Education Intensive Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder
by
Ariana Krynen, Ian Lambie
  • LAST MODIFIED: 30 October 2019
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756810-0160

Introduction

Conduct disorder is defined as a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or in which major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. Among education professionals, young people who present with these behaviors are typically described as having challenging behavior or emotional and behavioral disturbance. Without intervention, children with conduct disorder are seen to have poor long-term outcomes, including involvement with the juvenile justice system. A wide range of interventions have been developed to address conduct disorder among children and adolescents. This article focuses on the most intensive evidence-based programs available for this population. Evidence-based programs outlined include individual-focused, parent- and family-based, school-based, and multimodal interventions, as well as residential-based programs and pharmacological treatment. Given conduct disorder is a correlate of future offending, a number of resources in relation to general delinquency among children and adolescents are presented. Due to the importance of addressing comorbidity and meeting the needs of females and ethnic minorities with conduct disorder, these areas of research are also outlined. Finally, an overview of evidence-based early intervention programs for conduct disorder are provided.

General Overviews

Numerous resources provide valuable information about conduct disorder in children and adolescents that help inform intervention approaches. Martel 2018, Hill and Maughan 2001, and Matthys and Lochman 2017 provide a thorough overview of the nature, etiology, and intervention of conduct disorders. Frick 2012 and Klahr and Burt 2014 outline what is known about conduct disorder subgroups and discuss their implications for research and intervention. Loeber and Farrington 2001 and Loeber, et al. 2008 focus on child delinquency, its risk and protective factors, and intervention approaches. Andrews and Bonta 2017 outlines the risk-need-responsivity model, which is the prominent framework for guiding assessment and intervention for offending behavior.

  • Andrews, Donald A., and James Bonta. 2017. The psychology of criminal conduct. 6th ed. London: Routledge.

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    This textbook discusses the psychology of criminal behavior. Chapters cover theory and research of the psychology of criminal conduct, risk and need factors, prediction and classification of criminal behavior, and prevention and rehabilitation. An overview is provided of the prominent risk-need-responsivity model, which guides the assessment and intervention for offending behavior. It only provides limited discussion of adolescents.

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    • Frick, Paul J. 2012. Developmental pathways to conduct disorder: Implications for future directions in research, assessment, and treatment. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 43.3: 378–389.

      DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2012.664815Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Summarizes current research on three developmental pathways to conduct disorder: adolescent-onset conduct disorder, conduct disorder with significant callous-unemotional traits, and conduct disorder with emotional and behavioral dysregulation. The implications of this research for intervention are provided.

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      • Hill, Jonathan, and Barbara Maughan, eds. 2001. Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        This textbook reviews the biological, neuropsychological, cognitive, and attachment and family factors and influences underlying conduct disorder. An overview of treatment and prevention for conduct disorder is also provided.

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        • Klahr, Ashlea M., and S. Alexandra Burt. 2014. Practitioner review: Evaluation of the known behavioral heterogeneity in conduct disorder to improve its assessment and treatment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 55.12: 1300–1310.

          DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12268Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Summarizes research regarding the heterogeneity within conduct disorder, such as callous-unemotional traits, comorbidity, and age of onset. Emphasizes how this heterogeneity should be considered in the assessment and treatment of conduct disorder.

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          • Loeber, Rolf, and David P. Farrington, eds. 2001. Child delinquents: Development, intervention, and service needs. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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            This resource presents the Study Group on Very Young Offenders’ findings on the prevalence, risk and protective factors, and interventions for child delinquency. This study group was formed by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and it was composed of thirty-nine experts in the area.

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            • Loeber, Rolf, N. Wim Slot, Peter H. van der Laan, and Machteld Hoeve, eds. 2008. Tomorrow’s criminals: The development of child delinquency and effective interventions. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

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              Provides a thorough overview of research concerning the range of correlates and causes of child delinquency (including disruptive behaviors), as well as screening tools and prevention and intervention approaches. This text presents the argument that research and interventions should focus more on child delinquents aged twelve and under.

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              • Martel, Michelle M., ed. 2018. Developmental pathways to disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders. London: Elsevier/Academic.

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                This textbook provides a thorough overview of disruptive behavior disorders (including conduct disorder), including risk markers of externalizing problems and current evidence-based treatments. A section is dedicated to new and emerging insights into the prevention and treatment of disruptive behaviors. This text comprises chapters written by experts in the field.

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                • Matthys, Walter, and John E. Lochman. 2017. Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in children. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

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                  Contents provide a brief yet comprehensive overview of conduct disorder, its etiology, individual and environmental characteristics, clinical assessment, and intervention.

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                  Textbooks

                  Each textbook in this section provides an overview of evidence-based interventions available for conduct problems in children and adolescents. Weisz and Kazdin 2010 and Fonagy, et al. 2015 outline treatment approaches for various mental health disorders in childhood and adolescents; however, their chapters dedicated to conduct disorder are thorough and comprehensive. Murrihy, et al. 2010 and Nelson, et al. 2006 cover a wide range of interventions for conduct disorder. Each chapter is devoted to one evidence-based intervention, with a description of the intervention’s theoretical framework and approach for assessment and treatment. Finally, Hughes, et al. 2008 provides a text on effective school-based interventions for school professionals.

                  • Fonagy, Peter, David Cottrell, Jeannette Phillips, Dickon Bevington, Danya Glaser, and Elizabeth Allison. 2015. What works for whom? A critical review of treatments for children and adolescents. New York: Guilford.

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                    This textbook summarizes updated findings regarding treatment for a range of mental health disorders in children and adolescents. One chapter examines the prevalence, comorbidity, clinical presentation, and treatment of conduct in children eleven years of age and under. Another chapter is a comprehensive overview of conduct in adolescents, with a focus on treatment.

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                    • Hughes, Tammy L., Laura M. Crothers, and Shane R. Jimerson. 2008. Identifying, assessing, and treating conduct disorder at school. New York: Springer.

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                      Provides essential information for school psychologists and other professionals in the school setting regarding effective interventions for young people with conduct disorder.

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                      • Murrihy, Rachael C., Antony D. Kidman, and Thomas H. Ollendick, eds. 2010. Clinical handbook of assessing and treating conduct problems in youth. New York: Springer.

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                        Chapters cover evidence-based assessment processes, as well as nine interventions for conduct problems. This textbook is well balanced in presenting both theory and guidelines for intervention to the reader.

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                        • Nelson, W. Michael, Alfred J. Finch Jr., and Kathleen J. Hart, eds. 2006. Conduct disorders: A practitioner’s guide to comparative treatments. New York: Springer.

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                          Eight interventions for conduct disorder are presented. Each chapter provides an overview of the intervention’s conceptualization of conduct disorder, as well as its assessment and treatment approach.

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                          • Weisz, John R., and Alan E. Kazdin, eds. 2010. Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents. 2d ed. New York: Guilford.

