Political Science Governmental Responses to Political Corruption
by
Diğdem Soyaltin
  • LAST MODIFIED: 30 August 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756223-0177

Introduction

Corruption is a complex social, political, and economic phenomenon that affects all countries to different degrees. There has been a dramatic resurgence of interest for the term in the early 21st century. As a term it has many meanings. It is viewed most broadly as the misuse of office for unofficial ends. Transparency International defines it as one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world. The catalogue of corrupt acts includes bribery, extortion, nepotism, fraud, and embezzlement. There are also different forms of corruption. While bureaucratic or petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and within established social frameworks and governing norms, political or grand corruption occurs at the highest levels of government, involving significant subversion of political, legal, and economic systems. Political corruption is a relatively new challenge for social sciences, although it has been an issue for politics and society for many centuries. The topic attracts international scholars from various fields of social science such as political science, economics, international relations, philosophy, law, sociology, and history. The notion of corrupt and/or unethical behavior is usually analyzed by Western scholars from perspectives of political economy, behavioral ethics, organizational behavior, and management studies. However, some of the most important “classic” social science perspectives such as history, sociology, anthropology, and psychology provide important insights on corruption in particular for the non-Western contexts. There are a growing number of studies employing an interdisciplinary or even a holistic approach toward corruption that helps us to understand the complexity of the concept more adequately. In this regard, various empirical and theoretical studies have produced a bewildering array of alternative definitions, typologies, and remedies for corruption in various countries. Especially after the availability of wider data sets, empirical studies have flourished immensely to examine the causes and consequences of corruption. However, this has generated a rich methodological debate on how corruption could be measured and assessed. Coupled with emergence of wider data sets, including many countries around the globe, the signatures and ratification of international conventions against corruption resulted in significant anticorruption boom at the global scale. International efforts have promoted anticorruption provisions at national levels. Most of these anticorruption reform processes are driven to a large extent by government responses to economic crises. Following this trend, literature focusing on national anticorruption policies has emerged. Since then we have witnessed a boom of useful single and comparative country studies that analyze the diverging effects of international anticorruption initiatives. Yet, the cross-country comparisons revealed problems due to the fact that the definitions and meanings of corruption vary across countries, legal traditions, and cultures. Recently, more research has been conducted on country-specific conditions and implementation of anticorruption strategies in different contexts. The selected outputs listed below provide a general framework on political corruption including definition, historical background, measurement, and government responses at national, regional, and international level.

General Overviews

There has been a considerable increase in the number of studies on corruption specifically focusing on the nature, causes, consequences and remedies of the phenomenon in the past thirty years. The studies listed below give a general overview about political corruption and mark new avenues in the research field. Heidenheimer 1970 provides a general overview of corruption. It contains a wide range of seminal pieces, and along with subsequent editions, has built upon this nucleus of classic studies in laying out the nature and development of the concept of corruption. Rose-Ackerman 1978 on corruption is a classic study of corruption in bureaucratic and legislative processes. In her recent handbook on the economics of corruption Rose-Ackerman provides cutting-edge work regarding economic research on corruption. Heywood 1997 is a comprehensive volume of essays specifically addressing political corruption and devotes its attention primarily to the public sphere in which political actors operate. Klitgaard 1988 provides one of the more influential definitions and explanations of corruption in terms of the presence of monopoly and discretion and the absence of accountability and identifies remedies for it. Rothstein 2011 provides an analysis on the connection between the quality of government and important economic, political, and social outcomes and grapples with issues of corruption and legitimacy. Heywood 2014 is a well-structured handbook on political corruption that is devoted to definition, causes, consequences and measurement of corruption. The book also points out new directions in the corruption research.

  • Heidenheimer, Arnold J. Political Corruption: Readings in Comparative Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.

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    Drawing on the classic studies on corruption, this study offers concepts, cases, and evidence for comparative analysis on political corruption and incorporates critical analyses of approaches to reform.

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  • Heywood, Paul. Political Corruption. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.

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    This is a comprehensive set of studies dealing with political corruption and moves beyond descriptive work by highlighting unexplored dimensions of corruption and developing a model to explain cyclical corruption.

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  • Heywood, Paul. Handbook of Political Corruption. London: Routledge, 2014.

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    This is a must-have handbook on political corruption edited by a well-known scholar in the field. It provides research being conducted in Europe and North America in the field of political corruption and is structured around four core themes in the study of corruption in the contemporary world: understanding and defining the nature of corruption, identifying its causes, measuring its extent, and analyzing its consequences.

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  • Klitgaard, Robert. Controlling Corruption. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

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    This is an excellent book that provides an elegant formula for corruption: Corruption is equal to monopoly plus discretion minus accountability. Klitgaard also presents a framework for designing anticorruption policies. Through five detailed case studies the author elaborates on how corruption could be controlled.

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  • Rose-Ackerman, Susan. Corruption: A Study in Political Economy. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

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    This is an essential book that will help many readers to understand bureaucratic and legislative corruption. It provides a helpful reading on political economy aspect of corruption in modern societies that heralds the interest of economics in the study of corruption.

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  • Rose-Ackerman, Susan, ed. International Handbook on the Economics of Corruption. Vol. 1. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2006.

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    This comprehensive handbook provides specially commissioned essays, and theoretical and empirical analyses on institutional structures to fight corruption. Also concentrates on particular sectors such as education, tax administration, and customs services. This excellent handbook should serve as a firsthand reference for students and scholars seeking a particular up-to-date source in corruption in general.

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  • Rothstein, Bo. The Quality of Government: Corruption, Social Trust, and Inequality in International Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

    DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226729589.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides a theoretical foundation for empirical analysis on the quality of government and defines the basic characteristic of quality government as impartiality in the exercise of power. Rothstein examines the impact of quality of government on economic growth and development through cross-sectional analyses, experimental studies, and in-depth historical investigations.

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Reference Works

Johansen 1990 is a comprehensive corruption bibliography. Johnston 2005 introduces major syndromes of corruption observed in countries around the world and provides remedies to fight corruption for each category. Structured in four volumes of essays, Williams and Doig 2000 is an essential compendium of readings on the politics of corruption in developed and developing countries. Wolf and Schmidt-Pfister 2010 is an up-to-date work on international anticorruption regimes. Funderburk 2012 includes a series of expert comparative essays providing an overview of political corruption in different national and international settings. Hough 2013 provides a rich analysis on successful anticorruption strategies in different countries. Serra and Wantcheko 2012 is a book on applying experimental methods to the study of corruption. Mény 1992 is a French-language reference book on corruption in France. Written in German, Vol Alemann 2005 is a systematic overview of the research on political corruption.

  • Funderburk, Charles. Political Corruption in Comparative Perspective: Sources, Status and Prospects. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2012.

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    This edited volume enriches and deepens our knowledge of causes and consequences of political corruption and provides a comparative analysis on sources, status, and prospects of corruption in different countries from China to Russia, and in institutions such as the United Nations.

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  • Hough, Dan. Corruption, Anti-Corruption and Governance. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2013.

    DOI: 10.1057/9781137268716Save Citation »Export Citation »

    An empirically rich and theoretically driven study, this book is a detailed cross-national analysis of anticorruption strategies in six countries (Bangladesh, Kenya, Germany, Poland, South Korea, and the UK).

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  • Johansen, E. R. Political Corruption: Scope and Resources; An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1990.

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    This bibliography brings together citations from dozens of research disciplines and legal and administrative fields related with corruption. It also includes extensive abstracts and chapter introductions.

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  • Johnston, Michael. Syndromes of Corruption: Wealth, Power, and Democracy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511490965Save Citation »Export Citation »

    In this book Johnston defines four major syndromes of corruption: influence markets, elite cartels, oligarchs and clans, and official moguls. Johnston also uses statistical measures to cluster societies in four groups and discusses the impact of corruption on democracy and economic development for different country cases.

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  • Mény, Yves. La Corruption de la République. Paris: Fayard, 1992.

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    One of the most important reference books regarding political corruption in France. The book discusses the pervasiveness of corruption in France by analyzing allocation of resources among powerful political and economic actors in the country.

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  • Serra, Danila, and Leonard Wantcheko. New Advances in Experimental Research on Corruption. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2012.

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    The book discusses the most recent advances in the study of corruption based on laboratory, field, and natural experiments.

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  • Vol Alemann, Ulrich. Dimensionen Politischer Korruption: Beiträge zum Stand der Internationalen Forschung. Weisbaden, Germany: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2005.

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    This is a comprehensive German-language book on corruption. This book aims to fill the gaps in the literature on corruption regarding conceptualization of corruption causes and consequences, as well as the strategies of combat. The book includes case studies on specific aspects of corruption in the European Union, the CEE countries, Italy, and France, and further to China and other developed countries, including the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States.

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  • Williams, Robert, and Alain Doig. The Politics of Corruption. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2000.

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    This four-volume landmark collection of published material is essential reading and includes literature on corruption in both the developed and developing worlds.

