International Relations Hague Conferences (1899, 1907)
by
Freya Baetens
  • LAST REVIEWED: 19 September 2014
  • LAST MODIFIED: 21 November 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199743292-0115

Introduction

In 1899, Czar Nicolas II took the initiative to convene a peace conference with two core objectives in mind. One was to obtain a reduction of military budgets through some agreed system of disarmament, as the growing rivalry between the great industrialized European empires began to pose a major threat to the international system then existing. At the same time, he sought to reduce the suffering of war, especially by members of the armed and naval forces. The second and parallel objective was to strengthen the systems available for the pacific settlement of international disputes, especially through arbitration. The conference took place in The Hague between 18 May and 29 July 1899 and was attended by twenty-six delegations. The conference was successful in its work on international humanitarian law and the law on the pacific settlement of disputes, notably with establishment of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, but it failed to achieve a reduction of military budgets and a plan for disarmament. However, it marked the first major multilateral international conference that was not limited simply to the European empires adjusting their relations or to the European powers dealing with the immediate repercussions of a war. The 1907 conference was convened to reexamine the work of 1899 in light of recent incidents such as the Boer War (1899–1902) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). The Second Hague Peace Conference was in session from 15 June to 19 October 1907 with forty-three delegations taking part. The main goals of this conference included elaboration on the provisions of the convention relative to the pacific settlement of international disputes, the international commissions of inquiry, and questions relative to maritime prizes. Little progress was made at this conference, although a report on the proposed international prize court was adopted in the context of the conference’s general work on the law of maritime warfare, and so was the Convention Respecting the Limitations of the Employment of Force for the Recovery of Contract Debts (the so-called Drago-Porter Convention). However, in the period of less than a decade that had passed between both conferences, the world had witnessed the rise of two great power blocs—the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) and the Triple Entente (the United Kingdom, France, and Russia). These agreements for military cooperation implied that if two countries engaged in combat, the four others would automatically be drawn in as well. As early as 1907, through these alliances, a major war seemed inevitable. Moreover, over and above the two major alliances, the great powers had concluded numerous treaties with smaller countries. Hence, Serbia could count on support from Russia, which could lead to a dangerous situation because Serbia was an enemy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A conflict between Serbia and the Dual Monarchy could draw in Russia and, with Russia, the rest of Europe. This exact train of events led to the outbreak of World War I. Note: all works mentioned herein can be consulted at the Peace Palace library in The Hague.

Conference Documents

The official documents of both conferences are listed in this section; of particular importance for academic research purposes are (the translations of) the official texts of the proceedings of the Hague peace conferences of 1899 and 1907 in Scott 1920 and Scott 1921 (both cited under English and written by an international law expert to the delegation of the United States at the Second Hague Peace Conference). For research into the specific historical context of the peace conferences, it is recommended to consult the French documents as well as the correspondence of the various participants to the conferences.

Official Documents

A great number of official documents address the Hague conferences of 1899 and 1907. Some of these documents have been published by the Foreign Ministry of the Netherlands, but a major contribution to the official documentary consists of the reports written by Scott.

French

The official documents in the French language that are of particular interest to those scholars who wish to place the Hague peace conferences in their contextual light are den Beer Poortugael 1899–1900, which incorporates contextual conference documents of the First Hague Peace Conference, and van Eysinga 1906–1907, which gives an insight in the contextual background with regard to the Second Hague Peace Conference. An excellent starting point for study of the subject is to consult the reports of the Foreign Ministry of the Netherlands: Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1899 and Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1907 are among the earliest conference reports, published directly after the 1899 conference and the 1907 conference, respectively. Martens 1899 provides a comment on commission work concerning rules relating to war on land. Van Varick 1899 offers an overview of the acts and documents of the First Hague Peace Conference. Scott 1920 examines the draft as well as the final declarations and conventions of both the peace conferences, while Scott 1927 contains the final acts. Rosenne 2007 is a recent publication in which the most important documents of both peace conferences are bundled.

  • den Beer Poortugael, J. C. C., ed. Collection de documents divers manuscrits, dactylographiés et imprimés, relatifs à la première conférence de la paix, La Haye 1899. 1899–1900.

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    Collection of various contextual conference documents relating to the First Hague Peace Conference.

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    • Martens, Frédéric de, ed. Deuxième commission: Deuxième commission: Deuxième sous-commission: (lois et coutumes de la guerre sur terre): Procès-verbaux: [25 mai 1899–1 juillet 1899]. 1899.

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      Report on the work of the second subcommission of the second commission, addressing the laws and customs relating to war on land.

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      • Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Conférence internationale de la paix: La Haye, 18 mai–29 juillet 1899. 4 vols. The Hague: Government Printing Office, 1899.

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        One of the earliest conference reports, published by the Foreign Ministry of the Netherlands directly after the 1899 conference. Includes Volume 1, Séances plenières; Volume 2, Première commission; Volume 3, Deuxième commission; and Volume 4, Troisième commission.

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        • Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Conférence internationale de la paix: La Haye, 18 mai–29 juillet 1899. New ed. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1907.

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          One of the earliest conference reports, published by the Foreign Ministry of the Netherlands directly after the 1907 conference.

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          • Rosenne, Shabtai, ed. Les conférences de la paix de La Haye de 1899 et 1907 et l’arbitrage international: Actes et documents. Brussels: Bruylant, 2007.

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            Recent republication of a selection of the most important documents of both peace conferences.

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            • Scott, James Brown, ed. Rapports faits aux conférences de La Haye de 1899 et 1907 comprenant les commentaires officiels annexés aux projets de conventions et des déclarations rédigées par les diverses commissions qui en étaient chargées ainsi que les textes des actes, conventions et déclarations dans leur forme définitive et des principales propositions présentées par les délégués des puissances intéressées aussi bien que d’autres pièces soumises aux commissions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1920.

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              Official explanatory and interpretative commentary accompanying the draft conventions and declarations submitted to the conferences by the several commissions charged with preparing them, together with the texts of the final acts, conventions, and declarations as signed, and of the principal proposals offered by the delegations of the various powers as well as of other documents placed before the commissions.

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              • Scott, James Brown, ed. Les conférences de la paix de La Haye de 1899 et 1907; [3]: Acte final. Paris: A. Pédone, 1927.

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                Final acts of the Hague peace conferences, collected and bundled by James Brown Scott.

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                • van Eysinga, W. J. M., ed. Collection de documents divers, dactylographiés et imprimés relatifs à la deuxième conférence de la paix. The Hague, 1906–1907.

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                  Collection of various contextual conference documents relating to the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                  • van Varick, Auguste van Daehne, ed. Actes et documents relatifs au programme de la conférence de la paix. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1899.

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                    Acts and documents relating to the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                    English

                    In Scott 1920 and Scott 1921 the documents regarding the proceedings of the First Hague Peace Conference are bundled. Scott 1917 is a useful commentary in which both the draft and the final conventions and declarations are explained and interpreted. Scott 2007 includes arguments both in favor and against the proposal for establishment of the International Court of Justice, the main features of this court, and the efforts made to establish the court since the Second Hague Peace Conference.

                    • Scott, James Brown, ed. The Reports to the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907. Oxford: Clarendon, 1917.

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                      Official explanatory and interpretative commentary in English accompanying the draft conventions and declarations submitted to the conferences by the several commissions charged with preparing them, together with the texts of the final acts, conventions, and declarations as signed, the principal proposals offered by the delegations of the various powers, and other documents laid before the commissions.

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                      • Scott, James Brown, ed. The Proceedings of the Hague Peace Conferences: Translation of the Official Texts. Vol. 1, The Conference of 1899. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1920.

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                        English translation of the comprehensive text of the proceedings of the First Hague Peace Conference, compiled by James Brown Scott.

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                        • Scott, James Brown, ed. The Proceedings of the Hague Peace Conferences: Translation of the Official Texts. Vol. 2, The Conference of 1907. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1921.

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                          English translation of the comprehensive text of all proceedings of the First Hague Peace Conference, compiled by James Brown Scott. Includes volumes on the plenary meetings of the conference and meetings of the first, second, third, and fourth commissions.

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                          • Scott, James Brown. The Status of the International Court of Justice: With an Appendix of Addresses and Official Documents. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Library, 2007.

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                            An early assessment of the status of the International Court of Justice. Originally published in 1916.

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                            The Hague Conventions and Declarations

                            The Hague peace conferences were convened with the aim to humanize the conduct of war and to substitute for war the pacific settlement of international disputes in the interest of international peace. The peace conferences led neither to an absolute prohibition of war nor to worldwide disarmament. The aim to create a binding international court for compulsory arbitration to settle international disputes was not achieved; a number of states opposed surrender of elements of their sovereignty to an international court of arbitration. Then as now, the international legal order is based on the Westphalian concept of the supreme sovereignty of the nation-state. Nevertheless, the peace conferences did achieve a degree of success, which was remarkable for the time. In particular, the establishment of the Permanent Court of Arbitration marked an important contribution to international dispute settlement. This section includes a list of the documents, subdivided into French and English documents, relating to the outcome of the peace conference, namely, the Hague conventions and declarations.

                            French

                            Stead 1901 provides an overview of the outcome of the First Hague Peace Conference, while Scott 1918 bundles the results of both peace conferences, including lists of signatures and reservations, among others.

                            • Scott, James Brown, ed. Les conventions et déclarations de La Haye de 1899 et 1907: Accompagnées de tableaux des signatures, ratifications, et adhésions et des textes des réserves. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1918.

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                              The French text of the conventions and declarations, together with the lists of signatures, ratifications, adhesions, and reservations.

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                              • Stead, William T. La chronique de la conférence de la Haye 1899: Accompagné du texte des conventions. The Hague: Hoekstra, 1901.

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                                A chronicle of the results of the 1899 Hague Peace Conference.

