Public Health Addiction
by
Mark Griffiths, Steve Sussman, Nadra Lisha, Gillian Smith, Adam Leventhal
  • LAST REVIEWED: 14 October 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 23 February 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0002

Introduction

Conceptualizing addiction has been a matter of intense debate for decades. For many, addiction theory has applied only to alcohol, tobacco, or drug ingestion, with most definitions concentrated on these substances. Despite such focus, there is increasing empirical evidence to illustrate that wider behaviors are potentially addictive, such as gambling, overeating, sex, love, exercise, video game and pinball playing, Internet use, buying and shopping, and work (see Sussman, et al. 2010 in Conceptual and Theoretical Issues). Such diversity has led to new, broader definitions of what constitutes addictive behavior. One group defines addictive behavior as a repetitive pattern of behavior that increases the risk of medical, personal, or social problems, often experienced subjectively as involving a loss of behavioral control over the addiction and high relapse rates when one tries to stop. Those scholars mention that addictive behaviors typically provide short-term gratification with long-term costs. This bibliography does not focus on substance abuse prevention but rather focuses exclusively on addictions.

Reference Works

Reference sources for the addiction field tend to be divided between academic and practitioner references, although many works integrate the two. A comprehensive up-to-date collection that provides an overview of addictive behavior is the four volumes Browne-Miller 2009a, Browne-Miller 2009b, Brown-Miller 2009c, and Browne-Miller 2009d. This set brings together experts in the addiction studies field to review cutting-edge topics in the areas of theory, research, intervention, treatment, and policy.

  • Browne-Miller, Angela, ed. 2009a. The Praeger international collection on addictions. Vol. 1, Faces of addiction, then and now. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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    Browne-Miller overviews a wide range of general addiction issues, including addiction as a public health issue, cross-cultural issues, race and ethnicity issues, and ethical issues. The volume also examines addiction from the perspectives of different countries around the world, including those in North America and Europe.

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  • Browne-Miller, Angela, ed. 2009b. The Praeger international collection on addictions. Vol. 2, Psychobiological profiles. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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    Browne-Miller provides an overview of issues concerning the psychobiology of addiction, including the neurobiological, pharmacological, and cognitive components of addiction; brain functioning; opioid receptor desensitization; schizophrenia; and substance misuse.

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  • Browne-Miller, Angela, ed. 2009c. The Praeger international collection on addictions. Vol. 3, Characteristics and treatment perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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    Browne-Miller covers a wide range of background issues relating to addiction treatment, such as access and screening, the role of social support, and the role of religiosity. The volume also collates information on addiction treatments, including dual diagnosis treatment programs, psychotherapeutic programs, and Minnesota Model (twelve-step) programs, and innovative interventions (e.g., telephone-based interventions).

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  • Browne-Miller, Angela, ed. 2009d. The Praeger international collection on addictions. Vol. 4, Behavioral addictions from concept to compulsion. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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    This is one of the few books that comprehensively overview a wide range of behavioral addictions, including addictions to work, television, buying, eating, pornography, gambling (in adults and youths), and online gaming, from a wide range of perspectives (e.g., social, biological).

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Textbooks

Although the field of addiction is large, courses specifically on addictive behavior are not common. Therefore textbooks designed for undergraduate studies are not widespread, although there are some notable examples. These books are also useful to more experienced researchers in the addiction field (Davies 1992, Essau 2008, Fisher and Roget 2009, Heyman 2009, Klingemann and Sobell 2007, McMurran 1994, Orford 2001, Sussman and Ames 2008, West and Hardy 2006).

  • Davies, John Booth. 1992. The myth of addiction. Philadelphia: Harwood Academic.

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    Davies’s controversial and provocative book is a must-read for anyone interested in addiction. Using attribution theory, Davies argues that most addicts engage in their behavior because they want to and because they see no good reason to give it up. He argues that addictive behavior is a form of learned helplessness that encourages passivity and irresponsibility.

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  • Essau, Cecilia A., ed. 2008. Adolescent addiction: Epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Boston: Academic Press.