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  • Wolf, Sebastian, and Diana Schmidt-Pfister. International Anti-Corruption Regimes in Europe: Between Corruption, Integration and Culture. Konstanz, Germany: Nomos, 2010.

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    This is a must-read book dealing extensively with international and supranational anticorruption policies in a multidisciplinary fashion.

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Journals

There are numerous journals devoted to the study of political corruption, its causes, consequences and remedies, as well as related issues of organized crime, ethics, public finance, public administration, and governance. Drawing on a variety of disciplines, including political science, criminology, sociology, economics, history, law, philosophy, anthropology, and area studies, these journals provide high-quality empirical and theoretical analyses on issues relating to corruption in general and include individual country-based, region-based, and comparative works as well. The journals listed here make the best scholarship on political corruption available to scholars, policymakers, and practitioners and are published in English. Global Crime is a multidisciplinary journal on crime trends in general. Journal of Global Ethics is an international journal on ethics and social justice. International Journal of Public Administration is a peer-reviewed journal on public policy. Review of Political Economy is a journal focusing on political economic aspects of corruption. Public Integrity is a journal on ethics and public integrity. Public Management Review is an international journal on issues on governance and public management. Asian Journal of Public Administration is a peer-reviewed journal on public governance in the Asia-Pacific region.

Definitions

Considered as classics in the field, the books and articles listed in this section provide a conceptual and historical background. Moodie 1980 is an excellent historical overview on political scandals and corruption while Philip 1997 is a reference work for definitions of political corruption. Heidenheimer and Johnston 2002 is a revised version of the book that has been a standard reference in the field since 1970 and offers new insight to the issues of political corruption. Offe 2004 provides a clear and concrete definition of political corruption and differentiates the concept from its subcases. Kawata 2006 is a compilation of articles with several by the most prominent authors in this field and deals with theoretical issues involving corruption and its relationship to clientelism in various contexts. Warren 2006 is an informative study that draws a conceptual connection between democratic theory and the concept of corruption and introduces a systematic application of the concept that is more suitable for today’s democracies. Granovetter 2007 discusses limitations of definitions of corruption made by economists and introduces sociological arguments about corruption. Lessig 2013 defines institutional corruptions. Navot 2014 revises the concept of political corruption.

  • Granovetter, Mark. “The Social Construction of Corruption.” In On Capitalism. Edited by V. Nee and R. Swedberg, 152–172. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007.

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    Provides a sociological understanding to the definition of corruption and challenges the major approaches in the field.

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  • Heidenheimer, Arnold J., and Michael Johnston, eds. Political Corruption: Concepts & Contexts. 3d ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2002.

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    As corruption has become high on the agenda along with globalization, the 1970 book by Heidenheimer offers concepts and cases and presents fresh evidence for comparative analysis. The book is one of the best introductions for undergraduates available.

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  • Kawata, Junʼichi. Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006.

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    A welcome contribution to the debate on the control of political corruption. By combining theoretical issues of corruption and practical insights, this book departs from many academic treatments of political corruption. It is a must for every serious academic library and should secure a readership among all types of academics and the wider community of those who follow conceptual debates about political corruption.

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  • Lessig, Lawrence. Institutional Corruptions. Edmond J. Safra Working Papers 1 (2013).

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    Lays the framework for the conception of institutional corruption and shows the ways in which Lessing’s definition of institutional corruption differs from that of Dennis Thompson’s earlier conception of the term. Thompson’s term has been defined as political gain by public officials under conditions that generally tend to promote private interests.

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  • Moodie, Graeme C. “On Political Scandals and Corruption.” Government and Opposition 15 (1980): 208–222.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-7053.1980.tb00272.xSave Citation »Export Citation »

    One of the major works on political corruption and scandals. Recommended as an example of an erudite text, written in a concise and accessible manner, and accessible to anyone interested in political corruption.

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  • Navot, Doron. “The Concept of Political Corruption.” Public Integrity 16.4 (2014): 357–374.

    DOI: 10.2753/PIN1099-9922160403Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Brings a fresh approach to literature and enhances dialogue between ethics and political corruption. The fine quality of insights and nuances provides scholars and policymakers with substantive ingredients to reflect upon when tackling research on political corruption.

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  • Offe, Claus. “Political Corruption: Conceptual and Practical Issues.” In Building a Trustworthy State in Post-Socialist Transition. Edited by Jonas Kornai and Susan Rose-Ackerman, 77–99. New York: Palgrave, 2004.

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    Offe discusses neighboring concepts of corruption such as fraud, embezzlement, theft, nepotism, cronyism, gifts, tips, donations, clientelism, connections, networks, lobbying, bargaining, patronage, conflict of interest, kleptocracy and distills the concept of corruption down to its essentials by minimizing its gray zones and fuzziness.

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  • Philip, Mark. “Defining Political Corruption.” Political Studies 45.3 (1997): 436–462.

    DOI: 10.1111/1467-9248.00090Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is an excellent starting point for a discussion of the numerous issues raised by definition. Philip’s well-known article provides a historical background on defining political corruption and overviews the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC)’s judgments with regard to major scandals throughout the history.

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  • Warren, Mark E. “Political Corruption as Duplicitous Exclusion.” Political Science and Politics 4 (2006): 803–807.

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    Departs from the commonly used definition of political corruption—the abuse of public office for private gain—and brings a new conception of political corruption as duplicitous exclusion that draws it closer to the problems of democracy.

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Historical Overviews

The listed studies in this section provide a history of corruption, which affects our understanding of corruption and anticorruption. Waquet 1992 examines the problem of corruption in early modern Europe. Levy Peck 1993 is about patronage that structured early modern society of England in the 17th century. Harling 1996 uses the concept of old corruption for 19th-century Britain. Neild 2002 examines the suppression of corruption in the late 18th and 19th centuries in four countries: France, Germany, Britain, and the United States. Knights 2014 examines corruption in the later Stuart period through a case study of Samuel Pepys and assesses contested notions of corrupt behavior. Kerkhoff, et al. 2013 is a comparative analysis of political corruption and political development in France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Great Britain during the long 19th century. Buchan and Hill 2014 provides a comprehensive analysis for intellectual history of political corruption, which is fundamental to the understanding of modern ideas of corruption.

  • Buchan, Bruce, and Lisa Hill. Intellectual History of Political Corruption. London and New York: Palgrave, 2014.

    DOI: 10.1057/9781137316615Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is a significant book that explores the role of corruption on the transformation of political discourse through the centuries and provides historical and conceptual analysis to demonstrate different connotations of corruption.

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  • Harling, Philip. The Waning of “Old Corruption” The Politics of Economical Reform in Britain, 1779–1846. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205760.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Defines old corruption as a system in which the elite fed parasitically off the state through sinecures, pensions, rewards, government contracts and so on, and in turn filled Parliament by buying corrupt boroughs or unduly influencing elections with money, bribes, and lavish entertainments and employs it to explain the economic reforms in Britain in the early 19th century.

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  • Kerkhoff, Toon, Ronald Kroeze, and Pieter Wagenaar. “Corruption and the Rise of Modern Politics in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: A Comparison between France, the Netherlands, Germany and England.” Journal of Modern European History 11 (2013): 1–19.

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    This is an introduction to a special issue that was published on a 2010 conference entitled “Corruption, Morality and Good Governance in Public Administration and Politics: Dutch-German Comparisons in Historical Perspective, 16th to 20th Century.” The article focuses particularly on the relationship between political corruption and political development in France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Great Britain during the long 19th century.

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  • Knights, Mark. “Samuel Pepys and Corruption.” Parliamentary History 33.1 (2014): 19–35.

    DOI: 10.1111/1750-0206.12087Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Samuel Pepys was a naval reformer who complained about the corruption of others. In 1665 he resolved not to take bribes. Relying on Samuel Pepys’s diary, Knight examines causes of corruption and asks if there is a tendency to focus on individual wrongdoers rather than the system in which they operate.

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  • Levy Peck, Linda. Court Patronage and Corruption in Early Stuart England. Rev. ed. London: Routledge, 1993.

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    Unpacks the question of corruption in early modern English government and political life and redefines the corrupt practices that characterized modern administration in the 17th century.

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  • Neild, Robert. Public Corruption: The Dark Side of Social Evolution. London: Anthem, 2002.

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    Investigates nature of corruption and examines why it was suppressed in modern times in northwestern Europe.

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  • Waquet, Jean-Claude. Corruption Ethics and Power in Florence, 1600–1770. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992.

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    Using the military and civil administration of Florence in the 17th and 18th centuries as the central case study, this book is a remarkable work of historical sociology.

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Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Corruption

The studies in this section provide a wide range of analyses on political corruption from a multidisciplinary perspective including political economy, democracy, public policy and governance, state-building, party funding, and anthropology.