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                                English

                                Conventions and Declarations between the Powers: Concerning War, Arbitration and Neutrality (1915) is a very useful compilation for those who wish to study the Peace Conferences against the background of previous conventions and declarations relating to war and arbitration. The First and Second International Peace Conferences Held at The Hague (1914) provides a useful general overview of the most important developments at the peace conferences. Scott 1973 bundles the conference texts of both peace conferences, while in Scott 1914 the French text of the conventions and declarations is presented. Scott 1915b is a collection of the official documents adopted as a result of the peace conferences, including tables of signatures, ratifications, and adhesions of the various powers and texts of reservations. In Scott 1915a the final acts of the peace conferences are presented, as well as a draft international dispute settlement convention.

                                • Conventions and Declarations between the Powers: Concerning War, Arbitration and Neutrality: Declaration of Paris, 1856, of St. Petersburg, 1868, of The Hague, 1899, Convention of Geneva, 1906, 2nd Peace Conference, The Hague, 1907, Declaration of London, 1909. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1915.

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                                  Comprehensive document containing an overview of the most important declarations and conventions concluded between 1856 and 1907.

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                                  • The First and Second International Peace Conferences Held at The Hague, 1899 and 1907: International Peace Conference. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1914.

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                                    Overview of the main developments at both peace conferences.

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                                    • Scott, James Brown, ed. Signatures, Ratifications, Adhesions and Reservations to the Conventions and Declarations of the First and Second Hague Peace Conferences. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1914.

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                                      The French text of the conventions and declarations, together with the lists of signatures, ratifications, adhesions, and reservations.

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                                      • Scott, James Brown, ed. The Final Acts of the First and Second Hague Peace Conferences, Together with the Draft Convention on a Judicial Arbitration Court. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1915a.

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                                        Conference report of the final acts of the Hague peace conferences and of the draft of the international dispute settlement convention.

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                                        • Scott, James Brown, ed. The Hague Conventions and Declarations of 1899 and 1907, Accompanied by Tables of Signatures, Ratifications and Adhesions of the Various Powers and Texts of Reservations. New York: Oxford University Press, 1915b.

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                                          Overview of the documents that were adopted as a result of the Hague peace conferences: Among other documents, the Hague conventions of 1899 (I) and 1907 (I) for the pacific settlement of international disputes, the Hague convention (II) of 1907 respecting the limitation of the employment of force for the recovery of contract debts, the Hague convention (III) of 1907 relative to the opening of hostilities, as well as the Hague declarations (IV, 1) of 1899 and 1907 (XIV) prohibiting the discharge of projectiles and explosives from balloons.

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                                          • Scott, James Brown, ed. Texts of the Peace Conferences at The Hague, 1899 and 1907, with English Translation and Appendix of Related Documents. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1973.

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                                            Publication of the conference texts of both peace conferences, directly after the Second Hague Peace Conference. Originally published in 1908.

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                                            Proposals and Other Input by Specific States

                                            This section includes proposals by individual nations relating to the First Hague Peace Conference. Propositions à soumettre à la conférence de La Haye (1899) contains proposals to the Russian diplomatic delegation to the First Hague Peace Conference. Van Varick 2010 includes a number of proposals by the Dutch government relating to the limitation of armaments and military expenses, the regulation of the laws of war, and the use of good offices, mediation, and facultative arbitration. Van Varick 1916 contains Dutch proposals as well, but particularly with regard to the limitation of armaments. This section contains, besides proposals, other input as well. Correspondence (1899) provides an interesting insight into the communication relating to the First Hague Peace Conference. London Committee of the International Peace Crusade 1899 is a proposed scheme for the establishment of international courts submitted by a British activist group. Scott 1916 contains the instructions of the government of the United States to its diplomatic representatives to the peace conferences.

                                            • Correspondence, Respecting the Peace Conference Held at The Hague in 1899. London, 1899.

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                                              A collection of letters relating to the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                              • London Committee of the International Peace Crusade. A Scheme for the Establishment of International Courts or Tribunals for Settling Disputes between States by Arbitration and Mediation. London, 1899.

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                                                Submitted by the London Committee of the International Peace Crusade to the representatives of the powers at the First Hague Peace Conference in May 1899.

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                                                • Propositions à soumettre à la conférence de La Haye, contenues dans une dépêche circulaire, adressée par Son Excellence le comte [Nicolas] Mouravieff aux représentants diplomatiques, accrédités à St. Petersbourg, le 30 décembre 1898/11 janvier 1899. St. Petersburg, Russia, 1899.

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                                                  Proposals to be discussed at the First Hague Peace Conference, drafted by Count Mouravieff (the Russian minister of foreign affairs who, at the instructions of Czar Nicolas II, played a key role in organizing and convening the 1899 conference) to the diplomatic representation at The Hague.

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                                                  • Scott, James Brown, ed. Instructions to the American Delegates to the Hague Peace Conferences and Their Official Reports. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1916.

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                                                    Instructions of the government of the United States to its diplomatic agents participating in the peace conferences at The Hague.

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                                                    • van Varick, August van Daehne. Documents Respecting the Limitation of Armaments: Laid before the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899 by the Government of the Netherlands. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1916.

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                                                      Proposals of the government of the Netherlands specifically relating to the limitation of armaments to be put forward by its diplomatic agents participating in the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                      • van Varick, August van Daehne. Documents Relating to the Program of the First Hague Peace Conference: Laid before the Conference by the Netherland Government. Charleston, SC: Nabu, 2010.

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                                                        Proposals of the government of the Netherlands to be put forward by its diplomatic agents participating in the First Hague Peace Conference. Originally published in 1921.

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                                                        General Overviews

                                                        This section presents a list of books, book chapters, and articles discussing both the Hague Peace Conference of 1899 and the Hague Peace Conference of 1907.

                                                        English

                                                        Readers without extensive background knowledge will find Baker 2009 very accessible, as well as Aldrich and Chinkin 2000, while more advanced scholars in the history of international law will find more detailed information, including extensive excerpts from the original documents, in Rosenne 2001 and Higgins 2011. Choate 1913 evaluates both the peace conferences, while the influence of both peace conferences is examined in Scott 1972 and Hull 1972. In Higgins 2011 and Suijling 1910 the influence of the peace conferences on the laws of war and the development of international law and international relations, respectively, are assessed. Lawrence 2011 presents a study of the peace conferences not as isolated phenomena but in the light of the evolution of international society. Judge 1914 provides an assessment of proposals submitted during the peace conferences and a review of the impact of the conferences on the development of international law.

                                                        • Aldrich, George H., and Christine M. Chinkin. “Introduction [Symposium]: The Hague Peace Conferences.” American Journal of International Law 94.1 (2000): 1–3.

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                                                          Brief, useful, and accessible overview of both Hague peace conferences, as well as their context and continued relevance. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                          • Baker, Betsy. “Hague Peace Conferences (1899 and 1907).” In Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Edited by Rüdiger Wolfrum. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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                                                            Brief, useful, and accessible overview of both Hague peace conferences, as well as their context and continued relevance. Available online by subscription.

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                                                            • Choate, Joseph Hodges. The Two Hague Conferences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1913.

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                                                              Early assessment of both Hague peace conferences.

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                                                              • Higgins, Alexander Pearce. The Hague Peace Conferences and Other International Conferences Concerning the Laws and Usages of War: Texts of Conventions with Commentaries. Charleston, SC: Nabu, 2011.

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                                                                Detailed overview of both Hague peace conferences, including extensive excerpts from the original documents. Originally published in 1909.

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                                                                • Hull, William Isaac. The Two Hague Conferences and Their Contributions to International Law. New York: Garland, 1972.

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                                                                  Early assessment of the influence of both Hague peace conferences on the development of international law. Originally published in 1908.

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                                                                  • Judge, Mark H. The War and the Neutral Powers. From War to Peace Pamphlets 1. London: P. S. King & Son, 1914.

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                                                                    Early assessment of the proposals and opinions put forward at the Hague peace conferences and how this furthered the development of international law. Topics covered include the proposal for a conference of neutral powers, opinions on the proposal, the peace conferences at The Hague, and international law.

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                                                                    • Lawrence, Thomas J. International Problems and Hague Conferences. Charleston, SC: Nabu, 2011.

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                                                                      Early assessment of the influence of both Hague peace conferences on the development of international relations. Originally published in 1908.

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                                                                      • Rosenne, Shabtai, ed. The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907 and International Arbitration: Reports and Documents. The Hague: T. M. C. Asser, 2001.

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                                                                        Detailed overview of both Hague peace conferences, including extensive excerpts from the original documents.

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                                                                        • Scott, James Brown. The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907: A Series of Lectures Delivered before the Johns Hopkins University in the Year of 1908. 2 vols. New York: Garland, 1972.

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                                                                          A series of lecture papers by James Brown Scott on the influence of both Hague peace conferences. Volume 1 deals with the conferences and Volume 2 with the documents. Originally published in 1909.

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                                                                          • Suijling, Johannes Philippus. The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907: The Results Obtained, the Principles Applied and the Influences Felt. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1910.

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                                                                            Early assessment of the influence of both Hague peace conferences on the development of international law and international relations.

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                                                                            French

                                                                            Melville 1924 places the Hague peace conferences in their historical context in presenting a comprehensive overview of all the international Hague conferences between 1871 and 1921. Pillet 1918 offers a detailed overview of the two peace conferences, while Pédoya 1907 and Bouëdron 1913 give an assessment of the influence of the peace conferences on the development of international rules on disarmament and arbitration and on the development of the laws of war, respectively.

                                                                            • Bouëdron (Lieutenant). Le droit actuel de la guerre terrestre et les conférences de la paix. Paris: A. Rousseau, 1913.

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                                                                              Early assessment of the influence of both Hague peace conferences on the development of the laws of war.

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                                                                              • Melville, Edgar de. L’oeuvre de La Haye, 1871–1921: Exposé du travail des conférences de La Haye et de la Cour permanente d’arbitrage. Leiden, The Netherlands: Sijthoff, 1924.

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                                                                                Overview of the various international negotiations, including both peace conferences, that took place at The Hague between 1871 and 1921.

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                                                                                • Pédoya, Jean M. G. Les conférences de La Haye: Arbitrage, désarmement. Paris: J. Rueff, 1907.

