinton: A Fairweather Friend? Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2000.

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    Examines presidential, executive, bureaucratic, congressional, and public opinion forces that shaped the formulation of American policy toward United Nations peacekeeping operations during the 1990s. The author contends that this ultimately led to a weakened US (and international) response to the genocide in Rwanda.

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  • Smith, Dane F. Jr., U.S. Peacefare: Organizing American Peace-Building Operations. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2010.

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    Reviews elements of US power that support peacekeeping, nation building, stability operations, and postconflict resolution. Conducts extensive interviews and research on the National Security Council, US Agency for International Development, US Institute of Peace, Department of Defense, and US Peace Corps and how they relate to current peacekeeping efforts.

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  • Snow, Donald M. Peacekeeping, Peacemaking, and Peace-Enforcement: The U.S. Role in the New International Order. Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 1993.

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    Originally a paper presented to the Strategic Studies Institute, this work seeks to identify and differentiate the various forms of peacekeeping activities and five implications for US policy makers. In addition, it notes that overhauls are due for the Joint Staff and US Army in regard to training and organization.

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  • Woodcock, Alexander, and David Davis, eds. The Cornwallis Group III: Analysis for Peace Operations. Clementsport, NS: Canadian International Peacekeeping Press, 1998.

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    Over a dozen contributors from around the world examine force structuring, lessons on conflict resolution, political forces concerning peace operations, US military support to peacekeeping, training exercises, and the economic consequences of peacekeeping.

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Non-UN Peacekeeping Forces

The United Nations is not the only organization that conducts peacekeeping. Different international bodies have supported peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance to military alliances, or functioned as a regional rapid crisis response group. Rikhye, et al. 1974 provides Cold War insight into the International Control Commission in support of the Geneva Convention and peace accords following the first Indochina war. Morrison 1999 offers a general overview of non-UN organizations that have conducted peacekeeping, including NATO, the Organization of African States, and private nonstate entities. Powell 2005 and Ekengard 2008 both examine the African Union peacekeeping responses in Burundi and Sudan. Andrews and Holt 2007 demonstrates that despite the regional response capability, the African Union still requires close coordination and cooperation with UN peacekeeping forces. Kagwanja and Mutahi 2007 and Tardy 2004 look at African Union and NATO peacekeeping through the lens of the post-9/11 world and both works link peacekeeping to counterinsurgency and anticrime efforts. Finally, Bucknam 2003 provides insight into potential friction that may exist when both UN and NATO forces are supporting operations in the same geographical area.

  • Andrews, Katherine N., and Victoria K. Holt. United Nations-African Union Coordination on Peace and Security in Africa. Washington, DC: Henry L. Stimson Center, 2007.

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    Provides undergraduate students with a quick grasp of the post–Cold War history of UN cooperation in Africa, examining joint UN and African Union operations, with the situation in Darfur as a case study. Offers a broad overview of challenges that need to be overcome, such as command and control, procedural guidelines, funding mechanisms, increased capacity, and deployed capability.

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  • Bucknam, Col. Mark A. Responsibility of Command: How UN and NATO Commanders Influenced Airpower over Bosnia. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 2003.

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    Covers factors that surround complex peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations involving the United Nations and North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The author looks at military and political influences on commanders (in this case, airpower) in the midst of the Balkan crisis and highlights the issues inherent in peacekeeping, such as competing missions, force protection demands, strict rules of engagement, and so on.

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  • Ekengard, Arvid. The African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS): Experiences and Lessons Learned. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2008.

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    Analyzes the African Union’s second peacekeeping mission and operations in Darfur, Sudan. Notes significant challenges to the mission and highlights interdependency between the AU, European Union, and United Nations in order to promote regional stability.

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  • Kagwanja, Peter, and Patrick Mutahi. Protection of Civilians in African Peace Missions: The Case of the African Union Mission in Sudan, Darfur. ISS Paper 139. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies, 2007.