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                            Textbook on a broad range of evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents, with eight chapters dedicated to externalizing disorders. Each chapter outlines an intervention approach, its evidence base, and recommendations for use. Links to manuals and training resources are also provided.

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                            Textbooks and Manuals for Specific Interventions

                            This section includes textbooks and manuals for specific evidence-based interventions for conduct disorder. A considerable number of existing interventions for conduct disorder among young people are available. Therefore, the interventions outlined in this section were selected because of their strong evidence base for use among young people with conduct problems and antisocial behavior. Interventions can be broadly classified into Individual-Focused Interventions, Parent- and Family-Based Interventions, School-Based Interventions, and Multimodal Interventions. Thus, the textbooks and manuals in this section are divided into these four subheadings.

                            Individual-Focused Interventions

                            Individual risk factors for conduct disorder and antisocial behavior can be targeted through individual-focused interventions. Apsche and DiMeo 2012 provides a treatment guide for Mode Deactivation Therapy. This intervention approach combines cognitive-behavioral therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, functional analytic psychotherapy, and mindfulness and meditation. The theory and intervention guidelines for Aggression Replacement Training are provided in Glick and Gibbs 2011. Although not developed to specifically address conduct disorder, Dialectical Behavior Therapy has been successfully implemented among this population (see Shelton, et al. 2011, cited under Evidence for Intensive Interventions: Individual-Focused Interventions). An excellent practice-based resource for Dialectical Behavior Therapy is provided in Koerner 2012. Larson and Lochman 2011 provides an updated text on the authors’ Anger Coping Program, which addresses anger management and social-problem-solving skills. There appears to be no publicly available manual or textbook outlining the procedures of Moral Reconation Therapy; however, further information regarding training can be found online at the MRT website.

                            • Apsche, J., and Lucia DiMeo. 2012. Mode deactivation therapy for aggression and oppositional behavior in adolescents: An integrative methodology using ACT, DBT, and CBT. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.

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                              This text outlines the theory underlying Mode Deactivation Therapy, as well as a step-by-step approach to assessment and treatment. Therapist treatment guide and client handouts and activities are also included.

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                              • Glick, B., and John C. Gibbs. 2011. Aggression Replacement Training: A comprehensive intervention for aggressive youth. 3d ed. Champaign, IL: Research Press.

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                                Describes the theory underlying Aggression Replacement Training, as well as session-by-session guidelines for implementation. The text also provides additional resources, including checklists and handouts.

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                                • Koerner, Kelly. 2012. Doing dialectical behavior therapy: A practical guide. New York: Guilford.

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                                  This resource is a useful practice-based guide for clinicians on how to implement Dialectical Behavior Therapy. Chapters include an overview of concepts and case examples, and they cover assessment and specific intervention strategies.

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                                  • Larson, Jim, and John E. Lochman. 2011. Helping school children cope with anger: A cognitive-behavioral intervention. 2d ed. New York: Guilford.

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                                    Useful guide for clinicians on the implementation of the Anger Coping Program, an intervention for eight- to twelve-year-olds with anger and aggression problems. This manual provides a session-by-session outline as well as the intervention’s theoretical and research basis.

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                                    Parent- and Family-Based Interventions

                                    Numerous parent- and family-based interventions for conduct disorder exist. These interventions target factors within the family context to help reduce behavioral problems among children and adolescents. In this section, three parent- and family-based interventions are outlined: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, and the Incredible Years series. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy focuses on improving the quality of the parent-child relationship and changing problematic parent-child interaction patterns. McNeil and Hembree-Kigin 2010 provides excellent coverage of the parent-child interaction therapy intervention process, as well as its adaptations and applications across various populations. The Incredible Years series comprises training programs for parents, children, and teachers to promote the social and emotional adjustment of children. Webster-Stratton 2011 constitutes an excellent resource outlining the Incredible Years series’ program content. Finally, Sexton 2010 provides a comprehensive resource on how to implement functional family therapy.

                                    • McNeil, Cheryl, and Toni L. Hembree-Kigin. 2010. Parent-child interaction therapy. 2d ed. New York: Springer.

                                      DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-88639-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      This resource provides an overview of each stage of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, including the intake assessment. This text also includes several chapters that discuss the adaptations and applications of parent-child interaction therapy for specialized populations, as well as its evidence base.

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                                      • Sexton, L. Thomas. 2010. Functional family therapy in clinical practice: An evidence-based treatment model for working with troubled adolescents. New York: Routledge.

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                                        A step-by-step resource on implementing Functional Family Therapy. This text also provides an overview of the theoretical principles of functional family therapy and its research evidence.

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                                        • Triple P.

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                                          There appears to be no publicly available manual or textbook outlining the procedures of the Triple P (Positive Parenting Program); however, practitioner manuals are provided when they attend the training course. Further information regarding the Triple P program can be found on the website.

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                                          • Webster-Stratton, Carolyn. 2011. The Incredible Years parents, teachers, and children’s training series: Program content, methods, research and dissemination, 1980–2011. Seattle, WA: Incredible Years.

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                                            This resource provides an overview of thirty years of research examining the Incredible Years training series. The Incredible Years program content is outlined, with planning and implementation guidelines and strategies for dissemination provided.

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                                            School-Based Interventions

                                            Compared to other forms of intervention, few evidence-based interventions for conduct disorder are based in the school context. Two school-based interventions are identified in this section. The first is Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (Dunlap, et al. 2010), and the second is Positive Behavior Support (Sailor, et al. 2008).

                                            • Dunlap, Glen, Rose Iovannone, Donald Kincaid, et al. 2010. Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: The school-based model of individualized positive behavior support. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

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                                              This resource is a useful practice-based guide for school-based professionals on how to implement Prevent-Teach-Reinforce. Contents include an overview of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce, as well as guidelines on how to conduct the Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plan.

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                                              • Sailor, Wayne, Glen Dunlap, George Sugai, and Rob Horner, eds. 2008. Handbook of positive behavior support. New York: Springer.

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                                                Covers the origin, theory, and research evidence for positive behavior support. An overview of the adaptations and application of positive behavior support for a range of populations and settings is also provided, including addressing challenging behavior in early childhood settings.

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                                                Multimodal Interventions

                                                Several evidence-based multimodal interventions have been proven to be effective in reducing conduct problem behavior among children and adolescents. This section identifies textbooks and manuals for the following multimodal interventions: Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (Chamberlain 2003), Positive Family Support-Family Check-Up (formerly known as the Adolescent Transitions Program; Dishion and Kavanagh 2003), and Multisystemic Therapy (Henggeler, et al. 2009). Another multimodal intervention method combines Parent Management Training and Problem-Solving Skills Training; however, there appears to be no current manual for this intervention method. Nonetheless, Kazdin 2010 provides an overview of each intervention approach. In addition, manuals are available for both the Parent Management Training (Kazdin 2005) and Problem-Solving Skills Training (see Larson and Lochman 2011, cited under Textbooks and Manuals for Specific Interventions: Individual-Focused Interventions) components, as well as a Parent Management Training parent manual (Kazdin and Rotella 2008). There appears to be no publicly available manual or textbook outlining the procedures of the multimodal Teaching Family Model.

