International Relations Genocide
by
Jens Meierhenrich
  • LAST REVIEWED: 24 February 2021
  • LAST MODIFIED: 24 April 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199743292-0074

Introduction

Genocide is a phenomenon that has confounded scholars and practitioners as well as ordinary readers. Notwithstanding the carnage of the 20th century, our understanding of genocide remains partial, not least because vocational, disciplinary, and methodological boundaries have inhibited intellectual progress. Popular, moralizing accounts about the contribution of “willing executioners” (Daniel Jonah Goldhagen) to the “problem from hell” (Samantha Power) have done their share to hinder understanding by advancing simple truths in an area where none are to be had. The goal of this bibliography is to deepen and broaden the intellectual foundations of genocide studies. Aimed primarily at scholars and students in the humanities and social sciences as well as general readers with an interest in collective violence, it is designed as an introduction to the myriad dimensions of this darkest of human phenomena, and to various ways of making sense of it—from autobiography to game theory. The collected contributions address—in widely divergent ways—fundamental questions in genocide studies: Whither conventional definitions of genocide? What role for alternative concepts? How powerful are existing theories of genocide? What role for memoirs, case studies, formal models, and data sets? Where have preventive efforts failed, where have they succeeded? Can genocide be predicted and prevented? To acquaint readers with the complexity of genocide—and outer boundaries of genocide studies—the bulk of this bibliography is organized around nine instantly recognizable themes that are central to study of the phenomenon: concepts: what is genocide?; causes: why does genocide occur?; courses: how does genocide unfold?; coverage: when is genocide reported?; consequences: what happens after genocide?; courts: who puts genocide on trial?; coping: can one come to terms with genocide?; compensation: who makes amends for genocide?; and cures: what can be done about genocide? Taken together, the aforementioned themes represent the phenomenon of genocide in all its complexity, drawing readers’ attention not only to contending explanations of genocidal campaigns (causes), but also to frequently overlooked differences in the conduct of these campaigns (courses) as well as to legal responses to the destruction, in whole or in part, of protected groups (courts). Moreover, the individual and social suffering of victims (consequences and coping) is a central concern, as is the ongoing debate over genocide forecasting and prevention (cures).

General Overviews

Learned, general overviews of genocide are not as readily available as one might think. Jones 2010 serves as an introductory text. Bloxham and Moses 2010 is a state-of-the-art assessment of the discipline. The contributions, including Levene 2005, Semelin 2007, and Shaw 2007, are meant for scholars and advanced students. Leading histories of genocide are Kiernan 2007 and Weitz 2003.

  • Bloxham, Donald, and A. Dirk Moses, eds. Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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    NNNProvides an overview of the emerging “field” of genocide studies in all of its permutations. Essays address substantive as well as methodological issues.

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  • Jones, Adam. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. 2d ed. London: Routledge, 2010.

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    NNNUntil recently, this was the only introductory text available. It offers a solid, if lengthy, overview of the study of genocide.

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  • Kiernan, Ben. Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.

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    NNNA detailed narrative of genocide from ancient to modern times, written by a leading historian of genocide. The treatment of cases is broad rather than deep.

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  • Levene, Mark. Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State. 2 vols. London: I. B. Tauris, 2005.

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    NNNAn ambitious multivolume work, the first two volumes of which are available to date. Far ranging in scope, it combines theoretical and empirical perspectives in a unique fashion. A particular focus is on the role of international system-level dynamics, including state formation and economic development, in the causation of genocidal violence.

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  • Semelin, Jacques. Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

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    NNNAn influential, synthetic account by a French political scientist. At the heart of this comprehensive treatment is Semelin’s notion of “delusional rationality,” which he explores in the context of numerous empirical settings.

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  • Shaw, Martin. What Is Genocide? Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2007.

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    NNNWritten by a social scientist, this concise book offers a theory-driven account of genocide. En passant, Shaw takes issue with conventional wisdom in genocide studies.

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  • Weitz, Eric D. A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

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    NNNA compelling and eloquent narrative of four major genocidal campaigns (Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, Cambodia, and Bosnia), by a leading historian of Germany. As the title suggests, Weitz is primarily concerned with the role of ideational factors as causes of genocide.

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Anthologies

Four noteworthy anthologies exist to date. Whereas Hinton 2002 and Moses 2010 contain full reprints of previously published material, Totten and Bartrop 2009 offers a collection of extracts from leading scholarship. Interestingly, the overlap among these anthologies is minimal.

Journals

Most leading scholarship on genocide and related phenomena continues to be published in disciplinary journals. Yet, in recent years, a number of specialized journals have become the focal point for the dissemination of the majority of research findings. At present, three journals are dedicated specifically to the study of genocide. Of these, Holocaust and Genocide Studies is the oldest, but the one most focused (almost exclusively) on the Holocaust. The Journal of Genocide Research, by contrast, pioneered the comparative study of genocide. In response to professional disagreements within the community of genocide scholars, Genocide Studies and Prevention was launched as a breakaway journal in 2005, ostensibly to give pride of place to policy-oriented research and exchanges. The quality of scholarship published in all three journals is uneven. Leading scholarship, whether in the social sciences, humanities, or law, continues to be published primarily in book form or in disciplinary journals. Patterns of Prejudice, lastly, is a long-standing, trusted source of work on a whole host of phenomena, including genocide.