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                                                                                  Early assessment of the influence of both Hague peace conferences on the development of the international rules on disarmament and arbitration.

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                                                                                  • Pillet, Antoine. Les conventions de La Haye du 29 juillet 1889 et du 18 octobre 1907: Étude juridique et critique. Paris: A. Pédone, 1918.

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                                                                                    Detailed overview of both Hague peace conferences, including extensive excerpts from the original documents.

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                                                                                    German

                                                                                    Zorn 1920 provides a thorough overview of the two peace conferences, while Lammasch 1916 assesses the influence of the peace conferences on the development of international law and international relations. More recent books on the influences of the peace conferences are Dülffer 1981 and Dülffer 1999, the first of which concentrates on the development of the laws of war and the latter on the international system of states.

                                                                                    • Dülffer, Jost. Regeln gegen den Krieg? Die Haager Friedenskonferenzen von 1899 und 1907 in der internationalen Politik. Frankfurt: Ullstein, 1981.

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                                                                                      Assessment of the influence of both Hague peace conferences on the development of the laws of war.

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                                                                                      • Dülffer, Jost. “Die Haager Friedenskonferenzen von 1899 und 1907 im internationalen Staatensystem.” Die Friedens-Warte 74.1–2 (1999): 98–111.

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                                                                                        Assessment of the influence of both Hague peace conferences on the international system of states.

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                                                                                        • Lammasch, Heinrich. “Rückblicke auf die Haager Friedenskonferenzen.” Zeitschrift für internationales Recht 26 (1916): 153–183.

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                                                                                          Early assessment of the influence of both Hague peace conferences on the development of international law and international relations.

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                                                                                          • Zorn, Philipp. Deutschland und die beiden Haager Friedenskonferenzen. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-anstalt, 1920.

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                                                                                            Detailed overview of both Hague peace conferences, including extensive excerpts from the original documents.

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                                                                                            Dutch

                                                                                            Den Beer Poortugael 1907 presents an early study on the influences of the Hague peace conferences of 1899 and 1907 on both the laws of war and international humanitarian law.

                                                                                            • den Beer Poortugael, J. C. C. Oorlogs- en neutraliteitsrecht op den grondslag van de Conferentie van Genève in 1906 en de twee Haagsche Vredes-conferentiën. The Hague: Gebroeders van Cleef, 1907.

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                                                                                              Early assessment of the influence of both Hague peace conferences on the development of the laws of war and international humanitarian law.

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                                                                                              Run-Up to the First Conference

                                                                                              This section includes a list of books, book chapters, and articles discussing the run-up to the Hague Peace Conference of 1899. Works such as Morrill 1974 (cited under the Role of Czar Nicholas II) give readers a good insight into the preparation for the conference and the roles of various actors, including Czar Nicholas II.

                                                                                              Preparation

                                                                                              This section contains various documents that afford the reader an interesting insight into the context in which the First Hague Peace Conference took place. Blaine 1892 is of particular historical importance in providing a study on the very first preparations for the drafting of an international tribunal court. During the preparatory process before the First Peace Hague Conference, the German and French governments assessed the scheme submitted by the Russian czar to reform and codify international law. Loewenthal 1898 addresses the German and French proposals in marking a reaction to the Russian proposals. Perris 1899 provides a very early historical study on the First Hague Peace Conference. Immediately after the completion of the peace conference, in 1899, studies in several languages were published focusing on the effects of the conference. Magnier 1899 is a French study, concentrating on the influence of the peace conference on international peace and disarmament, while Ferguson 1899 examines its influence on social evolution. Fried 1899 and Siebold 1899 offer a study on the realistic expectations of the First Hague Peace Conference and its influence on international peace, respectively.

                                                                                              • Blaine, James G. Letter from the Secretary of State Relative to a Peace Conference of the Governments of the World, to Sit in Chicago during and in Connection with the Columbian Exposition, for the Purpose of Considering the Question of the Settlement of All International Differences by Arbitration. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1892.

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                                                                                                Account of the earliest preparations for the drafting of an international arbitration court.

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                                                                                                • Ferguson, Jan Helenus. The International Conference of The Hague: A Plea for Peace in Social Evolution. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1899.

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                                                                                                  Early study on the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on social evolution.

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                                                                                                  • Fried, Alfred H. Was kann die Petersburger Friedens-Konferenz erreichen? Ein Vorschlag zur Erreichung der vom Zaren angestrebten Ziele. Dresden, Germany: E. Pierson, 1899.

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                                                                                                    Early German study on the realistic expectations of the results of the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                    • Loewenthal, Eduard. Grundzüge zur Reform und Codification des Völkerrechts (in deutscher und französischer Sprache): Vorlage für die vom Kaiser von Russland einberufene Friedens-Conferenz. Berlin: Dreyer, 1898.

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                                                                                                      Early German and French examination of the proposals for reform and codification of international law, as put forward by the Russia czar and to be discussed at the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                      • Magnier, Achille. Paix et désarmement: Avec un aperçu sur la conférence de La Haye. Paris: Bibliothèque de l’Association, 1899.

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                                                                                                        Early French study of the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on international peace and disarmament.

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                                                                                                        • Perris, G. H. A History of the Peace Conference at The Hague. London: International Arbitration Association, 1899.

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                                                                                                          Early historical overview of the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                          • Siebold, Alexander von. Der ewige Krieg und die Friedenskonferenz: [avec les textes français du projet de réglement pour la procédure arbitrale internationale, adopté par l’Institut de droit international en 1875, et des règles pour servir à l’élaboration d’un traité d’arbitrage international (version révisée de 1895) en annexe]. Munich: Schupp, 1899.

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                                                                                                            Early German study of the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on international peace with (excerpts from) the French texts on the draft rules on the international arbitration procedure, adopted by the International Law Institute in 1875 and the rules for the elaboration on an international arbitration treaty (revised version of 1895).

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                                                                                                            The Role of Czar Nicholas II

                                                                                                            Dunant 1898 provides an examination of the proposals set forth by Czar Nicholas II before the opening of the First Hague Peace Conference, while Fonbelle 1899 assesses the role of the czar after the peace conference had concluded. Peace Society 1899 consists of a number of papers distributed by the Peace Society. Morrill 1974 offers a lively account of the preparation for, and the background to, the First Hague Peace Conference, taking into account particularly the role of the czar.

                                                                                                            The First Conference

                                                                                                            This section includes a list of books, book chapters, and articles in various languages focusing on the Hague Peace Conference of 1899.

                                                                                                            The Conference and Its Results

                                                                                                            An extensive literature is available on the First Peace Conference and its results. The following subsections include an overview of studies in English, French, and German that deal with this literature.

                                                                                                            English

                                                                                                            The Peace Crusade (1899) and Trueblood 1899 are analyses of the First Hague Peace Conference made shortly after it had been held. The same is true for Stead 1899, which focuses particularly on the conference members. Holls 1900 is an in-depth analysis of the legal and political aspects of the First Hague Peace Conference and surveys in particular the work of the three committees, while Darby 1900 is a survey on the First Hague Peace Conference taking its history and results into account. For those scholars interested in examining the first conference from a political perspective, Ford 1936 is strongly recommended. It provides a reconstruction of the peace conference on the basis of historical Russian documents. Eyffinger 1999 provides a careful study a century after the First Hague Peace Conference.

                                                                                                            • Darby, W. Evans. The Peace Conference at The Hague: Its History, Work, and Results. London: Peace Society, 1900.

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                                                                                                              An early assessment of the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                              • Eyffinger, Arthur. The 1899 Hague Peace Conference: “The Parliament of Man, the Federation of the World.” The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

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                                                                                                                Study of the First Hague Peace Conference by a leading international legal historian.

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                                                                                                                • Ford, T. K. “The Genesis of the First Hague Peace Conference.” Political Science Quarterly 51.3 (1936): 354–382.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2144022Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  International relations study focusing on the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899, including its importance for the Second Hague Peace Conference of 1907. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                  • Holls, Frederick W. The Peace Conference at The Hague and Its Bearings on International Law and Policy. New York: Macmillan, 1900.

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                                                                                                                    An early assessment of the First Hague Peace Conference, from a legal as well as a political perspective.

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                                                                                                                    • The Peace Crusade: A Record of the Peace Conference at The Hague, May 18 to July 29, 1899: [1–12]. London: Lend a Hand Society, 1899.

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                                                                                                                      An early critical assessment of the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                      • Stead, W. T. The Parliament of Peace and Its Members. London: “Review of Reviews” Office, 1899.

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                                                                                                                        An early critical assessment of the participants to the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                        • Trueblood, Benjamin F. The International Peace Conference at The Hague. Boston, 1899.

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                                                                                                                          An early assessment of the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                          French

                                                                                                                          The following subsection includes a list of literature in French on the First Peace Conference. Mérignhac 1900 offers a comprehensive and critical analysis, while Lapradelle 1899 is a more general overview of the conference. Barcelo 1998 provides an interesting study on the First Hague Peace Conference in serving as the foundation for the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Histoire du droit international public (2005) offers a historical overview of public international law in which the First Hague Peace Conference serves as a starting point for analysis.

                                                                                                                          • Barcelo, Laurent. “Aux origines de la Cour permanente d’arbitrage: La première conférence de La Haye, 1899.” Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains 48.189 (1998): 17–29.

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                                                                                                                            Contemporary study on the origins of the Permanent Court of Arbitration from the First Hague Peace Conference to 1998. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                            • “Histoire du droit international public: Des désillusions de La Haye à l’espérance de Genève, 1899–1920.” La Chronique judiciaire d’Haiti 26.299–300 (2005): 2–5.

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                                                                                                                              Historical study of international law: from the disillusionment at the lack of success in The Hague to the hopes for better results in Geneva.

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                                                                                                                              • Lapradelle, A. Geouffre de. “La conférence de la paix (La Haye, 18 mai–29 juillet 1899).” Revue générale de droit international public 6 (1899): 651–846.

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                                                                                                                                Early overview of the First Hague Peace Conference in the leading French international law journal. Available online.