                                                • Chamberlain, Patricia. 2003. Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care Model. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                  DOI: 10.1037/10596-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  This textbook summarizes factors associated with antisocial behavior, their implications for intervention, and the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care Program for chronic juvenile offenders. This book is out of print.

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                                                  • Dishion, Thomas J., and Kate Kavanagh. 2003. Intervening in adolescent problem behavior: A family-centered approach. New York: Guilford.

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                                                    This resource is a useful practice-based guide for clinicians on how to implement the Adolescent Transitions Program (now referred to as the Positive Family Support-Family Check-Up). Materials for program implementation are provided.

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                                                    • Henggeler, Scott W., Sonja K. Schoenwald, Charles M. Borduin, Melisa D. Rowland, and Phillippe B. Cunningham. 2009. Multisystemic therapy for antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. 2d ed. New York: Guilford.

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                                                      Manual for Multisystemic Therapy with children and adolescents. The reader is provided with a clear overview of the principles, theory, and research of multisystemic therapy, as well as guidelines for its assessment and intervention among young people with antisocial behavior.

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                                                      • Kazdin, Alan E. 2005. Parent Management Training: Treatment for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                        This resource is a useful guide for clinicians on how to implement Parent Management Training. The first half of the book outlines the underlying principles and concepts of the intervention. The second half of the book is a Parent Management Training manual, and it provides an overview of the intervention process in a step-by-step manner. Handouts, charts, and aids for parents are also provided.

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                                                        • Kazdin, Alan E. 2010. Problem-Solving Skills Training and Parent Management Training for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents. Edited by John R. Weisz and Alan E. Kazdin, 211–226. New York: Guilford.

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                                                          This book chapter provides a concise overview of the combined Problem-Solving Skills Training and Parent Management Training program, as well as their session content. The chapter provides links to manuals and other supporting materials. Research evidence for this approach is also presented, which suggests that combining these two intervention approaches is more effective than either treatment on its own.

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                                                          • Kazdin, Alan E., and Carlo Rotella. 2008. The Kazdin Method for Parenting the Defiant Child: With no pills, no therapy, no contest of wills. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

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                                                            For parents of children with behavioral problems, this book provides a practical guide of the Kazdin Method. Contents include myths of effective parenting, an overview of how to implement the parenting method, as well as a range of scenarios, from being late to school to grocery shopping.

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                                                            Journals

                                                            No journal is specifically dedicated to children and adolescents with conduct disorder. However, a considerable number of international peer-reviewed journals publish papers in the field of criminology and related behaviors. Criminal Justice and Behavior, Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, and International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology have a particular emphasis on research that has applicability for clinical practice, including the assessment, intervention, and prevention of crime and violence. Criminology predominantly publishes empirical research in relation to crime and deviant behavior. Crime and Delinquency has a focus on the social, political, and economic issues that impact the criminal justice system, while Aggression and Violent Behavior publishes papers on a wide range of problematic aggressive and violent behaviors across various populations. In regards to more broad psychopathology, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry is a leading journal that publishes papers and reviews in the area of child and adolescent mental health.

                                                            Specialized Organizations and Evidence-Based Intervention Resources

                                                            A number of organizations focus on the prevention and intervention of conduct disorder and delinquency among children and adolescents. The Center for Mental Health Services and the National Institute in Health and Clinical Excellence have published valuable resources outlining identified evidence-based interventions for externalizing disorders, including antisocial behavior and conduct disorder. Three websites are dedicated to the prevention and treatment of violence, crime, and delinquency and provide detailed information regarding evidence-based interventions: Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development (formerly Blueprints for Violence Prevention), the Model Programs Guide of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Similarly, the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare outlines evidence-based programs for those involved with the child welfare system. In the United Kingdom, the Youth Justice Bulletin provides electronic policy and practice updates for people working in the youth justice field. Similarly, in Scotland, the Centre for Youth & Criminal Justice E-bulletin provide monthly e-bulletins outlining news, events, training, and policy and practice updates. Finally, the University of Toronto electronically publishes Criminological Highlights, which provide access to high-quality criminological research, much of which relates to youth.

                                                            Evidence for Intensive Interventions

                                                            In this section, several key evidence-based interventions that focus on children and adolescents with conduct disorder are reviewed. First, six articles that examine the evidence for a range of interventions for conduct disorder are provided. Caldwell and Van Rybroek 2013; Eyberg, et al. 2008; and McCart and Sheidow 2016 review a variety of interventions for young people with problematic and disruptive behaviors, including conduct disorder and offending behavior. The systematic reviews Epstein, et al. 2015 and Litschge, et al. 2010 summarize the effectiveness of various interventions for young people with disruptive behavior disorders. Bakker, et al. 2017 provides a meta-analysis of nonpharmacological treatments for conduct disorder. Lipsey 2009 identifies factors that differentiate the most effective programs for young offenders. This section then presents articles that examine the effectiveness of specific interventions for conduct disorder. Articles are divided into four subheadings: Individual-Focused Interventions, Parent- and Family-Based Interventions, School-Based Interventions, and Multimodal Interventions. Many of the articles presented are meta-analyses or reviews of the evidence base.

                                                            • Bakker, M. J., C. U. Greven, J. K. Buitelaar, and J. C. Glennon. 2017. Practitioner review: Psychological treatments for children and adolescents with conduct disorder problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry S8.1: 4–18.

                                                              DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12590Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              This meta-analysis examines the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for conduct disorder. Seventeen studies are included, describing nineteen interventions.

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                                                              • Caldwell, Michael F., and Gregory Van Rybroek. 2013. Effective treatment programs for violent adolescents: Programmatic challenges and promising features. Aggression and Violent Behavior 18.5: 571–578.

                                                                DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2013.06.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                Examines the similarities between four evidence-based interventions for adolescent offenders: Functional Family Therapy, Multisystemic Therapy, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, and the Mendota Juvenile Treatment Centre.

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                                                                • Epstein, Richard A., Christopher Fonnesbeck, Shannon Potter, Katherine H. Rizzone, and Melissa McPheeters. 2015. Psychosocial interventions for child disruptive behaviors: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 136.5: 947–960.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-2577Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with disruptive disorders. Twenty-eight studies are included in the meta-analysis.

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                                                                  • Eyberg, S. M., M. M. Nelson, and S. R. Boggs. 2008. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with disruptive behavior. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 37.1: 215–237.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/15374410701820117Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Reviews literature from 1996 to 2007 to identify evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescent with disruptive disorders. Sixteen evidence-based treatments are identified. Each treatment approach is described, as well as its evidence base.

