Community Health Assessment
- LAST REVIEWED: 14 October 2016
- LAST MODIFIED: 27 November 2013
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0057
- LAST REVIEWED: 14 October 2016
- LAST MODIFIED: 27 November 2013
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0057
Community health assessment began as a key job role for health administrators, was included in an essential function of public health, and is now a certification element for health departments today. Community health assessment utilizes descriptive epidemiology, conceptual disease frameworks, and information about the uptake of known effective public health interventions and services to convey an understanding of a population’s health and well-being relative to what could be expected—a target, a “best achievable,” or a comparable group encapsulated by the state, the nation, or a group of geographic entities sharing similar factors and perhaps similar population health fates. A seminal work on community health assessment is oriented to execution of health promotion and risk reduction by using behavioral science methods. Community diagnosis is another way of characterizing community health assessment, the community as patient seeking a public health judgment in order to function optimally, undergo treatment, heal, and thrive. This bibliography offers a set of resources that provide background, tools, and references for accomplishing community health assessment. Community health assessment may be defined as the process of assessing a population’s health or the report of the assessment. Important aspects of community health assessment build with characterization of the community of interest, designated measures of community health, and then reflection upon the data garnered, all of which facilitate a health planning and strategic process. Community health may be narrowed to a specific population, as in the case of maternal and child health assessment carried out for Title V, specific and usually very important conditions. Community health assessment consists of the aggregate, broad-ranging health of an entire population, reports of specific population vulnerabilities, or aspects of the community context that foster population health.
In the introductory works in this section, community health assessment is examined at three angles exemplifying the process paralleling the development of community health assessment across time. Pickett and Hanlon 1990 illustrates the scope of public health and the health administrator’s responsibility, community health assessment being just one. Dever 1991 delves deeply into assessment, combining epidemiological, administrative, and policy tools, while Brownson, et al. 2010 organizes an approach to community health assessment around intervention evidence and effectiveness. Together they describe the professional expertise that is necessary for a successful assessment, more recently, Green and Kreuter 2005, Hodges and Videto 2005, Nardi and Petr 2002, and Peterson and Alexander 2001. The World Health Organization provides sound step-by-step considerations in carrying out a community health assessment in, for example, World Health Organization 2013 and regions of Africa (McCoy and Bamford 1998).
Brownson, R. C., E. A. Baker, T. L. Leet, K. N. Gillespie, and W. R. True. 2010. Evidence-based public health. 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
This text offers a schematic for enhancing evidence-based public health intervention. Community health assessment provides guidance for the initial steps of (1) prioritization and (2) quantifying the problem. Community health assessment answers the question of needs to be addressed in advance of doing the “right thing” the “right way.” A chapter is dedicated to each of these topics. Other chapters offer tools for prioritizing and developing action plans.
Dever, G. E. A. 1991. Community health analysis. 2d ed. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.
An early contributor to the notion of community health assessment as multidisciplinary (epidemiology, statistics, health planning, programming and evaluation, demography, and geography) and complex (ethics, social justice, marketing, belief systems). Dever suggests two types of evaluations; one is oriented to health improvements in the population and the second focuses upon local health-department program production of good outcomes.
Green, L. W., and M. W. Kreuter. 2005. Health promotion planning: An educational and ecological approach. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
This is a manual for health educators and pertains determination of the right intervention, at the right time, directed to the right population/subpopulation. The authors of PRECEDE –PROCEED model imprint health behavior science onto every aspect of community health assessment. Their comprehensive approach uniquely and thoroughly considers options to reach and affect the recipients of the chosen intervention.
Hodges, B. C., and D. M. Videto. 2005. Assessment and planning in health programs. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Community health assessment is the first responsibility for health educators. Professionally, health educators use assessments to achieve “buy- in” from the target population, to justify applications for programmatic funding and other resources, to have full knowledge of what implementation of a program to address needs will entail, to make explicit program goals and objectives, and to provide measures of future progress.
McCoy, D., and L. Bamford. 1998. How to conduct a rapid situation analysis: A guide for health districts in South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Health Systems Trust.
Community health assessment guidance in this text offers advice for health officers who will conduct a low-resource, multisectoral assessment of capacities and population health needs. Sample worksheets, examples, explanations, and other guidance are provided.
Nardi, D. A., and J. M. Petr. 2002. Community health and wellness needs assessment: A step by step guide. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.
This concise workbook and roadmap is based on the Ontario Needs Impact Based Model and includes a description of the problem, determination of what information is needed, and collection and analysis of the information. It extends analysis to summarizing and reporting one’s findings. It uses data, indicators, focused community health, physical and mental health, and emerging tools and resources.
Peterson, D. J., and G. R. Alexander. 2001. Needs assessment in public health: A practical guide for students and professionals. New York City: Kluwer Academic.
An inherently epidemiological approach to needs assessment, this resource outlines strategic steps of needs assessment focused “on who is the target population and what are the needs of that population” (page 17). Resources and intervention characteristics (efficiency, efficacy, effectiveness) are importantly part of any community health assessment to address the unmet needs identified and prioritized. A textbook for needs assessment.
Pickett, G. E., and J. J. Hanlon. 1990. Public health: Administration and practice. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby College.
Community health assessment is highly dependent on the administration and organization of state and local health departments. The collection, compilation, analysis, and reporting of public health statistics are often an administrative issue. It is quite dependent on existing, federalized data systems such as vital statistics, locally important administrative data, and unique local surveys gathered for programmatic purposes.