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    Essau provides a one-stop shop for an extensive overview of all aspects of adolescent addiction, including prevalence, comorbidity, risk factors, prevention, and treatment. This work is also recommended for its wide coverage of addictions across the adolescent spectrum by inclusion of both traditional addictions (alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs) and more recent work on behavioral addictions (gambling, video game playing, Internet use, sex).

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  • Fisher, Gary L., and Nancy A. Roget, eds. 2009. Encyclopedia of substance abuse prevention, treatment, and recovery. Los Angeles: SAGE.

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    This text provides comprehensive coverage of various areas of addiction, including the neurobiology of addiction, models of addiction, sociocultural perspectives on drug use, family and community factors, prevention theories and techniques, professional issues, the criminal justice system and substance abuse, assessment and diagnosis, and behavioral addictions, such as eating disorders, gambling, and compulsive shopping.

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  • Heyman, Gene M. 2009. Addiction: A disorder of choice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    Heyman argues that addiction is voluntary and that, like other choices, addiction is influenced by preferences and goals. This work delves into how people make choices and how this process is not inherently rational but more of an internal cognitive operation between costs and benefits.

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  • Klingemann, Harald, and Linda Carter Sobell. 2007. Promoting self-change from addictive behaviors: Practical implications for policy, prevention, and treatment. Boston: Springer.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-71287-1Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This book looks at natural recovery from addiction, challenging the disease representation. While primarily covering addictions to alcohol and drugs, it also explores how self-change can occur in tobacco users, problem gamblers, eating disorders and obesity, criminal behaviors, and even stuttering. A useful resource that provides a new take on addiction useful for treatment providers, policy makers, researchers, and health care professionals.

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  • McMurran, Mary. 1994. The psychology of addiction. London: Taylor and Francis.

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    Although concentrating primarily on drug-based addictions, this is an easily accessible book that emphasizes the psychosocial nature of addiction without denying the importance of biological factors. It overviews the main theories of addiction and then applies them to the intervention, prevention, and treatment of addictive behavior and examines the field of harm reduction.

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  • Orford, Jim. 2001. Excessive appetites: A psychological view of addictions. 2d ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

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    This is one of the key texts providing an authoritative psychological account of addictive behaviors. It comprehensively covers the origins and processes of addiction through to the ways people overcome addictions and the implications for intervention. It provides a direct challenge of disease models of addiction and is one of the few books that examine behavioral addictions, including gambling, sex, and eating.

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  • Sussman, Steve, and Susan L. Ames. 2008. Drug abuse: Concepts, prevention, and cessation. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511500039Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This text is a comprehensive source on the conceptions and topography of, causes of, and prevention and treatment solutions to drug problems. Information regarding etiology, prevention, and cessation is neatly delineated into neurobiological, cognitive, microsocial, and macrosocial and physical environmental units for easy reference.

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  • West, Robert, with Ainsley Hardy. 2006. Theory of addiction. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

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    West and Hardy bring together over thirty theories of addiction covering a wide range of disciplines in a single text. They examine the theories in the context of observations of behavior, primarily utilizing substance addiction examples and in particular examples from tobacco research, West’s primary research area. This book offers an interesting and thoughtful critique and is a useful go-to resource to cover the major theories in the field.

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Journals

Many journals are exclusively devoted to addiction. Key journals are Addiction, Addiction Research and Theory, Addictive Behaviors, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, Journal of Addictive Diseases, Journal of Substance Use, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, and Substance Use and Misuse. However, as reflected in early theoretical representations of the addiction concept, most of these concentrate primarily on substance-based addictions. More recently the focus has shifted to include behavioral addictions in the scope of addiction journals. The reader may be interested in the new journals on different addictive behaviors, though many of these behaviors are discussed in this list.

  • Addiction.

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    Addiction (formerly the British Journal of Addiction) is a peer-reviewed journal (published since 1884) and is the journal of the Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs. It publishes research reports on alcohol, illicit drugs, tobacco, and increasingly behavioral addictions, bringing together research conducted in many disciplines.

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  • Addiction Research and Theory.

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    An international cross-disciplinary journal focused on examining the effects of context on the use and misuse of substances and on the nature of intoxications of all kinds. It aims to provide an outlet for the growing body of theory and related research that sees the nature of addicted behavior of all types.