Political Economy

The listed studies approach corruption from a political economy perspective and highlight important aspects of political-economic literature on corruption. Rose-Ackerman 1978 is the first comprehensive account of corruption as a study in political economy. Rose-Ackerman 1999 is a major reference volume for the political-economic literature on corruption. Groenendijk 1997 presents a principal-agent model of corruption. Krueger 1974 provides competitive nature of rent seeking rent, which can take forms, such as bribery, corruption, smuggling, and black markets. Jain 2001 is an edited book examining interactions between wealth and power and shows that in the case of corruption, economic and political analyses are inseparable. Bratsis 2014 is a must read to understand how internationalization of the question of corruption has an impact on how the corruption is defined. Using Britain as a case study, Whyte 2015 introduces a fresh approach to corruption and state-corporate crime. Chayes 2016 is a recently published book on how global finance uses economic liberalization polices in countries with corruption and poor governance.

  • Bratsis, Peter. “Political Corruption in the Age of Transnational Capitalism from the Relative Autonomy of the State to the White Man’s Burden.” Historical Materialism-Research in Critical Marxist Theory 22.1 (2014): 105–128.

    DOI: 10.1163/1569206X-12341334Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Extends earlier arguments on definition of political corruption by addressing new developments within transnational capitalism. Bratsis argues that the recent international focus on corruption further complicates how corruption is understood.

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  • Chayes, Sarah. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: Norton, 2016.

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    Provides a thought-provoking analysis on how governments and powers without borders such as finance or jihadism turned economic liberalization policies to their advantage in Ukraine, Nigeria, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Russia.

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  • Groenendijk, Nico. “A Principal-Agent Model of Corruption.” Crime, Law and Social Change 27 (1997): 207–229.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1008267601329Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article presents a principal-agent model of political corruption and applies it to representative democracies.

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  • Jain, Arvid K. The Political Economy of Corruption. London: Routledge, 2001.

    DOI: 10.4324/9780203468388Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Involves articles written by well-known scholars of corruption research. The book focuses on the micro aspect of corruption and how power is misused to accumulate personal wealth.

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  • Krueger, Anne O. “The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society.” American Economic Review 64.3 (1974): 291–303.

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    Examines the political economy of the rent-seeking society. By analyzing the competitive nature of rent seeking for two countries, India and Turkey, the article discusses varying forms of rent-seeking, such as bribery, corruption, smuggling, and black markets.

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  • Rose-Ackerman, Susan. Corruption: A Study in Political Economy. New York: Wellesley College, 1978.

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    This is one of the first accounts of the political economy of corruption. Rose-Ackerman defines corruption in the context of agency relationships and distinguishes between bureaucratic and legislative corruption.

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  • Rose-Ackerman, Susan. Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences, and Reform. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139175098Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is a must-read book written by the founder of the political-economic literature on corruption. Rose-Ackerman provides a comprehensive analysis by covering various aspects of corruption and remedies for it.

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  • Whyte, David. How Corrupt is Britain? London: Pluto, 2015.

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    Moves beyond the narrow definition of corruption and approaches corruption from a neoliberal perspective. Provides examples from corruption in government and public institutions and corporate sector in Britain.

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Democracy

Corruption has devastating impacts on democracy. Many scholars argue that the consolidation of advanced democratic institutions eventually reduce corruption. The studies listed below assess the issue from different perspectives. Della Porta and Vannucci 1997 explores effects of corruption on democracy. Rose-Ackerman 1999 is a must read for understanding the relationship between corruption and democracy. Sung 2004 is a cross-national comparison concerning the democracy-corruption relationship. Warren 2014 links the concepts of corruption to democracy. Pellegata 2013 is a comprehensive analysis of relationship between democracy and political corruption.

  • Della Porta, Donatella, and Alberto Vannucci. “The Perverse Effects of Political Corruption.” Political Studies 45.3 (1997): 516–538.

    DOI: 10.1111/1467-9248.00094Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This study is a good review of effects of corruption on democracy. It is good starting point for the ones who want to learn more about corruption and democracy.

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  • Pellegata, Alessandro. “Constraining Political Corruption: An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Democracy.” Democratization 20.7 (2013): 1195–1218.

    DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2012.688031Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Introduces important insights that respond to theoretical and methodological concerns with regard to the relationship between corruption and democracy. Examines the impact of the current level of democracy and its degree of consolidation over time on the level of corruption for more than a hundred countries. This cross-national empirical analysis is one of the best comprehensive analyses within the literature.

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  • Rose-Ackerman, Susan. “Political Corruption and Democracy.” Yale Law School, Faculty Scholarship Series 592 (1999): 363–378.

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    This is a must read to understand relationship between corruption and democracy and shows democracies are not necessarily less corrupt than other forms of government. In this regard, this study defines features of democratic government that contribute to and limit corruption.

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  • Sung, Hung-En. Democracy and Political Corruption: A Cross-National Comparison.” Crime, Law and Social Change 41.2 (2004): 179–193.

    DOI: 10.1023/B:CRIS.0000016225.75792.02Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Offers a statistical assessment of democracy-corruption relationship. The study controls for potentially confounding economic factors and uses hierarchical polynomial regression.

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  • Warren, Mark E. “What Does Corruption Mean in a Democracy?” American Journal of Political Science 48.2 (2014): 328–343.

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    Warren challenges previous research on corruption-related issues and brings a new conception of corruption by borrowing insights from democratic theory.

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Governance

Although government is a formal body invested with the authority to make decisions in a given political system, governance refers to the processes of interaction and decision making among the actors involved in influencing the decision-making process. Corruption is one of the major effects of poor governance. The studies below examine the relationship between corruption and governance. Wolf and Gürgen 2000 analyzes the links between governance and corruption. Kaufmann 2005 addresses myths on governance and corruption. Shah 2007 employs a governance approach to analyze public sector reforms in developing countries. Khan 2006 is a critical analysis of good governance reforms that have been widely adopted by international agencies to curb corruption in developing countries.

State Building

This section examines the complex relationship between corruption and state building. Olson 2000 is a must read to capture the role of corruption in analyzing economic aspects of different types of government—in particular, tyranny, democracy, and anarchy. Rose-Ackerman 2001 is a comprehensive account on the role of corruption in the state-building process of post-socialist countries. North, et al. 2012 is an ambitious book providing an in-depth understanding of violence, institutions, organizations, and beliefs in the natural states. Cheng and Zaum 2012 is a helpful volume assessing the role of corruption in post–peace building process. Zaum 2013 examines implications of corruption for understanding contemporary state-building efforts and policy. Capussela 2015 analyzes how corruption has transformed throughout the state-building process in Kosovo.

  • Capussela, Andrea. State-Building in Kosovo: Democracy, Corruption and the EU in the Balkans. London: Tauris, 2015.

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    Moves from the literature on state building and economic development and focuses on corruption, organized crime, and election fraud, which have deepened Kosovo’s acute socioeconomic problems. The author critically approaches the EU’s state-building missions deployed in Kosovo and discusses policy mistakes and lack of accountability.

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  • Cheng, Christine, and Dominik Zaum. Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Selling the Peace? Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2012.

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    The book links literature of fighting corruption to peace objectives and argues that the former is an essential part of the latter. This edited volume examines the impact of corruption on the process of transition to peace.

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  • North, Douglass C., Joseph John Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

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    Examines various arrangements in societies to control violence by providing evidence from recorded human history and discusses how political systems create rents that order social relations, control violence, and establish social cooperation within the dominant coalition.

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  • Olson, Mancur. Power and Prosperity: Outgrowing Communist and Capitalist Dictatorships. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

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    The book examines governance in eastern Europe and, especially, in the former Soviet Union. Olson brings the role of corruption to the forefront to figure out why the tax revenue may not be sufficient to cover the cost of law and order in the Communist system.

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  • Rose-Ackerman, Susan. “Trust, Honesty and Corruption: Reflection on the State-building Process.” European Journal of Sociology 42.3 (2001): 526–570.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0003975601001084Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This study examines interaction between trust and democracy and the impact of corruption on the state-building processes of post-socialist countries.

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  • Zaum, Dominik. “Corruption and State Building.” In Routledge Handbook of International State building. Edited by David Chandler and Timothy Sisk, 15–28. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2013.

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    This chapter is one of the essential readings to understand the complex roles of corruption in state-building environments. Key aspects of state building—elite settlements and the provision of public services—are emphasized in the chapter and discussed for the complex relationship between corruption and security.

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Party Funding

Party funding is a fashionable issue within the study of political corruption that is not confined to eastern Europe but also to established democracies. The listed work below explores this issue from different aspects. Williams 2000 is an in-depth examination of party finance and political corruption in a variety of political contexts. Hopkin 2004 provides a theoretical understanding for the study of party finance. Toplak and Smilov 2007 is a thorough and well-structured post-Communist study of political finance and party funding issues focusing specifically on central and eastern European countries.

  • Hopkin, Jonathan. “The Problem with Party Finance Theoretical Perspectives on the Funding of Party Politics.” Party Politics 10.6 (2004): 627–651.

    DOI: 10.1177/1354068804046911Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Identifies four financial strategies for party funding and assesses how these four financial models perform in terms of “liberal” and “populist” theories of democracy.