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                                                                    • Lipsey, Mark W. 2009. The primary factors that characterize effective interventions with juvenile offenders: A meta-analytic overview. Victims and Offenders 4.2: 124–147.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/15564880802612573Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Reviews findings from a meta-analysis examining intervention factors associated with reductions in recidivism among youth offenders.

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                                                                      • Litschge, Christine M., Michael G. Vaughn, and Cynthia McCrea. 2010. The empirical status of treatments for children and youth with conduct problems: An overview of meta-analytic studies. Research on Social Work Practice 20.1: 21–35.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/1049731508331247Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Reviews twenty-six meta-analyses on treatment effects for children and adolescents with conduct problems. Meta-analyses showed a large variation in effect sizes.

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                                                                        • McCart, M. R., and A. J. Sheidow. 2016. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for adolescents with disruptive behavior. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 45.5: 529–563.

                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2016.1146990Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          An updated review of literature published from 2007 to 2014 on evidence-based psychosocial treatments for disruptive behavior in adolescents. Eighty-six empirical papers are included, covering fifty unique treatment protocols.

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                                                                          Individual-Focused Interventions

                                                                          Apsche, et al. 2011 is a meta-analysis of Mode Deactivation Therapy, while Hornsveld, et al. 2014 employs a pretest-posttest design to examine Aggression Replacement Training. Shelton, et al. 2011 also utilizes a pretest-posttest design to evaluate Dialectical Behavior Therapy among incarcerated young men.

                                                                          • Apsche, Jack A., Christopher K. Bass, and Lucia DiMeo. 2011. Mode deactivation therapy (MDT) comprehensive meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy 7.1: 47–54.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1037/h0100926Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            This meta-analysis examines the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy for adolescents in residential and outpatient units. Three separate meta-analyses were conducted examining individual studies, family studies, and replication studies. A total of twenty studies are included.

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                                                                            • Hornsveld, Ruud H. J., Floris W. Kraaimaat, Peter Muris, Almar J. Zwets, and Thijs Kanters. 2014. Aggression replacement training for violent young men in a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30.18: 3174–3191.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0886260514555007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Examines Aggression Replacement Training in a pretest-posttest design among young men convicted by the court for a violent offense who were referred to a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Aggression Replacement Training was associated with a significant reduction in self-reported physical aggression and social anxiety, as well as a reduction in hostility, aggression, and anger.

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                                                                              • Shelton, D., K. Kesten, W. Zhang, and R. Trestman. 2011. Impact of a dialectic behavior therapy—corrections modified (DBT‐CM) upon behaviorally challenged incarcerated male adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 24.2: 105–113.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6171.2011.00275.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Examines a sixteen-week Dialectical Behavior Therapy course in a pretest-posttest design among male incarcerated adolescents. Significant reductions in aggression, the number of disciplinary tickets, and using distancing as a coping strategy were found.

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                                                                                Parent- and Family-Based Interventions

                                                                                Dretzke, et al. 2009 reviews the evidence of parenting interventions for child conduct problems, and Henggeler and Sheidow 2012 provides a review of family-based interventions for conduct disorder among adolescents. Meta-analyses examining the effects of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (Cooley, et al. 2014 and Thomas, et al. 2017) and the Incredible Years parent training (Menting, et al. 2013) are outlined, as well as a systematic review and meta-analysis of the research for the Triple P (Positive Parenting) program (Sanders, et al. 2014). Sexton and Turner 2010 is a randomized control trial of Functional Family Therapy among juvenile offenders.

                                                                                • Cooley, Morgan E., Amanda Veldorale-Griffin, Raymond E. Petren, and Ann K. Mullis. 2014. Parent-child interaction therapy: A meta-analysis of child behavior outcomes and parent stress. Journal of Family Social Work 17.3: 191–208.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/10522158.2014.888696Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Reviews research on Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and its effects on child behavior and parenting stress. The meta-analysis includes eleven studies.

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                                                                                  • Dretzke, Janine, Clare Davenport, Emma Frew, et al. 2009. The clinical effectiveness of different parenting programmes for children with conduct problems: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 3.1: 7.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-3-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Provides a systematic review of randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of parenting programs for conduct problems among children. A meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis were conducted. Fifty-seven randomized control trials are included.

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                                                                                    • Henggeler, Scott W., and Ashli J. Sheidow. 2012. Empirically supported family-based treatments for conduct disorder and delinquency in adolescents. Journal of Marital Family Therapy 38.1: 30–58.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2011.00244.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      Provides an overview of the theoretical and clinical basis as well as the research evidence for several family-based treatments for conduct disorder and delinquency among adolescents. These interventions included Multisystemic Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, and Brief Strategic Family Therapy.

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                                                                                      • Menting, Ankie T. A., Bram Orobio de Castro, and Walter Matthys. 2013. Effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training to modify disruptive and prosocial child behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review 33.8: 901–913.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.07.006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        This meta-analytic review investigates the effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training among children with disruptive behavior. Fifty studies are included.

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                                                                                        • Sanders, Matthew R., James N. Kirby, Cassandra L. Tellegen, and Jamin J. Day. 2014. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support. Clinical Psychology Review 34.8: 337–357.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.04.003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          This systematic review and meta-analysis reviews 101 studies conducted over the past thirty-three years that have examined the effects of the Triple P program on a range of child and parent outcomes.

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                                                                                          • Sexton, Thomas, and Charles W. Turner. 2010. The effectiveness of functional family therapy for youth with behavioral problems in a community practice setting. Journal of Family Psychology 24.3: 339–348.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1037/a0019406Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            This randomized trial examines the effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy and usual community probation services twelve months post-treatment. Sample included nine hundred juvenile offenders. Functional Family Therapy demonstrated reductions in youth behavioral problems only when the treatment model was adhered to. Highlights the importance of therapists adhering to the intervention model.

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                                                                                            • Thomas, R., B. Abell, H. J. Webb, E. Avdagic, and M. J. Zimmer-Gembeck. 2017. Parent-child interaction therapy: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 140.3: e20170352.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0352Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              This meta-analysis reviews randomized controlled or quasi-experimental trials examining Parent-Child Interaction Therapy on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Twenty-three studies are included.

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                                                                                              School-Based Interventions

                                                                                              Wilson and Lipsey 2007 updates the authors’ 2003 meta-analysis to examine the effects of school-based interventions on aggressive and disruptive behavior. Bradshaw, et al. 2010 completes a randomized control trial of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, and Iovannone, et al. 2009 presents a randomized control trial of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce.