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                                                                                                                                • Mérignhac, Alexandre. La conférence internationale de la paix: Étude historique, exégétique et critique des travaux et des résolutions de la conférence de La Haye de 1899. Paris: A. Rousseau, 1900.

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                                                                                                                                  Historical, exegetical, and critical study of the works and resolutions at the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                  German

                                                                                                                                  Fried 1900 is an early assessment of the First Hague Peace Conference, addressing its meaning and results, and Kolden 1900 is an early critical essay on the first conference. Scholars interested in the power blocs at the First Hague Peace Conference should consult Jünk 1928, while Hoffmann 1935 provides an examination of the conference against its historical background.

                                                                                                                                  • Fried, Alfred H. Die Haager Conferenz, ihre Bedeutung und ihre Ergebnisse von: Auf Veranlassung des Berliner Comités für Kundgebungen zur Friedensconferenz. Berlin, 1900

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                                                                                                                                    Early assessment of the First Hague Peace Conference, addressing its meaning and results.

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                                                                                                                                    • Hoffmann, Frieda. Beiträge zur Vorgeschichte der ersten Haager Friedenskonferenz von 1899. Hamburg, Germany: Christians, 1935.

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                                                                                                                                      Study of the First Hague Peace Conference in light of its history and context.

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                                                                                                                                      • Jünk, August. “Die Mächte auf der ersten Haager Friedenskonferenz, 1899.” PhD diss., Frankfurt am Main, 1928.

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                                                                                                                                        Examination of the various power blocs at the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                        • Kolden, Max. Wahrheit und Klarheit über die Haager Friedenskonferenz. Berlin: Puttkammer, 1900.

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                                                                                                                                          Essay assessing “truth and clarity” about the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                          Disarmament and Development of Ius ad bellum and Ius in bello

                                                                                                                                          For scholars interested in the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on disarmament and on the development of the concepts of ius ad bellum and ius in bello, Greenwood 1999 (written by a judge at the International Court of Justice) is highly recommended, as well as Blix 2001 (written by the former head of the UN Monitoring Verification and Inspection Commission). Keefer 2006 surveys the origins of contemporary arms control in examining the First Hague Peace Conference. Meurer 1905–1907 examines the influence of the first conference on the laws of war, while Ipsen 1999 is a more recent analysis of the first conference and how it influenced arms control and disarmament. Gobat 1907 offers an early French examination of the development of the Hague conventions.

                                                                                                                                          • Blix, Hans. “Arms Control and Disarmament: One of the Main Themes of the Hague Peace Conference of 1899.” In A Century of War and Peace: Asia-Pacific Perspectives on the Centenary of the 1899 Hague Peace Conference. Edited by Timothy L. H. McCormack, Michael Tilbury, and Gillian D. Triggs, 169–178. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                            Instructive study on the specific input of the First Hague Peace Conference on the development of international rules on arms control and disarmament.

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                                                                                                                                            • Gobat, Albert. Le développement des conventions de La Haye du 29 juillet 1899: Conférence faite à l’Institut Nobel à Kristiania le 18 juillet 1906. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt, 1907.

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                                                                                                                                              Early outline of the development of the Hague conventions, drafted at a conference at the Nobel Institute.

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                                                                                                                                              • Greenwood, Christopher. International Humanitarian Law (Laws of War): Revised Report for the Centennial Commemoration of the First Hague Peace Conference, 1899. London: School of Economics and Political Science, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                Seminal work on the development of the laws of war. A previous version of this study was published. See Christopher Greenwood, International Humanitarian Law and the Laws of War: Preliminary Report for the Centennial Commemoration of the First Hague Peace Conference 1899 (London: School of Economics and Political Science, 1998).

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                                                                                                                                                • Ipsen, Knut. “Von der Abrüstung zum Kriegsrecht: Absicht und Ergebnis der Haager Friedenskonferenz von 1899.” Die Friedens-Warte 74.1–2 (1999): 255–258.

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                                                                                                                                                  German study on the objectives and results of the First Hague Peace Conference on the development of international rules on arms control and disarmament.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Keefer, Scott A. “Building the Palace of Peace: The Hague Conference of 1899 and Arms Control in the Progressive Era.” Journal of the History of International Law 8.1 (2006): 1–17.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/157180506777834380Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    Historical examination of the roots of current rules on arms control. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Meurer, Christian. Die Haager Friedenskonferenz. 2 vols. Munich: Schweitzer, 1905–1907.

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                                                                                                                                                      Early study of the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on the development of the laws of war. Volume 1, Das Friedenrecht der Haager Konferenz; Volume 2, Das Kriegrecht der Haager Konferenz.

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                                                                                                                                                      Important Individuals

                                                                                                                                                      Of the older works focusing on the First Hague Peace Conference, the various articles by Frédéric (Friedrich) de Martens are especially instructive as the author was present at, and actively participated in, the conference. Martens 1901 surveys the Brussels Conference of 1874. This conference resulted in a draft International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War, which did not enter into force. However, this draft laid the foundation for the First Hague Peace Conference. Martens 1900 provides a study of the First Hague Peace Conference in its historical light, while Martens 1899 concentrates on the establishment of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Baroness Bertha Felicie Sophie von Suttner (b. 9 June 1843–d. 21 June 1914), born Countess Kinsky in Prague, received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905 for her great contributions to the peace movement, among others, by wholeheartedly supporting the Hague peace conference. The embassies of Austria, Norway, and Sweden organized a symposium in 2005 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of her reception of the Nobel Peace Prize. Riemens 2005, which describes von Suttner’s role at the First Hague Peace Conference, was published on this occasion. Suttner 1985 is a report by Suttner as documented in her diary. The ideas of Jean de Bloch, a Polish banker who devoted his private life to the theory of industrial warfare, influenced the thinking of Czar Nicholas II, and he was invited to the First Hague Peace Conference. Van den Dungen 1983 and van den Dungen 2000 are studies of Bloch’s role at the First Hague Peace Conference.

                                                                                                                                                      • Martens, Frédéric de. “International Arbitration and the Peace Conference at The Hague.” North American Review 169.5 (1899): 615–616.

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                                                                                                                                                        International relations study focusing on the establishment of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, written by Frédéric (Friedrich) de Martens, one of the leading diplomats present at the 1899 conference as a member of the Russian delegation. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Martens, Frédéric de. La conférence de la paix à La Haye: Étude d’histoire contemporaine. Paris: A. Rousseau, 1900.

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                                                                                                                                                          Historical study by Frédéric de Martens of the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Martens, Frédéric de. La paix et la guerre: La conférence de Bruxelles 1874: Droits et devoirs des belligérants (leur application pendant la guerre d’Orient 1874–1878): La conférence de La Haye 1899. Paris: A. Rousseau, 1901.

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                                                                                                                                                            Study by Frédéric de Martens of the Brussels Conference of 1874 on war and peace and the rights and duties of belligerents.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Riemens, Michael. “‘This Is Wonderland’: Baroness Bertha von Suttner, the Peace Movement and the Hague Peace Conference of 1899.” In Report on the Symposium on the Occasion of the 100th Anniversary of the Nobel Peace Prize Award to Bertha von Suttner, Organized by the Embassies of Austria, Norway, and Sweden in Cooperation with the Carnegie Foundation in the Peace Palace on 18 April 2005. Edited by Ingrid Kost and the embassies of Austria, Norway, and Sweden, 27–32. The Hague: Embassy of Austria, Embassy of Norway, Embassy of Sweden, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                              Report on the role of Baroness Bertha von Suttner at the First Hague Peace Conference produced by the embassies in the Netherlands of Austria, Norway, and Sweden on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Bertha von Suttner.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Suttner, Bertha von. Die Haager Friedenskonferenz: Tagebuchblätter. Düsseldorf: Zwiebelzwerg, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                Account by Bertha von Suttner of the First Hague Peace Conference. Originally published in 1900.

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                                                                                                                                                                • van den Dungen, Peter. The Making of Peace: Jean de Bloch and the First Hague Peace Conference. Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Armament and Disarmament, California State University, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Examination of the role of Jean de Bloch at the First Hague Peace Conference. A similar study previously published in Dutch is Peter van den Dungen, “Een interessant probleem: Jean Bloch en de eerste Haagse Vredesconferentie,” Transaktie 10 (1981): 189–214.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • van den Dungen, Peter. “From St. Petersburg to The Hague: Bloch and the First Hague Peace Conference, 1899.” In The Future of War. Edited by Gwyn Prins and Hylke Tromp, 69–83. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Examination of the role of Jean de Bloch at the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Specific Country Perspectives

                                                                                                                                                                    Very relevant (and a very good starting point for country-specific views on the First Hague Peace Conference) are the contributions in MacCormack, et al. 2001. Lüthi 1954 assesses the First Hague Peace Conference from the perspective of the smaller European states, while Guieysse 1905 provides an examination of the role of France at the first conference. Davis 1962 offers an account of the United States at the first conference. Villiot 1999 examines the role of the Holy See and Spies 2001 provides a study of the position of South Africa.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Davis, Calvin DeArmond. The United States and the First Hague Peace Conference. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1962.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Examination of the role and interests of the United States at the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Guieysse, Charles. La France et la paix armée: La conférence de La Haye. Paris: Librairie de “Pages Libres,” 1905.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Early contribution of the role of France and its position toward the “armed peace” at the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Lüthi, Rudolf. Die europäischen Kleinstaaten und die Haager Friedenskonferenz von 1899. Winterthur, Switzerland: P. G. Keller, 1954.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Examination of the role of the smaller European states at the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • MacCormack, Timothy L. H., Michael Tilbury, and Gillian D. Triggs, eds. A Century of War and Peace: Asia-Pacific Perspectives on the Centenary of the 1899 Hague Peace Conference. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                            In this volume, several contributions assess various aspects of Asia-Pacific perspectives on the 1899 Hague Peace Conference, particularly Vitit Muntarbhorn, “The 1899 Hague Peace Conference and the Development of the Laws of War: Asia’s Contribution to the Quest for Humanitarianism?” (pp. 111–138), and Kenneth Keith, “The Significance of the Hague Peace Conference in the Asia-Pacific Region: The South Pacific including New Zealand” (pp. 29–40).