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  • Toplak, Jurij, and Daniel M. Smilov. Political Finance and Corruption in Eastern Europe: The Transition Period. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2007.

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    This is a comprehensive analysis of practices of political party financing in central and eastern European countries and explores best practices and discusses the shortcomings of political funding schemes.

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  • Williams, Robert. Party Finance and Political Corruption. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.

    DOI: 10.1057/9780333978061Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Offers general discussion of the party finance and political corruption through insights from particular experiences of Britain, the United States, Russia, Italy, Germany, and Southeast Asia.

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Anthropology

Academic studies of corruption tend to come from the field of international relations in analyzing systems of formal rules and institutions. The listed studies below offer a different perspective and approach to corruption from an anthropological perspective. Sissener 2001 brings a sociocultural logic informing everyday practices to provide a broader understanding of corruption. Pardo 2013 reveals how corruption operates through informal rules and personal connection in different contexts. Haller and Shore 2005 looks at the fabric of everyday life in different contexts to examine patterns of corruption. Torsello and Venard 2015 offers valuable insights into the understanding of the study of corruption from literature on anthropology.

  • Haller, Dieter, and Cris Shore. Corruption: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Pluto, 2005.

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    Provides insight from anthropology to examine the patterns of corruption that are part of the fabric of everyday life in different contexts such as post-Soviet Russia and the mafia in Sicily.

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  • Pardo, Italo. “Who is Corrupt? Anthropological Reflections on the Moral, the Criminal and the Borderline.” Human Affairs 23.2 (2013): 124–147.

    DOI: 10.2478/s13374-013-0115-7Save Citation »Export Citation »

    A thought-provoking analysis on definitions of corruption and actions that are not illegal but are widely regarded as morally corrupt. Relying on historical and contemporary evidence from Great Britain and Italy, this article discusses the dividing line between the legitimate and the illegitimate.

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  • Sissener, Tone Kristin. Anthropological Perspectives on Corruption. CMI Working Paper 5. Bergen, Norway: Michelsen Institute, 2001.

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    Moves beyond conventional definition of corruption and discusses the contribution of anthropology’s methods and approaches to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon.

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  • Torsello, Davide, and Bertrand Venard. “The Anthropology of Corruption.” Journal of Management Inquiry 25.1 (2015): 34–54.

    DOI: 10.1177/1056492615579081Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is a critical review of the anthropological literature on corruption. Based on results of ethnographic investigations, the book discusses cultural and social implications of this phenomenon.

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Measurement of Corruption

Several indices are helpful to get information on the level, nature, and extent of corruption and control of corruption in countries across the world. Transparency International Corruption Perception Index is the most commonly used index in this regard. World Bank also provides a large data set on control of corruption for almost all countries in the world. Group of States against Corruption Evaluation Reports provide more detailed records on corruption-related issues in countries that signed anticorruption conventions of the Council of Europe. Galtung, et al. 2006 examines how corruption can be measured. Rohwer 2009 evaluates Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index and the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators as means for measuring corruption.

Empirical Analyses Around the World

In recent years there has been a growing interest in political corruption across the globe. The selected studies in this list shed light on political corruption, its nature, causes, and consequences in various country cases in America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. There are also analyses focusing on regions such as the Caucasus, Baltics, or on periods such as the post-Communist era. Finally, various comparative studies are listed to show how the scale and nature of political corruption vary across countries.

Americas and Canada

The studies below provide comprehensive analyses of political corruption in the United States, Latin America, and Canada. Benson, et al. 1978 is a book on the history of corruption in America. Alt and Lassen 2003 examines the role of institutions in corrupt American politics. DeLeon 1993 is about American political corruption on the federal level. Etzioni 2014 is an examination of the scope of political corruption in the United States. Fleischer 1996 provides an account of political corruption in Brazil, and Morris 2009 explores political corruption in Mexico while Rowatt and Gibbons 1976 looks at political corruption in Canada.

  • Alt, James E., and David Dreyer Lassen. “The Political Economy of Institutions and Corruption in American States.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 15.3 (2003): 341–365.

    DOI: 10.1177/0951692803015003006Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is an empirically rich article showing that political institutions have a role in explaining the prevalence of political corruption in American states.

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  • Benson, George C., Steven Maarenen, and Alan Heslop. Political Corruption in America. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1978.

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    This is a well-documented history of corruption in United States and includes various cases with detailed analyses.

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  • DeLeon, Peter. Thinking about Political Corruption. New York: Sharpe, 1993.

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    This book is a must read to capture American political corruption on the federal level and proposes a model on how effects of corruption could be minimized.

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  • Etzioni, Amitai. “Political Corruption in the United States: A Design Draft.” Political Science and Politics 47.1 (2014): 141–144.

    DOI: 10.1017/S1049096513001492Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Presents a preliminary design to study the level and scope of political corruption in the United States and aims to promote collaboration among political scientists in terms of definition of corruption.

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  • Fleischer, David. “Political Corruption in Brazil.” Crime, Law and Social Change 25.4 (1996): 297–321.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF00572512Save Citation »Export Citation »

    A historical analysis on of political corruption in Brazil since 1985 with a special focus on campaign financing.

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  • Morris, Stephen D. Political Corruption in Mexico: The Impact of Democratization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.

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    This is a comprehensive study of corruption in Mexico and traces the political, structural, institutional, and even cultural changes in the early 21st century. Morris also inserts the Mexican case within a broader theoretical debate and discusses the impact of democratization on political corruption.

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  • Rowatt, Donald Cameron, and Kenneth Gibbons, eds. Political Corruption in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1976.

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    This is one of the main studies dealing with political corruption in Canada. The book provides a full account of political corruption in Canada and explores its nature, causes, and cures.

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Western Europe and the Balkans

There is a rich body of literature on political corruption in Europe. The selected work brings together major studies exploring different aspects of political corruption in western Europe and the Balkans. Della Porta and Mery 1997 is a good analysis of democracy and corruption in Europe. Bull and Newell 2003 is a detailed examination of corruption in contemporary European countries. Gounev and Ruggiero 2012 provides a look into the interplay of organized crime and corruption in Europe. Rhodes 1997 presents an example of systemic corruption by providing empirical data from the party financing regime of Italy. Della Porta and Vanucci 2007 is an article that elaborates on “clean hands,” which was as a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s. Querimi and Bruno 2012 unpacks the relationship between economic freedom and corruption in the western Balkans. Budak and Rajh 2014 is a recent work on perceptions of corruption in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia.

  • Budak, Jelena, and Edo Rajh. “Corruption as an Obstacle for Doing Business in the Western Balkans: A Business Sector Perspective.” International Small Business Journal 32.2 (2014): 140–157.

    DOI: 10.1177/0266242613498882Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is an original work on corruption in the western Balkans region and explores how business people’s perceptions of corruption prevent them from doing business. The data is from a survey conducted on a sample of over 1,800 business owners and managers in 2010 for seven countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia.

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  • Bull, Martin, and James Newell. Corruption in Contemporary Politics. New York: Palgrave, 2003.

    DOI: 10.1057/9781403919991Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides a detailed account of corruption in the study of advanced industrial nations of Italy, Spain, Greece, Germany, Sweden, Ireland, Portugal, Belgium, UK, Japan, and the EU. It offers a thorough understanding on various aspects of political corruption and examines its causes, dynamics, and consequences.

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  • Della Porta, Donatella, and Yves Mery. Democracy and Corruption in Europe. London: Pinter, 1997.

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    Analyzes various forms of corruption in western European countries as compared to Russia and Japan. Examines the effects on the political and administrative system, on political parties, and on standards in public life.

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  • Della Porta, Donatella, and Alberto Vanucci. Corrupt Exchanges. Actors, Resources, and Mechanisms of Political Corruption. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1999.

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    Relying on primary research on Italian cases, the book presents analysis of corruption in democratic systems and analyzes corruption as a network of illegal exchanges between politicians in business, illegal brokers, mafia members, protected entrepreneurs, and party-appointed bureaucrats.

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  • Della Porta, Donatella, and Alberto Vanucci. “Corruption and Anti-Corruption: The Political Defeat of ‘Clean Hands’ in Italy.” West European Politics 30.4 (2007): 830–853.

    DOI: 10.1080/01402380701500322Save Citation »Export Citation »

    The article introduces corruption in Italy and examines the consequences of “clean hands” investigations in Italy aimed to overcome the various “anomalies” of Italian politics, including political corruption.

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  • Gounev, Philip, and Vincenzo Ruggiero. Corruption and Organized Crime in Europe: Illegal Partnerships. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2012.

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    By unpacking the relation between organized criminals and corruption in public bodies, the private sector, and criminal market, this book provides an informative account of illegal partnerships in specific European countries—Bulgaria, France, Greece, Italy, Russia, Spain, and the UK.

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  • Querimi, Querim, and S. Sergi Bruno. “The Boundaries of a Neglected Relationship: Corruption and Economic Freedom: The Case of the Western Balkans.” Problems of Economic Transition 55.2 (2012): 68–97.