                                                                                              • Bradshaw, Catherine P., Mary M. Mitchell, and Philip J. Leaf. 2010. Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12.3: 133–148.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/1098300709334798Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                This five-year longitudinal randomized control trial conducted in thirty-seven elementary schools examined the effectiveness of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. The intervention showed a significant reduction in the percentage of children with a major or minor office discipline referral and in the number of suspensions and major and minor discipline referrals.

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                                                                                                • Iovannone, Rose, Paul E. Greenbaum, Wei Wang, Don Kincaid, Glen Dunlap, and Phil Strain. 2009. Randomized controlled trial of the Prevent–Teach–Reinforce (PTR) tertiary intervention for students with problem behaviors: Preliminary outcomes. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 17.4: 213–225.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/1063426609337389Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Randomized control trial examining the effects of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce intervention among students aged five to thirteen years of age. Significantly higher social skills, academic engagement, and reduced problem behaviors were found among the intervention group comparative to the control group.

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                                                                                                  • Wilson, Sandra J., and Mark W. Lipsey. 2007. School-based interventions for aggressive and disruptive behavior: Update of a meta-analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 33:S130–S143.

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                                                                                                    This meta-analysis investigates the effects of school-based psychosocial interventions in reducing aggressive and disruptive behavior. Two hundred and forty-nine experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included. The most effective approaches were universal programs (i.e., those delivered in a classroom setting to all students) that targeted selected/indicated students.

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                                                                                                    Multimodal Interventions

                                                                                                    Randomized control trials examining the effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (Hansson and Olsson 2012), Families First (an adaptation of the Teaching-Family Model; Lewis 2005), and Family Check-Up (formerly the Adolescent Transitions Program; van Ryzin and Dishion 2012) are outlined. The authors of Rhoades, et al. 2013 employ a pretest-posttest design to examine Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care; and van der Stouwe, et al. 2014 is a meta-analysis of Multisystemic Therapy. Zajac, et al. 2015 provides an overview of multisystemic therapy’s theory, model, and empirical support. Finally, Kazdin 2010 presents the evidence for combining Problem-Solving Skills Training and Parent Management Training.

                                                                                                    • Hansson, Kjell, and Martin Olsson. 2012. Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC): Results from a RCT study in Sweden. Children and Youth Services Review 34.9: 1929–1936.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/1067828X.2013.788887Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      This randomized control trial investigated the effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care compared to treatment as usual among antisocial young people. Twenty-four-months post-baseline, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care demonstrated lower placement breakdown rates and a significant reduction in symptoms during the treatment period.

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                                                                                                      • Kazdin, Alan E. 2010. Problem-Solving Skills Training and Parent Management Training for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents. Edited by John R. Weisz and Alan E. Kazdin, 211–226. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                        This book chapter provides an overview of the research evidence for combining Problem-Solving Skills Training and Parent Management Training for disruptive disorders. Findings suggest that combining these two intervention approaches is more effective than either treatment on its own.

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                                                                                                        • Lewis, Robert E. 2005. The effectiveness of Families First services: An experimental study. Children and Youth Services Review 27.5: 499–509.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.10.009Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          This three-year randomized control trial examined the effects of Families First, an adaptation of the Teaching-Family Model, among young people referred to court due to serious problems in functioning. The intervention demonstrated significant improvements on a range of outcomes, including family functioning and child behavior problems.

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                                                                                                          • Rhoades, Kimberly A., Patricia Chamberlain, Rosemarie Roberts, and Leslie D. Leve. 2013. MTFC for high-risk adolescent girls: A comparison of outcomes in England and the United States. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 22.5: 435–449.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/1067828X.2013.788887Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            This pretest-posttest design study examined the twelve-month outcomes for Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care among English girls mandated to community-based out-of-home care because of problems with chronic delinquency. Findings are compared to two randomized controlled trails in the United States.

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                                                                                                            • van der Stouwe, Trudy, Jessica J. Asscher, Geert Jan J. M. Stams, Maja Deković, and Peter H. van der Laan. 2014. The effectiveness of multisystemic therapy (MST): A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 34.6: 468–481.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.06.006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              This meta-analysis investigates the effectiveness of multisystemic therapy among juvenile delinquents. Twenty-two studies are included in the analysis.

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                                                                                                              • van Ryzin, Mark J., and Thomas J. Dishion. 2012. The impact of a family-centered intervention on the ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior: Modeling developmental sequelae and trajectories during adolescence. Development and Psychopathology 24.3: 1139–1155.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S0954579412000582Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Presents the findings of a longitudinal randomized control trial examining Family Check-Up (formerly known as the Adolescent Transitions Program). The sample included 998 young people and their families. Those assigned to the Family Check-Up intervention group in middle school had reduced antisocial behavior in late adolescence.

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                                                                                                                • Zajac, Kristyn, Jeff Randall, and Cynthia Cupit Swenson. 2015. Multisystemic therapy for externalizing youth. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 24.3: 601–616.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.chc.2015.02.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  This article provides a clear and concise overview of the theoretical underpinnings of multisystemic therapy, including model of service delivery, its adaptation to externalizing problems, and its empirical support.

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                                                                                                                  Residential-Based Intervention

                                                                                                                  The majority of young people with conduct disorder typically receive community-based interventions. However, residential-based interventions can be used to help address the needs of the most at-risk and vulnerable young people presenting with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Blau, et al. 2014 outlines best practices for residential treatment, and Whittaker, et al. 2014 discusses the nature and use of therapeutic residential care for young people. The effectiveness of residential care is examined in the meta-analyses of de Swart, et al. 2012 and Strijbosch, et al. 2015. James 2011 and James, et al. 2014 review outcome studies of selected residential-based intervention models. Finally, Lambie and Randell 2013 provides a review on the effects of incarceration on young offenders.

                                                                                                                  • Blau, Gary M., Beth Caldwell, and Robert E. Lieberman, eds. 2014. Residential interventions for children, adolescents, and families: A best practice guide. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                    This textbook provides an overview of best practices in relation to residential treatment for children and adolescents. Chapters outline practices and approaches to help enhance services for young people in residential treatment.

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                                                                                                                    • de Swart, J. J. W., H. van den Broek, G. J. J. M. Stams, et al. 2012. The effectiveness of institutional youth care over the past three decades: A meta-analysis. Children and Youth Services Review 34.9: 1818–1824.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.05.015Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      This meta-analysis investigates the effectiveness of institutional youth care. Twenty-seven studies are included in the analysis.

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                                                                                                                      • James, Sigrid. 2011. What works in group care? A structured review of treatment models for group homes and residential care. Children and Youth Services Review 33.2: 308–321.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.09.014Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Provides a structured review of treatment models for group care and residential treatment settings. Five treatment models were identified: Positive Peer Culture, Teaching Family Model, Sanctuary Model, Stop-Gap Model, and Re-ED. The treatment features for each intervention are clearly described, and outcomes studies are reviewed.