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Spies, S. B. “Die Haagse Konvensie van 1899 en die Boererepublieke.” In Verskroeide aarde. Edited By Fransjohen Pretorius and Jan Schaafsma, 168–177. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                              South African study of the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Villiot, Philippe. Le recours au siège apostolique et la première conférence internationale de la paix: Les enseignements des archives du Quai d’Orsay. Grenoble, France: P. Villiot, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Study of the role of the Holy See at the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Celebrating the Centennial Anniversary

                                                                                                                                                                                A number of books were published to commemorate the centennial of the First Hague Peace Conference. International Bureau of the Permanent Court of Arbitration 2000 is a seminal work that addresses the contribution of the First Hague Peace Conference to the development of international alternative dispute resolution. Kalshoven 2000, which provides an overview of the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on efforts to promote the peaceful resolution of disputes in the 20th century, is strongly recommended. Ninian 2001 offers a study of the relevance of the First Hague Peace Conference for the contemporary world. Sharwood 2001 provides a lively account of the participation of certain actors at the first conference. Caron 2000 is an interesting study on the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on international dispute resolution, while Hoynck van Papendrecht 1999 examines the role of The Hague as the “City of Peace and Justice.” Petersmann 1999 offers a thoughtful report on the role the First Hague Peace Conference played in developments in the 20th century, while Best 1999 assesses the influence of the conference from an international relations perspective.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Best, G. “Peace Conferences and the Century of Total War: The 1899 Hague Conference and What Came After.” International Affairs 75.3 (1999): 619–634.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/1468-2346.00096Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  International relations study focusing on the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899, including its aftermath and importance for developments in the 20th century. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Caron, David D. “War and International Adjudication: Reflections on the 1899 Peace Conference.” American Journal of International Law 94.1 (2000): 4–30.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/2555228Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Legal assessment of the contribution of the First Hague Peace Conference to the development of international dispute resolution. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hoynck van Papendrecht, Frans. The Hague, City of Peace and Justice: Centennial of the First International Peace Conference, 1899–1999. The Hague: City of The Hague, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Article examining the role of The Hague as the “City of Peace and Justice.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • International Bureau of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, ed. International Alternative Dispute Resolution: Past, Present and Future. The Hague: Kluwer Academic, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        A seminal work addressing the contribution of the First Hague Peace Conference to the development of international alternative dispute resolution, particularly the following chapters: Phyllis Hamilton, “Address at the 100th Anniversary of the Russian Initiative: From the First International Peace Conference, 1899 to the Third, 1999, June 22, 1999” (pp. 201–206); and Robin Sharwood, “The Hague Peace Conference of 1899: A Historical Introduction” (pp. 163–174).

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kalshoven, Frits. The Centennial of the First International Peace Conference: Reports and Conclusions. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          An interesting overview by one of the éminences grises of international humanitarian law. A journal article in Dutch is Frits Kalshoven, “De Eerste Haagse Vredesconferentie van 1899,” Militair-Rechtelijk Tijdschrift 92.8 (1999): 257–265.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ninian, Stephen. “Commemorating the Centenary of the 1899 Hague Peace Conference.” In A Century of War and Peace: Asia-Pacific Perspectives on the Centenary of the 1899 Hague Peace Conference. Edited by Timothy L. H. McCormack, Michael Tilbury, and Gillian D. Triggs, 269–274. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            General overview of the contemporary relevance of the First Hague Peace Conference; first chapter of this seminal work on the topic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich. “Centennial of the 1899 Hague Peace Conference and 1899 Hague Convention on the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes: 1999 Geneva Academy of International Economic Law and Dispute Settlement.” Journal of International Economic Law 2.2 (1999): 185–187.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Thought-provoking examination of the First Hague Peace Conference, including an insight into the economically relevant aspects and influence of the conference. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sharwood, Robin. “Princes and Peacemakers: The Story of the Hague Peace Conference of 1899.” In A Century of War and Peace: Asia-Pacific Perspectives on the Centenary of the 1899 Hague Peace Conference. Edited by Timothy L. H. McCormack, Michael Tilbury, and Gillian D. Triggs, 3–16. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Assessment of the roles of specific actors at the First Hague Peace Conference. Also published in The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907 and International Arbitration: Reports and Documents, edited by Shabtai Rosenne (The Hague: T. M. C. Asser Press, 2001), pp. 447–457.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                The Second Conference

                                                                                                                                                                                                This section includes a list of literature discussing the preparatory works to, and the official documents of, the Hague Peace Conference of 1907 as well as a list of books, book chapters, and articles discussing various aspects of the Second Hague Peace Conference, its results, and its continued relevance. Two seminal must-read works recommended to any scholar studying the Second Hague Peace Conference are Giegerich and Heinz 2009 and Daudet 2008 (both cited under Celebrating the Centennial Anniversary).

                                                                                                                                                                                                Preparatory Works

                                                                                                                                                                                                Passy, et al. 1902 is a general study on the objectives and international context of the Second Hague Peace Conference, while Barclay 1906 examines specific proposals and suggestions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Barclay, Thomas. The Second Hague Conference: Memorandum on Controverted Questions of International Practice, Suggested Reforms . . . [etc.]. London: Lincoln’s Inn, 1906.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  This memorandum discusses the run-up to the 1907 Hague Peace Conference, including specific proposals and suggestions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Passy, Frédéric, Charles Richet, and Maurice Bukanowski. “La deuxième conférence de La Haye.” Revue de la paix 12 (1902): 327–373.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    An early French study of the Second Hague Peace Conference, its objectives, and its international context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Official Documents

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Many official documents are available on the Second Hague Peace Conference. An interesting insight in the communication between the different delegations is provided by Correspondence (1908). Actes authentiques et originaux (1908) contains the authentic acts and other original documents of the Second Hague Peace Conference in French, while Barclay and Coquet 1907 incorporates the model clauses and conventions that were agreed upon during the second conference. Ligue internationale de la paix et de la liberté 1908 includes the final acts, conventions, and declarations. The following official documents are relevant to a particular state participating in the Second Hague Peace Conference. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1907 contains a collection of acts and documents of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Choate 1908 provides the final acts, conventions, and declarations, including not only a draft convention on the creation of a judicial arbitration court, but also the instructions of the US government to its delegation. Choate, et al. 1910 will be of great value to those scholars who are interested in the course of events during the Second Hague Peace Conference: it includes the speeches of three American delegates concerning the limitation of force in the collection of contract debts and the project for the establishment of a permanent court for arbitral justice, among other issues. Dalman 1908 contains the final acts, conventions, and declarations of the Second Hague Peace Conference in Spanish, as well as the instructions of the US government to its delegates.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Actes authentiques et originaux de la 2e conférence de la paix, tenue à La Haye, 15 juin–18 octobre 1907, et le tableau des signatures. The Hague, 1908.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Authentic acts and other original documents of the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Barclay, Thomas, and Lucien Coquet. La seconde conférence de La Haye: Modèles de clauses et conventions. Paris: A. Pédone, 1907.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Model clauses and conventions agreed upon at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Choate, Joseph Hodges, ed. The Second International Peace Conference Held at The Hague from June 15 to October 18, 1907: Instructions to and Report from Delegates of the United States, Conventions and Declarations, Final Act, with Draft of Convention Relative to the Creation of a Judicial Arbitration Court, and Signatures to the Conventions. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1908.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Final act, conventions, and declaration of the Second Hague Peace Conference, as well as the instructions of the US government to its delegates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Choate, Joseph Hodges, James Brown Scott, and Horace Porter. American Addresses at the Second Hague Peace Conference. Boston: Ginn, 1910.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Overview of speeches by the delegates of the United States at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Correspondence Respecting the Second Peace Conference Held at The Hague in 1907. London, 1908.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Correspondence of delegates during, or about, the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dalman, Ramón de, ed. Acta final de la segunda Conferencia de la paz y convenciones anejas á la misma firmadas en El Haya el 18 de Octubre de 1907: Primera traducción española con un prólogo y un cuadro de las potencias signatarias hasta el 30 de Junio de 1908. Madrid: Revista de Derecho International y Politica Exterior, 1908.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Final act, conventions, and declaration of the Second Hague Peace Conference, as well as the instructions of the US government to its delegates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ligue international de la paix et de la liberté. La deuxième conférence de la paix: Acte final, conventions, déclaration, 18 octobre 1907. Bern, Switzerland: Wælchi, 1908.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Final act, conventions, and declarations of the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Deuxième conférence internationale de la paix, La Haye, 15 juin–18 octobre 1907: Actes et documents. The Hague: Government Printing Office, 1907.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Acts and documents of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Conference and Its Results

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Second Hague Peace Conference is generally considered to have achieved no great success. Proposals for the limitation of armaments and for compulsory arbitration were voted down. Delegates succeeded merely in agreeing upon strengthening the instruments available for voluntary arbitration. Nevertheless, conventions were concluded to regulate the collection of debts as well as on the rules of war and the rights and duties of neutrals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    English

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reinsch 1908 is an early international relations study on the Second Hague Peace Conference, assessing both the context in which it was held and its aftermath. Holls 1914 examines the influence of the conference from both a legal and a political perspective. Jones 2002 provides a study on the modern search for international justice, which, he affirms, began with the Hague peace conferences. Kittrie 2003 critically examines the failure of efforts in the 20th century to prevent war in a review in which the Second Hague Peace Conference is also assessed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Holls, Frederick W. The Peace Conference at The Hague and Its Bearings on International Law and Policy. New York: Macmillan, 1914.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Study on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international law and international relations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Jones, Dorothy V. Toward a Just World: The Critical Years in the Search for International Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        International relations study on various international power struggles in the 20th century, including at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kittrie, Nicholas N. “On the Cause of War and the Efforts That Failed.” In The Future of Peace in the Twenty-First Century: To Mitigate Domestic Discontents and Harmonize Global Diversity. Edited by Nicholas N. Kittrie, Rodrigo Carazo, and James R. Mancham, 151–167. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          International relations study on various international power struggles in the 20th century, including at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Reinsch, P. S. “Failures and Successes at the Second Hague Conference.” American Political Science Review 2.2 (1908): 204–220.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/1944774Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            International relations study focusing on the Hague Peace Conference of 1907, including the context in which it was held and its aftermath. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            French