    DOI: 10.2753/PET1061-1991550204Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Examines the direct influence of economic freedom on institutional performance, as measured by institutional effectiveness in reducing or dismantling corruption for the western Balkans.

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  • Rhodes, Martin. “Financing Party Politics in Italy: A Case of Systemic Corruption.” West European Politics 20.1 (1997): 54–80.

    DOI: 10.1080/01402389708425175Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Evaluates the legal developments in party finance in Italy since 1970 and shows how formal regulations fueled the rapid growth of corruption throughout the Italian political system in the 1970s and 1980s.

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Russia and Eastern Europe

The post-Soviet countries provide a rich account of political corruption. The studies listed below provide a theoretical and empirical perspective with regard to corruption and informalities in Russia and eastern European countries. Ledeneva 2006 is a fascinating work on corruption and illegality in contemporary Russian affairs. Holmes 2012 is an informative article on causes, consequences, and remedies of political corruption in post-Soviet Russia. Kotkin and Sajó 2002 is an important comparative analysis of political corruption in transition countries. Karklins 2002 is a theoretical article providing a typology of post-Communist corruption. Karklins 2005 presents a complete picture of corruption in post-Communist states. Miller 2006 examines attitudes toward giving and taking bribes in post-Communist countries. Grzymała Busse 2007 examines the relationship between political competition and corruption in post-Communist countries. Holmes 2006 brings a different perspective to corruption research in post-Communist countries by bringing insights from neoliberalism. Kostadinova 2012 is an analysis on corruption in eastern Europe. World Bank 2000 is a valuable contribution to the growing policy literature on developing practical strategies of governments for reducing corruption in transition countries.

  • Grzymała Busse, Anna. Rebuilding Leviathan: Party Competition and State Exploitation in Post-Communist Democracies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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    Rebuilding Leviathan is a major reference source for post-Communist state reconstruction. By examining how post-Communist political parties rebuilt the state in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, Grzymala-Busse shows that strong political competition limits opportunities of corrupt behavior for political parties.

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  • Holmes, Leslie T. Rotten States? Corruption, Post-Communism and Neoliberalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822387732Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is a thoughtful examination of corruption in post-Communist countries, paying particular attention to Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, and Russia. Different from other studies on post-Communist corruption, this book explores the impact of neoliberalism on corruption in post-Communist states and discusses its potential as a tool for overcoming the Communist legacy.

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  • Holmes, Leslie. “Corruption in Post-Soviet Russia.” Global Change, Peace and Security 24.2 (2012): 235–250.

    DOI: 10.1080/14781158.2012.678991Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Underlines the problem of political corruption in Russia, which has been widespread and pervasive. It is an informative source on nature of the problem, its causes, and what both domestic actors are doing about it.

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  • Karklins, Rasma. “Typology of Post-Communist Corruption.” Problems of Post-Communism 49.2 (2002): 22–32.

    DOI: 10.1080/10758216.2002.11655993Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Karklins provides a characterization of the many faces of the post-Communist corruption and identifies and categorizes political nature of the corrupt act by using a typology. This article is a good starting point for researching corrupt political acts in post-Communist systems in Europe.

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  • Karklins, Rasma. The System Made Me Do It: Corruption in Post-Communist Societies. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 2005.

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    This is one of the fundamental references for post-Communist corruption in the Baltic States, as well as in neighboring Poland and Russia and fifteen other countries. Presents a complete picture of corruption in post-Communist states. The book’s general clarity, breadth, and depth of understanding make it a valuable, informative, and advanced introduction to post-communist corruption.

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  • Kostadinova, Tatiana. Political Corruption in Eastern Europe: Politics after Communism. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2012.

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    This is a comprehensive book with valuable analysis on causes and consequences of corruption in eastern Europe. Kostadinova provides helpful cross-national data to show how domestic and external forces—including the EU integration process—are constraining corruption.

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  • Kotkin, Stephen, and András Sajó, eds. Political Corruption in Transition: A Skeptic’s Handbook. Budapest, Hungary: Budapest Central European University Press, 2002.

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    This is a helpful guide to the problem of corruption in transition countries. The volume is composed of highly qualified essays and presents general issues with case studies and original research.

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  • Ledeneva, Alena V. How Russia Really Works: The Informal Practices That Shaped Post-Soviet Politics and Business. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006.

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    By examining how informal practices shape the political and business spheres of activity, the book provides an excellent perspective to explain the role of corruption and illegality in contemporary Russian politics.

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  • Miller, William L. “Corruption and Corruptibility.” World Development 34.2 (2006): 371–380.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.03.008Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article is based on interviews with the public and with street-level officials in four post-Communist countries: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Ukraine. Examines their actual behavior with respect to bribes.

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  • World Bank. Anticorruption in Transition: A Contribution to the Policy Debate. Washington, DC, 2000.

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    Drawing on a multitude of research sources and lessons of experience, this report provides a valuable contribution to the growing literature on developing practical strategies for reducing corruption.

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Asia and Eurasia

The literature on political corruption in Asia is a significant research area in the field. The selected studies shed light on causes, consequences, and patterns of political corruption in Asia and Eurasia. Khan and Sundaram 2000 provides a multidisciplinary approach to the rent-seeking process in Asia. Moran 1999 examines patterns of corruption in eastern Asia while Zafarullah and Siddiquee 2007 analyzes transparency and corruption in Southeast Asia: these two studies provide a wide arrange of country-level analyses. Kupatadze 2015 is an article on the development of political corruption in Eurasia. Mirimanova, et al. 2006 traces the interplay of conflict and corruption in the south Caucasus. Campbell and Saha 2013 unpacks the relationship between democracy and corruption for South Korea and provides insights for the Asia-Pacific region. Reed 1996 is one of the rare studies on political corruption in Japan. Singh 2002 is a well-structured article on political corruption in India.

  • Campbell, Neil, and Shrabani Saha. “Corruption, Democracy and Asia-Pacific Countries.” Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 18.2 (2013): 290–303.

    DOI: 10.1080/13547860.2013.778156Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Looking specifically at the case of South Korea, this paper explores the relationship between democracy and corruption in Asia-Pacific region. The empirical data illustrates that the democracy-corruption relationship becomes negative at a surprisingly high level of democracy.

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  • Khan, Mushtaq, and Jomo Kawame Sundaram, eds. Rents, Rent-seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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    By bringing insights developed by political scientists, institutional economists, and political economists together, this book provides a theoretical and empirical perspective of rent seeking. It also provides detailed analysis of rent-seeking processes in Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, and South Korea.

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  • Kupatadze, Alexander. “Political Corruption in Eurasia: Understanding Collusion Between States, Organized Crime and Business.” Theoretical Criminology 19.2 (2015): 198–215.

    DOI: 10.1177/1362480615574404Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article charts the development of political corruption in Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan and aims to understand the variation in illicit collusion between states, organized criminals, and white-collar criminals in the post-Soviet region.

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  • Mirimanova, Natalia, and Diana Klein. Corruption and Conflict in the South Caucasus. London: International Alert, 2006.

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    This is the first systematic study of corruption from the perspective of conflict analysis in the south Caucasus. Based on a series of one-to-one interviews and focus groups conducted in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia as well as Nagorny Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia between July 2004 and July 2005 this report examines the connections between corruption and frozen conflicts in the south Caucasus region.

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  • Moran, Jon. “Patterns of Corruption and Development in East Asia.” Third World Quarterly 20.3 (1999): 569–587.

    DOI: 10.1080/01436599913695Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Moran’s article sheds light on the relationship of corruption to political and economic development in South Korea and the Philippines, where corruption manifests itself in state-society relations and political systems.

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  • Reed, Steven R. “Political Corruption in Japan.” International Social Science Journal 48.149 (1996): 395–405.

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    This is an excellent study on political corruption in Japan and provides a good analysis for those interested in learning more on political corruption in Japan.

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  • Singh, Gurharpal. “Understanding Political Corruption in Contemporary Indian Politics.” Political Studies 45.3 (2002): 626–638.

    DOI: 10.1111/1467-9248.00099Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article provides comprehensive data on political corruption in contemporary India and helps the reader to grasp how political corruption affects today’s Indian politics and society.

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  • Zafarullah, Habib, and Noore Alam Siddiquee. “Transparency and Corruption in Southeast Asia.” In Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy. 2d ed. Edited by Evan M. Berman, 1955–1959. CRC, 2007.

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    This article is an empirically astute analysis of corruption in Southeast Asia. By focusing on Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Myanmar this study bring important insights on democratic governance in the region.

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Africa

Corruption in Africa is receiving serious international attention. The selected studies provide a general picture of political corruption in Africa and proposed efforts to control it. Lodge 1998 is an article on the nature of corruption in Africa. Chabal and Daloz 1999 is a must read to understand the neopatrimonial features of African societies. Mbaku 2000 has a comparative perspective of corruption in African states. Hope and Chikulo 2000 is an excellent analysis of corruption/development nexus in Africa. Szeftel 1998 is an important contribution to literature on the fight against corruption in Africa. Hyslop 2005 is an excellent account of the historical legacy of corruption, which became an obstacle in fighting corruption in Africa. Blundo and Sardan 2006 offers a fascinating anthropological analysis of everyday corruption in Benin, Niger, and Senegal. Smith 2008 provides an insightful account of popular perceptions of corruption in Nigeria.