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  • Addictive Behaviors.

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    An international scientific journal publishing research primarily on substance abuse. The journal specifically focuses on studies related to the abuse of alcohol, drugs, and nicotine, although there are occasional papers on addictions that do not involve the ingestion of psychoactive substances. The journal has an interdisciplinary focus and publishes papers from the fields of psychology, psychiatry, epidemiology, medicine, pharmacology, and neuroscience.

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  • Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

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    An international journal devoted to publishing original research, scholarly reviews, commentaries, and policy analyses in the area of drug, alcohol, and tobacco use and dependence. Articles range from studies of the chemistry of substances commonly abused, laboratory-based and clinical research, substance abuse treatment, and prevention research to studies employing methods from epidemiology, sociology, and economics.

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  • International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.

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    A relatively new journal that provides a platform for international debate on mental health and addiction-related issues. It is perhaps unusual in that it publishes widely on behavioral addictions, including gambling, exercise, sex, video game playing, and Internet use. It also publishes papers on addiction-related research, policy, phenomenology, literature, and treatment.

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  • Journal of Addictive Diseases.

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    A practical journal aiming to help addiction practitioners keep up-to-date with issues and the clinical skills necessary to ensure effective practice. The latest research, treatments, and public policy issues in addiction medicine are presented in a fully integrated, multispecialty perspective. The journal aims to provide the latest relevant findings in addiction etiology, epidemiology, and clinical care. It is known for its scholarly commitment to the field and reflects the highest standards of investigation, clinical practice, medical education, and evaluation of patient care.

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  • Journal of Substance Use.

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    A peer-reviewed international journal publishing articles on a wide spectrum of issues relating to the use of legal and illegal substances. The journal aims to educate, inform, update, and act as a forum to set standards for health and social care professionals working with individuals and families with substance use problems. It also informs and supports those undertaking research in substance use; developing substance use services; and participating in, leading, and developing education and training programs.

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  • Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.

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    The journal of Division 50 (Addictions) of the American Psychological Association. PAB publishes peer-reviewed original articles related to the psychological aspects of addictive behaviors, including alcohol and alcoholism, drug use and abuse, eating disorders, smoking and nicotine addiction, and other excessive behaviors (e.g., gambling). Full-length research reports, literature reviews, brief reports, and comments are published.

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  • Substance Use and Misuse.

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    Provides an international multidisciplinary environment for the exchange of facts, theories, viewpoints, and unresolved issues concerning substance use, misuse (licit and illicit drugs), abuse, and dependency; eating disorders; and gambling. SUMU features original, peer-reviewed articles, notes, and book reviews and special issues devoted to single topics. The journal also publishes proceedings and symposia that describe and analyze the latest research and information on clinical prevention, training, law enforcement, and policy efforts.

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Conceptual and Theoretical Issues

Becker and Murphy 1988 discusses rational versus irrational perspectives on addictions. Griffiths 2005 discusses common features of addictions. Koob and Le Moal 2008; Robinson and Berridge 1993; and Shaffer, et al. 2004 discuss neuropsychobiological models of addiction. Marks 1990 discusses repetitive behaviors as definitive of addiction. Miller, et al. 2010 discusses research methods specific to addictions. Tiffany 1990 discusses relevant memory models. Together these conceptual pieces provide a solid foundation for students and researchers and the basis for other texts.

  • Becker, Gary S., and Kevin M. Murphy. 1988. A theory of rational addiction. Journal of Political Economy 96:675–700.

    DOI: 10.1086/261558Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This controversial read suggests that addiction to a “good” drug or behavior can be statistically modeled as a series of theoretical decisions and occur in the context of rational choice. Also the paper covers the role of price elasticity, anxiety, binges, cold-turkey withdrawal, and development of addictions over time.

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  • Griffiths, Mark D. 2005. A “components” model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Use 10:191–197.

    DOI: 10.1080/14659890500114359Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This paper argues that all addictions consist of a number of distinct commonalities and components (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse) and that all addictions are a part of a biopsychosocial process. It is argued that an eclectic approach to the study of addictive behavior appears to be the most pragmatic way forward in the field.