Concepts

What is genocide? Much of the controversy surrounding the phenomenon of genocide revolves around its conceptual boundaries. The titles in this section introduce readers to the multitude of meanings that have become associated with the controversial term. Aside from classic treatments from the so-called first generation of genocide scholars, such as Fein 1990 and Kuper 1981, there are several contemporary readings: Gerlach 2010 and Scheffer 2006, albeit for different reasons, recently concluded that the term genocide has done more harm than good. The former proposed the term atrocity crimes in its stead, the latter the notion of extremely violent societies. Mamdani 2007 speaks to the same issue, with particular reference to Darfur. Schabas 2009 is indispensable, given the persistent misunderstanding of international law in genocide scholarship and advocacy. Even though Kalyvas 2006 does not address genocide at all, the author’s award-winning book is critical because the phenomenon of civil war is frequently associated with genocidal violence. Given the author’s formative role, Lemkin 1944 is also a worthwhile read.

Causes

Why does genocide occur? This section assembles scholarship that has generated some of the most important answers to date. It draws attention to the various levels of analysis and methodological perspectives that scholars have adopted to make sense of the onset of genocide. The selections exemplify rationalist, structuralist, and cultural explanations of genocide. Valentino 2004, for example, develops a strategic model of genocide, whereas Bauman 2000 focuses on the role of modernity as a structural factor in the causation of genocide. Both accounts are featured here alongside more culturally focused explanations à la Brantlinger 2003, which analyzes the discourse on the extinction of primitive races. Other readings point to the causal significance of colonialism (Moses 2000, Mamdani 2001) and the institutional dimensions of decision making (Browning 2004). One of the few integrated theories of genocide is set out in Mann 2005, and Waller 2007 provides an introduction to the psychology of genocide.

  • Bauman, Zygmunt. Modernity and Holocaust. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.

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    NNNSociologists had largely abdicated responsibility for examining the Nazi genocide until, with the publication of this book, Bauman brought social theory to bear on the problem. His principal insight: far from being an aberration of progress, the Holocaust constituted its 20th-century epitome. The pillars of modernity—rationality, technology, industry, and bureaucracy—were not incidental but integral to the destruction of the European Jews.

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  • Brantlinger, Patrick. Dark Vanishings: The Discourse on the Extinction of Primitive Races, 1800–1930. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003.

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    NNNBrantlinger, a literature scholar, draws attention to the role of language as a harbinger of destruction. Focusing in particular on cases of so-called colonial genocide, he chronicles the lethal consequences of what he terms “extinction discourse” in the 19th and 20th centuries.

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  • Browning, Christopher R. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939–March 1942. Contributions by Jürgen Matthäus. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.

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    NNNBrowning ranks among the leading historians of the Holocaust, and The Origins of the Final Solution is his magnum opus. Two major findings are of particular relevance: (1) the onset of the “Final Solution” was causally related to a (misplaced) “euphoria of victory” that came about as a result of German military advances in the Soviet Union, and (2) Hitler participated in the background, rather than in the foreground, of genocidal decision making.

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  • Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

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    NNNIn a controversial account of the antecedents of the 1994 genocide, Mahmood Mamdani extends the theoretical framework first developed in his book Citizen and Subject to the case of Rwanda. His dense argument revolves around the politics of indigeneity, notably the ever-changing meaning of settler and native in precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial Rwanda.

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  • Mann, Michael. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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    NNNIn an attempt to build a parsimonious theory of genocide, Mann, in this controversial book, develops eight hypotheses and several subsidiary hypotheses about the onset of collective violence, notably what he terms murderous and nonmurderous “ethnic cleansing.” Central to the book is the argument that the latter phenomenon is causally associated with democracy, ostensibly representing its “dark side.”

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  • Moses, Dirk A. “An Antipodean Genocide? The Origins of the Genocidal Moment in the Colonization of Australia.” Journal of Genocide Research 2.1 (2000): 89–106.

    DOI: 10.1080/146235200112427Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNMoses, a historian, was among the first scholars to explore, in his native Australia, issues of colonial genocide. This article offers a succinct account of how the British colonization of Australia in the 19th century led to “exterminatory policies” and the destruction of Aboriginal society.

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  • Valentino, Benjamin A. Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.

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    NNNWritten by a political scientist, this book advances a rationalist explanation of genocide. Valentino develops a strategic model that emphasizes the instrumental logic of mass killing. He distinguishes six types of mass killing and studies some of them in empirical depth.

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  • Waller, James. Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Murder. 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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    NNNWaller, a psychologist, takes issues with the concept of “evil,” which is frequently invoked in the context of genocide. Borrowing from evolutionary psychology, he rejects “moralistic” conceptions of evil and elaborates a behavioral definition instead. According to him, genocidal perpetrators should not be described as being evil but as becoming evil.

