International Relations Women and Peacemaking/Peacekeeping
by
Sabrina Karim, Kyle Beardsley, Tessa Devereaux Evans, Laura Huber, Angie Torres-Beltran
  • LAST REVIEWED: 23 December 2020
  • LAST MODIFIED: 21 January 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199743292-0146

Introduction

Peacemaking and peacekeeping are most often used in the context of a negative definition of peace—the absence of or relative reduction of violent conflict. Studies of peacemaking thus typically describe and analyze the means by which periods of armed conflict move toward periods with less armed conflict, such as through negotiation, mediation, bargaining, confidence building, disengagement, etc. Studies of peacekeeping similarly describe and analyze the means by which relatively low levels of armed conflict can be maintained and relapses of violent episodes can be prevented. In addition, peacekeeping typically refers specifically to the use of third-party enforcement as a means to stabilize tenuous but relatively peaceful security environments. Peacekeeping in this context involves the deployment of third-party military personnel. “Multidimensional peacekeeping” missions also include civilian and police “peacebuilding” elements that focus on cultivating the development of political and economic institutions and advising transitional justice processes, as well as disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration activities. The study of gender and the study of armed conflict (and the resolution thereof) intersect on a number of dimensions. Gender perspectives have been used to advance our understanding of the occurrence of war, patterns of violence, the efficacy of peace processes, and the legacies of violence in post-conflict periods. We not only cover works directly related to women and peacemaking and peacekeeping but we also contextualize this literature within the broader literature on gender and war, sexual violence in conflict, women and peacemaking, women and peace building, masculinities in peacekeeping operations, gender representation in national-security sectors, sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping operations, and gender mainstreaming. In doing so, we provide a more thorough understanding of the role women play in post-conflict settings. Moreover, by considering the role gender plays in peacemaking and peacebuilding, the literature is better able to speak beyond a negative definition of peace and to incorporate more-positive conceptions of peace that prioritize gender equality, consideration of the victims of violence, social justice, and other issues fundamental to a high quality of peace.

General Overviews

Several studies provide a general overview of women and peacemaking/peacekeeping. Olsson and Tryggestad 2001, an edited volume, is one of the earliest attempts to examine the role of female peacekeepers in peacekeeping missions and includes articles ranging from gender stereotypes about women and peacemaking to the evolution of women in peacekeeping. Another edited volume, Mazurana, et al. 2005, highlights the importance of gender mainstreaming in international peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations. Whitworth 2007 highlights the importance of understanding the integration of women in peacekeeping missions within the context of militarized masculinities. Kronsell 2012 argues that the integration of women into international peacekeeping missions is a part of a new “postnational” defense or, rather, a part of a shift in how militaries see their identities given the changed nature of the international system. Gizelis and Olsson 2015, an edited volume that follows up on Olsson and Gizelis 2013, provides a systematic evaluation of all parts of UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325, more than a decade after its adoption. Shepherd 2008 highlights the evolution of UNSCR 1325.

  • Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene, and Louise Olsson, eds. Gender, Peace and Security: Implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1325. Routledge Studies in Peace and Conflict Resolution. New York: Routledge, 2015.

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    Brings together a collection of contributions that evaluate the implementation of USCSR 1325 on a number of dimensions. The volume particularly focuses on three themes: participation, protection, and gender mainstreaming.

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  • Kronsell, Annica. Gender, Sex, and the Postnational Defense: Militarism and Peacekeeping. Oxford Studies in Gender and International Relations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199846061.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Explores what gender means in the context of postnational defense, or a military system where less attention is paid to the defense of the territory and more to the security situation outside its borders, such as through peacekeeping missions. Kronsell uses Sweden and the European Union (EU) as empirical cases to demonstrate how gender has influenced the way that the postnational defense organizes its practices and the policies pursued. She concludes that gender has been mainstreamed in postnational military practices but at the same time reinterpreted as meaning women, often also women in distant places.

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  • Mazurana, Dyan, Angela Raven-Roberts, and Jane Parpart, eds. Gender, Conflict, and Peacekeeping. War and Peace Library. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

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    Examines the importance of gender mainstreaming and traces the evolution of gender mainstreaming in various post-conflict contexts, such as in political emergencies and international intervention, peacekeeping missions, international humanitarian and human rights law, and peacemaking and peacebuilding.

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  • Olsson, Louise, and Theodora-Ismene Gizelis. “An Introduction to UNSCR 1325.” In Special Issue: A Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security—Implementing UNSCR 1325. International Interactions 39.4 (2013): 425–434.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2013.805327Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Asks and answers a number of questions: What affects women’s participation in peace processes and in peace operations? How are women and men protected from the broader effects of conflict and of international interventions? It finds that UNSC 1325 has been only partly implemented.

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  • Olsson, Louise, and Torrun L. Tryggestad, eds. Women and International Peacekeeping. Cass Series on Peacekeeping. New York: Routledge, 2001.

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    Provides an edited volume that includes chapters on gender stereotypes, a history of women in peacekeeping, challenges in peacekeeping operations (such as addressing sexual violence), a case study on the Norwegian Battalion in the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) mission in 1978–1998, and gender mainstreaming.

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  • Shepherd, Laura J. “Power and Authority in the Production of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.” International Studies Quarterly 52.2 (2008): 383–404.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2478.2008.00506.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

    Compares and contrasts the involvement of the United Nations Security Council and the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security in writing UN Security Council Resolution 1325. The article concludes that the implementation of UNSC 1325 is particularly challenging due to the process through which the document was created.

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  • Whitworth, Sandra. Men, Militarism, and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2007.

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    Highlights the potential fundamental contradiction between portrayals of peacekeepers as peacemakers and the militarized masculinity that underpins the group identity of soldiers. Examining evidence from Cambodia and Somalia, Whitworth argues that sexual and other crimes can be seen as expressions of a violent hypermasculinity that is congruent with militarized identities but entirely incongruent with missions aimed at maintaining peace. She also asserts that early efforts within the UN to address gender issues in peacekeeping operations failed because they did not challenge traditional understandings of militaries, conflict, and women.

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Gender and War

The literature on gender and war provides context for understanding women’s roles in peacemaking and peacekeeping. In order to understand the roles of women and gender in peacemaking and peacekeeping, it is important to understand the roles of women and gender during times of conflict.

Gender Equality and Peace

One of the more notable and consistent findings in the literature is the relationship between gender equality and the reduced propensity for conflict and violence by states. Caprioli 2000, Caprioli 2003, and Caprioli 2005 are the first bodies of quantitative work to test the relationship between gender equality and state militarism. Caprioli and Boyer 2001 tests the relationship between domestic gender equality and a state’s use of violence internationally. Caprioli, et al. 2009 creates a new data set—the WomanStats Project Database—to measure gender (in)equality worldwide. The authors use the data set and find a relationship between the overall level of violence against women in a state and violence in a country more generally. Hudson, et al. 2012 uses the WomanStats Project to demonstrate that the security of women is a vital factor for the security of states. Melander 2005a and Melander 2005b finds that the percentage of women in parliament is associated with lower levels of personal-integrity rights abuse by states and with lower levels of intrastate armed conflict. Bjarnegård and Melander 2011 finds that democracy can facilitate peace, but only in interaction with the level of political gender equality, so that more-democratic societies are more peaceful only if there have been moves toward gender equality.

  • Bjarnegård, Elin, and Erik Melander. “Disentangling Gender, Peace and Democratization: The Negative Effects of Militarized Masculinity.” Journal of Gender Studies 20.2 (2011): 139–154.

    DOI: 10.1080/09589236.2011.565194Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues that there is a need to evaluate both the level of democracy as well as the level of patriarchy in societies. Using quantitative analysis, the authors find that only when states are moving toward gender equality are states that are democratic more peaceful.

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  • Caprioli, Mary. “Gendered Conflict.” Journal of Peace Research 37.1 (2000): 51–68.

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    Tests the relationship between state militarism and domestic gender equality. The Militarized Interstate Dispute (MID) data set is used with hostility level as the dependent variable to measure the level of militarism employed by any given state to resolve international conflicts. Independent variables for gender equality include percentage of women in parliament, duration of female suffrage, percentage of women in the labor force, and fertility rate. This study substantiates the theory that domestic gender equality has a pacifying effect on state behavior at the international level.

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  • Caprioli, Mary. “Gender Equality and State Aggression: The Impact of Domestic Gender Equality on State First Use of Force.” International Interactions 29.3 (2003): 195–214.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050620304595Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines the role of domestic gender equality in predicting whether or not a state is more aggressive in international disputes. Using the MID data set on first use of force, Caprioli tests whether states with higher levels of gender equality are less likely to be aggressive when involved in international disputes, controlling for other possible causes of state use of force.

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  • Caprioli, Mary. “Primed for Violence: The Role of Gender Inequality in Predicting Internal Conflict.” International Studies Quarterly 49.2 (2005): 161–178.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-8833.2005.00340.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

    Looks at the relationship between gender inequality and intrastate conflict. Caprioli tests whether states characterized by higher levels of gender inequality are more likely to experience intrastate conflict, and she finds support for this relationship when looking at intrastate conflicts from 1960 to 2001.

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  • Caprioli, Mary, and Mark A. Boyer. “Gender, Violence, and International Crisis.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 45.4 (2001): 503–518.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022002701045004005Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Uses the record of female leaders as primary decision makers during international crises and tests the relationship between domestic gender equality and a state’s use of violence internationally. Results show that the severity of violence in crisis decreases as domestic gender equality increases.