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  • Koob, George F., and Michel Le Moal. 2008. Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annual Review of Psychology 59:29–53.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093548Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This article proposes a neurobiological model of the brain’s emotional systems to explain persistent changes in motivation associated with vulnerability to relapse in addiction. Addiction is conceptualized as a cycle of decreased function of the brain reward systems and recruitment of antireward systems that progressively worsen, resulting in the compulsive use of drugs to suppress withdrawal symptoms and feel “normal.” Both short-term and long-term drug-taking behaviors are evaluated.

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  • Marks, Isaac. 1990. Behavioural (non-chemical) addictions. British Journal of Addiction 85:1389–1394.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1990.tb01618.xSave Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This provocative paper by Marks argues that addictions denote repetitive routines and include a wide range of behavioral addictions, like gambling, eating, and sex, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Marks argues that it is heuristically useful to conceptualize the repetitive behaviors as addictive syndromes irrespective of their external triggers.

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  • Miller, Peter G., John Strang, and Peter M. Miller, eds. 2010. Addiction research methods. Chichester, UK: Blackwell.

    DOI: 10.1002/9781444318852Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This important resource is helpful in planning and executing a research project in substance addictions. With its primary focus in this area, it would also have some basic utility for work in behavioral addictions but perhaps not the specific knowledge that may be unique to these areas.

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  • Robinson, T. E., and K. C. Berridge. 1993. The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research Reviews 18:247–291.

    DOI: 10.1016/0165-0173(93)90013-PSave Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    The “incentive-sensitization theory” addresses the psychological and neurobiological basis of drug craving, reasons why the craving persists over long periods of time, and whether the drug craving is attributable to “liking” drugs.

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  • Shaffer, H. J., D. A. LaPlante, R. A. LaBrie, R. C. Kidman, A. N. Donato, and M. V. Stanton. 2004. Towards a syndrome model of addiction: Multiple expressions, common etiology. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 12:367–374.

    DOI: 10.1080/10673220490905705Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    The authors suggest evidence of multiple and interacting biopsychosocial antecedents, manifestations, and consequents of excessive behavior (both within and among behavioral and substance-related patterns of excess) and suggest that this reflects an underlying addiction syndrome. More specifically, they propose that addiction should be understood as a syndrome with multiple opportunistic expressions (e.g., substance use disorders and pathological gambling).

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  • Sussman, S., N. Lisha, and M. Griffiths. 2010. Prevalence of the addictions: A problem of the majority or the minority? Evaluation and the Health Professions 33.

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    This paper considers eleven potential addictions (tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping), their prevalence, and their co-occurrence based on a systematic review of the literature. The authors assert that it is most plausible that 47 percent of the US adult population suffers from maladaptive signs of an addictive disorder over a twelve-month period and that it may be useful to think of addictions as associated with problems of lifestyle in addition to person-level factors.

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  • Tiffany, S. T. 1990. A cognitive model of drug urges and drug-use behavior: Role of automatic and nonautomatic processes. Psychological Review 97:147–168.

    DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.97.2.147Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    Questions the late-20th-century urge models and proposes an alternative cognitive model of drug use and drug urges. The new model proposes that drug use in the addict is controlled by automatized action schemata that occur outside of conscious awareness. Urges are presented as subjective responses supported by nonautomatic cognitive processes activated when automatized drug use sequences are blocked (e.g., cessation, drug use unavailability).

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Drugs and Alcohol

These papers challenge one’s thinking about illicit drugs and alcohol, particularly regarding the potential of clinical utility of some illicit drugs (Doblin 2002), contextual issues that have made certain drugs a source of public drama (Robins 1993), the dynamic changes in drug use over the life course (Hser, et al. 2007; Kandel and Faust 1975), and the reality that functioning addicts exist (Measham, et al. 1994; Shewan and Dalgarno 2005). In addition etiology of drug use is discussed in these papers, including the self-medication hypothesis (Khantzian 1985) and the influence of family use (Valliant and Milofsky 1982) and Rehm, et al. 2006 discusses the global costs of drug abuse.