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Courses

How does genocide unfold? This section contains noteworthy writings from the sizable literature on genocide that illuminate, from various disciplinary perspectives, the many different ways in which genocidal campaigns have been waged against targeted populations over the millennia. Particular emphasis is placed on modes of destruction that have not yet received the attention that they deserve, namely diseases (Todorov 1999) and famines (Graziosi 2008). Hinton 1998 and Stone 2004 illuminate the causes and consequences of transgression in genocidal campaigns. Although in different ways, both Bloxham 2003 and Hull 2004 illuminate the cumulative radicalization of genocidal actors. The authors show, respectively, how the international context and the ideational context matter in the run-up to genocide. Browning 2001 and Straus 2006 also describe the frequently contingent nature of genocidal violence—the former discussing ordinary perpetrators in the Holocaust; the latter, during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.

  • Bloxham, Donald. “The Armenian Genocide of 1915–1916: Cumulative Radicalization and the Development of a Destruction Policy.” Past and Present 181.1 (2003): 141–191.

    DOI: 10.1093/past/181.1.141Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNBloxham insists that the genocidal campaign waged by the embattled Young Turk regime was the consequence of a cumulative radicalization of policy—not the realization of a long-standing plan of destruction. According to the historian, a confluence of structural developments—imperialism, nationalism, and war—accounts for the peculiar evolution of the genocidal campaign. Available online by subscription.

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  • Browning, Christopher. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.

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    NNNA classic in Holocaust historiography, this zeroes in on the micro-organizational dynamics of the Nazi genocide. By reconstructing, chiefly from German court documents, the activities—genocidal and otherwise—of Reserve Police Battalion 101 on the territory of the Soviet Union, Browning finds that the involvement of many perpetrators in the destruction of Jews was, first and foremost, a consequence of group socialization and the collective norms that the battalion developed on enemy territory.

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  • Graziosi, Andrea. “The Soviet 1931–1933 Famines and the Ukrainian Holodomor: Is a New Interpretation Possible, and What Would Its Consequences Be?” In Hunger by Design: The Great Ukrainian Famine in Its Soviet Context. Edited by Halyna Hryn, 1–19. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 2008.

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    NNNThe role of man-made disasters, including famine, is insufficiently addressed in genocide studies. Graziosi asks whether the series of famines that wreaked havoc in the USSR during the 1930s can be legitimately considered instances of genocide. He distinguishes interlocking events with great care, revealing a temporal and spatial complexity that sheds new light on the course of what has become known as the Holodomor.

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  • Hinton, Alexander Laban. “A Head for an Eye: Revenge in the Cambodian Genocide.” American Ethnologist 25.3 (1998): 352–377.

    DOI: 10.1525/ae.1998.25.3.352Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNA leading scholar of genocide, Hinton, an anthropologist, draws attention to the cultural dimensions of genocide, focusing in particular on what he calls the model of “disproportionate revenge” in Cambodia. The focus is on the social meaning of revenge in pregenocidal Cambodia, says Hinton, because it sheds light on the motives—and the manners—of genocidal perpetrators. Available online by subscription.

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  • Hull, Isabel V. Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.

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    NNNHull, a historian, contributes to our understanding of the cultural dimensions of genocide, by charting the rise of the maxim of “absolute destruction” in German military theory and practice. She explores the diffusion of this behavioral norm—and the concomitant doctrine of “military necessity”—in the Ottoman Empire, where German military officers were dispatched to aid the Young Turk regime during World War I.

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  • Stone, Dan. “Genocide as Transgression.” European Journal of Social Theory 7.1 (2004): 45–65.

    DOI: 10.1177/1368431004040019Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNStone argues that people regularly kill one another—in genocidal campaigns and outside of it—because they can, and because they enjoy doing so. This is what the historian calls “violence as transgression.” According to Stone, perpetrators come to experience—in the killing process—a heightened sense of belonging and eventually form “ecstatic communities.”

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  • Straus, Scott. The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006.

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    NNNWhy did ordinary Rwandans participate in the 1994 genocide, and how? Who were they? In answer, Straus, a political scientist, reports important findings gleaned from 210 interviews with convicted perpetrators.

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  • Todorov, Tzvetan. The Conquest of America: The Question of the Other. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

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    NNNTodorov, a Franco-Bulgarian literary theorist, illuminates the courses of colonial genocide, by focusing on the encounters of Spanish conquistadors with the proverbial “other” in South America. He attributes the pull of destruction—what he calls “atheistic murder”—to a lack of moral and institutional control in the periphery. For Todorov, the “barbarity” of destruction is not a sign of atavism but of progress.

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Coverage

When is genocide reported? Most of us become aware of an unfolding genocidal campaign somewhere because of the stories filed by journalists. This is reason enough to (1) celebrate the art of reporting, but also (2) to take pause and consider problems of genocide coverage—whether it appears in newspapers, on television, or in blogs. To facilitate celebration and critique, this section brings together a series of noteworthy news stories, features, essays, and commentary. Examples of memorable (and influential) reporting are Gellhorn 1959 and Rohde 1997. Power 2004 provides a glimpse of the religious dynamics of US policy toward Darfur. More-critical perspectives on contemporary coverage are on offer in Foley 2006 and Murphy 2007. Tribes Battle for Rwandan Capital (from the New York Times) is an example of journalistic failure. Leff 2005 and Zelizer 1998 focus on journalistic distortions of the Holocaust.

  • Foley, Conor. “Reporting Genocide Isn’t Easy: The New Generation of Citizen Journalists Are a Mixed Blessing for Humanitarianism.” The Guardian, 28 December 2006.