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                                                                                                                        • James, Sigrid, Quais Alemi, and Veronica Zepeda. 2014. Effectiveness and implementation of evidence-based practices in residential care settings. Children and Youth Services Review 35.4: 642–656.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.01.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Reviews evidence-based practices for children and youth in residential care settings, including the evidence for each intervention, and implementation issues. Ten interventions are identified.

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                                                                                                                          • Lambie, Ian, and Isabel Randell. 2013. The impact of incarceration on juvenile offenders. Clinical Psychology Review 33.3: 448–459.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            This review outlines the literature on the effects of incarceration on youth offenders. It highlights the negative effects of incarceration, including the impairment of positive psychosocial development, exposure to adult offenders, and removal of young persons from their families and communities.

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                                                                                                                            • Strijbosch, E. L. L., J. A. M. Huijs, G. J. J. M. Stams, et al. 2015. The outcome of institutional youth care compared to non-institutional youth care for children of primary school age and early adolescence: A multi-level meta-analysis. Children and Youth Services Review 58:208–218.

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                                                                                                                              This multilevel meta-analysis investigates the outcomes of institutional youth care in economically developed countries. Nineteen controlled studies are included in the analysis.

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                                                                                                                              • Whittaker, James K., Jorge F. del Valle, and Lisa Holmes, eds. 2014. Therapeutic residential care for children and youth: Developing evidence-based international practice. London: Jessica Kingsley.

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                                                                                                                                This textbook outlines the nature of therapeutic residential care, the needs and characteristics of young people who use these services, program models and practices, the successful transition of young people from residential care, and an up-to-date review of the evidence base for therapeutic residential care.

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                                                                                                                                Pharmacological Management

                                                                                                                                Pharmacological management may be considered as an adjunct treatment for conduct disorder among children and adolescents. An overview of the pharmacological treatments for conduct disorder and their evidence base is provided in Tcheremissine and Lieving 2006 and Zaraa, et al. 2013. The efficacy of pharmacotherapy for disruptive behavior disorders, including conduct problems, is examined in the systematic reviews and meta-analyses of Ipser and Stein 2007; Pringsheim, et al. 2015a; and Pringsheim, et al. 2015b. Loy, et al. 2012 presents findings of a meta-analysis comparing atypical antipsychotics with placebo. Gadow, et al. 2014 presents an open trial examining the effects of risperidone when added to parent training and stimulant mediation.

                                                                                                                                • Gadow, Kenneth, D. L. Eugene Arnold, Brooke S. G. Molina, et al. 2014. Risperidone added to parent training and stimulant medication: Effects on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and peer aggression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 53.9: 948–959.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2014.05.008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Outlines the results of an open trial comparing combined parent training, stimulant medication, and placebo versus parent training, stimulant, and risperidone. Treatment effects were examined for symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder, as well as peer aggression, impairment, and informant discrepancy.

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                                                                                                                                  • Ipser, Jonathan, and Dan J. Stein. 2007. Systematic review of pharmacotherapy of disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents. Psychopharmacology 191.1: 127–140.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s00213-006-0537-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    This systematic review investigates the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in treating pediatric disruptive behavior disorders. A meta-analysis of fourteen trials is conducted.

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                                                                                                                                    • Loy, Jik H., Sally N. Merry, Sarah E. Hetrick, and Karolina Stasiak. 2012. Atypical antipsychotics for disruptive behavior disorders in children and youths. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012 9.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008559.pub2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Examines the safety and effects of atypical antipsychotics compared to placebo among children and youth with disruptive behavior disorders. Meta-analyses were conducted on eight identified randomized controlled trials.

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                                                                                                                                      • Pringsheim, Tamara, Lauren Hirsch, David Gardner, and Daniel A. Gorman. 2015a. The pharmacological management of oppositional behavior, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: Psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 60.2: 42–51.

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                                                                                                                                        Conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder mediations for oppositional behavior, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder. This article focuses on psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine. Two systematic reviews and twenty randomized controlled trials are reviewed.

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                                                                                                                                        • Pringsheim, Tamara, Lauren Hirsch, David Gardner, and Daniel A. Gorman. 2015b. The pharmacological management of oppositional behavior, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 2: Antipsychotics and traditional mood stabilizers. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 60.2: 52–61.

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                                                                                                                                          Conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder mediations for oppositional behavior, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder. This article focuses on antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. A total of eighteen randomized controlled trials are reviewed.

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                                                                                                                                          • Tcheremissine, Oleg V., and Lori M. Lieving. 2006. Pharmacological aspects of the treatment of conduct disorder in children and adolescents. CNS Drugs 20:549–565.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2165/00023210-200620070-00002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Provides a clear and concise overview of the range of pharmacological treatments for conduct disorder and a summary of the research evidence. Pharmacological treatments include antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and antiepileptic drugs, antidepressants, stimulants, and adrenergic drugs.

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                                                                                                                                            • Zaraa, Solomon G., Natoshia Raishevich Cunningham, Elizabeth Pappadopulos, Peter S. Jensen, and Molly McVoy. 2013. Disruptive behavior disorders and aggression. In Clinical manual of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. 2d ed. Edited by Molly McVoy and Robert L. Findling, 97–146. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

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                                                                                                                                              This book chapter provides an overview of conduct disorder, use of psychopharmacological treatment, and a review of treatment studies for atypical antipsychotics, typical antipsychotics, stimulants, and mood stabilizers.

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                                                                                                                                              Comorbidity

                                                                                                                                              Conduct disorder frequently occurs alongside a number of other mental health disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders. In this section, articles reviewing current research and evidence-based interventions for comorbid conduct disorder and substance use disorders (Conner and Lochman 2010), fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (Brown, et al. 2012), anxiety disorders (Cunningham and Ollendick 2010), autism spectrum disorder (Kaat and Lecavalier 2013), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Connor, et al. 2010), and depression (Wolff and Ollendick 2006) are provided.

                                                                                                                                              • Brown, Natalie Novick, Paul D. Connor, and Richard S. Adler. 2012. Conduct-disordered adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Intervention in secure treatment settings. Criminal Justice and Behavior 39.6: 770–793.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0093854812437919Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                This article provides an overview of the literature concerning adolescents with conduct disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, including neurocognitive deficits and developmental trajectories. Guidelines for assessment and intervention in residential treatment settings are provided.