  • Doblin, Rick. 2002. A clinical plan for MDMA (ecstasy) in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Partnering with the FDA. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 34:185–194.

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    This article demands a breadth of thought about what a pharmaceutical drug is and whether illegal drugs can ever have clinical utility. Here Doblin illustrates the background of a trial of ecstasy use for posttraumatic stress disorder, utilizing methods that bring new pharmaceutical drugs to approval for specific medical use.

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  • Hser, Yih-Ing, Douglas Longshore, and M. Douglas Anglin. 2007. The life course perspective on drug use: A conceptual framework for understanding drug use trajectories. Evaluation Review 31:515–547.

    DOI: 10.1177/0193841X07307316Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This paper provides a theoretical viewpoint exploring the development of drug use throughout the life span. It aims to explain the different trajectories of use, noting that drug use can change, cease, or intensify at different points in the lifetime, constructing a longitudinal framework to explain drug use change.

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  • Kandel, D. B., and R. Faust. 1975. Sequence and stages in patterns of adolescent drug use. Archives of General Psychiatry 32:923–932.

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    This proposes the “gateway theory,” a model suggesting that there is a pattern of progression (and regression) in stages of drug use among New York State adolescents. These stages, based on analysis of longitudinal data, represent, first, use of beer and wine; second, use of cigarettes and spirits and liquor; third, use of cannabis; and fourth, use of other illicit drugs.

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  • Khantzian, E. J. 1985. The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 142:1259–1264.

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    Primarily on opiate and cocaine use, this article suggests that use of these substances is a result of the need to self-medicate against negative affective states. Specific affective states are “treated” by the selection of a drug that alleviates the symptom. Khantzian proposes, for example, that opiates could be selected to overcome symptoms of disorganization, aggression, or agitation. A debated rationale for drug use and addiction.

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  • Measham, F., R. Newcombe, and H. Parker. 1994. The normalization of recreational drug use amongst young people in north-west England. British Journal of Sociology 45:287–312.

    DOI: 10.2307/591497Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This paper proposes that drug users can be functional members of society and challenges stereotyping of drug users as addicts. It focuses mainly on the more frequently used substances, such as amphetamines, cannabis, ecstasy, and cocaine.

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  • Rehm J., B. Taylor, and R. Room. 2006. Global burden of disease from alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco. Drug and Alcohol Review 25:503–513.

    DOI: 10.1080/09595230600944453Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    An important epidemiological paper estimating the global cost of substance use. Providing a net estimate of the burden of disease (i.e., incorporating benefits and costs), the paper concludes that legal drugs have a considerably larger burden of disease than illicit drugs, which could be partly reduced by implementing effective interventions to reduce use and harm. Harm can differ according to sociodemographic and economic factors.

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  • Robins, Lee N. 1993. Vietnam veterans’ rapid recovery from heroin addiction: A fluke or normal expectation? Addiction 88:1041–1054.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1993.tb02123.xSave Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    Robins conducted a longitudinal analysis of heroin use in Vietnam veterans in the early 1970s and revisits his work in this area in this reflective article. Two key findings are particularly stressed: first, that heroin users can get better with and importantly without professional treatment and, second, that the political representation of a heroin user does not exist, as heroin users are likely to be polydrug users.

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  • Shewan, D., and P. Dalgarno. 2005. Evidence for controlled heroin use? Low levels of negative health and social outcomes among non-treatment heroin users in Glasgow (Scotland). British Journal of Health Psychology 10:33–48.

    DOI: 10.1348/135910704X14582Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This article caused controversy by stating that long-term heroin users could be functional members of society. It illustrates that hidden populations of drug users (that is, those not accessing treatment or known to services) could differ markedly from those who are more visible, that is, in contact with the police, social services, or treatment providers.

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  • Vaillant, G. E., and E. S. Milofsky. 1982. The etiology of alcoholism: A prospective viewpoint. American Psychologist 37.5: 494–503.

    DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.37.5.494Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    Reports multivariate analyses of data from a thirty-three-year prospective study of 456 nondelinquent controls from a study on delinquency. This article examines the striking roles that ethnicity (including attitudes typical of that group) and the number of alcoholic relatives play in adult alcoholism. Antisocial behavior was also found to be a significant predictor.