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    Examines the roles and challenges facing the African Union mission in Sudan. Advocates for better linkage between AU and UN peacekeeping forces and examines current regional security issues, such as denying safe havens for international terrorists and violent extremist organizations.

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  • Morrison, Alex, ed. Peacekeeping by Proxy. Clementsport, NS: Canadian Peacekeeping Press, 1999.

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    Multiple contributors examine alternatives when the UN Security Council decides a needed peacekeeping mission cannot be established. In this case, the Council gives its proxy to a country, group of countries, or an organization. The work cites different perspectives, such as those of NATO, the Economic Community of West African States, the Organization of American States, private contractors, etc.

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  • Powell, Kristiana. The African Union’s Emerging Peace and Security Regime: Opportunities and Challenges for Delivering on the Responsibility to Protect. ISS Monograph Series 119. Ottawa, ON: North-South Institute, 2005.

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    Reviews African Union structure and analyzes its abilities to conduct peacekeeping operations in Burundi (the AU’s first peacekeeping mission) and Sudan. The second mission resulted in a successful transfer of authority between the AU and the United Nations.

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  • Rikhye, Indar, Michael Harbottle, and Bjørn Egge. The Thin Blue Line: International Peacekeeping and its Future. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1974.

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    Authors provide an early history of United Nations peacekeeping, with a focus on the Middle East, Congo, Cyprus, and UN observer missions. Gives an example of a multinational operation (the International Commission in Indochina) that operated outside of a United Nations charter. Baseline document appropriate for graduate- and undergraduate-level study.

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  • Tardy, Thierry, ed. Peace Operations after 11 September 2001. New York: Frank Cass, 2004.

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    Multiple contributors discuss how global terrorism has shaped the policies of nation-states, international and regional organizations, and nongovernmental organizations to support peacekeeping operations. They analyze NATO’s shifting priorities, opposing insurgent activities, and combating organized crime, which often thrives in unstable/ungoverned spaces.

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Implications of Peacekeeping Operations

Although peacekeeping is focused on diffusing volatile situations and returning regional stability, several authors note that these missions significantly impact a variety of areas. Fleitz 2002 and Sitkowski 2006 argue that peacekeeping operations are fraught with “mission creep” and often lead to an expansion of the initial charter. This expansion can adversely affect command and control, lead to a confusing operational environment, and degrade national sovereignty (and ultimately, national security). Jett 1999 notes that peacekeeping operations shifted from interstate to intrastate conflicts toward the end of the Cold War. Subsequently, peacekeeping forces were inadequately prepared to cope with this paradigm shift. Lewis 1993 and Morrison, et al. 1997 address tactical and operational issues—from commanding and planning peacekeeping operations, to training and developing intelligence support in a multinational environment. Aoi, et al. 2007 reviews scandals, peacekeeping force abuses, and the effects (both positive and negative) on local economies at deployed locations. Herrly 2005 provides a synopsis of a conference at which international presenters argued that peacekeeping and stability operations can adversely affect recruiting, result in psychological impacts, degrade reserve forces, and undermine professionalism; however, some benefits, such as increased cooperation between and understanding of allied forces, may also be present. Blum 2000 assesses the overwhelming majority of smaller nations that contribute their military forces for peacekeeping operations, and Thakur and Thayer 1995 examines the implications of national sovereignty and peacekeeping.

  • Aoi, Chiyuki, Cedric de Coning, and Ramesh Thakur, eds. Unintended Consequences of Peacekeeping Operations. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.

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    Multiple contributors examine the unintended (both positive and negative) aspects of UN peacekeeping. While the Iraq “oil-for-food” scandal and sexual abuses by UN peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of Congo were cited as a catalyst for the study, the contributors researched the presence of peacekeepers and its impacts on local gender dynamics, prostitution, spread of disease, abandoned children, and changes in local economies.

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  • Blum, Andrew. “Blue Helmets from the South: Accounting for the Participation of Weaker States in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations.” Journal of Conflict Studies 20.1 (2000): 53–73.