  • Blundo, Giorgio, and Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan. Everyday Corruption and the State: Citizens and Public Officials in Africa. South Africa, Glosderry: Zed Books, 2006.

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    Based on extensive fieldwork in African countries, this book describes distinct forms of corruption and shows how they were understood in local cultures. The authors argue that most of the citizens in these countries view many forms of corruption as legitimate and routine.

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  • Chabal, Patrick, and Jean-Pascal Daloz. Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument. Oxford: James Currey, 1999.

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    Examines political culture of Africa, which is argued to be different to that of Western states. Chabal and Daloz argue that neopatrimonialism is central to African politics and list five features of neopatrimonial society in Africa: notion of the individual, salience of reciprocity, importance of vertical links, conception of success and imperative of the short-term view and micro-perspective.

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  • Hope, Kempe Ronald, and Bornwell Chikulo. Corruption and Development in Africa Lessons from Country Case Studies. London: Palgrave, 2000.

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    Examines impact of corruption on development process at the administrative, economic, political, and social levels both the macro and micro perspectives in Africa. The book has good theoretical and analytical perspectives related to corruption and development and includes country case studies on the nature, intensity, and development impact of the corruption.

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  • Hyslop, Jonathan. “Political Corruption: Before and After Apartheid.” Journal of Southern African Studies 31.4 (2005): 773–789.

    DOI: 10.1080/03057070500370555Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides a historical overview of corruption questions in South Africa. By examining administrative and political legacies of the old South African state structures and the new political leadership the article shows that they together produce varying types of corruption in the post-apartheid state.

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  • Lodge, Tom. “Political Corruption in South Africa.” African Affairs 97.387 (1998): 157–187.

    DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a007924Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article is an important contribution to political corruption research in South Africa. It describes the nature of corruption in South African public administration and explores the impact of democratization and restructuring of the state on historical legacy of corruption.

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  • Mbaku, John Mukum. Bureaucratic and Political Corruption in Africa: The Public Choice Perspective. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 2000.

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    This is a thoughtful account of political and bureaucratic corruption in Africa and advances discussion on contemporary corruption in case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, Congo, and Cameroon.

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  • Smith, Daniel Jordan. A Culture of Corruption: Everyday Deception and Popular Discontent in Nigeria. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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    The book is an ethnographical work of everyday corruption centered on Igbo-speaking areas of southeastern Nigeria. The book focuses on more pervasive forms of deception and malpractice instead of high-level governmental corruption.

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  • Szeftel, Morris. “Misunderstanding African Politics: Corruption and the Governance Agenda.” Review of African Political Economy 25.76 (1998): 221–240.

    DOI: 10.1080/03056249808704311Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article provides a tempered and thoughtful examination of efforts that have been made to control corruption in Africa. The study argues that corruption has increased even though legal and administrative reforms were introduced.

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The Middle East

There is a recently growing body of literature on political corruption in the Middle East. In this list the most important reference studies are singled out in order to provide the reader detailed information on political corruption in the Middle East. Gillespie and Okruhlik 1998 is a leading article on corruption in the Middle East. Looney 2005 offers valuable insights on patterns of corruption in the region. Navot 2007 is one of the first accounts of corruption in the Middle East. Sayan 2011 is an edited book studying the relationship between economic performance and institutional characteristics of Middle East and North African (MENA) countries. Beck 2013 is a recent work on corruption in the Arab world.

  • Beck, Martin. “Corruption in the Middle East.” Working Paper, Center for Mellemotstudier, 2013.

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    This article is an important contribution to the political debate on corruption in the Arab world. Beck argues that corruption in the public sector plays a systemically different role in the politico-economic systems in Arab world when compared to the Western countries.

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  • Gillespie, Kate, and Gwenn Okruhlik. “Cleaning Up Corruption in the Middle East.” Middle East Journal 42.1 (1998): 59–82.

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    Focuses on corruption in the Middle East, which has become an increasing concern and examines governments’ efforts to curb corruption in the Middle Eastern countries.

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  • Looney, Robert. “Profiles of Corruption in the Middle East.” Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 28.4 (2005): 1–21.

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    Examines corruption in the Middle East with empirical perspective and discusses patterns of corruption, effect of corruption on the economies, and the efficiency of anticorruption programs in the region.

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  • Navot, Doron. “Middle East: Corruption.” In Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy. 2d ed. Edited by Evan M. Berman, 1239–1247. CRC, 2007.

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    Provides one of the first accounts of corruption in Middle East. Through a structural analysis that is supported by indicative materials, Navot analyzes the role of corruption in development of the region in the near future.

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  • Sayan, Serdar. Economic Performance in the Middle East and North Africa: Institutions, Corruption and Reform. The Routledge Political Economy of the Middle East and North Africa. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2011.

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    This is a comprehensive and empirically sound book and an excellent contribution to the study of burgeoning political corruption. The book brings insights from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and defines institutional characteristics of MENA economies.

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Political Corruption in Comparative Perspective

Comparative studies help readers to see similarities and differences across cases. The list below provides essential readings on comparative political corruption across regions and nations. Scott 1972 is one of the classics on comparative political corruption. Little and Posada-Carbó 1996 is an edited book on political corruption in Europe and Latin America. Sung 2002 conducts a cross-national analysis on political corruption by using Transparency International’s annual corruption data. Pande 2007 is an excellent account of political corruption in low-income countries. Yadav 2011 is a comprehensive book examining corruption levels in sixty-four developing democracies over a twenty-year period. The book specifically focuses on India and Brazil to show the relationship between business lobbying and corruption. Eunjung and Woo 2011 provides a thorough analysis of political corruption in forty developing countries from Asia and eastern Europe. Ashiku 2011 offers a well-structured analysis on corruption in new democracies. Rontos, et al. 2013 presents country-specific factors to explain varying levels of perceived corruption in Mediterranean Countries. Sioussiouras and Vavouras 2012 is one of the first accounts on corruption in Balkan and Arab Mediterranean countries.

  • Ashiku, Marsida. “Political Transition, Corruption in New Democracies.” International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research 2.3 (2011): 238–249.

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    An empirically sound contribution to literature on political corruption and triggers an excellent discussion on the relationship between corruption, income inequality, and economic growth. Using data from the World Income Inequality database, the study provides better understanding of the patterns of democratization and the consequences of corruption in new democracies.

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  • Eunjung, Choi, and Jongseok Woo. “Liberal Reform, Political Corruption, and Socio-economic Impacts in Asia and Eastern Europe.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 52.3 (2011): 181–196.

    DOI: 10.1177/0020715211405419Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Compares political corruption in forty developing countries from Asia and eastern Europe and explores the relationship between level of corruption and scope of economic growth.

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  • Little, Walter, and Eduardo Posada-Carbó, eds. Political Corruption in Europe and Latin America. London: Macmillan, 1996.

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    The articles in this book are written by historians, political scientists, anthropologists, and economists. There are studies on the phenomenon of political corruption in specific countries from different analytical approaches.

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  • Pande, Rohini. “Understanding Political Corruption in Low Income Countries.” In Handbook of Development Economics. Vol. 4. Edited by Paul Schultz and John A. Strauss, 3155–3184. Oxford: North Holland, 2007.

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    This chapter contributes to growing empirical literature on the political behavior of individuals in low-income countries. The study sheds light on political behavior of individuals exposed to democratic political institutions and its implications for corruption in rich and poor countries.

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  • Rontos, Kostas, Luca Salvati, Petros Sioussiouras, and Ioannis Vavouras. “Mediterranean Countries and Corruption: Political, Economic, and Social Factors.” Mediterranean Quarterly 24.1 (2013): 81–97.

    DOI: 10.1215/10474552-2019015Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides a classification of the perceived corruption levels of Mediterranean countries and informs readers about institutional and cultural country-specific factors in the region that should be taken into account in designing policies against corruption.

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  • Scott, James C. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972.

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    This is one of the first accounts focusing specifically on comparative political corruption and compares processes of government and policies.

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  • Sioussiouras, Petros, and Ioannis Vavouras. “Political Rights, Development, and Corruption in the Balkan and Arab Mediterranean Countries.” Mediterranean Quarterly 23.1 (2012): 89–103.

    DOI: 10.1215/10474552-1540720Save Citation »Export Citation »

    For Balkan and Arab Mediterranean countries, there are not many studies focusing on corruption. This essay not only provides a comparative account but also explores impact the political system and the level of economic development on corruption.