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lémonon and Bourgeois 1908 serves as a good starting point in providing an early examination of the Second Hague Peace Conference. Institut international de la paix 1907 provides a general overview of the different opinions, projects, and proposals that were put forward during the second conference. An interesting examination of the debates that took place and the actions taken at the conference can be found in Barbosa 1907. Saint-Maurice 1908 is a critical study on the work of the Second Hague Peace Conference. The following books survey the impact made by the Second Hague Peace Conference. Billard de Saint-Laumer 1910 examines the effects of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of the laws of war on land, while Lange 1917 concentrates on the development of international law in general. Szurek 2008 is a study of the role played by the second conference in establishing peaceful international relations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Barbosa, Ruy. Actes et discours: Deuxième conférence de la paix. The Hague: Van Stockum, 1907.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A study of the actions and discourse at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Billard de Saint-Laumer, Jacques. Du droit de la guerre sur terre d’après la conférence de La Haye de 1907. Paris: Jouve, 1910.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A study of the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of the laws of war on land.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Institut international de la paix. Deuxième conférence de La Haye: Opinions, projets, propositions diverses. Monaco: Institut international de la paix, 1907.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An overview of opinions, projects, and diverse proposals put forward at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lange, Christian L. Développement de l’oeuvre de La Haye: Organisation de la conférence de la paix: Rapport. The Hague: Organisation centrale pour une paix durable, 1917.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A study of the development of international law at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lémonon, Ernest, and Léon Bourgeois. La seconde conférence de la paix, La Haye, juin–octobre 1907. Paris: F. Pichon et Durand-Auzias, 1908.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An early assessment of the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Saint-Maurice, comte de. La deuxième conférence de la paix: Étude critique de ses travaux suivie des textes et documents officiels. Paris: G. Roustan, 1908.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Critical study of the work at the Second Hague Peace Conference as well as (excerpts of) the texts and official documents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Szurek, Sandra. “Les conventions de La Haye de 1907: Des instruments au service de relations internationales pacifiques.” In Le christianisme dans le monde. Edited by Serge Sur, 114–120. Paris: Documentation Française, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Article on the Hague Conventions of 1907 as instruments in the service of peaceful international relations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          German

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Adler 1909 provides an early study on the Second Hague Peace Conference and how it contributed to the development of international law. The following three studies were published a century after the Second Peace Conference took place. Herren-Oesch and Knab 2007 focuses on the liberalization of the political information market at the Second Hague Peace Conference, while Düffler 2007 provides an overview of the development of international law during the century following the second conference. Schulz 2007 is a critical study in which the role played by the Second Hague Peace Conference in establishing the international system of states up until the outbreak of World War I is analyzed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Adler, Arthur. Die Haager Friedenskonferenz des Jahres 1907 und die Fortbildung des Völkerrechtes. Berlin: Puttkammer & Mühlbrecht, 1909.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Early assessment of the Second Hague Peace conference on the development of international law.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Düffler, Jost. “Einleitung.” In Special Issue: 100 Jahre Zweite Haager Friedenskonferenz von 1907. Die Friedens-Warte 82.4 (2007): 13–16.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Overview of the century of international legal development after the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Herren-Oesch, Madeleine, and Cornelia Knab. “Die Zweite Haager Friedenskonferenz und die Liberalisierung des politischen Informationsmarktes.” Die Friedens-Warte 82.4 (2007): 51–64.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Study of the liberalization of the political information market at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Schulz, Matthias. “Vom Direktorialsystem zum Multilateralismus? Die Haager Friedenskonferenz von 1907 in der Entwicklung des internationalen Staatensystems bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg.” Die Friedens-Warte 82.4 (2007): 31–50.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Critical study of the role played by the Second Hague Peace Conference in the development of the international state system until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dutch

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Asser 1908 is highly recommended. It is a report on the Second Hague Peace Conference written by the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1911. Beaufort 1915 is a critical assessment of the meaning of the peace conference set against the background of World War I, while Lammers 2007 provides a historical overview of the meaning of the Second Hague Peace Conference during the following hundred years.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Asser, Tobias M. C. De tweede vredes-conferentie: Een terugblik. 1908.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Early assessment of the Second Hague Peace Conference by Asser (winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1911).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beaufort, Wilhelm Hendrik de. De beteekenis van den arbeid der Vredesconferenties, gezien in het licht van en in verband met den oorlog: (een reeks korte beschouwingen, naar aanleiding van vragen van de redactie van het tijdschrift “Vrede door recht”). The Hague: Morks, 1915.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Study of the meaning of the peace conferences in light of the outbreak of World War I.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lammers, J. G. Oude verdragen in een nieuwe tijd: Honderd jaar Haagse Vredesconferentie van 1907. The Hague: T. M. C. Asser, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Overview of the contemporary relevance of the conventions drafted at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Development of Mechanisms of International Dispute Settlement

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The original aim to establish a compulsory mechanism of arbitration was achieved neither at the First Hague Peace Conference nor at the conference in 1907; however, progress was made in enlarging the machinery for voluntary arbitration. This section presents an overview of the different mechanisms of international dispute settlement that were addressed at the Second Hague Peace Conference: Peaceful Dispute Settlement, Arbitration, and Criminal Tribunals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Peaceful Dispute Settlement

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tams and Bouguillon 2009 surveys the progress achieved at the Second Hague Peace Conference in promoting the development of the law on peaceful dispute settlement in general.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Tams, Christian J., and Christelle Bouguillon. “La deuxième conférence de La Haye et le règlement pacifique des différends.” Revue générale de droit international public 113.1 (2009): 75–94.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Study of the contribution of the Second Hague Peace Conference to the development of international dispute settlement law; for the original version, see Christian J. Tams, “Die Zweite Haager Konferenz und das Recht der friedlichen Streitbeilegung,” Die Friedens-Warte 82.4 (2007): 119–138.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Arbitration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Although delegates at both conferences failed to achieve the original aim to create a binding international court for compulsory arbitration to settle international disputes, they did succeed in taking a step in the right direction of peaceful international dispute settlement: the Permanent Court of Arbitration was established during the First Hague Peace Conference. At the Second Hague Peace Conference the convention relative to this court was revised. This section includes a list of books assessing the role that the Second Hague Peace Conference played in the development of international arbitration. Scott 1920 provides an interesting overview of the plans for an international court of arbitral justice at the second conference. Although this body was never established, delegates at the second conference did advance the development of international dispute settlement by means of voluntary international arbitration, as described in Holguín 1907 and Renault 2007. Kater 2007 assesses this influence as well, but particularly in the light of Kant and Hegel. A treaty to create an international prize court was drafted at the Second Hague Peace Conference. However, the treaty never entered into force, the signatory states having failed to ratify it. Gregory 1908 provides an overview of the proposals for this court.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gregory, Charles N. “The Proposed International Prize Court and Some of Its Difficulties.” American Journal of International Law 2 (1908): 458–475.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/2186325Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Overview of the plans for an international prize court developed at the Second Hague Peace Conference. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Holguín, Jorge. L’arbitrage. Brussels: Canon, 1907.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Early assessment of the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international arbitration as a means of settling international disputes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kater, T. “Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit, Staatlichkeit und Frieden: Reflexionen zur Haager Friedenskonferenz von 1907 im Anschluss an Kant und Hegel.” Die Friedens-Warte 82.4 (2007): 17–30.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Article on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international arbitration as a means of settling international disputes, in light of the writings of Kant and Hegel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Renault, Louis. “Sur le projet d’arbitrage obligatoire.” In Les conférences de la paix de La Haye de 1899 et 1907 et l’arbitrage international: Actes et documents. Edited by Shabtai Rosenne, 453–457. Brussels: Bruylant, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Overview of the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international arbitration as a means of settling international disputes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Scott, James Brown, ed. The Project Relative to a Court of Arbitral Justice: Draft Convention and Report Adopted by the Second Hague Peace Conference of 1907. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1920.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Overview of the plans for an international court of arbitral justice developed at the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Criminal Tribunals

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Barrett 2008 examines the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international humanitarian and criminal law, while van Genugten 2009 focuses on the influence of the conference on the development of international criminal law.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Barrett, John Q. “The Path from the 1907 Hague Conference to Nuremberg and Forward.” In Proceedings of the First International Humanitarian Law Dialogs, 29 August 2007, at the Chautauqua Institution. Edited by Elizabeth Andersen and David M. Crane, 5–22. Washington, DC: American Society of International Law, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Article on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international humanitarian and criminal law.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • van Genugten, Willem J. M. Criminal Jurisdiction 100 Years after the 1907 Hague Peace Conference: Proceedings of the Eighth Hague Joint Conference, Held in The Hague, 28–30 June 2007. The Hague: T. M. C. Asser, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Book on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international criminal law.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Disarmament, Ius ad bellum and Ius in bello