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    Focuses on weaker state participation in peacekeeping operations, despite constrained resources; an often “Eurocentric” focus on political rights; and the perception that peacekeeping is merely linked to colonialism. Author concludes that participation is based on more than just self-interest.

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  • Fleitz, Frederick H. Jr., Peacekeeping Fiascoes of the 1990s: Causes, Solutions, and U.S. Interests. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

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    Contends that there is only one legitimate form of peacekeeping: traditional peacekeeping, and the expanding roles of peacekeeping lack apparent doctrinal foundations. The author notes that a clear distinction exists between peacekeeping and peace enforcement and argues that peacekeeping activities undermined US national security and international respect for the United States during the 1990s.

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  • Herrly, Peter F. The Impact of Peacekeeping and Stability Operations on the Armed Forces. Heritage Lectures 915. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, 2005.

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    Summarizes the findings of a conference at which it was noted that international military forces which support peacekeeping experience increased cases of psychological trauma, reduced retention and recruiting rates, a degraded reserve force, a potentially confused doctrine, and declines in unit cohesion. Presenters also noted some positive aspects to peacekeeping, such as greater awareness of coalition partners and an enhanced sense of international cooperation.

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  • Jett, Dennis C. Why Peacekeeping Fails. New York: St. Martin’s, 1999.

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    Postulates that in the post–Cold War era, the UN’s peacekeeping effort has been predominantly tied to intrastate conflict, and examines the conflict phases of predeployment (historical context of conflict and negotiated settlement), deployment peacekeepers conducting active operations, and postdeployment (setting conditions for lasting peace).

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  • Lewis, William H., ed. Military Implications of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Washington, DC: National Defense University, 1993.

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    This multiauthored book’s essays were papers presented at a conference on the UN’s future security roles sponsored by the National Defense University’s Institute for National Strategic Studies. They examine command and control in a coalition environment, define peacekeeping roles, and offer firsthand accounts from commanders and senior political leaders concerning peacekeeping.

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  • Morrison, Alex, Douglas A. Fraser, and James D. Kiras, eds. Peacekeeping with Muscle: The Use of Force in International Conflict Resolution. Clementsport, NS: Canadian Peacekeeping Press, 1997.

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    Contributors provide legal, military, police, political, and humanitarian perspectives on the use of force in support of UN peacekeeping and stability operations. Different themes exist on when, how much, and what type of force is warranted in the name of peace.

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  • Sitkowski, Andrzej. UN Peacekeeping: Myth and Reality. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006.

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    This author believes that the UN doctrine and contradiction between peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations are “divorced from reality” in the contemporary environment and their effectiveness is limited in the eyes of warlords and aggressors.

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  • Thakur, Ramesh, and Carlyle A. Thayer, eds. A Crisis of Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995.

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    Multiple contributors examine case studies, with particular attention to the analysis of peacemaking vs. peace enforcement vs. peacekeeping, issues of national sovereignty, reformation of the UN’s ability to conduct operations, and command and control issues.

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Future of Peacekeeping

Most sources have sections dedicated to the “way ahead” for peacekeeping operations. A common theme for the future of peacekeeping is enhancing the capabilities of peacekeeping forces. Many argue that this involves maintaining a rapidly deployable standing United Nations force that is well-trained, well-equipped, and capable of handling complex scenarios. Kaysen and Rathjens 1996 considers the merits of an all-volunteer force for the United Nations to include tactical roles and task organization. Likewise, Alger 1998 addresses problems such as force size, command structure, staffing, and training, and Codner 2008 examines the historical background on calls for a permanent UN military intervention capability and looks at the roles and capabilities of a UN force. Another common theme for the future of peacekeeping is the call for greater cooperation between military and civilian agencies in order to address gaps in capabilities and provide a more robust approach to peacekeeping. For instance, Mockaitis 1999 argues that complex missions must be approached with a greater level of military-civil cooperation and increased interoperability with coalition forces, and take on characteristics akin to those of a counterinsurgency force. Durch 2006 recommends increased use of police forces in peacekeeping operations, and Spillman, et al. 2001 notes that peacekeeping forces must increase military and civilian cooperation. Multiple authors also consider future operating environments for peacekeeping. Seybolt 2008 deals with humanitarian and disaster relief with refugees and internally displaced people. Paris 2004 suggests that “peacebuilding” and efforts to promote democracy in failed states may require a different form of peacekeeper altogether.