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Gambling

Meyer, et al. 2009 and Smith, et al. 2007 discuss problem gambling prevalence, diagnosis, etiology, and solutions. In addition Meyer, et al. 2009 presents worldwide variations.

  • Meyer, Gerhard, Tobias Hayer, and Mark Griffiths. 2009. Problem gambling in Europe: Challenges, prevention, and interventions. New York: Springer.

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    Provides in-depth reviews of problem gambling and gambling addiction from twenty-one European countries. Chapters outline the early-21st-century legislation regulating gambling, forms of gambling and their addictive potential, participation rates and demographics, prevalence of pathological gambling, national policies to address problem gambling, and prevention strategies and treatment methods. Much of the research collated in the book was not previously published in English.

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  • Smith, Garry, David C. Hodgins, and Robert J. Williams, eds. 2007. Research and measurement issues in gambling studies. Boston: Elsevier.

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    Although covering more than just problem gambling and gambling addiction, this is arguably one of the best books in the gambling studies field. The book features chapters from almost every leading figure in the problem gambling field and covers a wide array of topics that will appeal to those in problem gambling diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, and policy analysis.

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Internet and Gaming

Griffiths 2008 discusses the prevalence of Internet and video game addiction, and Widyanto and Griffiths 2006 and Young and de Abreu 2010 discuss the extent to which these addictions reflect other types of addictions, such as sex or buying. Young and de Abreu 2010 discusses the etiology of Internet and gaming addictions. Widyanto and Griffiths 2009 suggests that Internet and gaming addictions are more pronounced among young people.

  • Griffiths, M. D. 2008. Videogame addiction: Fact or fiction? In Children’s learning in a digital world. Edited by Teena Willoughby and Eileen Wood, 85–103. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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    This book chapter overviews the empirical research on excessive and addictive video game play and Internet use. Griffiths argues that Internet and video game addictions exist but that they affect only a small minority of users and players (including adolescents).

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  • Widyanto, Laura, and Mark Griffiths. 2006. Internet addiction: Does it really exist? (Revisited). In Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal applications. 2d ed. Edited by Jayne Gackenbach, 141–163. New York: Academic Press.

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    The authors argue that most of the individuals who use the Internet excessively are not addicted to the Internet itself but use it as a medium to fuel other addictions. The authors argue that there is a critical need to distinguish between addictions to the Internet and addictions on the Internet.

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  • Widyanto, Laura, and Mark Griffiths. 2009. Unravelling the Web: Adolescents and Internet addiction. In Adolescent online social communication and behavior: Relationship formation on the Internet. Edited by Robert Zheng, Jason Burrow-Sanchez, and Clifford Drew, 29–49. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

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    The authors raise the issue of developmental effects, that is, whether or not Internet addiction has the same effect regardless of age. It is speculated that the Internet appears to have a more pronounced addictive effect in young people.

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  • Young, Kimberly S., and Cristiano Nabuco de Abreu, eds. 2010. Internet addiction: A handbook and guide to evaluation and treatment. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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    Provides a theoretical framework to understand how to define and conceptualize addictive use of the Internet from a clinical perspective. The chapters discuss the various theoretical models from the psychiatric, psychological, communication, and sociological fields. They also explore the prevalence of the disorder and the most addictive or problematic online applications (e.g., online pornography, gambling, gaming). Additionally the book provides evidenced-based treatment approaches.

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Sex

Bancroft and Vukadinovic 2004, Carnes 2001, and Gold and Heffner 1998 review the concepts (e.g., progression) and etiology of sex addiction, and Gold and Heffner 1998 and Kaplan and Krueger 2010 review its assessment and treatment. In addition Sussman 2007 suggests that sex addiction may begin its course in adolescence.

  • Bancroft, John, and Zorn Vukadinovic. 2004. Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, or what? Toward a theoretical model. Journal of Sex Research 41:225–234.

    DOI: 10.1080/00224490409552230Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This paper critically reviews the concepts of sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, and sexual impulsivity and their theoretical bases.