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  • Caprioli, Mary, Valerie M. Hudson, Rose Mcdermott, Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill, Chad F. Emmett, and S. Matthew Stearmer. “The WomanStats Project Database: Advancing an Empirical Research Agenda.” Journal of Peace Research 46.6 (2009): 839–851.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022343309342947Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Describes the WomanStats Project Database—a multidisciplinary creation of a central repository for cross-national data and information on women. The authors confirm the multidimensionality of women’s status and show that the impact of democracy and state wealth vary on the basis of the type of violence against women. Overall, the authors find a high level of violence against women worldwide.

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  • Hudson, Valerie M., Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill, Mary Caprioli, and Chad F. Emmett. Sex and World Peace. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

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    Demonstrates that the security of women is a vital factor for the security of states and the incidence of conflict and war. The authors compare microlevel gender violence and macrolevel state violence and find an association.

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  • Melander, Erik. “Political Gender Equality and State Human Rights Abuse.” Journal of Peace Research 42.2 (2005a): 149–166.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022343305050688Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Tests whether political gender equality is associated with lower levels of personal-integrity rights abuse carried out by state agents. The author finds that the percentage of women in parliament is associated with lower levels of personal-integrity rights abuse. Results show both a direct effect of female representation in parliament and an effect in interaction with the level of institutional democracy.

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  • Melander, Erik. “Gender Equality and Intrastate Armed Conflict.” International Studies Quarterly 49.4 (2005b): 695–714.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2478.2005.00384.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines the extent to which gender equality is associated with lower levels of intrastate armed conflict. The author finds that female representation in parliament and the ratio of female-to-male higher-education attainment are associated with lower levels of intrastate armed conflict.

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Gender and the Study of Conflict and Peace

By taking gender seriously, a number of scholars have helped provide a richer understanding of armed conflict. In Joshua Goldstein’s book about gender and war (Goldstein 2003), he examines the following question: Historically, why have there been so few women who participate in war? Skjelsbæk and Smith 2001, an edited volume, explores the key role of gender in peace research, conflict resolution, and international politics. Another edited volume, Cohn 2013, shows that despite women’s perceived absence from combat, women can be found at every turn in the (gendered) phenomenon of war. Sjoberg 2013 and Sjoberg 2014 highlight the ways that different gender lenses can sometimes reveal competing understandings of fundamental concepts such as war and peace. Carpenter 2003, Carpenter 2005, and Carpenter 2006 remind us that studies of gender and war should not focus just on the protection of women and girls, critically assessing the tendency to overlook the rate of gender-based violence against men and boys and the tendency to too closely associate the protection of civilians with the protection of women and children. Reiter 2015 is an overview of work related to gender and conflict that takes a positivist approach.

  • Carpenter, R. Charli. “‘Women and Children First’: Gender, Norms, and Humanitarian Evacuation in the Balkans 1991–95.” International Organization 57.4 (2003): 661–694.

    DOI: 10.1017/S002081830357401XSave Citation »Export Citation »

    Assesses how gender norms have affected the practices surrounding the protection of civilians in wartime. The case of civilian protection in the former Yugoslavia illustrates how these developments proved disastrous for military-age men.

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  • Carpenter, R. Charli. “‘Women, Children and Other Vulnerable Groups’: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue.” International Studies Quarterly 49.2 (2005): 295–334.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-8833.2005.00346.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines the role of transnational advocacy networks in using gender essentialisms to promote the protection of civilians in conflict environments. Although such essentialisms have deleterious consequences, the advocacy networks tend to focus on the benefits that such rhetoric can have in advancing the overall cause of protecting vulnerable populations.

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  • Carpenter, R. Charli. “Recognizing Gender-Based Violence against Civilian Men and Boys in Conflict Situations.” Security Dialogue 37.1 (2006): 83–103.

    DOI: 10.1177/0967010606064139Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Highlights the importance of not overlooking gender-based violence against men and boys during wartime.

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  • Cohn, Carol, ed. Women and Wars. Malden, MA: Polity, 2013.

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    Seeks to answer the question: Where are the women? Cohn shows that women can be found at every turn in the (gendered) phenomenon of war. Chapters include women and the political economy of war; sexual violence and women’s health in war; female refugees; women and political activism; women and state military forces; women and non-state actors; women and peace processes; and women and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR).

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  • Goldstein, Joshua S. War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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    Examines the question of why so few women have participated in war historically. Goldstein examines differences between the sexes on the basis of anatomy and physiology, as well as the social roots of the cultural construction of tough men and tender women and men’s sexual and economic domination of women.

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  • Reiter, Dan. “The Positivist Study of Gender and International Relations.” Journal of Conflict Resolution (2015): 59.7: 1301–1326.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022002714560351Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Highlights the burst of positivist scholarship on gender / international relations. Themes include gender and terrorism, interstate war, human rights, civil war, violence against civilians, public opinion, international norms, globalization, and others. Reiter argues that much of this work has developed new data, has advanced theory, and has employed rigorous quantitative empirical methods.

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  • Sjoberg, Laura. “Viewing Peace through Gender Lenses.” Ethics & International Affairs 27.2 (2013): 175–187.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0892679413000075Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides a critique of the concept of peace, which, in being negatively defined as the absence of armed conflict, often is blind to more-hidden forms of gender violence. It also critiques the role of the United States in pushing for “peace” in the international system and the policy implications that tend to follow from approaches that do not consider a gender perspective.

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  • Sjoberg, Laura. Gender, War, and Conflict. Malden, MA: Polity, 2014.

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    Unpacks the diverse roles that both women and men play in war. It underscores the many different ways in which gender matters to our understanding of the dynamics of armed conflict.

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  • Skjelsbæk, Inger, and Dan Smith, eds. Gender, Peace & Conflict. London: SAGE, 2001.

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    Provides a collection of work that demonstrates the importance of a gender perspective both to the theory and practice of conflict resolution and peace research. The theoretical chapters explore the gender relationship and engage with dichotomies that dominate and distort the field. Cases are from South America, South Asia, and Europe.

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Sexual Violence in Conflict

The literature on wartime sexual violence also provides important context for understanding women’s roles in peacemaking and peacekeeping. Sexual violence leaves an indelible legacy that peacemaking and peacekeeping processes must address, and the perpetration of sexual violence remains an important concern in conflict and post-conflict settings.

The Scope of the Problem of Sexual Violence

A number of studies have explored the problem of sexual violence across the globe. Cohen 2013, a seminal article, explains the variation in rape during wartime. Wood 2006 and Wood 2009 also explore the variation of wartime sexual violence, and Cohen, et al. 2013 corrects a number of myths about wartime sexual violence. Bastick, et al. 2007 documents the extent of the problem globally. Cohen and Hoover Green 2012 shows that both underreporting and overreporting are problems for recording sexual violence. Cohen and Nordås 2014 compiles a new data set on the prevalence of sexual violence in armed conflict (the Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict [SVAC] data set), and Cohen and Nordås 2015 uses this data set to find that states commit sexual violence as a complement to—rather than as a substitute for—violence perpetrated by militia. Pruitt 2012 links the problem of wartime sexual violence to the need to enhance the role of women in peacekeeping missions.

  • Bastick, Megan, Karin Grimm, and Rahel Kunz. Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict: Global Overview and Implications for the Security Sector. Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2007.

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    Profiles documented conflict-related sexual violence in fifty countries—in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East—that experienced armed conflict over the twenty years prior to publication.

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  • Cohen, Dara Kay. “Explaining Rape during Civil War: Cross-National Evidence (1980–2009).” American Political Science Review 107.3 (2013): 461–477.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0003055413000221Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Looks at the question of why some armed groups commit massive wartime rape, whereas others never do. The author finds that the recruitment mechanism is associated with the occurrence of wartime rape. Specifically, the findings support an argument about wartime rape as a method of socialization, in which armed groups that recruit by force—through abduction or press ganging—use rape to create unit cohesion.

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  • Cohen, Dara Kay, and Amelia Hoover Green. “Dueling Incentives: Sexual Violence in Liberia and the Politics of Human Rights Advocacy.” Journal of Peace Research 49.3 (2012): 445–458.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022343312436769Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Investigates the information politics surrounding sexual violence during Liberia’s civil war. The authors show that two frequently cited “facts” about rape in Liberia are inaccurate, and they consider how this conventional wisdom gained acceptance.

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  • Cohen, Dara Kay, Amelia Hoover Green, and Elisabeth Jean Wood. Wartime Sexual Violence: Misconceptions, Implications, and Ways Forward. Special Report 323. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2013.

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    Provides a policy brief that addresses a number of myths about wartime sexual violence.

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  • Cohen, Dara Kay, and Ragnhild Nordås. “Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict: Introducing the SVAC Dataset, 1989–2009.” Journal of Peace Research 51.3 (2014): 418–428.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022343314523028Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides an overview of a new comprehensive data set on the occurrence of sexual violence during armed conflict.

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  • Cohen, Dara Kay, and Ragnhild Nordås. “Do States Delegate Shameful Violence to Militias? Patterns of Sexual Violence in Recent Armed Conflicts.” Journal of Conflict Resolution (2015).

    DOI: 10.1177/0022002715576748Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Uses the SVAC dataset to find that the militias that have recruited children are associated with higher levels of sexual violence and that militias that were trained by states are associated with higher levels of sexual violence, which provides evidence for sexual violence as a “practice” of armed groups.