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        For scholars interested in the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on the development of the concepts of ius ad bellum and ius in bello, Dülffer 2001 is highly recommended. Lentföhr 1990 focuses on the role that the Second Hague Peace Conference played in the development of the rules of war on land, while Rindfleisch 2007 concentrates on the work of the conference in developing rules of maritime warfare. Kleffner 2007 provides a more general overview of the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international humanitarian law. For scholars investigating the rules on the use of force, Schrijver 2008 and Best 1991 are of high value. These works examine the influence of the Second Peace Conference on the development of the rules on the use of force. For scholars interested in disarmament, Keefer 2007 is very useful: it provides an assessment of the Second Hague Peace Conference, focusing on the issue of disarmament. Morris 1971 examines the second conference from an international relations perspective against the background of the contemporary movement for disarmament.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Best, Geoffrey. “The Restraint of War in Historical and Philosophical Perspective.” In Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict: Challenges Ahead. Edited by Astrid J. M. Delissen, Gerard J. Tanja, and Frits Kalshoven, 3–26. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Article on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of the rules on the use of force.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dülffer, Jost. “Regeln im Krieg? Kriegsverbrechen und die Haager Friedenskonferenzen.” In Kriegsverbrechen im 20. Jahrhundert. Edited by Wolfram Wette and Gerd R. Ueberschär 35–49. Darmstadt: Primus, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Article on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international criminal law.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Keefer, Scott A. “Building the Palace of Peace: The Hague Conference of 1907 and Arms Control before the World War.” Journal of the History of International Law 9.1 (2007): 35–81.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1163/138819907X187297Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              International relations study of the Hague Peace Conference of 1907, focusing on the issue of disarmament. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kleffner, Jann K. “From ‘Belligerents’ to ‘Fighters’ and Civilians Directly Participating in Hostilities: On the Principle of Distinction in Non-international Armed Conflicts One Hundred Years after the Second Hague Peace Conference.” Netherlands International Law Review 54.2 (2007): 315–336.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S0165070X07003154Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Article on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of international humanitarian law. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lentföhr, Christian. “Die Haager Landkriegsordnung vom 18. Oktober 1907.” Humanitäres Völkerrecht 2.2 (1990): 86–90.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Article on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of the laws of war on land.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Morris, A. J. A. “The English Radicals’ Campaign for Disarmament and the Hague Conference of 1907.” Journal of Modern History 43.3 (1971): 367–393.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1086/240648Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    International relations study of the Hague Peace Conference of 1907 in light of the contemporary campaign for disarmament. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rindfleisch, A. “Das Seekriegsrecht und die ‘Zivilisierung der Menschheit’: Debatten zur Zweiten Haager Friedenskonferenz und ihre Folgen.” Die Friedens-Warte 82 (2007): 83–96.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Article on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of the rules on maritime warfare.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schrijver, Nico. “From The Hague to San Francisco and Back to The Hague: The Ban on the Use of Force in International Relations.” In The Hague Legal Capital of the World? Liber in Honorem W. J. Deetman. Edited by David Vriesendorp, Frans A. Nelissen, and Michail, Wladimiroff 149–162. The Hague: Hague Academic Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Article on the influence of the Second Hague Peace Conference on the development of the rules on the use of force.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Important Individuals and Specific Country Input

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This section presents a list of studies focusing on the role that certain individuals and states played during the Second Hague Peace Conference. Brailey 2002 examines the role of Sir Ernest Satow, a British scholar and diplomat who was appointed as the second plenipotentiary on the British delegation at the Second Hague Peace Conference. Hueck 2004 deals with the input of the German international lawyers present at the second conference. Davis 1975 and Docteur en droit 1908 do the same with regard to, respectively, the US and Belgian international lawyers present.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brailey, N. J. “Sir Ernest Satow and the 1907 Second Hague Peace Conference.” Diplomacy and Statecraft 13.2 (2002): 201–228.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/714000320Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          International relations study of the Hague Peace Conference of 1907, focusing on the role of Sir Ernest Satow. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Davis, Calvin D. The United States and the Second Hague Peace Conference: American Diplomacy and International Organization, 1899–1944. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            International relations study of the Hague Peace Conference of 1907, focusing on the role of the US international lawyers present.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Docteur en droit. La Belgique et l’arbitrage obligatoire à la deuxième conférence de la paix. Brussels: A. Dewit, 1908.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              International relations study of the Hague Peace Conference of 1907, focusing on the role of the Belgian international lawyers present.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hueck, Ingo. “Peace, Security and International Organisations: The German International Lawyers and the Hague Conferences.” In Peace Treaties and International Law in European History: From the Late Middle Ages to World War One. Edited by Randall Lesaffer, 254–269. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511494239Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                International relations study of the Hague Peace Conference of 1907, focusing on the role of the German international lawyers present.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Celebrating the Centennial Anniversary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A number of books have been published to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Second Hague Peace Conference. The following section includes a list of English and French books and articles published to celebrate the centennial anniversary of the conference.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                English

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Giegerich and Heinz 2009 assesses the accomplishments of the Second Hague Peace Conference, while Daudet 2008 examines the contemporary relevance of the conference. Eyffinger 2007a, Eyffinger 2007b, and Davis 1975 2007 provide commemorative studies on the Second Hague Peace Conference.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Daudet, Yves, ed. Actualité de la conférence de La Haye de 1907, deuxième conférence de la paix: Colloque, La Haye, 6–7 septembre 2007 = Topicality of the 1907 Hague Conference, the Second Peace Conference: Workshop, The Hague, 6–7 September 2007. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004174214.3-508Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Seminal work on the contemporary and continuing relevance of the Second Hague Peace Conference, particularly the following chapters: James Crawford and Nico Schrijver, “The Institution of Permanent Adjudicatory Bodies and Recourse to ‘ad hoc’ Tribunals” (pp. 153–175); Marttí Koskenniemi, “The Ideology of International Adjudication and the 1907 Hague Conference” (pp. 127–152); Shinýa Murase, “The Presence of Asia at the 1907 Hague Conference” (pp. 85–101); Antônio A. Cançado, “The Presence and Participation of Latin America at the Second Hague Peace Conference of 1907 (pp. 51–84); V. S. Vereshchetin, “Some Reflections of a Russian Scholar on the Legacy of the Second Peace Conference (pp. 41–50); and Rosalyn Higgins, “The 1907 Hague Peace Conference as a Milestone in the Development of International Law” (pp. 29–40).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Eyffinger, Arthur. “A Highly Critical Moment: Role and Record of the 1907 Hague Peace Conference.” Netherlands International Law Review 54.2 (2007a): 197–228.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/S0165070X07001970Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Commemorative overview of the Second Hague Peace Conference. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Eyffinger, Arthur. The 1907 Hague Peace Conference: “The Conscience of the Civilized World.” The Hague: Judicap, 2007b.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Commemorative overview of the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Giegerich, Thomas, and Ursula E. Heinz, eds. A Wiser Century? Judicial Dispute Settlement, Disarmament and the Laws of War 100 Years after the Second Hague Peace Conference. Papers presented at an international symposium organized by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at Kiel, Germany, 8–10 November 2007. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.3790/978-3-428-13040-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Seminal work on the accomplishments of the Second Hague Peace Conference, in particular the following chapters: Stephen C. Neff, “The Hague Peace Conferences and a Century of Further Struggles” (pp. 59–87), and Thomas Giegerich, “Prevention and Containment of War: Two Fateful Missions Unaccomplished” (pp. 11–52).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Special Issue: The Second Hague Peace Conference: A Centennial Commemoration (1907–2007). Netherlands International Law Review 54.2 (2007).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Commemorative articles forming an overview of the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          French

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Daudet 2008 is highly recommended for those scholars who wish to consider the contemporary relevance of the Second Hague Peace Conference.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Daudet, Yves, ed. Actualité de la conférence de La Haye de 1907, deuxième conférence de la paix: Colloque, La Haye, 6–7 septembre 2007 = Topicality of the 1907 Hague Conference, the Second Peace Conference: Workshop, The Hague, 6–7 September 2007. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004174214.3-508Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Seminal work on the contemporary and continuing relevance of the Second Hague Peace Conference. See especially Christophe Swinarski, “Articulation entre le droit de La Haye et le droit de Genève au lendemain des conférences de 1906 et de 1907” (pp. 259–271), and Georges Abi-Saab, “Évolutions dans le règlement pacifique des différends économiques depuis la Convention” (pp. 177–196).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The International Women’s Movement

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907 are well known among international lawyers and international relations specialists. The “unofficial” peace conference of 1915, held in The Hague under the auspices of the International Women’s Movement, is far less known. World War I, then ongoing, constituted the main topic of discussion, but, beyond war-related issues, innovative proposals to create a new international legal system were also developed. Certain international rules that were in general use at the time (such as the legal possibility to unilaterally declare war as a means of dispute settlement) were decisively rejected. Delegates advocated the expansion of the breadth of international law so as to regulate a larger number of matters. Arguments can be made against attaching any relevance to the 1915 conference. First, the resolutions drafted at the 1915 conference were never adopted by any state or international organization and hence did not wield any legal influence. These resolutions were considered during the drafting of the Treaty of Versailles, but their concrete impact remains debatable. However, even an acknowledgment that these resolutions carried no direct legal weight does not render them irrelevant. It remains noteworthy that the participants at the 1915 conference had the foresight to forecast several developments that took place in the international legal system during the 20th century. These subsequent developments included the establishment of a separate adjudicatory body for international trade disputes, the criminalization of rape as a war crime, and the empowerment of women in all branches of government. Second, because most of these resolutions were adopted over the course of the second half of the 20th century, their continued relevance may be doubted. Yet, it is because many of the visionary goals of the 1915 women’s congress were realized that attentive study of conference resolutions that have still to be implemented in contemporary international law, notably those relating to disarmament and deprivatization of weapons’ manufacturing and trade, is required. Selenka 1900 considers the declaration of the international demonstration of the International Women’s Movement in support of the First Hague Peace Conference. Baetens 2011 provides a general overview of the 1915 Conference of Women in placing it in a contemporary light. The author assesses the conference resolutions and its aftermath. Costin 1982 examines the influence of the 1915 conference on feminist theory. Adams, et al. 2003 contains an elaborate survey on the 1915 conference, including the conference documents. Wiltsher 1985 and Rupp 1997 present a factual study of the conference. Otto 2006 examines the role that gender plays in international law making, starting with early developments such as the conference of 1915.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Adams, Jane, Emily G. Balch, and Alice Hamilton. Women at The Hague: The International Congress of Women and Its Results. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Study of the conference of 1915, with a detailed consideration of the conference documents as well as extended information on the aftermath of the conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Baetens, Freya. “The 1915 International Congress of Women.” In Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Edited by Rüdiger Wolfrum. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                General overview of the International Congress of Women, including its contemporary background, the conference resolutions, and aftermath. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Costin, L. B. “Feminism, Pacifism, Internationalism and the 1915 International Congress of Women.” Women’s Studies International Forum 5.3–4 (1982): 301–315.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Study of the conference of 1915, focusing on its contemporary background and the influence of the conference on feminist theory. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Otto, Dianne. “A Sign of ‘Weakness’? Disrupting Gender Certainties in the Implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325.” Michigan Journal of Gender and Law 1.1 (2006): 113–175.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Feminist theory study on the role of gender in international law making, starting with early developments such as the conference of 1915 and leading up to recent UN Security Council resolutions. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rupp, Leila J. Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women’s Movement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Study of the factual background of the conference of 1915, focusing on the establishment and early activities of the International Women’s Movement.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Selenka, Margarethe L. Die internationale Kundegebung der Frauen zur Friedens-Konferenz vom 15. Mai 1899. Munich, 1900.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Announcement of the international demonstration of the International Women’s Movement at the First Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wiltsher, Anne. Most Dangerous Women: Feminist Peace Campaigners of the Great War. London: Pandora, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Study of the factual background of the conference of 1915, including historically accurate biographies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Preparations for a Third Conference