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  • Sung, Hung-En. “A Convergence Approach to the Analysis of Political Corruption: A Cross-national Study.” Crime, Law and Social Change 38.2 (2002): 137–160.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1020239413622Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Employs convergence approach and presents an analytical study on comparative political corruption across nations. The data is drawn from Transparency International’s annual corruption ranking on ninety-nine countries, which was based on the perceived level of government corruption reported by people working for local multinational firms and institutions.

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  • Yadav, Vineeta. Political Parties, Business Groups, and Corruption in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735907.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This book is primarily a systematic analysis exploring how design of legislative institutions influences corruption levels. By focusing on Brazil and India, two of the most important developing nations, Yadav finds that legislative institutions are central in determining the degree and type of corruption.

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Anticorruption Policies

Curbing corruption has become a major focus of institutional reform. In this section the listed studies provide an overview of the fight against corruption policies, anticorruption institutions, and politics of anticorruption at the country and regional level. Moreover, various studies focusing on the global anticorruption agenda are also included to the list in order to inform reader about a broader picture of the fight against corruption.

An Overview of Anticorruption Policies

Anticorruption policies and agencies vary across countries and regions. However, the listed studies below draw a general picture of anticorruption policy. Kpundeh 1997 focuses on the factors to promote sustainable anticorruption policies such as political will. Galtung 1998 focuses on participation of stakeholders into policymaking while Sousa, et al. 2009 and Johnston 2012 examines the role of civil engagement in the fight against corruption policies. Heilbrunn 2004 is a must read to understand how anticorruption commissions are structured in different parts of the world. Mungiu-Pippidi 2011 examines different strategies for fighting corruption around the world. Johnston 2012 argues that anticorruption reforms promote democratization. Yet, Krastev 2004 and Sampson 2010 bring a critical approach to anticorruption programs that looks at the anticorruption industry as able to coexist along with the corruption and expose anticorruption reforms.

  • Galtung, Fredrik. “Criteria for sustainable corruption control.” In Corruption and development. Edited by Mark Robinson, 105–128. London: Frank Cass, 1998.

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    Galtun’s work is a fundamental reading to understand the factors that promote sustainable corruption control and underlines role of stakeholders and institutions at national level. The study also includes international dimension of control, which makes it different from previous studies.

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  • Heilbrunn, John R. “Anti-Corruption Commissions: Panacea or Real Medicine to Fight Corruption?. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development /The World Bank, 2004.

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    This is a must read to understand anticorruption commissions. Heilbrunn explores the conditions under which anticorruption commissions are effective. The paper assesses four types of anticorruption commissions (universal, investigate, parliamentary, multiagency) in various countries and discusses their functions in fighting corruption.

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  • Johnston, Michael. “Building a Social Movement Against Corruption.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 18.2 (2012): 57–74.

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    This article is one the rare studies on social movement against corruption. Johnston shows that the contemporary anticorruption movement is unimpressive and largely failed to combat corruption, which is above all a political process. Available online.

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  • Kpundeh, Sahr J. “Political Will in Fighting Corruption.” In Corruption and Integrity Improvement Initiatives in the Context of Developing Economies. Edited by Sahr J. Kpundeh and Irene Hors, 70–87. Paris: UNDP-PACT and OECD Development Centre, 1997.

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    This article is a good starting place for understanding anticorruption strategies and programs since it deals with political will of domestic actors whose cooperation is necessary for a developing a sustainable and effective strategy to curb corruption. The article is an excellent analysis of variables that affect political will.

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  • Krastev, Ivan. Shifting Obsessions: Three Essays on the Politics of Anticorruption. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2004.

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    Unlike many other studies, this book is on that politics of anticorruption. The author explores general disappointment among society with regard to anticorruption reforms and triggers a needed debate on anticorruption policies.

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  • Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina. Contextual Choices for Fighting Corruption. Berlin: HSoG, 2011.

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    Commissioned by Norwegian and international development cooperation, this article presents current approaches in fighting corruption and explores factors that promote more effective strategies for fighting corruption in different governance contexts.

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  • Sampson, Steven. “The Anti-corruption Industry: From Movement to Institution.” Global Crime 11.2 (2010): 261–278.

    DOI: 10.1080/17440571003669258Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article takes a critical approach toward institutionalization of anticorruptionist discourse and anticorruption practice and shows the reader a darker alternative side to anticorruptionist practices. A must read to get a broader picture of the anticorruption phenomenon.

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  • Sousa, Luís de, Peter Larmour, and Barry Hindess. Governments, NGOs and Anti-corruption: The New Integrity Warriors. New York: Routledge, 2009.

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    This is a tempered and thoughtful examination of new anticorruption actors—official anticorruption agencies and anticorruption NGOs—in a number of country studies including Taiwan and South Korea, southeastern Europe, Fiji, Russia, and the Baltic States.

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Country-Level Anticorruption Policies

National governments develop anticorruption policies to deal with the problem of corruption, which damages democratic infrastructure and economic progress. There is no common template that provides an effective base from which to fight corruption. Therefore, anticorruption policies and their outcomes vary across countries. The list below presents examples from anticorruption efforts in different countries ranging from India and China to Bulgaria and Romania. Desta 2006 provides a design of anticorruption strategy for developing countries and examines the case of Eritrea. Quah 2008 is an article on anticorruption policies in India. Mungiu-Pippidi 2013 is a well-structured article offering a historical analysis of controlling corruption in Europe. Spendzharova, and Vachudova 2012 analyzes the role of the EU in fighting against corruption in Bulgaria and Romania while Batory 2010 provides an account of the EU’s role in implementation of Hungarian anticorruption policy. Johnston 2012 is a rare analysis of the attempt to control corruption in United States. Dai 2013 is on the anticorruption policy of China. Okonjo-Iweala provides a well-designed and well-researched book on structural reforms to fight corruption in Nigeria. Harris 2002 moves beyond the nation-state and examines transnational corruption by providing evidence from China and the United Kingdom.

  • Batory, Agnes. “Post-accession Malaise? EU Conditionality, Domestic Politics and Anti-corruption Policy in Hungary.” Global Crime 11.2 (2010): 164–177.

    DOI: 10.1080/17440571003669183Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is a well-argued book on anticorruption policy in Hungary and explores the role of factors other than the EU, such as influences from international organizations, domestic politics, and civil society in developing further corruption control interventions. Batory also underlines the prevalence of corruption in Hungary despite the country’s relatively smooth path to EU membership using all the major international legal instruments and three major reform packages.

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  • Dai, Changzheng. “Corruption and Anti-corruption in China: Challenges and Countermeasures.” In Dimensions of Teaching Business Ethics in Asia. Edited by Stephan Rothlin and Parissa Haghirian, 61–76. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2013.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-36022-0_5Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Dai’s chapter is an ambitious study, as the title suggests, on anticorruption policy in China and provides a comprehensive analysis of mechanisms to combat corruption.

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  • Desta, Yemane. “Designing Anti-Corruption Strategies for Developing Countries: A Country Study of Eritrea.” Journal of Developing Societies 22.4 (2006): 421–449.

    DOI: 10.1177/0169796X06072568Save Citation »Export Citation »

    In the literature there are anticorruption strategies available for fighting corruption in developing countries. This study examines relevance of these strategies to the newly independent country of Eritrea, which is an ignored country in this policy area. The data is collected through interviews with the public officials from thirteen ministries of the Eritrean government.

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  • Harris, Robert. Political Corruption: In Beyond the Nation State. London: Routledge, 2002.

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    A detailed examination of the complex phenomenon of political corruption in and beyond nation-states. The book first examines two national case studies, on China and the United Kingdom respectively, and then investigates international and transnational corruption.

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  • Johnston, Michael. “Corruption Control in the United States: Law, Values, and the Political Foundations of Reform.” International Review of Administrative Sciences 78.2 (2012): 329–345

    DOI: 10.1177/0020852312438782Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article is on controlling corruption in the United States and shows the difference between the actual level of corruption in the country and the score suggested by the index.

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  • Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina. “Becoming Denmark: Historical Designs of Corruption Control.” Social Research 80.4 (2013): 1259–1286.

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    This is a historical analysis of history of corruption and control in Europe with a specific focus on Denmark.

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  • Okonjo-Iweala, Ngozi. Reforming the Unreformable: Lessons from Nigeria. Boston: MIT, 2012.

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    Examines the fight against corruption in Nigeria and the struggle to implement a series of transformative reforms by uncovering the interplay between economic management and political will constrained by vested interest in undertaking the domestic reforms.

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  • Quah, Jon S. T. “Curbing Corruption in India: An Impossible Dream?” Asian Journal of Political Science 16.3 (2008): 240–259.

    DOI: 10.1080/02185370802504266Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides a historical account of anticorruption in India starting from 1941 when the first anticorruption agency was established. It is a comprehensive analysis on institutional structure with regard to fighting corruption in India.

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  • Spendzharova, Aneta B., and Milada Anna Vachudova. “Catching Up? Consolidating Liberal Democracy in Bulgaria and Romania after EU Accession.” West European Politics 35.1 (2012): 39–58.