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  • Pruitt, Lesley. “Looking Back, Moving Forward: International Approaches to Addressing Conflict-Related Sexual Violence.” Journal of Women, Politics & Policy 33.4 (2012): 299–321.

    DOI: 10.1080/1554477X.2012.722430Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides an initial analysis of obstacles to addressing impunity for widespread conflict-related sexual violence. The article suggests that to address sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), increasing the number of women working in international peace operations through the creation of UN-sponsored Women’s Police Service (UNWPS), which would recruit, train, and deploy women’s contingents for policing in international peace operations, may be helpful.

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  • Wood, Elisabeth Jean. “Variation in Sexual Violence during War.” Politics & Society 34.3 (2006): 307–342.

    DOI: 10.1177/0032329206290426Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Finds that sexual violence during war varies in extent and takes distinct forms. In some conflicts, sexual violence is widespread, yet in other conflicts—including some cases of ethnic conflict—it is quite limited.

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  • Wood, Elisabeth Jean. “Armed Groups and Sexual Violence: When Is Wartime Rape Rare?” Politics & Society 37.1 (2009): 131–161.

    DOI: 10.1177/0032329208329755Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Explores why there may variation in wartime sexual violence. The author explores the absence of sexual violence on the part of the secessionist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam of Sri Lanka.

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Sexual Violence in Context

A number of studies have provided a more micro level analysis of sexual violence in specific contexts. Leiby 2009 finds that, in Peru and Guatemala, state armed forces were the main perpetrators of wartime sexual violence. Denov 2006 looks specifically at the case of Sierra Leone to assess how sexual violence fits in the human security paradigm. Moreover, Baines 2014, Marks 2013, and Marks 2014 assess the motivations of group elites to construct the sexual rules of their members as a means to further their objectives, with specific applications to the Lord’s Resistance Army and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). Autesserre 2012 specifically analyzes the narrative of sexual abuse among women and girls in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

  • Autesserre, Séverine. “Dangerous Tales: Dominant Narratives on the Congo and Their Unintended Consequences.” African Affairs 111.443 (2012): 202–222.

    DOI: 10.1093/afraf/adr080Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Analyzes and critiques the narrative used to explain the sexual abuse of women and girls in the DRC.

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  • Baines, Erin. “Forced Marriage as a Political Project: Sexual Rules and Relations in the Lord’s Resistance Army.” Journal of Peace Research 51.3 (2014): 405–417.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022343313519666Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Assesses how the Lord’s Resistance Army has constructed the sexual rules among its members as a way to further its political aspirations.

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  • Denov, Myriam S. “Wartime Sexual Violence: Assessing a Human Security Response to War-Affected Girls in Sierra Leone.” Security Dialogue 37.3 (2006): 319–342.

    DOI: 10.1177/0967010606069178Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Explores the capacity of the human security agenda, both conceptually and practically, to address the plight of girl victims of sexual violence in the aftermath of Sierra Leone’s conflict.

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  • Leiby, Michele L. “Wartime Sexual Violence in Guatemala and Peru.” International Studies Quarterly 53.2 (2009): 445–468.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2478.2009.00541.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides comparative analysis of sexual violence perpetrated by state armed forces during the Guatemalan and Peruvian civil wars. Analysis of an original data set reveals that members of the state armed forces perpetrated the majority of sexual violations, that rape and gang rape were the most frequent but not the only abuses committed, and that women were the overwhelming majority of victims of sexual violence.

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  • Marks, Zoe. “Sexual Violence inside Rebellion: Policies and Perspectives of the Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone.” Civil Wars 15.3 (2013): 359–379.

    DOI: 10.1080/13698249.2013.842749Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Looks at whether rape was used as a weapon of war by the RUF in Sierra Leone and finds that policies actually existed, although they were ultimately ineffective, to prevent its members from committing rape.

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  • Marks, Zoe. “Sexual Violence in Sierra Leone’s Civil War: ‘Virgination,’ Rape, and Marriage.” African Affairs 113.450 (2014): 67–87.

    DOI: 10.1093/afraf/adt070Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Describes the ways that the RUF in Sierra Leone regulated and controlled sexual behavior among its followers, and argues that there were different types of experiences that women had within the ranks of the RUF.

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Gender and Peacemaking

In light of the many ways that armed conflict touches the lives of women, whether as combatants, victims, leaders, or bystanders, the UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 agenda has emphasized the importance of increasing the participation of women in peacemaking roles. Much is lost if women do not have seats at the negotiating table, either as facilitators or as stakeholders. Ellerby 2013 looks at women’s participation in peace agreements and explains variation in that participation. Weingarten and Douvan 1985 highlights the different perspectives that male and female mediators bring into the negotiation environment. Anderlini 2007 examines women’s potential role in peacemaking and peacebuilding processes. Finally, a number of reports have emerged from policy institutes and organizations at the forefront of implementing gender reforms in mediation that demonstrate the importance of including women in peace processes, as well as the barriers that remain. Potter 2005 is a key report that highlights the dearth of women at the senior level of mediation teams. The policy brief in Bell 2013 demonstrates the need for women to be present during peace processes. Castillo Diaz, et al. 2012 assesses women’s roles in peace processes, and O’Reilly and Ó Súilleabháin 2013 highlights reasons why women may still be missing from mediation initiatives.

  • Anderlini, Sanam Naraghi. Women Building Peace: What They Do, Why It Matters. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2007.

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    Answers the following question: How and why do women’s contributions matter in peace and security processes? The author offers a cross-regional analysis of women’s contributions to conflict prevention, resolution, and reconstruction around the world. She concludes that gender sensitivity in programming is highly important for sustainable peace.

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  • Bell, Christine. Women and Peace Processes, Negotiations, and Agreements: Operational Opportunities and Challenges. Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre, Policy Brief. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource, (2013.

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    Assesses the need for women to be present during peace processes because the resulting agreements can have substantial influence on the long-term legal and political realities related to gender equality.

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  • Castillo Diaz, Pablo, Simon Tordjman, Samina Anwar, et al. Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations: Connections between Presence and Influence. 2d ed. New York: UN Women, 2012.

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    Takes stock of the participation of women in peace processes and explores why the realities are far short of the goals set out in the agenda for women, peace, and security. Available online.

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  • Ellerby, Kara. “(En)gendered Security? The Complexities of Women’s Inclusion in Peace Processes.” In Special Issue: A Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security—Implementing UNSCR 1325. International Interactions 39.4 (2013): 435–460.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2013.805130Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Highlights the circumstances under which women are actually included in the processes that produce peace agreements. The author makes one of the first attempts to empirically evaluate the impact of UNSCR 1325 on enhancing women’s participation in peacemaking and peace agreement formation.

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  • O’Reilly, Marie, and Andrea Ó Súilleabháin. Women in Conflict Mediation: Why It Matters. New York: International Peace Institute, 2013.

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    Finds that women are still underrepresented in mediation initiatives, and emphasizes the reasons why it is important to address this problem.

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  • Potter, Antonia. We the Women: Why Conflict Mediation Is Not Just a Job for Men. Geneva, Switzerland: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 2005.

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    Addresses the dearth of women at the senior level of mediation teams that engage the world’s most-pressing conflicts. It highlights what is missing from male-dominated mediation activities, and it sketches out paths forward to enhance the role of women in peace negotiations.

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  • Weingarten, Helen R., and Elizabeth Douvan. “Male and Female Visions of Mediation.” Negotiation Journal 1.4 (1985): 349–358.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.1985.tb00324.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

    Compares the perspectives of women and men in mediation processes. The authors consider how the gender of the mediator might shape the activities, styles, and strategies employed by a third party during mediated negotiations.

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Gender and Peacebuilding

While there is large body of literature on post-conflict peacebuilding (see the Oxford Bibliographies article Post-conflict Peacebuilding, by Ben Boulton and John Heathershaw), some of it addresses the role of women in peacebuilding, especially within the context of UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325. Other work discusses the important legacies of sexual violence during conflict on the ability for peace to adhere after hostilities have ended.

Gender and the Implementation of Peacebuilding Initiatives

Ní Aoláin, et al. 2011 and Porter 2007 cover the wide range of issues that women face in post-conflict peacebuilding processes. Gizelis 2009 and Gizelis 2011 find that more-empowered women are more successful at peacebuilding. Pruitt 2013 discovers that girls are often excluded from peacebuilding activities. Looking at the implementation of UNSCR 1325 National Action Plans (NAPs) in post-conflict countries, Basini and Ryan 2015 finds that NAPs may be institutionalized in many post-conflict countries, but that implementation of the provisions is challenging. Beath, et al. 2013 observes that development projects in post-conflict countries can have some positive, albeit limited, affect on the empowerment of women. Handrahan 2004 ties ethnicity to gender when it comes to peacebuilding. Byrne and McCulloch 2012 determines that some of the reforms that accompany peacebuilding activities—namely, ethnic power sharing—tend to be in tension with attempts to address gender inequality. Peksen 2011 finds some positive signs that military interventions by intergovernmental organizations prove relatively better in improving women’s rights than unilateral interventions.

  • Basini, Helen S. A., and Caitlin M. Ryan. “‘We Think That the Plan Is a Good Plan’: Examining the Benefits and Challenges of Using National Action Plans to Implement 1325 in Sierra Leone and Liberia.” Paper presented at the International Studies Association annual conference, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, on 18–21 February 2015.