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                                                                                                                                                • Conner, Bradley T., and John E. Lochman. 2010. Comorbid conduct disorder and substance use disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 17.4: 337–349.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2010.01225.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Outlines research on the etiology of conduct disorder, the etiology of substance use disorders, and common developmental pathways between the two disorders. The authors then provide a brief overview of prevention and intervention approaches to target the risk factors leading to the development of conduct disorder and substance use disorder.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Connor, Daniel F., Jennifer Steeber, and Keith McBurnett. 2010. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder complicated by symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 31.5: 427–440.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181e121bdSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    Reviews the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, and the impact of such comorbidity on the course and prognosis among children and adolescents. The implications for assessment and intervention for this population are discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich, and Thomas H. Ollendick. 2010. Comorbidity of anxiety and conduct problems in children: Implications for clinical research and practice. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review 13.4: 333–347.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/s10567-010-0077-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Reviews epidemiological and clinical studies examining comorbidity between anxiety and conduct disorders, and possible explanations for such comorbidity. A brief discussion is provided of the implications for assessment and treatment.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Kaat, Aaron J., and Luc Lecavalier. 2013. Disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: A review of the prevalence, presentation, and treatment. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 7.12: 1579–1594.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.rasd.2013.08.012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Reviews fifty-five peer-reviewed articles concerning the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of disruptive behavior disorder among young people with autism spectrum disorder. A brief overview is provided of eight studies located that examine psychosocial treatment for disruptive behaviors.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Wolff, Jennifer C., and Thomas H. Ollendick. 2006. The comorbidity of conduct problems and depression in childhood and adolescence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 9.3–4: 201–220.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/s10567-006-0011-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Reviews the four main hypotheses that account for the high prevalence of comorbidity between conduct disorder and depression. The article focuses on common risk factors between these two disorders. The authors then propose a model for the development of comorbidity, as well as a brief discussion of the clinical implications of this research.

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                                                                                                                                                          Callous-Unemotional Traits

                                                                                                                                                          One subgroup of children and adolescents with conduct problems are seen to also present with callous-unemotional traits (e.g., lack of guilt, lack of empathy, callous use of others for one’s own gain). This subgroup has been recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), with the addition of the “limited prosocial emotions” specifier for conduct disorder (see Kimonis, et al. 2014). This section outlines a selection of articles concerning this conduct disorder subgroup, including a comprehensive review of etiological factors (Frick, et al. 2014b) and a proposed developmental psychopathology framework of callous-unemotional traits (Frick, et al. 2014a). Hawes, et al. 2014 examines the treatment outcomes for this subgroup, as well as the effectiveness of family-based interventions. Kimonis, et al. 2014 briefly describes the range of psychosocial interventions for young people with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Finally, Fleming and Kimonis 2018 outlines an adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for preschoolers with co-occurring conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits.

                                                                                                                                                          • Fleming, G. E., and Eva R. Kimonis. 2018. PCIT for children with callous-unemotional traits. In Handbook of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Edited by Larissa N. Niec, 19–34. Switzerland AG: Springer.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-97698-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            This book chapter outlines an adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for those two to seven years old with co-occurring conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. The intervention is outlined and promising evidence is given for its effectiveness in reducing conduct problems and attrition rates.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Frick, Paul J., James V. Ray, Laura C. Thornton, and Rachel E. Kahn. 2014a. Annual research review: A developmental psychopathology approach to understanding callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents with serious conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 55.6: 532–548.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12152Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              This article presents a developmental psychopathological framework to understanding callous-unemotional traits. The stability of callous-unemotional traits at different developmental stages is reviewed, and the implications of recognizing this subgroup of young people for research, diagnosis, assessment, and treatment are outlined.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Frick, Paul J., James V. Ray, Laura C. Thornton, and Rachel E. Kahn. 2014b. Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review. Psychological Bulletin 140.1: 1–57.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12152Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Reviews research on the subgroup of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, with a focus on the etiological factors underlying the behavior of this group.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Hawes, David J., Matthew J. Price, and Mark R. Dadds. 2014. Callous-unemotional traits and the treatment of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence: A comprehensive review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 17.3: 248–267.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/s10567-014-0167-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  This article presents a comprehensive research review to establish whether callous-unemotional traits are associated with treatment outcomes and to assess the effectiveness of family-based interventions among children and adolescents with callous-unemotional traits. Sixteen treatment outcome studies are outlined and discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Kimonis, Eva R., Dustin A. Pardini, Dave S. Pasalich, and Robert J. McMahon. 2014. With limited prosocial emotions specifier for conduct disorder. In Gabbard’s treatments of psychiatric disorders. 5th ed. Edited by Glen O. Gabbard, 747–754. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Discusses the DSM-5’s “limited prosocial emotions” specifier for conduct disorder. Provides a brief overview of psychosocial interventions for this group.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Gender

                                                                                                                                                                    Information concerning the etiology and treatment of conduct disorder is predominantly based on research on males. Increased research efforts have focused on gender differences to establish the unique risk factors and intervention needs of females with conduct disorder. However, literature in this area remains scarce; therefore, some of the resources outlined in this section are drawn from the juvenile justice field. Berkout, et al. 2011 provides a thorough overview of the current research concerning gender differences in conduct disorder, and Moffitt, et al. 2001 presents findings from the Dunedin Longitudinal Study on gender differences in risk factors for and consequences of antisocial behavior and conduct disorder. From the juvenile delinquency literature, Wong, et al. 2010 presents a European research review of risk factors for delinquency in females, and Zahn, et al. 2010 presents findings form the Girls Study Group on the causes and correlates of girls’ delinquency. The remaining resources concern gender-specific programs and “what works” for girls involved in the juvenile justice system.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Berkout, Olga V., John N. Young, and Alan M. Gross. 2011. Mean girls and bad boys: Recent research on gender differences in conduct disorder. Aggression and Violent Behavior 16.6: 503–511.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2011.06.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Outlines research on the gender differences in conduct disorder, including the development of conduct disorder, risk factors, and temperamental characteristics. The authors briefly discuss the implications of gender differences for the conceptualization and treatment of conduct disorder.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Foley, Allison. 2008. The current state of gender-specific delinquency programming. Journal of Criminal Justice 36.3: 262–269.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2008.04.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Reviews the theoretical and empirical research examining gender-specific delinquency. The author identifies and discusses twelve gender-specific programs.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Hubbard, Dana Jones, and Betsy Matthews. 2008. Reconciling the differences between the “gender-responsive” and the “what works” literatures to improve services for girls. Crime and Delinquency 54.2: 225–258.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0011128706296733Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Provides an overview of the “what works” and “gender responsive” literatures that guide practitioners in the prevention and intervention of delinquent girls. Typically presented as two competing bodies of literature, the authors argue that these perspectives combined add to the understanding of girls’ delinquency.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Moffitt, Terrie E., Avshalom Caspi, Michael Rutter, and Phil A. Silva. 2001. Sex differences in antisocial behavior: Conduct disorder, delinquency, and violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                            This book presents findings from the Dunedin Longitudinal Study on the gender differences in the cause, course, and consequences of antisocial behavior. The sample includes one thousand New Zealand males and females, studied from ages three to twenty-one years. Chapters include discussion on gender differences in relation to the prevalence, age of onset, predictors, and comorbidity of antisocial behavior and conduct disorder.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Wong, Thessa M. L., Anne-Marie Slotboom, and Catrien C. J. H. Bijleveld. 2010. Risk factors for delinquency in adolescent and young adult females: A European review. European Journal of Criminology 7.4: 266–284.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/1477370810363374Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Provides a comprehensive review of risk factors for delinquency in females. Thirty European studies are included.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Zahn, Margaret A., Robert Agnew, Diana Fishbein, et al. 2010. Causes and correlates of girls’ delinquency. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