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  • Carnes, Patrick. 2001. Out of the shadows: Understanding sexual addiction. Center City, MN: Hazelden.

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    This was the first book published on sex addiction. Carnes defines sexual addiction as having a pathological relationship with sex and using it for its mood-altering qualities. He describes the progression through a four-part cycle of preoccupation, ritualization, compulsive sexual behavior, and despair. His treatment approach is based on the Minnesota Model (twelve-step program).

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  • Gold, S. N., and C. L. Heffner. 1998. Sexual addiction: Many conceptions, minimal data. Clinical Psychology Review 3:367–381.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0272-7358(97)00051-2Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This article reviews the literature on sexual addiction in the decade prior to the article’s publication. Various topics are reviewed, such as competing conceptualizations of the syndrome as constituting an addictive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse control disorder; symptomology and progression; etiological models; and treatment approaches.

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  • Kaplan, Meg S., and Richard B. Krueger. 2010. Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of hypersexuality. Journal of Sex Research 47:181–198.

    DOI: 10.1080/00224491003592863Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This important article reviews the evidence base on the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of hypersexual conditions. The controversy surrounding this diagnosis is also discussed. In addition terminology; diagnostic criteria; and psychological, psychopharmacological, and other treatment approaches are presented.

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  • Sussman, Steve. 2007. Sexual addiction among teens: A review. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 14:257–278.

    DOI: 10.1080/10720160701480758Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This article broadens the scope of sexual addiction research by examining the sexual behavior of teenagers. It examines the concept; definitions; definitional problems; epidemiology; etiology; and prediction, prevention, and treatment of teen sexual addiction.

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Love

Little has been written about love addiction. Sussman 2010 is an exhaustive review of its concept, etiology, assessment, prevention, and treatment.

  • Sussman, Steve. 2010. Love addiction: Definition, etiology, treatment. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 17:31–45.

    DOI: 10.1080/10720161003604095Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This paper presents the definition, consequences, etiology, prevention, and treatment of love addiction. Using seven search terms and three search engines, only forty data-based papers on the topic were located. Neurobiological, developmental, and social and cultural etiological factors are discussed. The author suggests that love addiction is manifested by the time one reaches adolescence and that it functions similarly to substance use disorders.

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Exercise

Little has been written on exercise addiction. Adams and Kirkby 1998; Allegre, et al. 2006; and Cockerill and Riddington 1996 provide its conceptualization and Allegre, et al. 2006 its assessment. Allegre, et al. 2006 and Cockerill and Riddington 1996 discuss the positive and negative natures of exercise dependence, the connection between eating disorders and exercise addiction, and the diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence. Hausenblas and Downs 2002 is among the few studies of exercise addiction in general adult populations.

  • Adams, Jeremy, and Robert J. Kirkby. 1998. Exercise dependence: A review of its manifestation, theory, and measurement. Research in Sports Medicine 8:265–276.

    DOI: 10.1080/15438629809512532Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This article reviews the late-20th-century literature while emphasizing the need for more controlled research on the topic. Exercise dependence is defined as a condition where repetitive moderate to intense physical activity leads to subsequent negative consequences, such as reduction in social relations and withdrawal-like states.

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  • Allegre, Benjamin, Marc Souville, Pierre Therme, and Mark Griffiths. 2006. Definitions and measures of exercise dependence. Addiction Research and Theory 14:631–646.

    DOI: 10.1080/16066350600903302Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This review article is a synthesis of the knowledge on definitions and measures of exercise addiction. While only a small number of studies have been conducted on this topic, this review demonstrates how the measures and definitions of exercise addiction have evolved.

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  • Cockerill, I. M., and M. E. Riddington. 1996. Exercise dependence and associated disorders: A review. Counseling Psychology Quarterly 9:119–130.

    DOI: 10.1080/09515079608256358Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This article provides a description and definition of exercise dependence. More importantly, the article delves into the justification for the existence of exercise as an addiction. Also touched on are the measurement of exercise dependence and the link between exercise dependence and eating disorders.

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  • Hausenblas, Heather A., and Danielle Symons Downs. 2002. Exercise dependence: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 3:89–123.