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    NNNFoley, a journalist, critically discusses the use of modern information technology (e.g., blogs, websites, video feeds, and talkboards) in disseminating information about unfolding instances of violence. He is particularly concerned about the relationship between what we might call “the new reporting” and antigenocide activism.

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  • Gellhorn, Martha. The Face of War. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1959.

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    NNNGellhorn (b. 1908–d. 1998) was one of the most influential journalists of her time, rising to fame in the wake of her reporting from the theaters of World War II. She was one of the first journalists to set foot in concentration camps liberated by the Allies. Her account, reprinted in this book, from the grounds of Dachau concentration camp, near Munich, remains one of the most haunting pieces of genocide coverage.

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  • Leff, Laurel. Buried by The Times: The Holocaust and America’s Most Important Newspaper. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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    NNNWhy did the New York Times, one of the world’s most venerable newspapers, largely ignore the Holocaust? According to Leff, a journalism professor, Arthur Hays Sulzberger—the owner and publisher of the Times—played a critical role. Leff contends that it was Sulzberger’s Jewish faith that persuaded him to bury stories concerning the persecution of Jews and the unfolding of the Holocaust deep inside the paper.

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  • Murphy, Deborah. “Narrating Darfur.” In War in Darfur and the Search for Peace. Edited by Alex de Waal, 314–336. Cambridge, MA: Global Equity Initiative, Harvard University, 2007.

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    NNNMurphy provides a critical look at patterns in media commentary on the Darfur crisis. Analyzing eighty-three editorials and op-ed pieces published in four daily newspapers in the United States between March and September 2004, she finds that the opinion pieces were largely decontextualized.

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  • Power, Samantha. “Dying in Darfur: Can the Ethnic Cleansing in Sudan Be Stopped?The New Yorker, 30 August 2004.

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    NNNKnown primarily for her popular, Pulitzer Prize–winning book, A Problem from Hell, Power in recent years turned to the plight of Darfuris affected by the crisis in Sudan. In this article, she elaborates the Christian dimensions of US responses to the carnage as well as the complicated run-up to the insurgency in Darfur and Khartoum’s policy of scorched earth.

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  • Rohde, David. Endgame: The Betrayal and Fall of Srebrenica: Europe’s Worst Massacre since World War II. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.

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    NNNRohde received the 1996 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting. He was honored for his coverage of Serb atrocities perpetrated in Srebrenica, a town in the eastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This book tells with precision and without fanfare the story of the genocidal campaign waged against Muslim men and boys in that city.

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  • Tribes Battle for Rwandan Capital: New Massacres Reported.” New York Times, 16 April 1994.

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    NNNVirtually all media reporting on the 1994 genocide in Rwanda misinterpreted the origins of the violence there, as exemplified by this article, published more than one week into the genocide. Instead of appreciating that the collective violence that swept across the landlocked country was decidedly modern in nature, as far as its causes and its courses were concerned, reporters invoked a supposed “centuries-old feud between Rwanda’s majority Hutu and minority Tutsi ethnic groups.”

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  • Zelizer, Barbie. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera’s Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

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    NNNIn this fascinating account, Zelizer, a professor of communication, alerts us to important problems associated with atrocity photographs. Through the lens of images taken upon the liberation of Nazi concentration camps, she warns of the pitfalls of relying uncritically on photographs as historical sources.

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Consequences

What happens after genocide? This section addresses a number of different aspects of the question. Moranian 2003 provides a unique account of the alleviation of suffering, in the context of the Armenian genocide. Wagner 2008 examines the cultural dynamics of identification and recovery in Srebrenica. Hagan and Rymond-Richmond 2008 explores a simple yet fundamentally difficult task—how to count the dead. Card 2003 and Meierhenrich 2007 deal with the living, notably their social and psychological well-being. Gottesman 2003 and Reyntjens 2004 have a different focus: the authors trace the emergence of authoritarian rule in postgenocide Cambodia and postgenocide Rwanda. Madley 2005, focusing on German Southwest Africa and Nazi Germany, poses yet another thorny and largely unexplored question: do genocidal campaigns have a demonstration effect?

  • Card, Claudia. “Genocide and Social Death.” Hypatia 18.1 (2003): 63–79.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1527-2001.2003.tb00779.xSave Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNCard, a philosopher, argues that what sets genocidal acts apart from other international crimes is the harm that they inflict on victims’ social vitality. Drawing on Orlando Patterson’s terminology, she finds that victims of genocide “may become ‘socially dead’ and their descendants ‘natally alienated,’ no longer able to pass along and build upon the traditions, cultural developments (including languages), and projects of earlier generations.” Available online by subscription.

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  • Gottesman, Evan. Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge: Inside the Politics of Nation-Building. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003.

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    NNNIt is a well-known fact that Vietnam’s 1979 intervention in Cambodia put an end to the genocide that Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime had been waging there. What is less well known is what happened afterward. In this book, Gottesman reconstructs the intended and unintended consequences of putting an end to genocide.

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  • Hagan, John, and Wenona Rymond-Richmond. Darfur and the Crime of Genocide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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    NNNThrough a fascinating (sometimes riveting) account of the rise and decline of the US State Department’s so-called Atrocities Documentation Survey (ADS), sociologists Hagan and Rymond-Richmond illuminate the politics of humanitarianism. By delving deeply into the machinations surrounding the making of the ADS, and its subsequent politicization, they shed bright light on an insufficiently studied, and far from trivial, aspect of genocide research—how to count the dead.