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    Examines the Liberian and Sierra Leonean UNSCR 1325 NAPs. It finds that some plans are difficult to implement even though they are institutionalized.

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  • Beath, Andrew, Fotini Christia, and Ruben Enikolopov. “Empowering Women through Development Aid: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Afghanistan.” American Political Science Review 107.3 (2013): 540–557.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0003055413000270Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Addresses the potential for development aid projects that emphasize the empowerment of women to transform gender norms in post-conflict societies, in the specific context of Afghanistan. The field experiment finds palpable short-term effects of an aid project that mandates the participation of women, but little evidence of more-foundational transformations in gender beliefs and norms.

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  • Byrne, Siobhan, and Allison McCulloch. “Gender, Representation and Power-Sharing in Post-Conflict Institutions.” International Peacekeeping 19.5 (2012): 565–580.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533312.2012.721990Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Explores the gender implications of ethnic power-sharing arrangements, in which issues related to the representation of women and gender mainstreaming tend to be ignored or seen as in tension with the power-sharing agendas.

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  • Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene. “Gender Empowerment and United Nations Peacebuilding.” Journal of Peace Research 46.4 (2009): 505–523.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022343309334576Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Finds that the prospects for successful post-conflict peacebuilding under the auspices of the UN are generally better in societies where women have greater levels of empowerment. In societies where women have relatively higher status, women have more opportunities to express a voice in the peacemaking process and to elicit broader domestic participation in externally led peacekeeping operations.

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  • Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene. “A Country of Their Own: Women and Peacebuilding.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 28.5 (2011): 522–542.

    DOI: 10.1177/0738894211418412Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Finds that when women enjoy a relatively higher social status, the prospects for successful peacebuilding increase, as cooperation by the local population with peacebuilding policies and activities increases.

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  • Handrahan, Lori. “Conflict, Gender, Ethnicity and Post-Conflict Reconstruction.” Security Dialogue 35.4 (2004): 429–445.

    DOI: 10.1177/0967010604049521Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Introduces the concept of ethnicity in relation to gendered security problems in conflict and post-conflict settings.

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  • Ní Aoláin, Fionnuala, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Naomi Cahn, eds. On the Frontlines: Gender, War, and the Post-conflict Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

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    Considers policies that address sexual violence, discrimination, and exclusion into peacemaking processes, assessing the extent to which they have had success in improving women’s lives in post-conflict countries. It argues that there has been too-little success, and that this is in part a product of a focus on schematic policies such as straightforward political incorporation rather than a broader and deeper attempt to alter the cultures and societies that are at the root of much of the violence and exclusions experienced by women.

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  • Peksen, Dursun. “Foreign Military Intervention and Women’s Rights.” Journal of Peace Research 48.4 (2011): 455–468.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022343311406305Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues and uses quantitative methods to find that unilateral military interventions can be harmful to the protection of women’s rights, while interventions by intergovernmental organizations tend to have a better chance of improving the status of women’s rights.

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  • Porter, Elisabeth. Peacebuilding: Women in International Perspective. Routledge Advances in International Relations and Global Politics 60. New York: Routledge, 2007.

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    Catalogues a wide array of peacebuilding initiatives by women’s grassroots movements and activists in conflict-affected areas.

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  • Pruitt, Lesley. “‘Fixing the Girls’: Neoliberal Discourse and Girls’ Participation in Peacebuilding.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 15 (2013): 58–76.

    DOI: 10.1080/14616742.2012.699783Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Assesses whether gender matters when planning youth peacebuilding projects. It presents findings from two youth peacebuilding projects—in Australia and Northern Ireland—and identifies several barriers to participation that girls faced.

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Peacebuilding and the Legacies of Violence

Meintjes, et al. 2002 is an edited volume with works that look at gender security in post-conflict environments. Scully 2010 argues that perceiving women as victims may be counterproductive for peacebuilding. Urdal and Che 2013 demonstrates that women suffer from health consequences due to war, and Annan and Brier 2010 finds that female child recruits tend to face continued vulnerability to sexual violence even after they return. Annan, et al. 2011 details the legacies of participation in violence by females during conflict but also discovers that female ex-combatants are resilient upon reintegration. Menon and Rodgers 2015 finds that women often respond with economic resiliency in response to conflict.

  • Annan, Jeannie, Christopher Blattman, Dyan Mazurana, and Khristopher Carlson. “Civil War, Reintegration, and Gender in Northern Uganda.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 55.6 (2011): 877–908.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022002711408013Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Looks at the impacts of war on the participants, varied by sex. The authors find that violence drives social and psychological problems, especially among females. However, most women returning from armed groups reintegrate socially and are resilient.

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  • Annan, Jeannie, and Moriah Brier. “The Risk of Return: Intimate Partner Violence in Northern Uganda’s Armed Conflict.” In Special Issue: Conflict, Violence, and Health. Social Science & Medicine 70.1 (2010): 152–159.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.09.027Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Analyzes the violence that women faced while abductees in the Lord’s Resistance Army and after returning from the conflict. It finds a high degree of vulnerability to intimate-partner violence after the women have returned.

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  • Meintjes, Sheila, Anu Pillay, and Meredeth Turshen, eds. The Aftermath: Women in Post-conflict Transformation. New York: Zed Books, 2002.

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    Looks at what happens to women in the aftermath of war and internal conflict. It asserts that the postwar period is too late for women to transform patriarchal gender relations; the foundations for change must be built during conflict.

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  • Menon, Nidhiya, and Yana van der Meulen Rodgers. “War and Women’s Work: Evidence from the Conflict in Nepal.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59.1 (2015): 51–73.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022002713498699Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Explores post-conflict Nepal and finds that the potential for employment by women increased in areas with greater exposure to violence.

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  • Scully, Pamela. “Expanding the Concept of Gender-Based Violence in Peacebuilding and Development.” Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 5.3 (2010): 21–33.

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    Argues that the focus on women as the sole victims of violence hampers sustainable peacebuilding and development in post-conflict societies. Such a focus fails to address the ways in which boys and men experience different forms of sexual violence, limiting the potential efficacy of interventions around gender-based violence.

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  • Urdal, Henrik, and Chi Primus Che. “War and Gender Inequalities in Health: The Impact of Armed Conflict on Fertility and Maternal Mortality.” In Special Issue: A Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security—Implementing UNSCR 1325. International Interactions 39.4 (2013): 489–510.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2013.805133Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Identifies the lack of public health as a key dimensional element of security for women during conflict, an area where UNSCR 1325 becomes intertwined with the Millennium Development Goals. The authors show that women are vulnerable to the indirect health consequences of conflict.

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Peacekeeping and Masculinity

To understand why there may be a dearth of women in peacekeeping missions and why sexual abuse and exploitation is a problem in many peacekeeping missions, it is important to first understand the context behind masculinities and the prevalence of militarized masculinities in peacekeeping operations.

Masculinities and the Study of Security

The seminal work on militarized masculinity is in Connell 1987 and Connell 2005, which lay out the theoretical foundations for multiple masculinities. Stiehm 1982 and Young 2003 link masculinities to notions of protection and citizenship. Sasson-Levy 2003 uses Israeli women in the military as an example of how women negotiate their identities when in a masculine environment. Kirby and Henry 2012 provides an introduction to a special issue on the subject of how to interpret masculinities in conflict settings.

  • Connell, R. W. Gender and Power: Society, the Person, and Sexual Politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987.

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    Provides a systematic framework for the social analysis of gender and sexuality. It maps the structure of gender relations in late-20th-century life and in history, and it proposes a new approach to femininity and masculinity.

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  • Connell, R. W. Masculinities. 2d ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

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    Argues that there is no such thing as a single concept of masculinity, but, rather, that many different masculinities exist, each associated with different positions of power. In the second edition, Connell discusses the development of masculinity studies in the ten years since the book’s initial publication.

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  • Kirby, Paul, and Marsha Henry. “Rethinking Masculinity and Practices of Violence in Conflict Settings.” In Special Issue: Rethinking Masculinity and Practices of Violence in Conflict Settings. International Feminist Journal of Politics 14.4 (2012): 445–449.

    DOI: 10.1080/14616742.2012.726091Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides an introduction to a special issue that looks at how masculinities and violence are connected in specific locations of power.

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  • Sasson-Levy, Orna. “Feminism and Military Gender Practices: Israeli Women Soldiers in ‘Masculine’ Roles.” Sociological Inquiry 73.3 (2003): 440–465.

    DOI: 10.1111/1475-682X.00064Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Demonstrates that Israeli women soldiers in “masculine” roles shape their gender identities according to the hegemonic masculinity of the combat soldier through three interrelated practices: mimicry of combat soldiers’ bodily and discursive practices, distancing from “traditional femininity,” and trivialization of sexual harassment.

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  • Stiehm, Judith Hicks. “The Protected, the Protector, the Defender.” In Special Issue: Women and Men’s Wars. Women’s Studies International Forum 5.3–4 (1982): 367–376.

    DOI: 10.1016/0277-5395(82)90048-6Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Investigates the nature of the protected, the protector, and the defender who participates fully in the creation of security but who neither is dependent nor has dependents. It proposes that men and women share equally in defense.

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  • Young, Iris Marion. “The Logic of Masculinist Protection: Reflections on the Current Security State.” Signs 29.1 (2003): 1–25.

    DOI: 10.1086/375708Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Draws attention to practices of citizenship that can arise under a government at war, and explores the logic of the masculine role of protector.