    DOI: 10.1016/S1469-0292(00)00015-7Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    Extensive review examining seventy-seven articles on exercise dependence and eleven articles on exercise deprivation. Findings indicate that results have been largely inconclusive due to a lack of experimental research, a lack of control groups, discrepant operational criteria for exercise dependence, and invalidated or inappropriate measures for exercise dependence.

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Food

Eating disorders research has been investigated for a long time but generally not within an addictions framework. Allison, et al. 2005 and Hoek and Hoeken 2003 examine binge and night eating disorders as demonstrating most closely an addictive behavioral profile.

  • Allison, Kelley C., Carlos M. Grilo, Robin M. Masheb, and Albert J. Stunkard. 2005. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome: A comparative study of disordered eating. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 73:1107–1115.

    DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1107Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    Compares eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED) or night eating syndrome (NES) and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES. This evaluation provides evidence for the distinctiveness of the BED and NES constructs and highlights their clinical significance.

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  • Hoek, H. W., and D. van Hoeken. 2003. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders 34:383–396.

    DOI: 10.1002/eat.10222Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    Reviews binge eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. The incidence and prevalence of eating disorders is estimated based on a review of the existing literature. Four studies are cited in the review, but three feature females exclusively. The estimated prevalence of binge eating disorder is at least 1 percent. Concludes that only a minority of people who meet stringent diagnostic criteria for eating disorders are seen in mental health care.

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Work

The little research about work addiction includes Burke 1999, but no such work in general adult populations is available. Burke 1999 and Burke 2000 present the conceptualization and topography of work addiction, and Burke 1999 presents the need for more such research.

  • Burke, Ronald J. 1999. Workaholism in organizations: Gender differences. Sex Roles 41:333–345.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1018818731922Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    Examines gender differences in a predominantly white managerial sample. Workaholism components and workaholic job behaviors among managers and professionals are examined. The author points out that while workaholism is a well-known concept, the measures are not consistent or even reliable and not much research has been attempted. This study uses a set of measures to further elucidate what workaholism really is.

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  • Burke, Ronald J. 2000. Workaholism in organizations: Concepts, results, and future directions. International Journal of Management Reviews 2:1–16.

    DOI: 10.1111/1468-2370.00028Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    Review of workaholism in organizations. Reviews the types of workaholics and definitions, measures, and the prevalence of workaholism; discusses validating job behaviors, antecedents of workaholism, work outcome consequences, health consequences, extrawork satisfactions, and family functioning; evaluates workaholism components and possible gender differences; and discusses reducing workaholism and future research directions.

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Shopping

Compulsive shopping has been described as having all the features of an addictive behavior (Black 1996) based on a number of underlying causes, including insecure identity development (Benson 2000) or believing that buying behavior will aid in achieving major life goals, such as happiness (Dittmar 2005). Conceptual issues, etiology, and solutions to shopping addiction are described in these references.

  • Benson, April Lane, ed. 2000. I shop therefore I am: Compulsive buying and the search for self. Northvale, NJ: Aronson.

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    This book offers a broad overview of the numerous aspects of compulsive buying. Benson argues that shopping addiction is the result of a desperate search for self in people whose identity is not securely established. Compulsive consumption is defined as well as the range and variations within it, the assessment and associated disorders, and a delineation of successful treatment modalities.

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  • Black, D. W. 1996. Compulsive buying: A review. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 57:50–54.

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    Black provides a review of compulsive buying disorder by discussing the clinical symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, etiology, assessment, and treatment of the addiction. Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by a preoccupation with shopping, prepurchase tension or anxiety, and a sense of relief following the purchase. Shopping addiction is often associated with other types of addictions, such as substance use disorders.

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  • Dittmar, H. 2005. Compulsive buying—a growing concern? An examination of gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as predictors. British Journal of Psychology 96:467–491.

    DOI: 10.1348/000712605X53533Save Citation »Export Citation » Share Citation »

    This article aims to discern a clearer understanding of compulsive buying by examining gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values. The study found that compulsive buying was more common among women than men and that younger consumers are more likely to engage in compulsive shopping than older consumers.

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