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This section includes a list of books, book chapters, and articles discussing preparations for, and proposals and opinions on, a possible Third Hague Peace Conference, as recommended by the Second Hague Peace Conference.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          English

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The papers presented at the University of Utrecht’s Colloquium (see Soons, et al. 1996) and the assessment in Scott 1925 are very insightful to the knowledgeable reader. Schlichtmann 2003 is particularly accessible for readers engaged in early research in the history of international law and international relations. Matthews 1939 presents an overview of references on proposals for a third conference. Tryon 1913 assesses the need and desirability of a permanent court, which would be established at a third conference. Lawrence 1912 and de Jong van Beek en Donk 1916 examine the question of whether a third conference is necessary and desirable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • de Jong van Beek en Donk, Benjamin. Peace Conferences after the War? A Series of Questions and Answers Issued by the “Nederlandsche Anti-Oorlog Raad” on the Occasion of the Anniversary of the Inauguration of the First Peace Conference, 1899, 18th May 1916. Leiden, The Netherlands: A. W. Sijthoff, 1916.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Article on the need for, and the desirability of, a third peace conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lawrence, Thomas Joseph. The 3rd Hague Conference and Innocent Commerce in Time of War: A Paper Read at the 8th National Peace Congress, Westminster 1912. London, 1912.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Article on the need for, and the desirability of, a third conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Matthews, Mary Alice. List of References on Proposals and Progress for a Third Conference as Recommended by the Second International Peace Conference, 1907. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1939.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Overview of references on proposals and programs for a third peace conference as recommended by the Second Hague Peace Conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Schlichtmann, Klaus. “Japan, Germany and the Idea of the Hague Peace Conferences.” Journal of Peace Research 40.4 (2003): 377–394.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/00223433030404002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  International relations study on peace conferences as a means of effectively achieving peace. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Scott, James Brown. Should There Be a Third Hague Peace Conference? Washington, DC: American Peace Society, 1925.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Article by James Brown Scott examining the need for, and the desirability of, a third peace conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Soons, Alfred H. A., et al. “Towards a Third (Hague) Peace Conference?” Netherlands International Law Review 43.2 (1996): 219–260.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Legal study on peace conferences as a means of effectively achieving peace. Papers delivered at a colloquium at the University of Utrecht on 13 March 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tryon, James L. A Permanent Court of International Justice: A Suggestion for the Programme Committee of the Third Hague Conference. Boston: Massachusetts Peace Society, 1913.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pamphlet on the need for, and the desirability of, a permanent court to be established at a third peace conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Other Languages

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Arnaud 1913 offers an early study on a third peace conference. Cohen Stuart and ten Brink 1938 is a plea, addressed to the queen of the Netherlands, in favor of the organization of a third peace conference. Inter-Parliamentary Union 1913 contains a report of the organization’s Central Commission, which was charged with the preparatory work for a third peace conference.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Arnaud, E. La troisième conference de la paix. Bern, Switzerland, 1913.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Early book on the topic of a third peace conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Cohen Stuart, A. B., and J. ten Brink. Adres, houdende verzoek tot het uitschrijven van een derde vredesconferentie: Aan Hare Majesteit de Koningin: [avec exposé des motifs]. The Hague, 1938.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Address to the Dutch queen, asking to convene a third peace conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Inter-Parliamentary Union. Procès-verbaux de la commission centrale chargée de préparer le programme d’études de l’union en vue de la troisième conférence de la paix. Brussels: Commission of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, 1913.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Report of the Central Commission of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, charged with preparing a program of works for a third Hague peace conference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Relevance for the Development of International Law

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This section includes a list of books, book chapters, and articles discussing the relevance of the Hague peace conferences for contemporary international law. Wehberg 1932 examines the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on international law in general. Foundation The Hague Joint Conferences on International Law 1999 does so as well.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Foundation The Hague Joint Conferences on International Law. Contemporary Issues in International Law: A Century after the First Hague Peace Conference, 19–22 May 1999: The Hague, The Netherlands: Program. The Hague: Foundation The Hague Joint Conferences on International Law, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Publication on the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on international law today.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wehberg, Hans. “La contribution des conférences de la paix de La Haye au progrès du droit international.” Recueil des cours 37 (1932): 527–669.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Publication on the influence of the First Hague Peace Conference on international law today. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  International Dispute Settlement

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The report by International Court of Justice judge Francisco Orrego Vicuña (Orrego Vicuña and Pinto 1999) is recommended to all readers. For those scholars who are investigating the origins of the International Court of Justice or the Permanent Court of Arbitration, Merrills 2007 and van Haersolte-van Hof 2007 are indispensable. Soane and Norris 1998 provides an introductory insight into the role and function of the International Court of Justice.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Merrills, J. G. “The Mosaic of International Dispute Settlement Procedures: Complementary or Contradictory?” Netherlands International Law Review 54.2 (2007): 361–393.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Introduction to contemporary rules on the settlement of international disputes. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Orrego Vicuña, Francisco, and Christopher Pinto. The Peaceful Settlement of Disputes: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century: Preliminary Report Prepared for the 1999 Centennial of the First Peace Conference. The Hague, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Final report published: Francisco Orrego Vicuña and Christopher Pinto, The Peaceful Settlement of Disputes: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century: Report Prepared for the 1999 Centennial Commemoration of the First Peace Conference (1999).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Soane, Christine, and Peter Norris. Going to Court, Not War: An Introduction to the International Court of Justice, the Hague Peace Conference 1999, and the Future of World Peace through Law. 3d ed. London: Institute for Law and Peace, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Introduction to the role and function of the International Court of Justice.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • van Haersolte-van Hof, Jacomijn J. “The Revitalization of the Permanent Court of Arbitration.” Netherlands International Law Review 54.2 (2007): 395–413.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Introduction to the role and function of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Use of Force, International Criminal and Humanitarian Law

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Specialist researchers on the history of the rules of maritime warfare are invited to read Roach 2000. Thorpe 1987 presents a study on the influence of the Hague conventions on maritime warfare. Chadwick 2007 assesses the influence of the Hague conventions on maritime warfare during World War I. Hobe and Fuhrmann 2007, McDonald 2007, and Roscini 2007 examine the influence of the Hague conventions on the development of international law, in particular international humanitarian law and the rules on the use of force. For scholars investigating war crimes during World War II, Segesser 2007 is strongly recommended.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Chadwick, Elizabeth. “The ‘Impossibility’ of Maritime Neutrality during World War I.” Netherlands International Law Review 54.2 (2007): 337–360.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Article on the influence of the Hague conventions on the development of the international rules on maritime warfare during World War I. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hobe, Stephen, and Johannes Fuhrmann. “Vom ius in bello zum ius contra bellum: Der Beitrag der Haager Friedenskonferenzen zur Entwicklung des modernen Völkerrechts.” Die Friedens-Warte 82.4 (2007): 97–118.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Article on the influence of the Hague conventions on the development of modern international law, particularly the rules on the use of force and international humanitarian law.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • McDonald, Avril. “Declarations of War and Belligerent Parties: International Law Governing Hostilities between States and Transnational Terrorist Networks.” Netherlands International Law Review 54.2 (2007): 277–312.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Article on the influence of the Hague conventions on the development of modern international law, particularly the rules on the use of force and international humanitarian law. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Roach, J. Ashley. “The Law of Naval Warfare and the Turn of Two Centuries.” American Journal of International Law 94.1 (2000): 64–77.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Article on the influence of the Hague conventions on the development of the international rules on maritime warfare. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Roscini, Marco. “Threats of Armed Force and Contemporary International Law.” Netherlands International Law Review 54.2 (2007): 229–277.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Article on the influence of the Hague conventions on the development of modern international law, particularly the rules on the use of force and international humanitarian law. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Segesser, Daniel M. “Die Haager Landkriegsordnung in der internationalen wissenschaftlichen Debatte über Kriegsverbrechen im Ersten und Zweiten Weltkrieg.” Die Friedens-Warte 82.4 (2007): 65–82.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Article on the influence of the Hague conventions on treatment of war crimes in World War I and World War II.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Thorpe, A. G. Y. “Mine Warfare at Sea: Some Legal Aspects of the Future.” Ocean Development and International Law 18.2 (1987): 255–278.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Article on the influence of the Hague conventions on the development of the international rules on maritime warfare. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Disarmament and Arms Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vagts 2000, published in the American Journal on International Law, is an excellent article for those scholars who are doing research on arms control. Blix 1999 presents a useful insight into developments in international law during the 20th century regarding disarmament and arms control.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Blix, Hans. Development of International Law Relating to Disarmament and Arms Control since the First International Peace Conference of 1899: Preliminary Report Prepared for the 1999 Centennial of the First International Peace Conference. The Hague, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Final report published: Hans Blix, Development of International Law Relating to Disarmament and Arms Control since the First International Peace Conference of 1899: Especially the Rules and Practices Regarding Verification and Compliance (Stockholm, 1999).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Vagts, Detlev F. “The Hague Conventions and Arms Control.” American Journal of International Law 94.1 (2000): 31–41.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/2555229Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Article on the influence of the Hague conventions on the development of international rules on arms control. Available online by subscription.

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