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Masculinities in Peacekeeping Operations

Cockburn and Zarkov 2002 uses a case study to link masculinities to peacekeeping. Higate 2003 and Higate 2007 argue that social and economic context matter in addition to masculinities when it comes to sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping missions. Higate and Henry 2004 looks at the construction of masculinity in peacekeeping missions, and Väyrynen 2004 links the UN’s construction of masculinity with neoliberalism.

  • Cockburn, Cynthia, and Dubravka Zarkov, eds. The Postwar Moment: Militaries, Masculinities, and International Peacekeeping. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 2002.

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    Focuses on Bosnia and the Netherlands, which are linked through peacekeeping. The book examines the many ways in which processes of demilitarization and peacekeeping are structured by notions of masculinity and femininity.

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  • Higate, Paul, ed. Military Masculinities: Identity and the State. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

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    Deconstructs the traditional stereotypes of military identity and makes a strong case for a plurality of identities within a range of theoretical and empirical contexts. It mainly focuses on the British army but explores universal issues such as violence among military communities, the identity of women in the military, and the treatment of conscientious objectors.

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  • Higate, Paul. “Peacekeepers, Masculinities, and Sexual Exploitation.” Men and Masculinities 10.1 (2007): 99–119.

    DOI: 10.1177/1097184X06291896Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues that a form of exploitative social masculinities shaped by socioeconomic structure, impunity, and privilege offers a more appropriate way to capture the activities of some male peacekeepers during peacekeeping missions. It also underlines the conflation of military masculinities with exploitation.

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  • Higate, Paul, and Marsha Henry. “Engendering (In)security in Peace Support Operations.” Security Dialogue 35.4 (2004): 481–498.

    DOI: 10.1177/0967010604049529Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Focuses on the activities of male peacekeepers and their gendered relations with women and girls. Against the backdrop of the peacekeeping economies in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone, the authors focus on the consequences of male peacekeepers’ construction and enactment of masculinity (and masculinities) on the security of local women.

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  • Väyrynen, Tarja. “Gender and UN Peace Operations: The Confines of Modernity.” In Special Issue: Peace Operations and Global Order. International Peacekeeping 11.1 (2004): 125–142.

    DOI: 10.1080/1353331042000228481Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Problematizes the UN’s discourse on gender, peace, and war by demonstrating how modernity sets the limits for the discourse.

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Representation of Women in National-Security Sectors

A number of efforts are underway to increase the representation of women in the security sector. This “female ratio balancing” is happening domestically, as well as through peacekeeping missions. The existing scholarship that has shed light on the needs for and consequences of female ratio balancing in security sector reform initiatives and in combat roles informs our understanding of the gender dynamics of peacekeeping in three ways. First, it helps us understand the gender dynamics in the pool of militaries that contribute to peacekeeping operations. Second, it sheds light on an important facet of many peacekeeping operations: helping the host-country security sector implement reforms such as the integration of more women. Third, the discourse surrounding the incorporation of more women into national-security sectors parallels similar issues regarding the incorporation of more women into peacekeeping operations.

Representation of Women and Security Sector Reform

Policies to improve the representation of women happen through the security sector reform (SSR) of post- and non-post-conflict countries. Here, the seminal work is Carreiras 2006, which looks at social, economic, and political reasons for integrating women into NATO countries. Hacker 1981 traces women’s participation in European armies historically. Moving to post-conflict countries and SSR, Bastick 2008 and DCAF 2011 provide examples of policies of female ratio balancing in post-conflict countries. Karim 2013 provides some evidence for the effects of reforms in female ratio balancing in Liberia on civilian trust. Karim 2011 examines policies of female ratio balancing in Peru. Finally, Stachowitsch 2012 argues that there is a link between women’s status in military institutions and the gendering of foreign policy.

  • Bastick, Megan. Integrating Gender in Post-conflict Security Sector Reform. Policy Paper 29. Geneva, Switzerland: Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2008.

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    Highlights how to integrate gender into security sector reform activities.

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  • Carreiras, Helena. Gender and the Military: Women in the Armed Forces of Western Democracies. Cass Military Studies. New York: Routledge, 2006.

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    Provides the first comparative, cross-national study of the participation of women in the armed forces of NATO countries. Carreiras finds that changes in the organizational format of the military may help with women’s integration into the military. Case studies include Portugal and the Netherlands.

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  • DCAF. Gender and Security Sector Reform: Examples from the Ground. Geneva, Switzerland: Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2011.

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    Highlights how-to examples of successful gender reforms in post-conflict countries.

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  • Hacker, Barton C. “Women and Military Institutions in Early Modern Europe: A Reconnaissance.” Signs 6.4 (1981): 643–671.

    DOI: 10.1086/493839Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Shows that women were a part of European armies from at least the fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries.

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  • Karim, Sabrina. “Madame Officer.” Americas Quarterly 5.3 (2011): 42–46.

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    Shows the effects of Peru’s feminization of traffic officers.

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  • Karim, Sabrina. “Evaluating the Changing of the Guards: Survey Evidence from Liberia on Security Sector Female Ratio Balancing Policies.” Paper presented at the Folke Bernadotte Academy UNSC 1325 Working Group, held in London on 21–22 October 2013.

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    Finds survey evidence for increased levels of trust in the population when Liberians had contact with female Liberian National Police officers. Survey evidence also suggests that contact with female officers paves the way for third party or peacekeeping exit.

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  • Stachowitsch, Saskia. “Military Gender Integration and Foreign Policy in the United States: A Feminist International Relations Perspective.” Security Dialogue 43.4 (2012): 305–321.

    DOI: 10.1177/0967010612451482Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues that gender order in military institutions is linked to international politics and state behavior in the international arena.

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Women in Combat in the United States

Women’s entry into combat roles in the US military has been the subject of much debate. One of the first articles to look at the question is Quester 1977, which lays out some reasons why women are excluded from combat positions. Within the US military, Rosen, et al. 1996 finds that increasing the proportion of women in units led to a decrease of perceived unit cohesion. Boyce and Herd 2003 looks at the gender stereotypes held by the US military with regard to leadership ability, and D’Amico and Weinstein 1999 gives insight into the experiences of women in the US military. Herbert 2000 argues that the military culture is exclusionary to women, but Titunik 2000 disagrees with a lot of the criticism about women’s discrimination in the US military and demonstrates that certain aspects of the military culture are congenial to servicewomen and facilitate their often-overlooked successes in this institution. However, Skaine 2011 and Fenner and deYoung 2001 present arguments for and against women’s integration into combat positions. Finally, Zeigler and Gunderson 2005 offers a comprehensive analysis of debates related to gender in the US military.

  • Boyce, Lisa A., and Ann M. Herd. “The Relationship between Gender Role Stereotypes and Requisite Military Leadership Characteristics.” Sex Roles 49.7–8 (2003): 365–378.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1025164221364Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Explores the extent of gender stereotypes held by military students for military leadership positions.

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  • D’Amico, Francine J., and Laurie L. Weinstein, eds. Gender Camouflage: Women and the U.S. Military. New York: New York University Press, 1999.

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    Explores both personal stories of military women and provides a brief historical look at women in the military. The second part looks at institutions devoted to women in the military, such as the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Service (DACOWITS) and the Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation, Inc. (WIMSA). The last part addresses issues of the military treatment of homosexuals, as well as racial prejudices and assumptions.

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  • Fenner, Lorry M., and Marie E. deYoung. Women in Combat: Civic Duty or Military Liability? Controversies in Public Policy. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2001.

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    Looks at both sides of women’s integration into combat roles. One author calls for the integration of women into all military roles, including combat ones. The other author argues that keeping women out of combat is in the best interests of both sexes and is crucial to the effectiveness of the military as a whole.

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  • Herbert, Melissa S. Camouflage Isn’t Only for Combat: Gender, Sexuality, and Women in the Military. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

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    Draws on almost three hundred female military personnel and examines the role of gender and sexuality in the maintenance of the male-defined military institution, proposing that, more than sexual harassment or individual discrimination, it is the military’s masculine ideology—which views military service as the domain of men and as a mechanism for the achievement of manhood—that serves to limit women’s participation.

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  • Quester, George H. “Women in Combat.” International Security 1.4 (1977): 80–91.

    DOI: 10.2307/2538624Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Assesses the assumptions about women in the armed forces, especially in combat roles. The author argues that these assumptions are based on societal attitudes that women should not be involved in killing and that they should be protected; the assumptions also include perceptions about women’s sexuality.

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  • Rosen, Leora N., Doris B. Durand, Paul D. Bliese, Ronald R. Halverson, Joseph M. Rothberg, and Nancy L. Harrison. “Cohesion and Readiness in Gender-Integrated Combat Service Support Units: The Impact of Acceptance of Women and Gender Ratio.” Armed Forces & Society 22.4 (1996): 537–553.

    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X9602200403Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines the cohesion, combat readiness, and acceptance of women in the military. Results indicated that cohesion and combat readiness increased with increased acceptance of women but decreased as the proportion of females in the unit increased.

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  • Skaine, Rosemarie. Women in Combat: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary World Issues. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2011.

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    Examines the historical background, current dilemmas, and global context of women in combat roles in the US military.

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  • Titunik, Regina F. “The First Wave: Gender Integration and Military Culture.” Armed Forces & Society 26.2 (2000): 229–257.