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  • Madley, Benjamin. “From Africa to Auschwitz: How German South West Africa Incubated Ideas and Methods Adopted and Developed by the Nazis in Eastern Europe.” European History Quarterly 35.3 (2005): 429–464.

    DOI: 10.1177/0265691405054218Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNWhat is the relationship between the destruction of the Herero in the early 20th century and the destruction of the European Jews three decades later? Where previously the two genocidal campaigns were treated as separate events, Madley maintains that the case of German Southwest Africa should no longer be overlooked as an important antecedent to Nazi genocide. Available online by subscription.

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  • Meierhenrich, Jens. “The Trauma of Genocide.” Journal of Genocide Research 9.4 (2007): 549–573.

    DOI: 10.1080/14623520701643327Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNExisting medical research on the psychological suffering of genocide survivors is inconclusive. In an attempt to advance the debate, the author distinguishes between psychological and cultural trauma. He contends that practitioners would be well advised to recognize, more explicitly than they have thus far, the range of suffering (individual and collective), and the types of trauma (psychological and cultural) that may be manifestations of this range.

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  • Moranian, Suzanne E. “The Armenian Genocide and American Missionary Relief Efforts.” In America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915. Edited by Jay Winter, 185–213. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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    NNNFrom Rwanda to Darfur, humanitarian relief efforts in times of genocide have become a staple of our times. Yet, as Moranian convincingly shows, the international administration of aid was already a sophisticated undertaking nearly a century ago.

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  • Reyntjens, Filip. “Rwanda, Ten Years On: From Genocide to Dictatorship.” African Affairs 103.411 (2004): 177–210.

    DOI: 10.1093/afraf/adh045Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNReviewing ten years of reconstruction and development in Rwanda, law professor Reyntjens paints a bleak picture. He writes of an illiberal regime, led by Paul Kagame and his Rwandan Patriotic Front, growing more authoritarian by the day. For Reyntjens, postgenocide Rwanda bears a striking resemblance to pregenocide Rwanda, carrying the seed for renewed mass violence in the future. Available online by subscription.

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  • Wagner, Sarah E. To Know Where He Lies: DNA Technology and the Search for Srebrenica’s Missing. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

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    NNNWagner’s book is a compelling exploration of the cultural meaning(s) of DNA analysis. Through an investigation of local and international efforts at recovering and identifying the mortal remains of Srebrenica’s dead, she provides unusual insights into the dynamics, logistical and otherwise, of accounting for missing citizens in the aftermath of genocide.

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Courts

Who puts genocide on trial? One of the most common and controversial strategies for coming to terms with the legacies of genocide—at least in the 20th and 21st centuries—has been adjudication. Domestic and international trials of génocidaires have increased in size, scope, and sophistication, notably in the wake of atrocities in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. More recently, the International Criminal Court has begun to turn its attention to the investigation of atrocities in Darfur and elsewhere. This section brings together significant contributions from a burgeoning literature. Scheffer 2012 is an important firsthand account of the making of international justice. Mettraux 2005, MacKinnon 2006, and Gaeta 2009 provide doctrinal foundations and critique. Domestic responses are considered with respect to Rwanda in Waldorf 2006 and to Cambodia in Whitley 2006. Important historical accounts can be found in Dadrian 1997, which offers one of the few available assessments of Turkish Military Tribunals in the wake of World War I, Douglas 2001, which is a most insightful book on the memory of select genocide trials, and Pendas 2006, which constitutes a comprehensive history of the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial that fills an important research gap.

  • Dadrian, Vahakn N. “The Turkish Military Tribunal’s Prosecution of the Authors of the Armenian Genocide: Four Major Court-Martial Series.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 11.1 (1997): 28–59.

    DOI: 10.1093/hgs/11.1.28Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNLittle has been written about the Turkish Military Tribunal that was established following World War I to address the destruction of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. Among the few available studies is this one by Dadrian. An independent scholar, he recounts the genesis of the various trials, the challenges involved in mounting them, and their significance. Available online by subscription.

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  • Douglas, Lawrence. The Memory of Judgment: Making Law and History in the Trials of the Holocaust. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.

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    NNNOne of the most original, and least known, contributions to our understanding of court proceedings in the aftermath of genocide comes from Douglas, a law professor. His interdisciplinary perspectives on various domestic and international trials are unique and truly path breaking.

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  • Gaeta, Paula, ed. The UN Genocide Convention: A Commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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    NNNThis comprehensive and timely collection offers a total of twenty-six chapters on mostly technical questions pertaining to the interpretation of the much-misunderstood 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Topics range from the meaning of genocide, to the extradition of genocide suspects, to the enforcement of the convention in the international system.

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  • MacKinnon, Catherine A. “Defining Rape Internationally: A Comment on Akayesu.” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 44.3 (2006): 940–958.

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    NNNMacKinnon, an influential law professor, points to the long and winding paths of rape cases heard by the UN ad hoc tribunals. In particular, she takes issues with changing definitions of rape, faulting international judges for inconsistency and lack of concern for the suffering of women. Available online by subscription.