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                                                                                                                                                                                This resource outlines research from the Girls Study Group regarding the causes and correlates of girls’ delinquency. The Girls Study Group was convened by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in response to the increasing number of girls involved in the juvenile justice system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Zahn, Margaret A., Jacob C. Day, Sharon F. Mihalic, and Lisa Tichavsky. 2009. Determining what works for girls in the juvenile justice system: A summary of evaluation evidence. Crime and Delinquency 52.2: 266–293.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0011128708330649Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  This article summarizes nine gender-specific programs for girls’ delinquency. The evidence base for each program is outlined.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Ethnicity and Culture

                                                                                                                                                                                  It is important that any intervention provided to a young person and her or his family is culturally appropriate to best meet their needs. However, many of the existing evidence-based interventions for conduct problems have been developed and tested using Caucasian samples. Therefore, information available regarding the efficacy of evidence-based interventions among ethnic minorities with conduct problems is limited. In this section, articles presented summarize the current state of research in this area. Bernal, et al. 2009 outlines the argument for adjusting evidence-based interventions to meet the cultural needs of clients, and also presents frameworks that can aid in this effort. Comprehensive reviews of the empirical research for evidence-based interventions for conduct problems among ethnic minorities are presented in Ho, et al. 2010 and Huey and Polo 2008. Canino, et al. 2010 reviews the cross-cultural prevalence of conduct disorder. Finally, Heywood and Fergusson 2016 presents findings from a pilot study examining Functional Family Therapy outcomes among Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bernal, Guillermo, María I. Jiménez-Chafey, and Melanie M. Domenech. 2009. Cultural adaptation of treatments: A resource for considering culture in evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 40.4: 361–368.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1037/a0016401Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Outlines the argument for adjusting evidence-based interventions to meet the cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic context of groups. The authors present several frameworks to help guide the adaptation of evidence-based interventions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Canino, Glorisa, Guilherme Polanczyk, Jose J. Bauermeister, Luis A. Rohde, and Paul J. Frick. 2010. Does the prevalence of CD and ODD vary across cultures? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 45.7: 695–704.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/s00127-010-0242-ySave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      Systematically reviews research concerning the prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder across cultures. Twenty-five studies are included in the meta-regression analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Heywood, Charles, and David Fergusson. 2016. A pilot study of functional family therapy in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Psychology 45.3: 12–22.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Presents findings from a pilot study examining Functional Family Therapy outcomes for Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand. Outcomes for Māori and non-Māori were similar, providing preliminary evidence that Functional Family Therapy is effective and acceptable to Māori and non-Māori families in New Zealand.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ho, Judy K., Kristen McCabe, May Yeh, and Anna S. Lau. 2010. Evidence-based treatments for conduct problems among ethnic minorities. In Clinical handbook of assessing and treating conduct problems in youth. Edited by Rachael C. Murrihy, Thomas H. Ollendick, and Antony D. Kidman, 455–488. New York: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          This book chapter comprehensively reviews the empirical evidence for several evidence-based interventions among ethnic minority youth with conduct problems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Huey, Stanley J., Jr., and Antonio J. Polo. 2008. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for ethnic minority youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 37.1: 262–301.

                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/15374410701820174Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            Reviews research on evidence-based treatments among ethnic minority youth. With regard to conduct problems, the authors outline the empirical evidence for Multisystemic Therapy, the Coping Power program, and Brief Strategic Family Therapy among ethnic minorities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Prevention

                                                                                                                                                                                            Early childhood presents as an opportune time to intervene and reduce risk or prevent the development of conduct disorder. In this section, an outline of current research on preventive interventions for conduct disorder is provided in Powell, et al. 2007 and Shaw 2013. Randomized control trials are also outlined examining the Fast Track (Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group 2011), Early Risers (Hektner, et al. 2014), and Coping Power (Lochman, et al. 2013) prevention programs. The Cochrane Review in Furlong, et al. 2013 investigates the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group-based parenting programs for conduct problems, and Sandler, et al. 2014 reviews meta-analyses conducted on prevention programs for various difficulties, including conduct problems.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. 2011. The effects of the fast track preventive intervention on the development of conduct disorder across childhood. Child Development 82.1: 331–345.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01558.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Presents the findings of a randomized control trial examining the Fast Track preventive intervention. The sample includes 891 children.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Furlong, Mairead, Sinead McGilloway, Tracey Bywater, Judy Hutchings, Susan M. Smith, and Michael Donnelly. 2013. Behavioural and cognitive-behavioral group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years. Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal 8.2: 318–692.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008225.pub2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                This review assesses the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group-based parenting programs on conduct problems, parenting skills, and parental mental health. Thirteen trials were identified and discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hektner, Joel M., Gerald J. August, Michael L. Bloomquist, Susanne Lee, and Bonnie Klimes-Dougan. 2014. A 10-year randomized controlled trial of the Early Risers conduct problems preventive intervention: Effects on externalizing and internalizing in late high school. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 82.2: 355–360.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1037/a0035678Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  This study presents findings from a randomized control trial examining the long-term effects of the Early Risers preventive intervention. The sample includes 245 kindergartners.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lochman, John E., Karen C. Wells, and Lixin Qu. 2013. Three year follow-up of coping power intervention effects: Evidence of neighborhood moderation? Prevention Science 14:364–376.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s11121-012-0295-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Presents findings from a randomized control trial examining the Coping Power program three years post-intervention. The sample included 245 children.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Powell, Nicole R., John E. Lochman, and Caroline L. Boxmeyer. 2007. The prevention of conduct problems. International Review of Psychiatry 19.6: 597–605.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/09540260701797738Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      This article reviews a range of risk factors for conduct disorders that have been identified by research and describes several evidence-based preventive interventions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sandler, Irwin, Sharlene A. Wolchik, Gracelyn Cruden, et al. 2014. Overview of meta-analyses of the prevention of mental health, substance use, and conduct problems. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 10:243–273.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185524Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        This article provides a review of meta-analyses conducted on prevention programs for mental health, substance use, and conduct problems. Nine meta-analyses examine the effects of prevention programs on aggressive, violent, or antisocial behaviors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Shaw, Daniel S. 2013. Future directions for research on the development and prevention of early conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 42.3: 418–428.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2013.777918Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          This article provides an overview of the existing literature regarding the development and prevention of conduct disorders and discusses future directions for research in the area. A number of prevention and intervention approaches for conduct disorder are discussed.

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