    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X0002600204Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Counters assumptions about militarized masculinity within the US military and argues that the military does not foster individual aggression, since this quality is, ironically, ineffectual for organized warfare. The author stresses that much of the literature overlooks the fact that military culture can be friendly to women and explains how it can be.

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  • Zeigler, Sara L., and Gregory G. Gunderson. Moving Beyond G.I. Jane: Women and the U.S. Military. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2005.

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    Offers detailed analyses of debates over integrating women into combat roles and the proper approach to confronting sexual harassment within the ranks.

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Women’s Participation in Peacekeeping

This section highlights work that examines women in peacekeeping by the numbers—the proportion of female personnel on peacekeeping missions—and factors that influence the numbers. It also points to work that examines the experiences of female peacekeeping missions and the “effectiveness” debate.

The Numbers

How has the representation of women in peacekeeping missions changed over time? Stiehm 1995 is the first study to note the presence of women in peacekeeping operations. Olsson 2000 notes the dearth of female peacekeepers despite the Beijing Declaration in 1995. More than ten years later, Dharmapuri 2013 and Simić 2013 highlight that female participation in peacekeeping is low, and the authors underline the factors preventing the numbers of female peacekeepers to grow. Karim and Beardsley 2013 and Karim and Beardsley 2015 demonstrate that female peacekeepers end up being deployed to the safest missions and not necessarily where there is more gender equality, and Crawford, et al. 2015 observes that more females are deployed when there large deployments in general. Schjølset 2013 and Olsson and Möller 2013 highlight trends not just in UN peacekeeping operations, but in European Union (EU) and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) operations as well.

  • Crawford, Kerry F., James H. Lebovic, and Julia M. Macdonald. “Explaining the Variation in Gender Composition of Personnel Contributions to UN Peacekeeping Operations.” Armed Forces & Society 41.2 (2015): 257–281.

    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X14523416Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Looks at the question of female peacekeeping contributions. The findings indicate that gender diversity is not a primary goal of most contributors and is largely a byproduct of force sizes.

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  • Dharmapuri, Sahana. Not Just a Numbers Game: Increasing Women’s Participation in UN Peacekeeping. Providing for Peacekeeping 4. New York: International Peace Institute, 2013.

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    Argues that the UN is unlikely to reach its gender goals because it is not fully implementing its own two-pronged approach of increasing the number of women in peacekeeping operations and integrating a gender perspective within its missions.

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  • Karim, Sabrina, and Kyle Beardsley. “Female Peacekeepers and Gender Balancing: Token Gestures or Informed Policymaking?” In Special Issue: A Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security—Implementing UNSCR 1325. International Interactions 39.4 (2013): 461–488.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2013.805131Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Finds evidence for the fact that female peacekeepers end up being deployed to the safest missions and not where they are most needed (where gender equality is low).

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  • Karim, Sabrina, and Kyle Beardsley. “Ladies Last: Peacekeeping and Gendered Protection.” In Gender, Peace, and Security: Implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1325. Edited by Theodora-Ismene Gizelis and Louise Olsson, 62–95. Routledge Studies in Peace and Conflict Resolution. New York: Routledge, 2015.

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    Finds that female peacekeepers go to the safest missions and that countries with more women in their national militaries and better records of gender equality send more women to peacekeeping missions. Finally, it finds that when contributing countries have an ongoing conflict in their country, they are more likely to send women to peacekeeping missions.

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  • Olsson, Louise. “Mainstreaming Gender in Multidimensional Peacekeeping: A Field Perspective.” International Peacekeeping 7.3 (2000): 1–16.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533310008413846Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Presents a picture of gender mainstreaming in 2000 and finds that there are very low levels of women’s participation in peacekeeping. The article also argues that human rights and humanitarian assistance are two examples of areas of multidimensional peacekeeping operations where it is vital to consider the different needs of men and women.

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  • Olsson, Louise, and Frida Möller. “Data on Women’s Participation in UN, EU, and OSCE Field Missions: Trends, Possibilities, and Problems.” In Special Issue: A Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security—Implementing UNSCR 1325. International Interactions 39.4 (2013): 587–600.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2013.805325Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Looks at the data from UN, EU, and OSCE missions from 2006 to 2011 and identifies trends in women’s participation in operations.

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  • Schjølset, Anita. “Data on Women’s Participation in NATO Forces and Operations.” In Special Issue: A Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security—Implementing UNSCR 1325. International Interactions 39.4 (2013): 575–587.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2013.805326Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Looks closer at existing NATO data on participation and finds that improvements in the representation of women in domestic forces often do not translate to improvements in the representation of women in contributions sent to peace operations.

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  • Simić, Olivera. Moving Beyond the Numbers: Integrating Women into Peacekeeping Operations. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre, 2013.

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    Examines the steps needed to improve women’s participation in peacekeeping, highlights the problem inherent in commonly cited arguments for increasing women peacekeepers, and proposes key recommendations.

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  • Stiehm, Judith H. “Men and Women and Peacekeeping: A Research Note.” International Peacekeeping 2.4 (1995): 564–569.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533319508413579Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Analyzes the extent to which women have been involved in peacekeeping operations.

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Experiences of Women in Peacekeeping Operations

A number of scholars have examined the participation of women in peacekeeping missions from the standpoint of the actual peacekeepers. Henry 2012 contextualizes the peacekeeping experience within a neocolonial framework by using examples from the Indian all-female police units and Uruguayan female peacekeepers. Karamé 2001 examines the experiences of Norwegian female peacekeepers in Lebanon, and Sion 2008 assesses the role of Dutch female peacekeepers in Bosnia and Kosovo. Higate and Henry 2009 looks at the performance of peacekeepers by using case studies from Haiti, Liberia, and Kosovo. Jennings 2014 complicates popular notions of how gender “works” in peacekeeping sites, and Karim 2015 specifically explores the experiences of female peacekeepers in Liberia and compares them to Liberian perceptions of peacekeepers.

  • Henry, Marsha. “Peacexploitation? Interrogating Labor Hierarchies and Global Sisterhood among Indian and Uruguayan Female Peacekeepers.” In Special Issue: Global South to the Rescue: Emerging Humanitarian Superpowers and Globalizing Rescue Industries. Globalizations 9.1 (2012): 15–33.

    DOI: 10.1080/14747731.2012.627716Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Looks at the cases of Uruguay and India in sending female peacekeepers to missions. In doing so, it examines the limits of a conventional interest in gender and gender relations in thinking about peacekeepers and advocates for an intersectional approach to the issue of female peacekeepers, importantly including the role of geography (and therefore “race,” empire, and colonialism) in thinking through the social, cultural, and political effects of peacekeeping deployments.

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  • Higate, Paul, and Marsha Henry. Insecure Spaces: Peacekeeping, Power and Performance in Haiti, Kosovo and Liberia. London: Zed Books, 2009.

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    Argues that peacekeeping is framed by an exercise of power. Using case studies from Haiti, Liberia, and Kosovo, the authors suggest that peacekeepers “perform” security through their daily professional and personal practices, sometimes with unanticipated effects.

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  • Jennings, Kathleen M. “Service, Sex, and Security: Gendered Peacekeeping Economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” Security Dialogue 45.4 (2014): 313–330.

    DOI: 10.1177/0967010614537330Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Uses the concept of the peacekeeping economy to examine how peacekeepers—as individuals—and peacekeeping—as a complex of institutions, policy, and practice—interact with, and inevitably shape, the societies in which they operate. It focuses on how peacekeeping economies are gendered, and the implications of this gendering.

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  • Karamé, Kari H. “Military Women in Peace Operations: Experiences of the Norwegian Battalion in UNIFIL, 1978–98.” In Special Issue: Women and International Peacekeeping. International Peacekeeping 8.2 (2001): 85–96.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533310108413897Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Highlights the interactions of Norwegian female peacekeepers with Lebanese women and calls for greater participation of women in peacekeeping missions.

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  • Karim, Sabrina. “Triangulating Peacekeeping: Policymaker, Female Peacekeeper, and Local Perceptions of the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL).” Unpublished working paper, 2015.

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    Using dozens of interviews with peacekeepers in UNMIL and surveys of local Liberians, it analyzes the individual experiences of female peacekeepers and whether they match local expectations. It also finds that when local Liberians interacted with female peacekeepers, they were more likely to prefer local women to provide protection, but they were indifferent to peacekeeper protection or extension.

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  • Sion, Liora. “Peacekeeping and the Gender Regime: Dutch Female Peacekeepers in Bosnia and Kosovo.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 37.5 (2008): 561–585.

    DOI: 10.1177/0891241607309988Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Addresses the issue of women’s participation in peacekeeping missions by focusing on two NATO Dutch peacekeeping units in Bosnia (SFOR8) and Kosovo (KFOR2). The author argues that although peacekeeping is a new military model it reproduces the same traditional combat-oriented mindset of gender roles, which means that Dutch female soldiers are limited in their ability to perform and contribute to peace missions.

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Female Peacekeepers and Effectiveness

The first discussion related to gender and peacekeeping efficacy occurred in the 1990s, with work in Stiehm 1997. More recently, DeGroot 2001 argues that women’s integration into peacekeeping is necessary because women bring an added value to missions. Following in this line, Bridges and Horsfall 2009 contends that women’s participation in peacekeeping is necessary for combating sexual misconduct perpetrated by some male soldiers and for instilling local trust in the mission. Jennings 2011 concludes that systematic research is needed to examine the ways in which women peacekeepers contribute to the operational effectiveness of peacekeeping missions. Simić 2010 critiques the idea that increasing the number of female peacekeepers in missions will help reduce sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA). Kember 2010 and Pruitt 2013 come to similar conclusions through using the Indian all-female police unit as an example. Using the peacekeeping mission in Timor-Leste as an example, Olsson 2009 looks at the extent to which peacekeeping missions can promote gender equality in host countries. Finally, Valenius 2007 and Carreiras 2010 provide a more pessimistic view that calls into question whether women can make real differences in peacekeeping missions.