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  • Mettraux, Guénaël. International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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    NNNIn this excellent book, Mettraux, a defense counsel at the UN International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, offers a comprehensive, doctrinal analysis of recent jurisprudence on international crimes, including genocide. Although technical in nature, it is essential reading for genocide scholars not familiar with the procedural and substantive aspects of international criminal law.

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  • Pendas, Devin O. The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial, 1963–1965: Genocide, History, and the Limits of the Law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

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    NNNPendas, a historian, provides an exhaustive account of this famous, yet insufficiently understood, judicial undertaking. He covers the origins of the trial, the unique legal constraints imposed by Germany’s Criminal Code, and the controversial verdicts.

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  • Scheffer, David. All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.

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    NNNReflections by the former US Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes. Unlike other, self-serving contributions to the genre, Scheffer’s book is a masterful, well-paced read that fills a glaring gap in the literature on international justice. The book will come to rank alongside Telford Taylor’s The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials. Scheffer is the Taylor of our times.

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  • Waldorf, Lars. “Rwanda’s Failing Experiment in Restorative Justice.” In Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective. Edited by Dennis Sullivan and Larry Tifft, 422–434. London: Routledge, 2006.

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    NNNHailed by many, understood by few, Rwanda’s gacaca jurisdictions have received a great deal of attention in recent years, on account of their ostensible inclusion of ordinary Rwandans in the adjudication of genocidal violence. Waldorf, formerly of Human Rights Watch, provides a critical introduction to what he describes as Rwanda’s failing experiment in restorative justice.

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  • Whitley, Kelly. “History of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal: Origins, Negotiations, and Establishment.” In The Khmer Rouge Tribunal. Edited by John D. Ciorciari, 29–53. Phnom Penh: Documentation Center of Cambodia, 2006.

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    NNNIn 2007, some thirty years after the event, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia commenced in Phnom Penh the prosecution of domestic and international crimes committed by the Khmer Rouge in the mid- to late 1970s. Whitley, formerly of the Documentation Center of Cambodia, offers an account of the contentious history of the latest so-called mixed criminal tribunal established in the international system.

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Coping

Can one come to terms with genocide? Can it be done? The selections in this section give pride of place to the voices of those who suffered under the burden of having to cope with the loss of life, identity, or self in the aftermath of genocide. The important, although not widely known, reflections in Améry 1980 and Delbo 1995, Holocaust survivors and writers both, deserve to be read alongside Elie Wiesel and Primo Levi, whose writings are ubiquitous. Hukanović 1998 contains the harrowing recollections of a Bosnian genocide survivor. Whereas Adorno 2003 inquires into the meaning of coming to terms with the past, Young 1993 analyzes examples of architectural efforts at doing so. Jaspers 2000, a famous treatise, addresses the meaning of guilt in Germany, and Marcucci 1994 turns to the meaning of pain in Cambodia. An insufficiently studied form of expression in times of genocide is children’s drawings, explored in Shapiro 2009.

  • Adorno, Theodor W. “The Meaning of Working through the Past.” In Can One Live after Auschwitz? A Philosophical Reader. Edited by Rolf Tiedemann, 3–18. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003.

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    NNNWorking through the past is an imperative frequently invoked in the aftermath of genocide. But what exactly does it entail? Adorno, the famous German sociologist and philosopher, cofounder of the so-called Frankfurt School of critical theory, attempts an answer.

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  • Améry, Jean. At the Mind’s Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor of Auschwitz and Its Realities. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980.

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    NNNBorn Hans Mayer, the Austrian writer Améry, a member of the Belgian Resistance and an Auschwitz survivor, changed his name in the wake of World War II to dissociate himself from Germany, embracing the French language and culture instead. Searching and thought provoking, his book insists that the reality of Auschwitz—and that of the Holocaust—defies comprehension.

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  • Delbo, Charlotte. Auschwitz and After. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.

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    NNNUnlike the work of Eli Wiesel and Primo Levi, Delbo’s autobiographical writings are less immediately accessible. In her work, she creates an assemblage of widely different text types—poems, vignettes, and fragments. Her theme is the impossibility of comprehending the genocide experience, which, in turn, explains Delbo’s adoption of a decidedly postmodern literary style.

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  • Hukanović, Rezak. The Tenth Circle of Hell: A Memoir of Life in the Death Camps of Bosnia. New York: Abacus, 1998.

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    NNNPrior to 1992, Hukanović was a poet and journalist in Prijedor, located in the northern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The municipality of Prijedor became infamous as the site of three concentration camps set up by Serbs—Omarska, Trnopolje, and Keraterm. Hukanović was an inmate in one of them, as he recalls in this memoir. His is a disturbing account from amidst the terror of detention.

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  • Jaspers, Karl. The Question of German Guilt. New York: Fordham University Press, 2000.

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    NNNA psychologist by training and a philosopher by vocation, Jaspers, born in 1883, was removed from his post at the University of Heidelberg by the Nazis in 1939. On account of his moral fortitude during the Third Reich, he became an important voice in post–World War II Germany. In this, his most famous book, Jaspers distinguishes four types of guilt—criminal, political, moral, and metaphysical—and explores the extent of German guilt for the destruction of the European Jews.