World Health Organization. 2013. Community health needs assessment: An introductory guide for the family health nurse in Europe. EUR/01/5019306. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
This resource is designed specifically for the European continent and provides narrative of the steps in community health assessment, examples, and tools. Parts 1 and 2 are written for the practitioner and trainer audiences.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
- Access to Health Care
- Action Research
- Active Aging
- Active Living
- Adolescent Health, Socioeconomic Inequalities in
- Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior in the United States
- Advocacy, Public Health
- Agricultural Safety and Public Health
- Air Quality: Health Effects
- Air Quality: Indoor Health Effects
- Alcohol Availability and Violence
- Alternative Research Designs
- Ambient Air Quality Standards and Guidelines
- American Perspectives on Chronic Disease and Control
- Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
- Asthma in Children
- Attachment as a Health Determinant
- Behavior Change Theory in Health Education and Promotion
- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
- Bicycling and Cycling Safety
- Birth and Death Registration
- Birth Cohort Studies
- Board of Health
- Built Environment and Health, The
- Business and Corporate Practices
- Cancer Communication Strategies in North America
- Cancer Prevention
- Cancer Screening
- Capacity Building
- Capacity Building for NCDs in LMICs
- Capacity-Building for Applied Public Health in LMIC: A US ...
- Cardiovascular Health and Disease
- Child Maltreatment
- Children, Air Pollution and
- Children, Injury Risk-Taking Behaviors in
- Children, Obesity in
- Citizen Advisory Boards
- Climate Change and Human Health
- Climate Change: Institutional Response
- Clinical Preventive Medicine
- Community Air Pollution
- Community Development
- Community Gardens
- Community Health Assessment
- Community Health Interventions
- Community Partnerships and Coalitions
- Community-Based Participatory Research
- Complexity and Systems Theory
- Cultural Safety
- Culture and Public Health
- Definition of Health
- Dental Public Health
- Design and Health
- Dietary Guidelines
- Directions in Global Public Health Graduate Education
- Ecological Approaches
- Enabling Factors
- Environmental Laws
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Ethics of Public Health
- Evidence-Based Pediatric Dentistry
- Evidence-Based Public Health Practice
- Family Planning Services and Birth Control
- Food Safety
- Food Security and Food Banks
- Food Systems
- Frail Elderly
- Functional Literacy
- Genomics, Public Health
- Geographic Information Systems
- Geography and Health
- Global Health
- Global Health Diplomacy
- Global Health Promotion
- Guide to Community Preventive Services, The
- Health Administration
- Health Communication
- Health Disparities
- Health Education
- Health Impact Assessment
- Health in All Policies
- Health in All Policies in European Countries
- Health Literacy
- Health Literacy and Non-Communicable Diseases
- Health Measurement Scales
- Health Planning
- Health Promoting Hospitals
- Health Promotion
- Health Promotion Foundations
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Health Systems of Low and Middle-Income Countries, The
- Healthy People Initiative
- Healthy Public Policy
- Hepatitis C
- High Risk Prevention Strategies
- Human Rights, Health and
- IANPHI and National Public Health Institutes
- Immigrant Populations
- Immunization and Pneumococcal Infection
- Immunization in Pregnancy
- Indigenous Peoples, Public Health and
- Indigenous Populations of North America, Australasia, and ...
- Indoor Air Quality Guidelines
- Internet Applications in Promoting Health Behavior
- Intersectoral Strategies in Low - Middle Income Countries ...
- Justice, Social
- Knowledge Translation and Exchange
- Knowledge Utilization and Exchange
- Law of Public Health in the United States
- Media Advocacy
- Mental Health
- Mental Health Promotion
- Migrant Health
- Motor Vehicle Injury Prevention
- Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
- National Association of Local Boards of Health
- National Public Health Institutions
- Needs Assessment
- Needs Assessments in International Disasters and Emergenci...
- Obesity Prevention
- Occupational Cancers
- Occupational Exposure to Benzene
- Occupational Exposure to Erionite
- Occupational Safety and Health
- Oral Health Equity for Minority Populations in the United ...
- Ottawa Charter
- Parenting and Work
- Parenting Skills and Capacity
- Participatory Action Research
- Patient Decision Making
- Pesticide Exposure and Pesticide Health Effects
- Physical Activity and Exercise
- Physical Activity Promotion
- Polio Eradication in Pakistan
- Population Aging
- Population Determinants of Unhealthy Foods and Beverages
- Population Health Objectives and Targets
- Precautionary Principle
- Prenatal Health
- Program Evaluation in American Health Education
- Program Planning and Evaluation
- Public Health, History of
- Public Health Surveillance
- Public-Private Partnerships in Public Health Research and ...
- Public-Private Partnerships to Prevent and Manage Obesity ...
- Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
- Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies
- Randomized Controlled Trials
- Real World Evaluation Strategies
- Reducing Obesity-Related Health Disparities in Hispanic an...
- Research Integrity in Public Health
- Resilient Health Systems
- Rural Health in the United States
- Safety, Patient
- School Health Programs in the Pacific Region
- Sex Education in HIV/AIDS Prevention
- Skin Cancer Prevention
- Smoking Cessation
- Social Determinants of Health
- Social Epidemiology
- Social Marketing
- Statistics in Public Health
- STI Networks, Patterns, and Control Strategies
- Sustainable Development Goals
- Systems in the United States, Public Health
- Systems Modeling and Big Data for Non-Communicable Disease...
- Systems Theory in Public Health
- Traditional, Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative M...
- Translation of Science to Practice and Policy
- Traumatic Stress and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Tuberculosis among Adults and the Determinants of Health
- Unintentional Injury Prevention
- Urban Health
- Vaccine Hesitancy
- Violence Prevention
- Water Quality
- Water Quality and Water-Related Disease
- Weight Management in US Occupational Settings
- Welfare States, Public Health and Health Inequalities
- Worksite Health Promotion
- World Health Organization (WHO)