    DOI: 10.1080/01402382.2012.631312Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Differently from other studies in the literature, this study explores how EU and domestic incentives interact with one another in promoting domestic institutional change in combating corruption and reforming the judiciary in Bulgaria and Romania.

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Regional-Level Anticorruption Policies

Governments tend to respond corruption in different ways. The selected studies examine regional tendencies in fighting corruption. Michael 2005 focuses on the fight against corruption in the EU’s member and candidate countries. For the members of the European neighborhood policy, development of anticorruption policies is necessary to promote further good relations with the EU. Börzel and van Hüllen 2014 provides a general overview of EU’s fight against corruption in the Caucasus. There is also an extensive literature on anticorruption policies in post-Communist countries. Vachudova 2009 and Holger and Pfister 2010 explore substantial variation in levels of corruption across the EU’s post-Communist members and candidates. Moreover, there is a growing literature focusing on fighting corruption in different parts of the world. Gong and Stephen 2009 explores anticorruption policies in Asia, Tulchin and Espach 2000 examines the fight against corruption in Latin America, Khayatt 2008 assesses the impact of the global fight against corruption in the Arab region, and Szeftel 1998 provides an examination of efforts of controlling corruption in Africa. Apart from these studies, the OECD publishes specific reports on combating corruption in different regions.

  • Börzel, Tanja A., and Vera van Hüllen. “External State-Building and Why Norms Matter? The European Union’s Fight against Corruption in the Southern Caucasus.” SFB-Governance Working Paper Series 59 (2014).

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    This is on fighting corruption policies in the southern Caucasus. By comparing levels of corruption in Georgia and Armenia the article explores conditions under which the external actors are likely to be effective in fighting corruption.

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  • Gong, Tin, and Stephen K. Ma, eds. Preventing Corruption in Asia: Institutional Design and Political Capacity. London: Routledge, 2009.

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    This is an intense book on anti-corruption strategies in the Asia-Pacific region. The book focuses on the choice of institutional design in preventing corruption and underlines role of other aspects of clean government such as the social environment, legal and regulatory framework, role of the public, and the impact of culture.

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  • Holger, Morof, and Diana Schmidt Pfister. “Anti-corruption Movements, Mechanisms, and Machines—an Introduction.” Global Crime 11.2 (2010): 89–98.

    DOI: 10.1080/17440571003669118Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Provides a conceptual framework for studying anticorruption efforts across eastern Europe by focusing on the interplay between domestic social movements, governmental political machines, and international legal mechanisms.

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  • Khayatt, Amer. “The Arab Anti‐corruption Organization.” Contemporary Arab Affairs 1.3 (2008): 471–477.

    DOI: 10.1080/17550910802224376Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This paper examines impact of the global fight against corruption in the Arab region. It is one of the rare analyses focusing on the Arab region and provides comprehensive information on developments, which have been put in place in Arab countries to combat corruption.

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  • Michael, Bryane. Anti-corruption Training Programmes in Central and Eastern Europe. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe, 2005.

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    Anticorruption training is an important aspect of fighting corruption. Yet, it is poorly explored in the literature. This book is an important contribution to the literature and explores training programs undertaken by central and eastern European countries to fight corruption.

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  • OECD. Anti-corruption Reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Progress and Challenges, 2009–2013. Paris: OECD, 2013.

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    This report presents anticorruption policies and institutions in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia that participates in the OECD/ACN initiative knows as the Istanbul Anti-Corruption Action Plan. The report covers the period between 2008 and 2012 and analyzes three broad areas of anticorruption work, including criminalization of corruption and law enforcement, and measures to prevent corruption in public administration and in the business sector. It provides readers with comparative information on anticorruption reforms in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan and present examples of good practice.

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  • Szeftel, Morris. “Misunderstanding African Politics: Corruption and the Governance Agenda.” Review of African Political Economy 25.76 (1998): 221–240.

    DOI: 10.1080/03056249808704311Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This article provides a tempered and thoughtful examination of efforts that have been made to control corruption in Africa. The study argues that corruption has increased although legal and administrative reforms were introduced.

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  • Tulchin, Joseph S., and Ralph H. Espach, eds. Combating Corruption in Latin America. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2000.

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    This is a well-structured book on combating corruption in Latin America and explores the national strategies to reduce corruption in the region. The book also deals with pervading assumptions concerning corruption, such as transition to democracy and free market that reduces opportunities and incentives for corruption. The book is extremely helpful for anyone who wants to understand more about corruption in Latin America.

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  • Vachudova, Milada A. “Corruption and Compliance in the EU’s Post-Communist Members and Candidates.” JCMS 47 (2009): 43–62.

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    This is a must read to understand the role of EU in fighting corruption in the post-Communist Europe. The article analyzes substantial variation in levels of corruption across EU’s post-Communist members and candidates and underlines the importance of domestic pressure: in the form of the media and civic groups in fighting corruption in post-Communist Europe.

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International-Level Anti-Corruption Policies

There is a growing literature on international efforts to fight against corruption. Shah and Huther 2000 examines role of the World Bank in fighting corruption in specific countries. Szarek-Mason 2010 analyzes the EU’s fight against corruption policy toward its member and accession countries. Wang and Rosenau 2001 and Hindess 2005 focus on Transparency International as an agent of change in global efforts to fight corruption. Abbott and Snidal 2002 assesses development of OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Eser and Kubiciel 2005 relies on GRECO’s evaluation reports in its analysis of anticorruption policies. There are also studies comparing various international anticorruption regimes. Wolf and Schmidt-Pfister 2010 compares different international anticorruption regimes in Europe. Finally, Mccoy 2001 approaches the issue from a more general perspective and explores development of a global anticorruption norm. Cole 2015 examines how the global anticorruption movement is mobilized.

  • Abbott, Kenneth, and Duncan Snidal. “Values and Interests: International Legalization in the Fight against Corruption.” Journal of Legal Studies 31 (2002): 141–178.

    DOI: 10.1086/342006Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Abbott and Snidal develop a simple model of the interaction of value and interest actors to explain the development of the 1997 OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.

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  • Cole, Wade M. “Institutionalizing a Global Anti-corruption Regime: Perverse Effects on Country Outcomes 1984–2012.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 56.1 (2015): 53–80.

    DOI: 10.1177/0020715215578885Save Citation »Export Citation »

    This is a fresh analysis of the global anticorruption movement that rapidly mobilized and institutionalized during the mid-1990s. Cole uses data for 119 countries between 1984 and 2012 to examine effects of this movement on rated levels of perceived corruption.

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  • Eser, Albin, and Michael Kubiciel. Institutions against Corruption: A Comparative Study of National Anti-corruption Strategies reflected by GRECO’s First Evaluation Round. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos, 2005.

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    This is one of the first studies comparing corruption-relevant national regulations of the criminal law in thirty-five member states of the GRECO. The analysis is based on GRECO’s evaluation reports and provides comparative legal insights.

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  • Hindess, Barry. “Investigating International Anti-corruption.” Third World Quarterly 26.8 (2005): 1389–1398.

    DOI: 10.1080/01436590500336864Save Citation »Export Citation »

    Hindess’s article engages with the history of the idea of corruption and investigates international anticorruption regimes with a specific focus on Transparency International.

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  • Mccoy, Jennifer. “The Emergence of a Global Anti-corruption Norm.” International Politics 38.1 (2001): 65–90.

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    This is a must read to capture development of a global anticorruption norm during the 1990s. McCoy defines three stages of development of global anticorruption norm as (1) awareness raising, (2) institutionalization through the development of legal and policy instruments, and (3) global adoption, internalization, and adherence.

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  • Shah, Anwar, and Jeff Huther. Anti-corruption Policies and Programs: A Framework for Evaluation. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000.

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    Huther and Shah develop a framework to help World Bank in assigning priorities with regard to the fight against corruption in specific countries. Their framework distinguishes between highly corrupt and largely corruption free societies and brings insights for effectiveness of external assistance.

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  • Szarek-Mason, Patrycja. The European Union’s Fight Against Corruption: The Evolving Policy Towards Member States and Candidate Countries. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511676086Save Citation »Export Citation »

    With the ever-increasing interest in international efforts to fight corruption, this book is designed to present development of the EU anticorruption framework. Szarek-Mason examines how recent enlargements transformed EU’s anticorruption measures toward its candidate countries and existing member states.

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  • Wang, Hongying, and James N. Rosenau. “Transparency International and Corruption as an Issue of Global Governance.” Global Governance 25 (2001): 25–49.

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    This article assesses the role of Transparency International (TI) as an agent of change in global efforts to fight corruption.

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  • Wolf, Sebastian, and Diana Schmidt-Pfister. International Anti-corruption Regimes in Europe: Between Corruption, Integration and Culture. Konstanz, Germany: Nomos, 2010.

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    This book provides a smart analysis of international anticorruption regimes focusing on Europe. Through an innovative blend of qualitative and quantitative methods, this book represents a compelling contribution to the growing body of literature of international anticorruption from an interdisciplinary point of view.

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