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  • Marcucci, John. “Sharing the Pain: Critical Values and Behaviors in Khmer Culture.” In Cambodian Culture since 1975: Homeland and Exile. Edited by May M. Ebihara, Carol A. Mortland, and Judy Ledgerwood, 129–140. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.

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    NNNMarcucci’s observations about the meaning(s) of pain in Cambodia force us to allow that suffering in the aftermath of genocide—physical and psychological—may very well be experienced rather differently across time and space. By juxtaposing Khmer conceptions of pain, rooted as they are in Buddhism, and Judeo-Christian conceptions of pain, Marcucci draws attention to “pain as a cultural process.”

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  • Shapiro, Carla Rose. “Visual Advocates: Depicting Darfur.” In The World and Darfur: International Response to Crimes against Humanity in Western Sudan. Edited by Amanda F. Grzyb, 215–253. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2009.

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    NNNShapiro, an independent curator, pays attention to the renderings of survivors whose experiences are only infrequently featured in accounts of large-scale social violence: children. Her topic is an exhibition and catalogue titled The Smallest Witnesses: The Conflict in Darfur through Children’s Eyes. Curated by Human Rights Watch. Bringing to bear interpretive techniques from the arts, Shapiro offers a close reading of the style and substance of these stark, evocative sketches.

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  • Young, James E. The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993.

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    NNNMemorialization is one means of coping with genocide. In this book, Young, a leading scholar of the practice and a professor of English and Judaic studies, serves as an expert guide, revealing the meaning of art and architecture in Holocaust memorials around the world.

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Compensation

Who makes amends for genocide? The emphasis of the readings within this section is on the promise and limits of rectifying—in monetary and symbolic terms—the effects of genocide. Selected works are listed dealing with apologies, restitution, and reparations, respectively. Clinton 1998, Lazare 2004, and Gooder and Jacobs 2000 are concerned with the institution of apology. Lazare 2004 offers a general account, Clinton 1998 constitutes the president’s “Rwanda apology,” and Gooder and Jacobs 2000 casts a critical eye on the popular, grassroots movement in Australia of making available so-called sorry books. The remaining readings address, in theory and practice, the multiple and thorny issues involved in providing restitution and reparations. Waldron 1992 raises important questions about the moral appropriateness of responding to historic injustice. Less philosophically, Bradford 2007 is concerned with these matters abstractly in the Native American context. By contrast, Authers 2006, Tomuschat 2007, and Bitti and González Rivas 2006 turn from theory to practice. Authers 2006 deals with compensation for forced and slave laborers in Nazi concentration camps. The remaining titles focus on the legal dimensions of compensation regimes for contemporary suffering.

  • Authers, John. “Making Good Again: German Compensation for Forced and Slave Laborers.” In The Handbook of Reparations. Edited by Pablo de Greiff, 420–448. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

    DOI: 10.1093/0199291926.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNMost advances in compensation for genocidal suffering have been made in the case of the Holocaust. Here, Authers, a correspondent for the Financial Times, details the drawn-out international negotiations over compensation for forced and slave laborers who toiled in Nazi concentration camps for the benefit of German companies.

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  • Bitti, Gilbert, and Gabriela González Rivas. “The Reparation Provisions for Victims under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.” In Redressing Injustices through Mass Claims Processes: Innovative Responses to Unique Challenges. Edited by the International Bureau of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, 299–322. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

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    NNNBitti and González Rivas, practicing lawyers both, discuss the reparations mechanism of the International Criminal Court (ICC) as well as the recently established Trust Fund for Victims, which is independent of the ICC. In addition to explicating procedures, they raise serious questions about the ICC’s readiness to mete out reparatory justice in response to genocide and other international crimes.

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  • Bradford, William. “Acknowledging and Rectifying the Genocide of American Indians: ‘Why Is It That They Carry Their Lives on Their Fingernails?’” In Genocide’s Aftermath: Responsibility and Repair. Edited by Claudia Card and Armen T. Marsoobian, 232–259. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.

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    NNNBradford, formerly a law professor, considers the promise—and limits—of a series of rectificatory schemes for coming to terms with the historic injustice perpetrated against American Indians. He examines, inter alia, approaches centering on supersession, compensation, and restoration.

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  • Clinton, William Jefferson. “Remarks by the President to Genocide Survivors, Assistance Workers, and U.S. and Rwanda Government Officials.” Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 25 March 1998.

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    NNNAside from the widely held belief that the “Clinton apology” to the victims of the Rwandan genocide for America’s inaction was insincere, it is perhaps best remembered for the location at which it was offered (Kigali airport), the amount of time the US president spent in the country (three and a half hours), and the fact that the engines of Air Force One were never shut down.

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  • Gooder, Haydie, and Jane M. Jacobs. “‘On the Border of the Unsayable’: The Apology in Postcolonizing Australia.” Interventions 2.2 (2000): 229–247.

    DOI: 10.1080/136980100427333Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNGooder and Jacobs recount, with a critical eye, the origins and effects of Australia’s “sorry books,” collections of signatures, not unlike guest or condolence books, by way of which more than one million Australians offered personal apologies to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Available online by subscription.

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  • Lazare, Aaron. On Apology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

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    NNNAn apology, when sincere, may serve to compensate for suffering and loss in the aftermath of genocide. Lazare outlines the requirements of an “effective” apology. He describes four such requirements and illustrates them with reference to numerous empirical cases.