  • Bridges, Donna, and Debbie Horsfall. “Increasing Operational Effectiveness in UN Peacekeeping: Toward a Gender-Balanced Force.” Armed Forces & Society 36.1 (2009): 120–130.

    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X08327818Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues that an increased percentage of female military personnel on UN peacekeeping operations is beneficial to operational effectiveness. The authors contend that a force adequately representative of female service personnel in peacekeeping operations will combat sexual misconduct perpetrated by some male soldiers and that a greater proportion of female military personnel engenders trust and improves the reputation of peacekeepers among local populations.

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  • Carreiras, Helena. “Gendered Culture in Peacekeeping Operations.” In Special Issue: Peacekeeping and Culture. International Peacekeeping 17.4 (2010): 471–485.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533312.2010.516655Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines empirical evidence from a variety of research projects conducted since the early 1990s, focusing on the role and integration of women soldiers in peacekeeping. The article questions the extent to which peacekeeping missions have the potential to challenge previously dominant conceptions and practices of gender roles in military culture.

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  • DeGroot, Gerard J. “A Few Good Women: Gender Stereotypes, the Military and Peacekeeping.” In Special Issue: Women and International Peacekeeping. International Peacekeeping 8.2 (2001): 23–38.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533310108413893Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues that women are valuable to peacekeeping missions because they are different from men and thus may be perceived in a different light and be able to perform different tasks than men.

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  • Jennings, Kathleen M. Women’s Participation in UN Peacekeeping Operations: Agents of Change or Stranded Symbols? Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre, 2011.

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    Reviews the existing evidence relating to the impact of uniformed women peacekeepers (i.e., military or police) in UN peacekeeping operations (PKOs). The report concludes that systematic research is needed to examine the ways in which women peacekeepers contribute to the operational effectiveness of peacekeeping missions, and how these contributions differ (or not) from the performance of male peacekeepers.

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  • Kember, Olivia F. “The Impact of the Indian Formed Police Unit in the United Nations Mission in Liberia.” MA thesis, Georgetown University, 2010.

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    Argues that the Indian all-female police units both actively and passively participated in the UN Mission in Liberia.

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  • Olsson, Louise. Gender Equality and United Nations Peace Operations in Timor Leste. International Peacekeeping 14. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004175495.i-208Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Uses the peacekeeping mission in Timor-Leste to analyze whether peacekeeping missions are vehicles for gender equality in host countries. Using Timor-Leste between 1999 and 2006 as a case study, the book traces changes in the power balance between men and women.

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  • Pruitt, Lesley J. “All-Female Police Contingents: Feminism and the Discourse of Armed Protection.” International Peacekeeping 20.1 (2013): 67–79.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533312.2012.761836Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Explores women’s involvement in peacekeeping operations and the introduction in 2007 of an all-female police unit.

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  • Simić, Olivera. “Does the Presence of Women Really Matter? Towards Combating Male Sexual Violence in Peacekeeping Operations.” In Special Issue: Women, Peace and Conflict: A Decade after Resolution 1325. International Peacekeeping 17.2 (2010): 188–199.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533311003625084Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues that it may be unreasonable to think that female peacekeepers can help prevent sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping missions, and provides several reasons for this line of thinking.

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  • Stiehm, Judith Hicks. “Peacekeeping and Peace Research: Men and Women’s Work.” Women & Politics 18.1 (1997): 27–51.

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    Analyzes the way in which gender roles pervade peacekeeping missions. It finds that male domination is a major problem in missions.

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  • Valenius, Johanna. “A Few Kind Women: Gender Essentialism and Nordic Peacekeeping Operations.” In Special Issue: Peace Support Operations—Nordic Perspective. International Peacekeeping 14.4 (2007): 510–523.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533310701427785Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines constructions of gender in UN documents and peace operations. On the basis of an analysis of key UN documents and fieldwork among Finnish peacekeepers in Kosovo, the argument is that gender-mainstreaming documents and practices tend to rely on essentialized notions of women as victims and as inherently peaceful.

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Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Peacekeeping Missions

Sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) has been a major impediment for peacekeeping missions. A number of studies have focused on examining the extent of the problem, and others have focused on how to address the problem.

The Extent of the SEA Problem

Several articles provide overviews of the extent of the SEA problem in peacekeeping operations. Martin 2005, a key report, brought the issue of SEA into the spotlight, and Csáky 2008 demonstrates the problem of SEA of children. Beber, et al. 2013 uses state-of-the-art sampling techniques to estimate the level of transactional sex by peacekeepers in Monrovia, Liberia. Jennings and Nikolić-Ristanović 2009 and Jennings 2010 link peacekeeping economies and the growth of local sex industries, while Grady 2010 suggests that SEA violates the UN’s principle of impartiality in missions. Simm 2013 provides a comprehensive look at and examines the problem, in addition to examining the UN’s zero tolerance policy. Notar 2006 investigates the extent of peacekeeping abuse in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Higate 2004 criticizes the way in which the numbers of SEA are counted as it discounts local views and experiences. Finally, Sur and Hampton-Manley 2015, a UN-released report, documents the continued problem of SEA in missions.

  • Beber, Bernd, Michael Gilligan, Jenny Guardado Rodriguez, and Sabrina Karim. “Peacekeeping, International Norms, and Transactional Sex in Monrovia, Liberia.” Paper presented at the Folke Bernadotte Academy UNSC 1325 Working Group, held in London, on 21–22 October 2013.

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    Provides a representative survey of Monrovia and finds that nearly 50 percent of the sex work in Monrovia is conducted with a UN peacekeeper.

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  • Csáky, Corinna. No One to Turn to: The Under-Reporting of Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Aid Workers and Peacekeepers. London: Save the Children, 2008.

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    Documents and focuses on ways to improve the international community’s response to the SEA of children by aid workers, peacekeepers, and others acting on their behalf in emergencies.

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  • Grady, Kate. “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers: A Threat to Impartiality.” In Special Issue: Women, Peace and Conflict: A Decade after Resolution 1325. International Peacekeeping 17.2 (2010): 215–228.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533311003625100Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Tracks neutrality in UN peacekeeping and argues that peacekeepers’ involvement in SEA breaches the principle of impartiality.

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  • Higate, Paul. Gender and Peacekeeping: Case Studies; The Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sierra Leone. ISS Monograph 91. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies, 2004.

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    Focuses on peacekeepers and the alleged abuse of power that they exert over the local population.

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  • Jennings, Kathleen M. “Unintended Consequences of Intimacy: Political Economies of Peacekeeping and Sex Tourism.” In Special Issue: Women, Peace and Conflict: A Decade after Resolution 1325. International Peacekeeping 17.2 (2010): 229–243.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533311003625126Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines the extent to which peacekeeping economies are dependent on the exploitation of women’s and girls’ sexual labor.

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  • Jennings, Kathleen M., and Vesna Nikolić-Ristanović. UN Peacekeeping Economies and Local Sex Industries: Connections and Implications. MICROCON Research Working Paper 17. Brighton, UK: MICROCON, 2009.

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    Uses a gendered lens to explore some ramifications and lasting implications of peacekeeping economies, with examples from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, and Haiti. The author particularly focuses on the interplay between the peacekeeping economy and the sex industry.

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  • Martin, Sarah. Must Boys Be Boys? Ending Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Missions. Washington, DC: Refugees International, 2005.

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    Provides a comprehensive look at the causes of SEA by UN peacekeepers in Liberia and Haiti, the efforts made by the UN to address the problem, and concrete recommendations for further action.

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  • Notar, Susan A. “Peacekeepers as Perpetrators: Sexual Exploitation and Abuse of Women and Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy and the Law 14.2 (2006): 413–429.

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    Highlights the problem of SEA in the peacekeeping mission in DRC, specifically looking at the legal remedies and ramifications of the problem.

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  • Simm, Gabrielle. Sex in Peace Operations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139343398Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Evaluates sex between international personnel and locals and examines the zero tolerance policy on SEA and its international legal framework. The book covers military peacekeepers, private military contractors, and humanitarian nongovernmental organization (NGO) workers and includes three case studies: Bosnia, West Africa, and the DRC.

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  • Sur, Rahul, and Emily Hampton-Manley. Evaluation of the Enforcement and Remedial Assistance Efforts for Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by the United Nations and Related Personnel in Peacekeeping Operations. Assignment IED-15–001. New York: UN Office of Internal Oversight Services, 2015.

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    Highlights the extent of the problems of SEA, despite the UN’s zero tolerance policy.

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Addressing the SEA Problem

Turning to ways to attenuate SEA in peacekeeping operations, Nduka-Agwu 2009 looks at whether gender mainstreaming has had an effect on reducing SEA in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Ndulo 2009 considers how to address the problem through a legal perspective. Sivakumaran 2010 assesses the UN’s responses to SEA, and Allred 2006 suggests looking at models in the US military and NATO to stop SEA in the UN. Jennings 2008 evaluates the UN’s zero tolerance policy and finds mixed evidence for its success, while Simic 2009 and Kanetake 2010 critique the entire zero tolerance framework. Stern 2015 provides a policy brief that assesses the development of reforms in UN peace operations to reduce the prevalence of SEA in the previous ten years. Nordås and Rustad 2013 looks at the data to explain variation in SEA across missions, and Karim and Beardsley 2014 finds that when contributing countries with better records of gender equality send peacekeepers to missions, there are fewer allegations of SEA.