  • Alger, Chadwick F., ed. The Future of the United Nations System: Potential for the Twenty-First Century. New York: United Nations University Press, 1998.

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    Provides insight on a vast array of UN tasks in four major areas: overcoming and preventing violence, peace building, sharing and protecting the commons, and peace education. UN peacekeeping structure is scrutinized, and the author argues that peacekeeping forces have insufficient force size, are unable to respond rapidly, lack staying power, are unevenly trained, have an uncertain command structure, are unreliably financed and inadequately staffed, and do not internalize any lessons learned.

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  • Codner, Michael. “Permanent United Nations Military Intervention Capability.” Royal United Services Institute Journal 153 (June 2008): 58–66.

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    Presents historical background on a standing UN intervention force and notes the paradox of well-intentioned traditional UN peacekeeping forces not being fully suited to complex operating environments; however, the governments of more competent and capable military forces often lack the will to commit their militaries. Examines options and capabilities, such as a standing multinational force or even a private security force that is committed to and controlled by the United Nations.

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  • Durch, William J., ed. Twenty-First-Century Peace Operations. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2006.

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    Multiple contributors provide detailed analysis on peacekeeping efforts in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Democratic Republic of Congo, East Timor, Kosovo, and Sierra Leone. Covers conflict origins, successes and failures, and policy recommendations, including achieving unity of effort, deployment timelines, police force utilization, elections process, and reconciliation efforts.

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  • Kaysen, Carl, and George Rathjens. Peace Operations by the United Nations: The Case for a Volunteer UN Military Force. Cambridge, MA: Committee on International Security Studies, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1996.

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    Considers the prospect of a standing all-volunteer United Nations military force falling under the command of the UN Security Council. The work examines the operational environment, presents six peacekeeping case studies, and describes a notional standing force structure as well as tactical units and likely roles and missions.

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  • Mockaitis, Thomas R. Peace Operations and Intrastate Conflict: The Sword or the Olive Branch? Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.

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    Contends that the UN has been slow to analyze the common themes and lessons of operations that violated “virtually every rule” of classical peacekeeping, and that simply applying the classical rules of engagement could be disastrous. Believes a new approach to peacekeeping is required, one including greater civil-military cooperation, rapid deployment, and assuming the characteristics of counterinsurgency forces.

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  • Paris, Roland. At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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    Examines the concept of “peacebuilding” and argues that conflict resolution missions (fourteen) during the 1990s attempted to promote liberalization in countries that recently experienced civil war. Although these efforts were not fully successful, the author offers a strategy for future peacekeeping forces. Extensive bibliography.

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  • Seybolt, Taylor B. Humanitarian Military Intervention: The Conditions for Success and Failure. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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    Postulates when and how military forces should intervene in humanitarian relief operations, and notes that an intervention’s short-term effectiveness may depend more on the peacekeeping military force versus the conflict or operating environment. Looks at military and humanitarian responses in northern Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, Kosovo, East Timor, and other locations in order to focus on the humanitarian aspect of peacekeeping missions.

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  • Spillmann, Kurt R., Thomas Bernauer, Jürg M. Gabriel, and Andreas Wenger. Peace Support Operations: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

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    Multiple contributors study the “new conflict environment” and how the character of peacekeeping has changed, lessons from international cooperative efforts in peacekeeping, and the division of labor between military and civilian participants. Examines these questions in light of academic views on the theory of peacekeeping, military and civilian peacekeepers, and the perspectives of neutral countries (Austria and Switzerland) in these environments.

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