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  • Tomuschat, Christian. “Reparation in Cases of Genocide.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.4 (2007): 905–912.

    DOI: 10.1093/jicj/mqm040Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNThe International Court of Justice’s 2007 decision in Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro, among other things, included a finding on the applicant state’s request for financial compensation. In this article, Tomuschat, a professor emeritus of international law and a former member of the International Law Commission, elucidates the judges’ reasoning and questions their wisdom. Available online by subscription.

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  • Waldron, Jeremy. “Superseding Historic Injustice.” Ethics 103.1 (1992): 4–28.

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    NNNLegal philosopher Waldron considers from a multitude of perspectives the thorny moral questions that arise when money enters the debate over transitional justice. In particular, he examines problems inherent in the use of counterfactual analysis for determining financial entitlements and assesses the conditions under which entitlements to compensation for historic injustice—such as genocide—may be overtaken by circumstances and thus fade.

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Cures

What can be done about genocide? As recent developments in Darfur, Sudan, attest, the imperative of devising solutions to the problem of genocide is of continuing relevance for international peace and security. The readings compiled under this section illuminate long-standing and new advances in the ongoing quest to avert or halt (Kitchens 1994) genocide. The authors find progress—and regress—in efforts at uprooting the proverbial “problem from hell.” The focus is on the organizational determinants of action by the United Nations (Barnett 2002, Robinson 2010) and the European Union (Smith 2010), on developments concerning the forecasting of genocide (Harff 2003), and on the much-touted idea of reconciliation (Meierhenrich 2008). Also included are two writings on the problem of humanitarian intervention, among them perhaps the most important contribution to this never-ending debate, that of Walzer 2002. Of related interest is International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty 2001, which offers the original (and expansive) formulation of the emerging norm of R2P, or the “responsibility to protect.”

  • Barnett, Michael. Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.

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    NNNIn this important analysis, political scientist Barnett examines decision making within the United Nations during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. He draws our attention to the organizational dynamics at New York headquarters, notably to what he calls the United Nation’s bureaucratic culture. This culture, says Barnett, generated a calculated and staged performance that was designed to discourage military intervention.

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  • Harff, Barbara. “No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risks of Genocide and Political Mass Murder since 1955.” American Political Science Review 97.1 (2003): 57–73.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0003055403000522Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNWhereas the vast majority of genocide scholarship to date has been founded on qualitative methodology, a select number of large-n studies do exist. Harff’s work on the assessment of risks of genocide and political murder since 1955, excerpted here, is a case in point. Her data, claims the political scientist, provide the basis for a global “watch list” that could identify countries in which the conditions for genocidal violence are present.

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  • International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. The Responsibility to Protect: Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. Ottawa, ON: International Development Research Centre, 2001.

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    NNNThe notion of a responsibility to protect—or “R2P” for short—quickly became a buzzword in the international community when it was first introduced early in the 21st century. It was the brainchild of a Canadian group of experts, called the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS). Convened by the government of Canada in September 2000, the ICISS deliberated and consulted for twelve months before issuing its recommendations and this report.

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  • Kitchens, James H., III. “The Bombing of Auschwitz Re-examined.” Journal of Military History 58.2 (1994): 233–266.

    DOI: 10.2307/2944021Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNKitchens, a historian, in this article reconsiders the much-debated question of whether a bombing of the gas chambers and crematoria of Auschwitz would have been feasible during the early 1940s. He disputes the influential contention that indifference—not inability—prevented the Allies from launching an air raid on the concentration camp complex in Poland.

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  • Meierhenrich, Jens. “Varieties of Reconciliation.” Law and Social Inquiry 33.1 (2008): 195–231.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4469.2008.00098.xSave Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    NNNIn discussions, theoretical and otherwise, over the prevention of genocide, one notion has particular appeal—“reconciliation.” It has acquired the status of a panacea and is being promoted the world over, notably in postgenocidal settings. However, at present we have little understanding of, let alone systematic data pertaining to, the phenomenon. The author argues that reconciliation has been conceptualized—and operationalized—with insufficient rigor to balance moral ledgers, or to increase our understanding of them.

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  • Robinson, Geoffrey. “If You Leave Us Here, We Will Die”: How Genocide Was Stopped in East Timor. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.

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    NNNThe response of the United Nations to the collective violence that seized East Timor in 1999 is one of the rare cases in which an international consensus in favor of military intervention could be brokered quickly and action was swift. Robinson, a historian, explains how this unusual outcome came about.

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  • Smith, Karen E. Genocide and the Europeans. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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    NNNA political scientist, Smith offers a useful account of European perspectives on genocide, focusing, in particular, on the ways in which countries such as France, Germany, and the United Kingdom have responded to the specter of genocide in the post–World War II world.

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  • Walzer, Michael. “The Argument about Humanitarian Intervention.” Dissent 49.1 (Winter 2002): 29–37.

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    NNNWalzer, an eminent political philosopher, challenges conventional wisdom about the theory and practice of humanitarian intervention. In this article, he develops an argument in favor of selective military intervention, specifying the exact conditions (focusing, among other things, on appropriate situations, agents, and exits) under which such international efforts are ethical.

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