  • Allred, Keith J. “Peacekeepers and Prostitutes: How Deployed Forces Fuel the Demand for Trafficked Women and New Hope for Stopping It.” Armed Forces & Society 33.1 (2006): 5–23.

    DOI: 10.1177/0095327X06288803Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues that because the United States, NATO, and the UN all are addressing the problems of sexual misconduct by deployed troops, their efforts should be mutually reinforcing. It posits that the examples of the American and NATO armed forces offer hope that the UN will also enact strong measures to prevent future misconduct by its peacekeepers.

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  • Jennings, Kathleen M. Protecting Whom? Approaches to Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Operations. Oslo, Norway: Fafo Report, 2008.

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    Looks at whether the zero tolerance policy toward SEA has a positive impact on UN peacekeeping missions. It uses evidence from UN peacekeeping missions in Haiti and Liberia and concludes that the policy has yielded mixed results.

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  • Kanetake, Machiko. “Whose Zero Tolerance Counts? Reassessing a Zero Tolerance Policy against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers.” In Special Issue: Women, Peace and Conflict: A Decade after Resolution 1325. International Peacekeeping 17.2 (2010): 200–214.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533311003625092Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues that the implementation of the UN’s SEA policies cannot be effective due to the limits of the UN’s command authority to dictate policy in contingent-contributing countries. It also argues that not all victims approve the UN’s zero tolerance pledge, out of fear that they may lose their only recourse to making a living.

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  • Karim, Sabrina, and Kyle Beardsley. “Explaining Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Peacekeeping Missions: The Role of Female Peacekeepers and Gender Equality in Contributing Countries.” Paper presented at the at Folke Bernadotte Academy Peacekeeping Workshop, held in New York City, New York, on 13–14 November 2014.

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    Uses quantitative analysis to find that peacekeeping contributing countries with better records of gender equality send peacekeepers, the mission has fewer allegations of SEA.

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  • Nduka-Agwu, Adibeli. “‘Doing Gender’ after the War: Dealing with Gender Mainstreaming and Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peace Support Operations in Liberia and Sierra Leone.” Civil Wars 11.2 (2009): 179–199.

    DOI: 10.1080/13698240802631087Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides a summary of the current literature on UN policies on gender mainstreaming and sexual misconduct in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

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  • Ndulo, Muna. “The United Nations Responses to the Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Women and Girls by Peacekeepers during Peacekeeping Missions.” Berkeley Journal of International Law 27.1 (2009): 127–161.

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    Looks at the UN’s legal responses to SEA.

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  • Nordås, Ragnhild, and Siri C. A. Rustad. “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers: Understanding Variation.” In Special Issue: A Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security—Implementing UNSCR 1325. International Interactions 39.4 (2013): 511–534.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2013.805128Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Looks at the variation of SEA in UN peacekeeping missions. Using cross-national data, the authors find that SEA was more frequently reported in situations with lower levels of battle-related deaths, in larger operations, in more-recent operations, in less developed countries hosting the mission, and in operations where the conflict involved high levels of sexual violence.

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  • Simic, Olivera. “Rethinking ‘Sexual Exploitation’ in UN Peacekeeping Operations.” Women’s Studies International Forum 32.4 (2009): 288–295.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.wsif.2009.05.007Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Questions definitions used by researchers in their studies of “sexual exploitation” in UN peacekeeping operations. It suggests that the term “sexual exploitation” is broadly defined and contentious and might cover activity that is not necessarily “sexually exploitative.”

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  • Sivakumaran, Sandesh. “Lost in Translation: UN Responses to Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Situations of Armed Conflict.” International Review of the Red Cross 92.877 (2010): 259–277.

    DOI: 10.1017/S1816383110000020Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Assesses the state of knowledge and work in the field of male sexual violence and notes that although there have been many positive developments, the issue is not always moving in the right direction.

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  • Stern, Jenna. Reducing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping: Ten Years after the Zeid Report. Civilians in Conflict Policy Brief 1. Washington, DC: Stimson Center, 2015.

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    Explores the trends in SEA accusations within UN peace operations, the development of reforms to attenuate such abuse, and the need for further action.

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Gender Mainstreaming

In addition to increasing the participation of women in peacekeeping missions, international missions have sought to gender mainstream. Stiehm 2001 argues that gender mainstreaming is important for post-conflict countries, but that implementation has been a problem. Gizelis and Pierre 2013 shows where there are still gaps in the research on gender mainstreaming in post-conflict reconstruction. Hudson 2005 and St.-Pierre 2011 evaluate the extent of gender-mainstreaming policy implementation, whereas Hudson 2000 specifically looks at the potential for gender mainstreaming among African contributing countries. Basini 2013 investigates gender mainstreaming specifically within the disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation, and reintegration (DDRR) process in Liberia. True and Mintrom 2001 contends that there has been an expansion of gender-mainstreaming bureaucracies throughout the world and that this is accredited to the work of the transnational feminist movement. Prescott 2013 looks at gender mainstreaming through a legal perspective. Finally, Mackay 2003 and Cordell 2011 analyze potential ways to improve gender mainstreaming in missions.

  • Basini, Helen S. A. “Gender Mainstreaming Unraveled: The Case of DDRR in Liberia.” In Special Issue: A Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security—Implementing UNSCR 1325. International Interactions 39.4 (2013): 535–557.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2013.805129Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Explores the gender-mainstreaming provision in the DDRR process in Liberia. Using interviews with women associated with fighting forces (WAFFs) and with ex-combatants, the article concludes that women’s particular needs in the DDRR process were not met, especially those related to psycho-social and economic assistance.

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  • Cordell, Kristen A. “Peacekeeping to Peacebuilding from a Gender Perspective: The UNMIL Case.” Conflict Trends 3 (2011): 37–44.

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    Argues that the UN Mission in Liberia is a successful case of gender mainstreaming and that other missions can learn from its best practices.

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  • Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene, and Nana Afua Pierre. “Gender Equality and Postconflict Reconstruction: What Do We Need to Know in Order to Make Gender Mainstreaming Work?” In Special Issue: A Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security—Implementing UNSCR 1325. International Interactions 39.4 (2013): 601–611.

    DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2013.805324Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Highlights the need for further research on the underlying structural conditions that develop during the post-conflict reconstruction process, and how these conditions affect gender mainstreaming and gender equality policies.

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  • Hudson, Heidi. “Mainstreaming Gender in Peacekeeping Operations: Can Africa Learn from International Experience?” African Security Review 9.4 (2000): 18–33.

    DOI: 10.1080/10246029.2000.9628063Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines the extent to which African contributing countries may consider gender issues in their deployments.

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  • Hudson, Natalie Florea. “En-gendering UN Peacekeeping Operations.” In Special Issue: Canada in the World: Annual John W. Holmes Issue on Canadian Foreign Policy. International Journal 60.3 (2005): 785–807.

    DOI: 10.2307/40204063Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Evaluates the extent to which gender-mainstreaming policies are being implemented in peacekeeping operations.

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  • Mackay, Angela. “Training the Uniforms: Gender and Peacekeeping Operations.” Development in Practice 13.2–3 (2003): 217–223.

    DOI: 10.1080/09614520302939Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Describes a basic-training package, titled “Gender and Peace Support Operations,” that has been designed for use in pre-deployment induction. This article describes the background to the package’s development and outlines how it is expected to be used and evolve in the future.

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  • Prescott, Jody M. “NATO Gender Mainstreaming and the Feminist Critique of the Law of Armed Conflict.” Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law 14.1 (2013): 83–131.

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    Examines the legal link between the law of armed conflict and gender mainstreaming.

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  • St.-Pierre, Kristine. Implementing the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda in Peace Operations: Overview of Recent Efforts and Lessons Learned. Peacebuilding and Conflict Prevention Consultation. Ottawa, ON: Peacebuild, 2011.

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    Examines early-21st-century policy initiatives for implementing UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 and other resolutions in peace operations, assessing some of the impacts of these policy initiatives on the planning, conduct, and training for peace operations.

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  • Stiehm, Judith Hicks. “Women, Peacekeeping and Peacemaking: Gender Balance and Mainstreaming.” In Special Issue: Women and International Peacekeeping. International Peacekeeping 8.2 (2001): 39–48.

    DOI: 10.1080/13533310108413894Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Argues that implementation of UNSCR 1325, especially with regard to participation, is far from complete. The author contends that the participation of women at all levels, including at the peacemaking (negotiation) phase, is important.

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  • True, Jacqui, and Michael Mintrom. “Transnational Networks and Policy Diffusion: The Case of Gender Mainstreaming.” International Studies Quarterly 45.1 (2001): 27–57.

    DOI: 10.1111/0020-8833.00181Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines the proliferation of state bureaucracies for gender mainstreaming. The authors argue that transnational networks composed largely of non-state actors (notably women’s international nongovernmental organizations and the UN) have been the primary forces driving the diffusion of gender mainstreaming. They find that the diffusion of gender-mainstreaming mechanisms has been facilitated by the role played by transnational networks, in particular by the transnational feminist movement.

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